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RYERSON UNIVERSITY Department of Architectural Science 325 Church Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3 (416) 979-5000 Say hello! mag325@gmail.com

Š 325 Magazine 2013-2014 Ryerson Department of Architectural Science All rights reserved All photographs and drawings are courtesy of students and contributors unless otherwise noted. Every reasonable attempt has been made to identify owners of copyright. Reproduction without written permission of the publishers is forbidden. Errors or omissions will be corrected in subsequent volumes. The editors have made every effort to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions, or statements appear in this publication, and assume no liability for the accuracy or completeness of the text, or its fitness for any particular purpose. The opinions expressed herein are the responsibility of the contributors concerned. Corrections from 325 Magazine 2012-2013 volume: Page 1, Matthew Suriano name omission from Chrysalis Page 149, Demitri Delean spelling correction from Graduate Residence


325 TEAM Editor-in-Chief Sarah Lipsit Creative Directors Michelle Ashurov Sarah Lipsit Stefan Miller Graphic Design Editors Michelle Ashurov Rémi Carreiro Sarah Lipsit Stefan Miller Graphic Design Team Catalina Ardila Bernal Yupin Li Nathaniel Mendiola Cathy Truong Sponsorship Coordinator Pritish Pathak Sponsorship Team Michelle Ashurov Dana Gurevich Randa Law Yupin Li Michael Mazurkiewicz Nathaniel Mendiola Jennifer Pham Cathy Truong Copy Director Naveed Khan Copy Editors Chelsea Campbell Dana Gurevich Michael Mazurkiewicz Danielle van Ooteghem Pritish Pathak Dana Salama Anthony Yousef Print Coordinator Sarah Lipsit Financial Coordinator Naveed Khan Sarah Lipsit

Other Contributors Nick Callies Tiffany Cheung Sara Duffin Kenan Elsässer Cornelia Kong Emily Mutch Glearda Sokoli Jeffery Szeto Meny Ye

SPECIAL THANKS

Provost & Vice President Academic Dr. Mohamed Lachemi Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Dr. Tom Duever Architectural Science Interim Chair of the Department of Jurij Leshchyshyn Architectural Science IT Specialist Leo Roytman Assistant Print and Financial Nene Brode Coordinator Photographers Michelle Ashurov Rémi Carreiro Arthur Goldstein Yupin Li Sarah Lipsit Adrian Man Nathaniel Mendiola Nivin Nabeel Marcus Parisi Dana Salama


LETTER FROM THE DEAN

It’s often said that an organization is only as good as its people. As an educational institution, our people are, in large part, our students. And our architectural science students are really spectacular. Year after year, these brilliant, creative students continue to attract attention and turn heads with their designs and community stewardship. Their success is the reason Ryerson’s Architectural Science program is so well-known and highly regarded in industry. And we couldn’t be prouder. In the past year, our students have been busy innovating new designs for sustainable housing, launching startup companies to help building owners and designers maximize energy efficiency, and winning many international design competitions like the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture Steel Competition and the United States’ Department of Energy Challenge Home Design Competition. And if that wasn’t enough, they’ve also been busy in the community creating installations for Nuit Blanche, participating in Canstruction to help fight poverty in Toronto, and re-imagining the city’s public spaces to encourage civility and inclusiveness. The Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science at Ryerson University is thrilled to support 325 Magazine and its mandate of showcasing the creative excellence of our architectural science students. Our students today are leaders of tomorrow. We can’t wait to see how they will transform our world after graduation. This publication is only a small snapshot of what’s to come. Dr. Tom Duever, P.Eng., FCIC Dean Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science


LETTER FROM THE PROVOST AND VICE PRESIDENT ACADEMIC

The design of any successful campus includes shared space. The goal is to encourage open exchange. Over ten years ago, Ryerson Architectural Science students created a form of shared “space” in a student-led magazine. It is easy to launch an idea; far harder to make it work over time. Our students made it work: 325 Magazine continues to offer a place of exchange, dialogue, and reflection. It gives students a place to showcase innovation, to pose a challenge to the architectural world, and to think out loud. Remarkably, while 325 invites many people to take part—with different ways of seeing—it has impact: it attracts our eye and engages our mind. I’m impressed that a group of students have created a forum—stimulating, multidisciplinary, diverse—that shares and attracts people to knowledge. It’s a goal that resonates with universities across Canada. It underpins Ryerson. 325 Magazine is made by students in dialogue with faculty. Throughout, they explore digital technologies and societal need; they employ critical judgment; they think about relationships between cost and impact, value and design, solo goals and teamwork. I am proud of your accomplishments.

Dr. Mohamed Lachemi Provost and Vice President Academic


This volume of 325 Magazine marks a new and exciting chapter for us, making new additions and alterations to an already great publication. Although we remain true to showcasing the excellent work of our peers, the 2013-3014 installment explores new content that is close and personal to the students of Department of Architectural Science. We aim to convey the culture of our school, whether it is the introduction of the new co-op program or a focus on the people that work and study within the walls of 325 Church Street. For this issue, we have identified a feature: wood. As a raw form, a piece of cut lumber, or something as simple as an HB pencil, wood is an element we first encounter to mold and create with, expelling us into the world of architecture and building. The uniqueness and personality contained within each different grain reflects the newness of our volume appropriately. Making its way into several of our built projects, such as installations for Nuit Blanche, The Stop’s Night Market, or simply as massing models for studio, building with wood is something we practice today and will celebrate throughout our careers. With a workshop located on our lower level filled with saws, sanders, and expert craftsmen, it is difficult not to spend time there, experimenting with ways to shape and sculpt the grain, or manipulating it as the tool to do the sculpting. Using our feature theme to tangent conversations, ideas, and design work, wood elegantly shows depth; it has a life to it and shows its age while remaining timeless. We believe that this is characteristic of how the magazine itself has evolved and transformed over the past years. Enthusiastically unveiling a capsule of projects, we introduce other mediums of design on which students focus their extra time; photography, illustrations, essays, and more. We invite you to put on your black rimmed glasses, sit down with an espresso in hand, and take a look at what we’ve been up to this past year. We hope you enjoy it. Sarah Lipsit, Editor-in-Chief


CONTENTS Section One

Bulletin Board

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New events close to home

Housing

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Harvest Home

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Lot 65

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Neuroarchitecture

22

SiloĂŠ Housing

24

Townhouse for a Filmmaker

26

House 1

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Play + Interact + Dwell

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Hybrid Social Condenser

32

Meta(morph)osis

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Lift

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Portland Centre

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Ambidexterity

40

Cartography Museum of Preservation

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School of Resistance and Resilience

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Studio Away

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Retreat Centre

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Riverdale Retreat Centre

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Futbol Bajo de la Estrella

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Wellington Community Centre

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Break in Nature

Interview and Photo Essay

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A Different Point of View

Public Space

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Mosaic

Interview and Photo Essay

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Continental Drift

Essay

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Going Rogue

Culture

Education

Community

Section Two


Section Three

Section Four

Essay

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Hand Crafted

Culture of Outports

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The Viewfinder

Lighting

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Laminar Lamp

Medical Unit

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Mederi

Extreme Redesign

100

Caneaction

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rThermos

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Steaper

Interview

106

Local Artisans

Design and Build

112

Night Market

Installations

116

Chlorophytum

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Illustro

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Ad Astra

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Blurred Lines

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Sine

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Opticianado

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Cine

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Escalate

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Murj

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Life Within Tension

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Crossways

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Suspended in the Trees

Steel


SECTION ONE what we design bulletin board & projects


SHOW OFF Gow Hastings Architects have made the entrance to our home away from home go from zero to one hundred real quick. Words

Dana Gurevich Dana Salama

Nestled in the atrium of Ron Thom’s brutalist building, the Paul H. Cocker Gallery introduces a dramatic, central presence to the students, faculty, and visitors of 325 Church Street. As a contrast to the raw concrete and exposed structural elements of Ryerson’s Architectural Science Building, it is an elegantly crafted, polished white space, like a gift wrapped in a red felt envelope. The space itself has proven to be adaptable to entertain many different occasions, remaining flexible for each new showcase. Commanding attention and transforming the previously mundane space into one that is functional and playful, the installation of the gallery breathes new lifev into the light-filled lobby. Textures and surfaces are neutral, warm, but also practical; blank walls are used as both a pin-up area for formal critiques, and the red felt performs as an acoustical barrier. Moving through the space, students perceive and are inspired by the distinct feel which this modest architectural intervention creates. Designed by Gow Hastings Architects, the gallery represents a strong gesture by the Department of Architectural Science to connect architectural education to the public sphere, and to bridge the gap between student work, critical theory, and professional practice. Oversized glass doors pivot open and welcome students and professionals into a dynamic and functional space, hosting curated exhibitions, academic and creative works by DAS students, and academic events and ceremonies. Previous exhibitions have included works from Young Architects of Spain (YAS), Infra-Eco-Logi-Urbanism by RVTR, and TRANS ARCHITECTURE by Andrew King of Cannon Design.

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INDUSTRY RELATIONS The new Co-Op intiative provides an opportunity to link explorative studio learning to the professional workplace in a real way. Words

Chelsea Campbell Danielle van Ooteghem

With the beginning of another year at the Department of Architectural Science comes a new opportunity for its students to continue to better themselves within the architectural community: co-op. “Implementing a work-integrated degree into an already impressive program affirms that our students are among the most skilled entrants into the professional workplace,” says program organizer Vincent Hui. It truly allows us to consolidate and strengthen the Department’s reputation, not only within the profession, but within a larger academic and public context. Hui and other members of the Department helped prepare students for the interview and portfolio processes by organizing workshops, mock-interviews, and critiques to ensure students were ready to properly convey their skills. The first sequence of co-op students entered the professional industry in May 2014. Commenced upon completion of third year studies, our sixteen month co-op program is unique, as it is modeled to respond to the distinct polytechnic roots of the Ryerson Architectural Science Program. Offering co-op in anticipation of students entering into fourth year stream specialization in architecture, building science, and project management has broadended the strengths available to employers, garnering the support of wide range of architecture offices, developers, and building science firms. However, the program only accepts the top twenty percent of the class, taking grade rankings of students from second year and their continuing performance in third year. “Unlike other co-op programs, you have to work for it, you have to qualify for it, and you have to hit certain standards,” says Hui. By implementing this type of standard in the Department, it creates incentive within the student body to work towards academic and professional excellence. Although this creates more rivalry in an already competitive program, it ensures that employers know they are receiving dedicated, focused students and that in turn, these students are eager to learn and engage at a benchmark appropriate for the workplace. By sending students out into the work force in the midst of their studies, it allows them to not only validate and supplement what they have been learning in the classroom, but also bring professional industry knowledge back to the school in their fourth year. This creates a dialogue between students and co-op students who were able to experience this knowledge firsthand. As the AEC industry is a rapidly changing and adapting field, the students bring back ideas that allow the classroom and curriculum to adapt and respond to these changes just as quickly. With the program already seeing success in its first year, strategies for future growth are already being implemented. Expanding the reach of potential employer networks and creating strong feedback loops are chief among them. Hui regularly goes on site visits to talk to employers, connecting the industry back to the school to get feedback on how well the Department is preparing students for future work in the industry. In that sense, the co-op program informs the evolution of the curriculum: “We’re really into critical feedback - the point is to get a sense of where we can improve.” The co-op program not only benefits the students and the department, but contributes to a strong and reputable image for Ryerson University, creating connections between industry professionals and DAS alumni. The direction that the program is taking leaves Hui with high hopes for the future: “In ten or fifteen years, those same students will be opening up their own firms, whether they are in architecture, building science, or project management, and they are going to be hiring our students and establishing the fact that our program is one of the best programs in the country, if not the world.”


masters studio

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To harvest in the traditional sense of the term refers to the gathering of agricultural crops – a collection of resources made possible by the cycle of nature. Harvest Home expands this definition beyond the agricultural context, through the exploration of natural solar and precipitation cycles, in pursuit of superior building performance made possible through passive, contextually informed, simplistic design. The home aims to become a model for affordable sustainable residential construction towards a new standard that is accessible to the average North American homeowner. Ambitious design goals for energy and resource efficiency were set in the initial stages of the design process. These goals included meeting all of the PHIUS+ passive house standard certification criteria and exceeding the minimum number of points required to achieve LEED Platinum under the LEED for Homes program. The final design attains HERS score of 40 without on-site renewable generation, while satisfying the PHIUS+ passive house standard certification criteria and achieving LEED Platinum with 91 points under the LEED for Homes Program. All of these goals were achieved while meeting the overarching requirements for affordability under the DOE Challenge Home and Denver Superefficient Housing Challenge. The Harvest Home boasts an open concept ground floor plan, allotting direct and ambient light to penetrate its modest footprint, while allowing maximum occupant flexibility. Services to kitchen and bathroom spaces are centralized to reduce inefficiencies and expenses associated with extensive duct and pipe runs.

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HARVEST HOME

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housing

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patrick andres, matt carlsson, antonio cunha, mark grimsrud, denver jermyn, moe otsubo, matthew suriano, filip tisler, matthew tokarik, & german vaisman

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plan, ground level porch dining room kitchen pantry living room rear deck

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plan, second level bedroom 1 bath w/d ensuite bedroom 2

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plan, third level mechanical/storage multi-purpose space terrace

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plan, roof front yard sloped roof flat roof terrace back yard

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LOT 65

housing

stefan miller

The project was conceived out of the need for a new urban infrastructure that consisted of live-work townhouses within a medium density development. Located in the Port Land’s waterfront area of Toronto, this development seeks to solve the ever growing population of the city’s urban core. Lot 65 seeks to define an appropriate architecture for the dwelling of an environmental lawyer. By utilizing law and order through one simple geometry, layers of voids and gaps are formed and it is within these connected voids that fabricated environments exist. Light wells, waterfalls, and fireplaces are implemented to fit within the gaps that connect each level. Most importantly, these voids represent a law and order that defends environments. Spaces are then intrinsically connected, not only as continuous voids but also as a symbol to what the client does for a living. The result is a home that is fundamentally and physically built for the specific dweller. Overall, users are left with spaces that impose a spatial connection with the client, regardless of whether they are inside or out.

plan, ground level a dining room 01 courtyard 02 plan, second level b living room 03 bedroom 04 plan, third level c office 05 plan, fourth level d master bedroom 06 elevation, north e

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diagram, basement - second level space for hydraulic lift installation flexible wing ramps and wide corridors for accessibility

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diagram, callout of stair storage b callout, adaptable wall system c

housing

joanne smith

NEUROARCHITECTURE Although cognitive decline is often primarily associated with the elderly, it is a process that warrants attention in adult life. As certain aspects of our cognitive ability peak at age 22, the field of neuroarchitecture asserts the position that this process can be slowed or reversed by using the environment to increase brain plasticity. The idea is that one can change their environment in order to change their brain and behaviors. Advocates of this theory suggest flexible, unprogrammed environments that stimulate the senses with tactile materials and visual enrichment. Endeavouring to implement these ideas within the context of a typical Toronto townhouse, a prototype site was chosen within the downtown core, 7m wide by 27m in depth. The spaces within the property are flexible and adaptable with elements that can be used in different ways, depending on the season or the user’s requirements at a particular time. Three voids allow light to pour in from above whilst facilitating a visual connection between floors. Two of these voids are courtyard spaces that bring nature and natural light into the core of the building, without overlook from neighbours. The third void, a central atrium, acts as a three storey storage spine that is accessible from every floor in the house. The staircase that runs through this atrium has built in seating; acting as both a way of moving between floors and a usable space for social interaction and shared learning. Additionally, within each room there are storage walls that can be left closed to save space, or opened to reveal shelving and desks. The house aims to adapt to the needs of the user, through configurable storage systems and programmed naturally lit spaces. Users of any age or ability are able to change their living environment without moving to another home. The house can be used for a family’s entire lifetime and could be used by a person with a physical disability. The entrance of the property is gradually ramped and an adjacent room, separated from the main house, can be used as a studio, office, student bedroom or a suite for a career or grandparent. In addition, space for a hydraulic lift platform has been included, allowing for its implementation in the future if required. This platform would allow access to all three floors, including bathrooms and the storage spine.

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plan, ground level studio entry ramp courtyard entrance hall atrium and stair kitchen dining patio

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plan, basement winter garden living room water closet exercise room

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plan, second level f bedroom 16 office 17 section g

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SILOÉ HOUSING

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Teen pregnancy is one of the leading reasons that teen girls drop out of school and resort to unhealthy means of obtaining income in order to support themselves and their child. As a response to the astonishingly high teen pregnancy rate in Siloé, Columbia, this project addresses the needs for access to a comfortable living environment mothers and expectant mothers, as well as a hygienic and sterile medical clinic for standard check-ups and a healthy delivery. A walk-in clinic on the ground level avails medical attention to the women living in the complex to ensure safe and healthy pregnancy throughout all trimesters. Short-term stay rooms accommodate day or overnight patients at the back end of the clinic, while long-term stay rooms are available on ascending levels to protect expecting mothers until they find a safe and suitable home to raise their newborn. The building invites light onto every floor and provides natural ventilation using light and ventilation stacks located adjacent to each unit. It provides multilevel communal gathering spaces and horizontally folding walls to provide privacy and protection from the sun’s radiating heat.

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housing

filip tisler

diagram, phasing a e

diagram, natural ventilation b plan, ground level overnight care beds storage office medical clinic

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plan, second level kitchen and dining laundry facilities water closet long term stay rooms

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plan, third level e plan, fourth level f outdoor terrace 09

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section, north-south g

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plan, basement level bar court one screening room technical mechanical music room laundry storage

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plan, ground level sun room living dining kitchen court two mud room main entrance

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plan, second level court three master bedroom bedroom one bedroom two court four studio guest bedroom

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housing

ivana digirolamo

TOWNHOUSE FOR A FILMMAKER The primary design intent in this project’s development was to create a live/work space organized by the same spatial ordering principles used in the client’s work as a film maker. The client, Sophia Coppola, creates films which can be noted for their visual harmony and rich atmospheric qualities. Frames of the client’s films were studied and used to identify spatial ordering principles and their application in different scenes. Three main spatial ordering principles were identified through the analysis of her film Lost in Translation (2003). The first principle identified and applied in the design is the use of shallow space for singular and introspective scenes. Bedrooms and work rooms were thus compartmentalized into private, square spaces primarily located on the second floor. The second principle is the use of deep, balanced space for public scenes where interaction between multiple characters occurs. Applying these principles architecturally resulted in a continuous ground floor that housed public spaces such as the kitchen, dining room and living area. The main entrance occurs on the ground floor and eventually opens to this continuous space after passing through a narrow foyer. This accentuates the public nature of the ground floor’s continuous space while maintaining a comfortable level of privacy for the inhabitants of the house. The final spatial ordering principle identified in the client’s filmography was the right-weighting of frames. The townhouse’s general organization is thus determined by the main staircase’s right-weighted division of the space.

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plan, ground level entrance hall poolside patio pool dock

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plan, third level c living room 07 bedroom 1 08 plan, fourth level d master bedroom 09 bedroom 2 10 plan, fifth level e rooftop garden 11 rooftop patio 12

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HOUSE 1

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housing

nick callies

This project was conceived as part of a larger plan envisioning a medium density development of live-work townhomes in the Port Lands neighbourhood of Toronto. With intent to create an adaptable architecture with consideration for versatility and privacy, rooms flow into one another, interconnected through a series of ramps which encircle the central courtyard. Spaces are seen as continuous and are left as open as possible, accommodating the user’s intent without being limited to a predefined use. Partition walls are used only for washrooms and storage spaces, which are positioned to create privacy in working and bedroom spaces. Façades are fully glazed on the north and south sides, with curtains in certain places to allow the user to control light and privacy levels at will. Occupying a corner lot, the east façade is exposed, composed of a screen like arrangement of small to medium sized openings, permitting views outward to the adjacent canal.

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masters studio

plan, ground level compost toilets and showers communal laundry communal kitchen

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plan, second level family one: 1 parent, 1 child typical child bedroom shared washroom family two: 2 parents, 1 child

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plan, third level c family one: 2 parents, 1 teenager 08 family two: 2 parents, 2 children 09 plan, fourth level family one: rooftop garden typical child bedroom family two: rooftop garden

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housing

ashley biren

PLAY + INTERACT + DWELL

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Play + Interact + Dwell is a housing project that embraces play, interaction and dwelling for orphaned children and families in Siloé, Cali, Colombia a place and territory that welcomes its appropriation of inhabitants and their patterns of use. The design’s conceptualization and formalization considered designing for the everyday requirements of life in the informal settlements, ‘construct a place, not a space,’ by fostering a sense of belonging for the residents, creating a kit of parts based on foreign and local conditions, and designing with the children’s future in mind. Play + Interact + Dwell is programmed for two family units and an orphanage using a flexible modular system that allows the design and construction of this mixed housing typology to be implemented on any site within the community. The children and family dwelling units are constructed using bamboo wall modules designed for optimal passive ventilation, natural light penetration, shelving for storage, and play for children. The customizable wall components permits users to arrange their home according to their individual needs, desires, and site specific environmental conditions. For instance, the Aperture Wall offers interior shading and small storage spaces, the Gradient Aperture Wall provides privacy and play for children, and the Shelf Wall supplies further privacy and storage, typically placed as a shared interior partition or neighbouring wall. Using foreign methods of urban farming and bamboo construction techniques coupled with a traditional communal living environment, the architecture instills a sense of education and growth for its residents. The house provides opportunities for interaction throughout, with a communal kitchen and laundry area on the ground level and urban farming on the roof. The building’s location considers the growth and development of children, maintaining a close proximity to primary and secondary education, as well as additional amenities including a community centre and medical facility. Fundamentally, the dwelling incites personal growth for both children and families alike, creating opportunities to learn new lifestyle practices and encourage individuality through design customization - an architecture that embraces people and their art of inhabitation.

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masters thesis

Underground Path Connection

Conference Centre Atrium

Multi-Faith Centre

Library Retail

Community Centre

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Event Space Amenities

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Night Club + Lounge

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ATRIUM ATRIUM ATRIUM

Hybrid Social Condenser is an exploration in hybrid architecture for the urbanization and concentration of social activities within a common space, enforcing physical adjacencies to address the lack of urban amenities and increasing cost of building single-use civic programs due to ination of real estate. Located at 45 Bay Street, this proposal for a high rise meets new bylaws advocating for thinner, multiple towers rather than single, thick developments. Two or three towers can be used as a condition to generate horizontal, vertical, and lateral connections. On each oor, the culture of congestion will arrange new and exhilarating human activities in unprecedented combinations to break down social hierarchies. This thesis proposes a new high-density prototype as an alternative to this mono-society. It reconsiders the ground public plane as the locus of public life and proposes its extension into the space of these previously private, vertically gated domains. Creating a continuous urban ground plane that connects through the building, these interstitial spaces become interwoven with the spatial experience of a tower, alleviating congestion. Amenities such as restaurants, libraries, gyms, schools, community centres, and places of worship can be found within one of the three towers or along the circulation planes, to support multiple residential areas for different income levels.

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bradley miles

HYBRID SOCIAL CONDENSER

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integration studio

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The architecture of the theatre is most influenced by the performance and movement of its occupants. The Wellington Theatre for the Performing Arts will not only respond to the movement of its occupants but also to that of the inhabitants in the neighborhood and city. This theatre bridges the informal and formal performance through interconnected circulation throughout the building. Where these juxtapositions occur within the building, a third space of community connection is present, creating an engaging dynamic. The art of the theatre is therefore a reflection of the surrounding community through active participation. The threshold is achieved throughout the site to highlight the different moments in the theatre. This is highlighted through a responsive relationship between the informal studios and the pedestrian cross circulation on the site. Meta(morph)osis utilizes a transformative façade to further emphasize this relationship.

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

culture

aris peci & samuel vandersluis

META(MORPH)OSIS

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demitri delean & michael fik

LIFT

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The LIFT Performing Arts Centre brings together professionals, researchers, students, and public enthusiasts to create Toronto’s most versatile Performing Arts Centre. It will also provide multi-purpose informal social gathering spaces for the students and surrounding neighbourhood. This mixed-use design merges a school, studios, and performance spaces (both formal and informal) to create a unique complex which becomes an incubator for the performing arts industry in Toronto. The design intention was to create a floating mass for the performance studios which seems to be lifted over top of the school mass. This is achieved by applying a heavier, semi-opaque, material to the floating mass and a lighter-translucent material to the lower mass. The floating mass, when light up at night, will cast shadows of the dancers moving across the exterior building face, creating a projected performance for the street context. Finally, this project aims to build on the newly implemented linear park and pedestrian through-ways, tying together streets, pedestrian lane-ways, existing buildings, and the LIFT Performing Arts Centre into a strong urban composition which is grounded in its context.

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integration studio

diagram, theatre structure axonometric a plan, ground level b plan, second level c plan, third level d diagram, stack effect e diagram, detail axonometric f diagram, structure fly tower concrete core rigid steel theatre frame vertical trusses for curtain wall space frame structure for atrium

g 01 02 03 04

diagram, theatre breakdown main auditorium secondary access stage storage services for flexible space service lift balcony seating (150 seats) control booth CN tower informal event space primary entrance parking gallery flexible space

h 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

DN DN

DN

DN

b

UP

c

a

PORTLAND CENTRE DN

d

culture

ariel cooke

The Portland Centre exemplifies the potential for creative and inspired minds to release their individual effects into a cultural space. It is divided into two parts: the theatre and the adjacent learning spaces. The learning space has a very familiar and conservative form, relating to the surrounding buildings in the Wellington neighbourhood. However, the theatre is intended to do the exact opposite. The goal was to create a theatre whose body interrupts the open atrium space, creating a strong visual connection seen through the interplay between the spaces, as well as the conflict between them. The theatre’s mass has several other functions that serve the building as a whole. The large spans achieved by the use of structural steel create a grand space within the theatre, but also allows for a large open space below it, which serves as a flexible multi-purpose room. Additionally, the theatre’s shape distributes loads from the curtain wall adjacent to it and space frame in front of it to the reinforced concrete fly tower and the ground. The rigid frame structure integrates all the elements needed for the great performance of a theatre space, including HVAC, acoustics, and catwalks.

f

36

e


01

02 03 04

g

11 12 05

13

06 14 07

15

08

16 17 18

09 10 h


integration studio

section, longitudinal a elevation, north b plan, ground level c plan, third level d plan, fifth level e diagram, sectional axonometrics f diagram, material exploded axonometric g b

a

c

AMBIDEXTERITY This schematic proposal for a future branch of the Toronto Public Library at King Street and Spadina Avenue principally seeks to elevate the level and variety of public programming offered within Toronto’s KingSpadina district. Situated on the northern edge of Wellington Street, this proposal is a direct response to three converging, contextual forces that ultimately shape the library’s physical and programmatic configuration. Situated adjacent to several elongated masonry forms, the building is consequently composed of two linear, autonomous forms that allow the building to function ambidextrously along a pedestrian footpath. Furthermore, since the building is bisected it can be open after hours to ensure maximum usage throughout the day.

d

education

kristen smith

e

38

f


g


design studio

a

diagram, movement a plan, ground level lobby and coat check small map exhbition room large map exhibition room archive room research room staff lounge office courtyard

b 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

plan, second level medium map exhibition room learning centre event space preparation space auditorium small courtyard

c 09 10 11 12 13 14

06

07

05 04

section, north - south d

03 08

The design of of this project was inspired by the need to create a museum that preserves and acknowledges the significance of traditional methods of cartography (map on paper in contrast to GPS). Driven by the concept of inversion, the museum exhibits qualities of an ‘introverted’ building, where communication between outdoor and indoor space is intentionally minimized. This allowed the focal point of the design to shift to create indoor spaces that communicate this internalization, while constructing a harmonious architectural environment. Exhibition rooms of this museum are divided into four separate rooms: small, medium, large and temporary spaces. Each exhibition space is unique in its architectural expression to best supplement the museum’s artifacts. Use of light, negative and positive spaces, narrow and wide openings, hierarchy, proximity and scale are some of the languages considered in designing the museum. In particular, proximity and scale were studied to create a connection with the visitors. Movement of visitors in the museum was organized so that it would be increasingly freeing as visitors make their journey up through the museum.

02

01 b

13

14

12 11

education

john jinwoo han

CARTOGRAPHY MUSEUM OF PRESERVATION

10

40

09

c


d


vulnerability and resilience in architecture

a

b

c e

d

education

nicholas ager

SCHOOL OF RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE When examining the role of the architect in rebuilding places which have endured traumatic events, like the recent scourge of school shootings in the United States, a balance must be struck between crafting a place of safety, through minimizing vulnerability, and developing a resilient atmosphere to allow for the healing process to begin. Similarly, the school of the modern age should be a place which is not only resistant to immediate crisis through a variety of safety measures but resilient to the associated long term stresses, where children can feel safe as they grow intellectually, emotionally, and expressively. Through an examination of programmatic arrangement, materiality, and experiences found in traditional school design, a familiarity could be established and these various architectural qualities could be adapted in order to begin to promote physical, emotional, and psychological healing in a place of crisis. A design was developed which strikes a balance between meeting the criteria associated with both safety and recovery in order to create a proposal for a new Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut.

f

elevation, south-west a elevation, north-east b section, east-west c section, northwest-southeast d plan, ground level e plan, second level f plan, third level g diagram, primary circulation h diagram, secondary circulation i

42

diagram, sight lines j

g


h

i

j


design studio

plan, ground floor lounge studio kitchen screened porch

a 01 02 03 04

diagram, roof structure metal roofing waterproof membrane wood deck purlins standing beams king post steel bracket tension cable timber column

b 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

section, longitudinal

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02

03

04

c

a

05

education

jonathan chan

STUDIO AWAY

44

Nestled in Eighteen Mile Bay, Studio Away seeks to compliment the site by serving as an extension to nature. The atelier provides an educational experience where students can engage in design, construction, and management of the built environment while enjoying a panoramic view of the landscape. Incorporating passive design principles to create a fair weather facility, the horizontal cedar fascia slats on the southern façade are arranged to diffuse harsh light and allow an array of shadows to be cast inwards while a double height volume moderates temperature via stack effect. In addition, the metal roof that shades the outdoor space also serves as a light shelf, reflecting diffuse light deep into the space for a better working condition. The north portion of the atelier is dedicated to the studio as well as circulation to and from the cabins. A glazed façade allows ambient light to enter the lounge, which is expressed with a lower ceiling height, making it a more intimate space that can operate as a quiet study area. Components of the building may be prefabricated, manufactured and brought to the site, resulting in lower costs in construction. The largest component of the atelier is the metal roofing, which is composed of many smaller sheets of metal. When these modules are connected together, they form a seamed roof system that helps shed away water and snow. Trusses hold up the lower roof while king posts hold up the larger roofing system; tensile cables and compressive timber members in the center of the king post distributes the forces to allow for a wide span. The design of the atelier is dedicated towards providing a desirable learning experience while incorporating sustainable design practices and practicality with regards to structure and transportation of materials. The project provides students and faculty members a retreat from the urbanized fabric into an environment that is determined by nature.

06 07

08 09 10 11 12 13

b

c


plan, west building ground level lounge residence room to next building

b 07 08 09

plan, west building second level meeting rooms study spaces lounge

c 10 11 12

01

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UP

a 01 02 03 04 05 06 UP

poetics of construction

plan, west building basement level entrance garage door library multipurpose space parking to next building outdoor space

section, longitudinal d

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08

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DN DN

09

UP

07

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DN

08

b

11 11

11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12

DN

The Retreat Centre is meant to celebrate the technical and innovative nature of Ryerson by striving for an Industrial aesthetic, through the exposing of the technical components, and functionality in a rational and orderly way. This expresses the true nature of the materials used, creating a technical, unique, and honest form. This proposal utilizes the linearity of the Don Valley parkway and the Don Valley River as the rationale behind the circulation of the retreat centre. Additionally, this proposal draws from local features such as cars found on the DVP and the trees surrounding the site as rationale to explore the use of steel/ aluminum and wood within their limits functionally and aesthetically. Steel and wood work as equalizing opposites (wood: warm, natural, organic, vs steel: cool, industrial, manufactured). They both are used structurally through glulam arches, and steel beams/joists supporting the second oor, and aesthetically within the proposal, with wood ceilings, solid timber interior partitions, aluminum cladding, and a perforated aluminum ceiling to create the overall lofted form and the ďŹ nishes found inside.

10

10

10

c

community

timothy melnichuk

RETREAT CENTRE

46

d


poetics of construction

07

DN

14

08 DN

06

16 DN

04

01 03

plan, ground level lobby reception dining hall kitchen lounge study workshop loading/receiving gallery meeting room theatre courtyard

a 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

plan, second level meeting hall rooftop garden meeting room administration

b 13 14 15 16

section, sawtooth wall detail skylight glazing steel flashing on stud wall parapet on steel structural T-section bolted connector HSS truss, 200mm cord 150mm web steel decking roofing sloped along truss HSS truss, 200mm cord 150mm web mechanical duct linear slot diffuser recessed pot lighting 3000K swivel track lighting 4000K

c 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

02

UP

DN

09

13 DN

05

UP

11

15

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DN

DN

DN

10 DN

11 DN

13

10 10

diagram, axonometrics d b

a

community

anthony gugliotta

RIVERDALE RETREAT CENTRE

48

Under the guiding theme of poetics of construction, the typology of retreat and conference centre is explored as the testing ground for ideas in materiality and constructability. The proposed design extends the essence of monastic buildings as destinations for learning and spiritual renewal, through the inclusion of program elements that embrace creative thought and the collective. The individual volumes of the form are arranged into groupings and juxtaposed according to program. Each of the volumes is organized on the site according to the existing site lines and topography and engages it organically, rather than in the strict rationale fashion of western monastic tradition. Two large courtyards enforce interaction with the site by extending it into the heart of each of the two larger masses. When taken as a whole, the design exhibits contrast and contradiction. Following the user experience from the entrance, the design transitions from dark, monolithic and imposing to open, dynamic and engaging through the use of materials and the overall organizational structure of spaces. Materials were decidedly left in a state where process and natural character would be the primary showcase, such as board-formed to reect construction phases, while exterior cladding elements such as steel plates are left unadorned without paint or other surface treatments, contrasting the reďŹ ned materiality of the interior. The Retreat Centre aims to assemble an experience with contrasting moments in material and volumetric interaction that evoke both tradition and progression.

17 18 19 20 21 22 23

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26 27 28 c

d


masters studio

plan, site soccer field storm water pond amenity space agricultural terraces

a 01 02 03 04

diagram, site axonometric rainwater collection rainwater retention basin gabion walls concrete irrigration channels fertilizer pits

b 05 06 07 08 09

plan, amenity space c storage closet 10 cistern 11 compost toilets 12 irrigation channel 13

02

section, north-south d section, east-west e cistern service room 14 bench seating 15 elevation, north f 01

03

04

community

matthew suriano

FUTBOL BAJO DE LA ESTRELLA

50

Overlooking the community of Siloé, The Canchas De La Estrella provides both a vital amenity and community oriented agricultural facility to an area lacking facilitators of economic and social development. The project identified the City of Cali’s highway infrastructure construction as a dilemma to the existing football field and opportunity for development in the community of Siloé. The proposed football field, water collection facility, and agricultural terraces navigate the impending highway to create a network of infrastructure that is beneficial to the social environment through the engagement of sports and play, as well as contributes to the economic development of the community through structured agricultural development. The master plan of the proposed development links each component of the design to create a closed loop environmental system where rainwater collection and fertilizer pits integrated into the design of a football stand and amenity space fuels the growth of agricultural production. A rainwater retention basin behind the football field reduces the amount of rainwater runoff from the steep mountains above and mitigates the risks of mudslides which are prone to the area. Architecturally, the amenity space is minimal in its use of materials and considers its local context with the use of bamboo columns and roof structure.

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f


integration studio

diagram a plan, ground level changerooms fitness centre entrance gymnasium

b 01 02 03 04

plan, second level c multipurpose space 05 fitness centre 06 plan, third level grass area outdoor play area multipurpose room

d 07 08 09

section, transverse e

a

01

01

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UP

03

04

DN

b

06 05

UP

c

07

08

09

community

samuel iun & derek smart

DN

05

DN

In today’s urban environments, a key determinant of a good neighbourhood are its public facilities, namely the community centre. The design for such a space should be carefully considered – it should have spaces that house beneficial and relevant programs for the community, be a place of social gathering and interaction, and visually and conceptually tie into the existing fabric of the community. This proposal offers generous and flexible program for recreation in an increasingly health-conscious society. Its spaces nurture public interaction and feed off the enjoyment of the linear park, with light-wells to act as a ‘forest’ drawing in the community. The façade system that not only provides beauty and visual interest, but acts as a medium for contextual narrative and performs according to the program and lighting needs. The materials chosen (brick, wood, weathered steel, green wall) will all age gracefully over the years along with the neighbourhood. The Wellington Place Neighbourhood will continue to develop and change over time, and whether serving the needs of the current or future demographic, the Wellington Community Center last and flourish throughout those changes. Avoiding the design of ‘high-tech’ nor noncontextual architecture, this humble proposal remains true to the neighbourhood and will keep serving the public for decades.

UP

WELLINGTON CIVIC CENTRE

d

DN

52

09


e


international competition

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02

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05

plan, ground level outdoor interaction area daily sports facilities stage courtyard multipurpose gymnasium spectator seating

a 01 02 03 04 05 06

06

diagram, exercising within nature b diagram, layered view c section, north-south d a

community

daniel bassakyros, john jinwoo han, ruslan ivanytskyy, & hrishikesh tailor

BREAK IN NATURE With the construction of Techno-polis and Daegu National Industrial park, Dalseong-gun, South Korea, is recently going through a shift in identity from a quiet country district into an exciting cultural hub. In this context, a new gymnasium provides a break space, where the visitors may relax and exercise alongside nature. Using all their senses, visitors will feel the diffused green light, hear trees sway and birds chirp, smell flowers, and see green shadow seeping through the glazing. Break In Nature provides the current and the future citizens with exactly what its name suggests—a break from their daily hectic life, engaging with the peaceful nature of Dalseong-gun. Employing a sense of connectivity between the exterior and interior guided the massing and positioning of the gymnasium; to achieve this, the building was broken down into its individual program requirements and arranged in a manner that allowed nature to seep inside. To create a peaceful environment that references the calm nature of the site, topography was excavated, nestling the gym at the bottom of the hill to hide the view of all man-made buildings. The foreground is created through the diverse variety of native flowers and plants with a backdrop of mountainous terrain. This combination of elements creates a poetic composition that contributes to the serenity of the building. A green shadow is achieved when light hits the vegetation and casts a shadow into the space parallel to the direction of light. Every courtyard spills this “green shadow” into different spaces depending on the time of day. This project was awarded 3rd place in the UIA approved 2014 Daegu Architectural Competition for the Dalseong Citizen’s Gymnasium in South Korea.

     

 

b

         



    

  

c

               

 

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           

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SECTION TWO where we go interviews, photo essays, & project


A DIFFERENT POINT OF VIEW We sit down with Yew-Thong Leong, program director of Frankfurt Studio, to discuss the importance of traveling abroad, testing the limits of your architectural boundaries, and learning from different cultures to inuence designs close to home. Accompanied by photos from Frankfurt Studio. Words

Michael Mazurkiewicz Pritish Pathak

Photos Yupin Li Nathaniel Mendiola


325: How long have you been participating in the studio abroad program at Ryerson? Yew-Thong Leong: Officially, this is the 21st year of exchanges coordinated together by Ryerson and Frankfurt. I have been involved for about eighteen years. Prior to that, the first exchanges were rather defined and limited, where students would come from Germany and spend a year with us, and then we would try to send students over there, but it was not nearly as successful as we knew it could be. 325: Why was Germany selected as a destination for studio abroad, aside from just an agreement between two institutions? YTL: The exchange between Frankfurt and Ryerson was formally initiated two decades ago by Professor Heribert Gies of Frankfurt and Professor Michael Miller here at Ryerson. Together, they began working on ways to develop a program that would accommodate an alternating exchange, with students from Germany coming here one year and students from Ryerson going there the following year, and so forth. This is where the roots of the relationship with Frankfurt were set. I was not involved in any logistics at the time. However, while Michael was coordinating the outbound leg of the exchange, I had the fortune of always teaching the inbound Germany students, as they were placed in my studio section. This level of involvement allowed me to get a grasp of what the students wanted to learn and eventually led me to begin coordinating the academics of their exchange so that they could maximize their learning and experience of their time here in Toronto. Unfortunately, after about five years, the funding for the exchange program dried up. I did not want the students to lose the opportunity of learning abroad, so I initiated a second phase of the exchange which is today known as Kultour. It served as a continuation of what Michael used to do prior to the creation of a formal exchange program. Before Ryerson had mobility policies and exchange sessions that provided students with the skills and knowledge to study abroad, students were ill-prepared to travel as they did not comprehend the complexities of different cultures, how to travel safely, or how to communicate effectively in another language. So, prior to the Ryerson-Frankfurt exchange, Michael used to organize small tours which involved a limited amount of time spent learning with other students in Frankfurt, and the rest of the duration was basically him leading students around Germany for two weeks. The Germans were not thrilled about this arrangement as they felt that it did not provide equal learning opportunities for all students. So, when the funding for the exchange ended, Heribert and I decided to try something different that would involve both students from Ryerson and Frankfurt travelling to different places together, rather than formally exchanging places. This idea proved to be very successful, and we have been running it for about seven or eight years. We started in Munich, then they came over to Toronto, and so it continued with us going back and forth. Each time, our students would always travel and learn together, and each year we would explore a theme specific to the city we visited. We did a Miesian theme in Toronto. We did a Corbusian theme one year, and we did a Northwest theme last year. And this year we did a Copenhagen theme. Next year we’re doing the East Coast.

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325: How was the curriculum developed? Is it based on our department’s own studio organization, or is it unique? YTL: Architecture is always about solving problems. It’s not about making up problems and solving them after the fact, or making up an answer where there is no problem. Unfortunately, this reality seems to be lost now in our education. I have always believed that the problems examined in design studio must always be embedded in a context that is urban in character. You can design a farmhouse or a cottage on any open chunk of land in the world without having to face any real issues or overcome any true challenges. An urban environment, however, presents a highly populated, built, and structured landscape that has a massive resource demand and environmental toll, and it is begging for refinement and unity. Through exploration of real world problems, students receive a truer understanding of what their work as architects should be and learn how to effectively solve these problems in a very real way. So, that’s why our focus last year was Transit Cities, and sought to examine major transit issues in Toronto by studying countries that have managed to solve the problems that we still face. I brought twelve students out to Germany, and for a whole month we studied everything about transit. Once we’d defined the problem, we sought to respond to it through the design of a bus terminal, which addressed learning from both an architectural and urban planning perspective. In contrast, this year’s exchange was centered around Walkable Cities, and students studied the Zeil and other places to give them an understanding of how humans interact in walkable spaces within an urban setting. Once the students defined the problem, they proposed a solution in the architectural form of a ‘market’, also called a ‘square’. A public square is an inherent component of a walkable city, just as a transit stop - whether it be a train station, or an airport, or whatever - is an inherent characteristic of a transit city. The themes are not something that I choose specifically. They rather provide a framework for examining problems which have been solved better elsewhere, and then provide opportunities to go there and study it. Toronto has issues of transit, Toronto has issues of walkability. Toronto has a whole bunch of other urban issues that we are not beginning to address, and that’s what this is all about. This all goes back to my original comment: we are not going out there just to look at the pretty architecture for the sake of appreciation - we want to learn how it all comes together. When you make pasta, you don’t drink your sauce like a soup and then eat your pasta noodles separately. The ingredients must connect in order for the dish to succeed. Traveling abroad is about connecting on multiple levels. We are actually going out there to seek a solution to an issue that we do not know how to solve over here, and it is only through such learning with different people and cultures that we can begin to shift our understanding and perspectives about how we build our environments over here.

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325: What skills are you trying to develop in your students, and what are the ideal outcomes of studying abroad?

out into the real world, and travel makes it real - it literally takes you out of the books.

YTL: One of the most fundamental tools in learning is travel. Travel exposes you to different cultures, and forces your perception of the world to shift. It exposes you, and it enables you to ask questions about how the world exists and why it should or shouldn’t exist in a different form. So foreign travels are very, very important. That’s why I keep doing it. I think exchanges are life changing learning experiences, and I get very upset when people inherit political motives and they do it for the wrong reasons. I get very upset when professors and institutions allow promises of notoriety or money to dilute or limit the learning of their students. I don’t engage in exchanges because it brings me or the school money or prestige. I do it because I feel I have an obligation to the profession to teach people based on what I know and to continue learning myself so that I can continue to effectively contribute to society.

We aren’t playing at solving issues. We aren’t sitting in a charette for a couple hours and building tents and eating food and hoping to solve world peace with a few sketches and moneyshot renders. Before all of that, there are some really serious problems that need to be addressed, and you cannot solve a problem until you actually go back to the root causes, which is what we did with Frankfurt. We went back, and we looked at the big picture. We looked at the history and how people behave in public spaces. We went to Berlin, Paris, and Munich, and we looked at how buildings have informed space and city planning. We actually physically went out, and we personally pointed out the issues, which made them all real. Then, once we had defined the problem, we allowed a design to happen, which in turn sought to solve the problem in a cogent manner. The project we did in Frankfurt is real. We were dealing with a real, examinable, tangible issue. In fact, Frankfurt’s master plan identified it as something that they want to deal with. During these exchanges, we are not just tripping around and drawing things for the sake of filling our sketch books. We are actually solving real, immediate problems. None of this is possible unless you have the opportunity to travel and take in the feeling of being in a different part

Architecture doesn’t have formal mentorship like other professions such as medicine and law, so we have to rely on professors who are also practitioners. In order to give students a true understanding of the profession, we rely on putting them into real environments. So a lot of assignments theoretically and conceptually push students

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of the world - it’s one of those pure experiences that shapes learning, and that’s the whole context of studying abroad. 325: From an employer’s perspective, what are the benefits of employing a student who has participated in a studio abroad program? YTL: At SSG, we do work globally, so having an appreciation for different cultures is immensely important in our office, as it allows us to see how people solve problems differently. We cannot be self-centered and believe that the only way to do things is the way that we do them here in Toronto. For example, when we design an airport, we might feel it is pointless to connect it with a train station. But, then you go to Europe and see that they have done so and you learn why they did it. You get an appreciation for how they problem solve. If I’m designing the airport, that global perspective is extremely significant in designing effectively. But that global perspective must be drilled in. It cannot be superficial. It cannot be something that is learned from a textbook. It has to be experienced, it has be drilled in and embedded into the consciousness. That’s the reason why exchanges are so important. Aside from providing learning experiences, it allows students to develop a richer understanding and appreciation of other cultures and societies, helps them to think with a broader, unbiased, unprejudiced scope, and ultimately makes them far more valuable to the profession.

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frankfurt studio

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walkable cities

danielle van ooteghem

MOSAIC

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European cities are at the forefront of the walkable city movement in attempt to create more pedestrian and community-friendly public spaces. The site for Mosaic is located at the center of the city of Frankfurt, Germany, on the Konstablewache along the predominant pedestrian mall, the Zeil. The site is known for its public transportation hub due to its proximity to a variety of public transportation networks, as well as its transformation into a public farmer’s market two days of the week. This square along the Zeil is most effective when the marketplace is present, and therefore, the concept for the revitalization of Konstablewache is derived from the geometries and circulation patterns of the marketplace, similar to a mosaic. A beer garden, concert venue, food vendors, information centre, and public washrooms reside on the site. A light track with moveable seating interrupts the mosaic by imitating the outline of the historic Jewish neighbourhood that once occupied the site. Aiming to create a flexible space that aims to celebrate the marketplace by encouraging user interaction; it responds to the senses of the users through textures, patterns, colours, interactive elements, and flex spaces that designate specific use. This design connects the axis of the Zeil to the rest of the city through the extension of the mosaic into the surrounding streets that were once deprived of social context.

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This project is an excerpt from Frankfurt Studio 2014.

diagram, mosaic composition concrete resin glass paving grass permanent vendors paving tiles seating stone subway entrances wood

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diagram, site analysis responding to use establishing access defining history connecting axis integration of built form extending mosaic light track/seating existing nodes

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CONTINENTAL DRIFT In this travel guide, four students present their diverse experiences participating in study-abroad programs to help you choose your next destination. Accompanied by photos from China Studio. Words

Sarah Lipsit

Photos Kenan Els채sser Aurthur Goldstien Ray Kim


China Studio

Frankfurt Studio

Kultour

For six weeks every summer, students participating in China Studio are lead by Professor Zaiyi Liao to five very different cities to experience the both modern building and classic Chinese architecture that may be centuries old. The fourth-year intensive course tours Beijing, Xi’an, Yichang, Suzhou, and closing in Shanghai, to explore the dichotomy between the rapidly transforming cultures within traditional or remote sites. Interviewee Kenan Elsässer participated in China Studio 2014, even extending his stay with a work placement until the end of the summer.

For the month of June, 12 students make their way in the opposite direction of China Studio; Frankfurt Studio grants the experience of travelling to the culturally rich city, as well as Munich, Berlin, and Paris as part of studio fulfillment for the fourth year Architecture Option. Lead by Professor and Director of SSG Architects, Yew-Thong Leong investigates different studio themes each year, examining relationships of urban design. Aris Peci and Mark de Souza both share their experiences from this past summer.

Set as an architectural excursion that alternates destination between North America and Europe each year, Kultour examines the work of leading architects in prominent cities. This year, participants spent ten days cycling their way through Copenhagen, Denmark, admiring constructions by Finn Juhl, Arne Jacobsen and Bijark Ingles Group. Open to both second and third year travelers, Adrian Man shares how influential Danish architecture can truly be.


325: What compelled you to take an opportunity to study abroad? Kenan Elsässer: I knew that the summer trip abroad with classmates would be a once in a lifetime opportunity led by an experienced and knowledgeable professor. The thought of experiencing a completely new spectrum of art, music, food, landscapes and architecture is what piqued my curiosity the most. Aris Peci: I chose Frankfurt Studio because I saw it as a unique opportunity to discover and explore architecture in a way I had never done before. It offered an opportunity to immerse myself into a totally different culture and society and understand how architecture is designed and built in different contexts. The prospect of having a chance to design in a totally new environment proved to be an exciting challenge. It was great that we had a professor who was a practitioner with a very familiar understanding of the German and European context, broadening our understanding of architecture from a Canadian context to a much more global one. Mark de Souza: Frankfurt Studio was the perfect opportunity to tour Europe for the first time while immersing myself in the culture and architecture of various cities. Having studied the architecture of these cities in books in my previous undergraduate years, it was an incredible experience to see it all first-hand. Adrian Man: For me, Kultour was more than just a course about architecture; it was an opportunity for a unique travel experience to a foreign country to learn about their culture, traditions, design, and architecture. 325: How does the design and construction of architecture compare to that of Toronto, or the rest of Canada? KE: In general, architecture in China is built at a grand scale, where ambition and power are demonstrated through size. China’s historical architecture demonstrates high levels of craftsmanship and ornamentation, as well as ingenious earthquake-resistant wooden joints called dougong. However, China’s modern architecture suffers from lack of detailing. With a limited emphasis on construction quality, materiality, and tectonics; new buildings tend to be shorter-lived and deteriorate aesthetically at a faster rate than buildings in Canada. AP: The design of architecture in the German cities that we visited is very different from the work we see Toronto. Architects are heavily influenced by the use of the grid as an organizing element, and are greatly influenced by the work of Mies. There is a significant contrast in the number of skyscrapers – it’s more predominantly a typology we see in North America. There is a higher level of quality in construction standards and execution and care that goes into the work in Germany than in the work we see being developed here in Toronto. Perhaps we desire faster and cheaper results, while they take more pride in what they build and they build it right. Issues we face such as glass panels falling off of buildings is something that would never occur there. MdS: Toronto has progressed by intensifying their downtown core with large residential towers and little restoration to existing historic buildings and streets. Europe, rather, has a greater focus on their streets and pedestrian life, introducing open squares and parks for recreation. With respect to design and construction, Danish architecture was much more focused on creating efficient communal, shared spaces with expression of dynamic form. Many buildings in Copenhagen have a focus on program and aesthetic, containing multipurpose and gathering spaces to blur the lines of privacy and community.

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325: What differences did you notice between Ryerson’s DAS and the school you visited? (Including program, spatial organization, teaching methods, student interaction, etc.) KE: The first noticeable difference in the Soochow University architecture studio was its spaciousness, and how it was well lit with natural light. Local students were always present, and we got to know them on meal breaks or during the several outings to the historical gardens of Suzhou and countless restaurants. At Ryerson, students learn to design through a process of combining conceptual ideas with technical knowledge. In contrast, students of Soochow University may have less technical knowledge of construction and detailing, but tend to produce more ambitious concepts with fewer limits on their design ideas. AP: Although the FAM school was much nicer in terms of its construction quality by incorporating a double skin façade and an expansive open atrium, the environment of Ryerson’s DAS building seems to be more conducive for the learning and teaching of architecture. Studios are more collaborative and the building supports the interaction between all levels of students. At FAM, professors have very formal interaction with their students and studios are more like classrooms rather than spaces that allow for explorative model-making and drawing. AM: Physically, the school cladding was designed with many different masonry and concrete formwork techniques, and students were collaborating with professors on new timber components upon our arrival. There was a cafeteria 74

in a boat docked in a water lane adjacent to the school, providing a great work and gathering space that connected to the exterior environment. The studio environment is more organized and compact compared to Ryerson’s DAS, and there were a lot more students using physical models to represent their ideas. 325: What was the focus of the particular abroad program, and how does this compare to the studio experience or education we receive at Ryerson? KE: The focus on China Studio was adaptive reuse in architecture. There was a focus on research and a detailed study of our site and the local community so that we could fully comprehend the influence of our design on the surrounding environment. We had full day trips to the site to thoroughly study it and prepare ourselves before producing our project designs, which left me feeling more immersed and sensitive to the site and context. AP: Frankfurt Studio was heavily based on a walkable city, exercised by redesigning an open square for the benefit and use of the public through programming and a flexible, open concept. MdS: The focus of the Frankfurt studio was to study pedestrian walkways such as the Zeil and how they affect the public realm, but our particular design focused on the Konstablerwache platz. We studied many pedestrian walkways in all the cities we visited [Munich, Berlin, Paris]. These walkways are essential in European cities


as they support civic and social life, promoting healthy urban living. We also looked at how post-war construction affected the architectural language of European cities. AM: The main focus of Kultour 2014 was studying novel uses of traditional materials and exploring different methods of executing architectural ideas. From speaking with a Danish architect, we understood that most things in Denmark are imported, and one of the only exports is intellectual and design skills. 325: How has wood, as a material, been used in the visiting country’s architectural culture? KE: Throughout travels in China, I saw that wood was used as a primary material for structural, cladding, and ornamentation purposes, because it can be shaped and carved into many forms. Some of the tall 6+ storey Pagodas were built entirely out of wood and composed of dougong that did not require any hardware or fasteners. Although many contemporary buildings grow taller and require engineered materials, wood will always be found in traditional residential homes, landscape structures, and the grand Chinese palaces.

impressive contemporary buildings we saw that used wood was the Church of the Sacred Heart in Munich. MdS: Wood has been used throughout Europe for trimming, as the use of a natural material introduces softer architectural tones in buildings. AM: The use of wood is significant in Danish architecture, ranging in use as a structural material to finishing and detail work. With the ocean surrounding the city and water lanes cutting into the city, Danish architecture is heavily influenced by the ocean. Danes do not hesitate to use wood as an exterior cladding, expressing its natural elements and finishes. We were able analyze a few projects designed by Bjarke Ingels Group, which employed wood to create cladding in wave-like forms. Overall, they were more bold and daring in pushing contemporary form and construction ideas.

AP: Wood is not a primary material for design in the majority of architectural projects in Germany. Predominantly, the Germans use monolithic materials such as concrete and steel. It allows them to achieve the clean and robust details that are synonymous with German design. One of the most 75


GOING ROGUE Riding a whole new set of wheels on their daily commute to school, four students spend ten days in the desert, learning how to truly design with site context and gain a new perspective on the meaning of organic form. Words

Anthony Yousef

Photos Nivin Nabeel


This past summer, four Ryerson students participated in the Architecture Association’s Visiting School, a ten-day computational architecture workshop in the city of Amman, Jordan. This Arabian adventure combined Jordan’s unique desert ecology, algorithmic computing, and digital fabrication. Entitled “Eroded Morphology”, the ten day design-research studio explored eroded morphologies and its influence on architecture. Participants explored the potential of applying natural structures that were formed by erosion to various architectonic scales such as architectural components to buildings and urbanity. Camel-mounted, with a kaffiyeh tightly wrapped around their head, the participants analyzed the desert’s morphology through site visits to Wadi Rum and Petra, and applied this knowledge within a computational context, later developing algorithmically generated topologies. The workshop offered a fresh and dynamic perspective on architecture within an unfamiliar cultural context but with familiar educational tools and structure. “ We want students to step out of their comfortzone and traditional studio settings. Taking part in a dynamic environment unveils a learning and design experience that is not possible in a typical architectural school or practice setting,” said Kais Al-Rawi, A.A.V.S Program Director and Ryerson DAS alumni. The A.A’s offering of a unique experience outside architectural academia has been quite successful, bringing together 43 participants from 13 countries. With like-minded ideologies and interests, all learn cutting-edge design technology and develop projects based on different aspects of the phenomena of erosion, and that are critical to the context. This included both symmetries, erosive agencies, and digitally crafted columns. The units were guided by a strong multi-disciplinary team of distinguished practitioners and academics from various fields of practice. The team included Austrian Architect Julia Koerner specialising in computational design, architect and engineer Vincenzo Raele, Berlin-based Architect Marie Boltenstern, Beirut-based Architect Mohamed Makkouk and designer Filippo Nassetti. What is most interesting was the dialogue the workshop created between the synthetic and digital and that which is natural. “The synthesis of both the analysis and design technology is where I see the potential in transforming architectural design, and rethinking existing methods towards processes which very much relate to how nature operates,” says Al-Rawi. With the ongoing development and innovation in both 3D printing and computational design, the workshop was critical to remain updated with the AEC industry’s current theory and practice.Jordan’s idiosyncratic landscape and architecture presented participating Ryerson students an unfamiliar context. As a historic nation, Jordan has a rich architectural heritage much different from Toronto or Canada. Spanning several centuries, Jordan’s architectural heritage is an eclectic mix of Nabataean, Roman and Islamic Architecture. In the last decade there has been a growing investment in the city of Amman with many contemporary buildings fertilizing the urban fabric. The workshop concluded with an exhibit held on July 18th, 2014 at the Jordanian heritage building, Beit El Balad, while preparations are already underway for the 2015 workshop, Crystalline Formations, based on the natural phenomena of the Dead Sea.

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The left image is an example of what A.A Jordan workshop participant Nivin Nabeel was able to produce through the exploration of Tafoni found in Wadi Run and regenerating it using Grasshopper, Maya, and Keyshot which was later 3d printed (above). 81


SECTION THREE what we build essay, interview, & projects


HAND CRAFTED With even more industry signiďŹ cance placed on digital design software, we commemorate the artful tradition and importance of creating physical models. Words

Sarah Lipsit

Photos Michelle Ashurov Sarah Lipsit


demitri delean & michael fik performing arts theatre, page 34 wall detail wood, mdf, acrylic, and wire mesh previous page: filip tisler blue mountain ski chalet final model mdf, plastic, and acrylic


It seems as though models exist in two categories; first, the final model – a perfectly scaled and measured type that creates a perspective of the technical craftsmanship and scientific understanding of the detail or building. And secondly, the process models - prosaically built, often a mess of cardboard, white glue, or scrap acrylic that permits a certain intimacy with the project and thought. The first, truly representative of the reality of a design, often requires far more intricate knowledge of the design than a fluffy, erudite mass of cardboard and cotton balls. Yet the second, an exploratory model, composed with emotion and desire for expression, more effectively conveys the narrative of the design intention. Perhaps equivalent in use and purpose, both types of physical models represent a built form, and allow ideas to become easily comprehensible whether they are truly illustrative of the massing, details, or simply the embryonic idea. They serve as the primary physical connection between the project and viewer, fulfilling a new dimension of the project. In a world of gleaming digital renders and temperamental sketches, creating the physical model has become a footnote of the design process; an afterthought or strenuous chore pushed on us by project briefs. But the process of model making should be ubiquitous with all aspects of the design exercise – every type has its time, and each one is predecessed and succeeded by another model - with the exception of the very first and very last models, of course. Although it is these first and the final model that are the most heavily evaluated, they are often the ones made with the least amount of care. The first, as a rushed array of conjured up fragmented materials, built as a test to give a good first impression and assemble the idea. The final model is just as rushed; after digital submission it is one last deft blow to our endurance to just finish that project. Piece by piece, through dint of sheer effort, our hands begin the arduous task of constructing a design from 2D, slowly coaxing it to life. What has taken months to idealize and conceive, endless perseverance and late nights to produce, has been physically manifested in a fraction of the time. We have metamorphosed the drawings into a tangible medium, enabling interaction.

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above: andrew falls, yoga studio massing model concrete opposite: filip tisler siloé housing above: process massing, cardboard and wood below: final model, plywood, mdf, and veneer


harvest home, page 16 sectional model wood and veneer opposite page: above: stefan miller, portlands midrise ďŹ nal model wood and acrylic below: sarah lipsit, cartography museum: concept circulation model copper wire and acrylic


The physical model communicates a collective whole, one that not only nurtures the project, but catalyzes a sense of harmony and definition when presented with orthographic drawings, showcasing the connectivity and perhaps limitations of space. In early project stages, designing with a model can aid in times of creative paralysis; using it as a study of a hypothesis, a problem, or an idea. Picking up your design and analyzing it from different angles is not something one can do with flat drawings or a computer screen. Simply 3D representations of 2D diagrams and drawings, models are able to explain and relate forms, volumes, and materials within a context more effectively than flat drawings - if done right. Fulfilling its purpose as a design tool, a model can exhibit misunderstood representations of space alternating with searing moments of clarity. The act of model building is reminiscent of constructing as a child to understand the world around us; whether building a sandcastle, a blanket fort, or with Lego blocks, we never had to reference a set of plans or sections, but just followed the idea in our head as to what made the space feel right. Designing with a model does just that, allowing us to curate and detail spaces to understand them in more delicate ways than before. This section is an ode to the physical model and act of building our work. With pages dedicated to celebrating the different ways we get to know our designs, presently building at 1:200, in hopes that they’ll one day turn into 1:1.


culture of outports ketevan gonashvili, sarah ives, denver jermyn, margot de man, jordan molnar, courtney nicholson, annie pavia, andrew pruss, & alana young pavillion

a

THE VIEWFINDER Culture of Outports is an initiative started by ERA Architects Inc. and the Centre for Urban Growth + Renewal that fosters livable communities in Newfoundland’s historic outports through planning, research and design. The program explores adaptive reuse potentials for the unique collection of communities that exist on Newfoundland’s coastline. The community of Botwood has an established history in aviation and is critically located for access to and from the sea. The Culture of Outports team, consisting of six Ryerson University students and three E.R.A Architects Inc. representatives, participated in the Design-Build for a condensed, week-long project. The Culture of Outports team participated in two public design consultations, official “screech-ins” and “jiggs dinners,” as well as community and creativity inspiring charettes. After several days of a collaborative construction in the Botwood Fire Hall, with the help of the volunteer firefighters and local teens, the build moved outdoors to a final installation on site. Constructed atop the foundations of the 1920’s weather station, the constructed pavilion resembles the historic structure of its predecessor. A stopping point on the Killick Island Walking Trail, the constructed open plank gazebo frames the bay, specifically oriented to case the views of both the Excalibur and the Canso military plane crashes. The “Viewfinder” aims to stimulate community engagement while serving as a launching point for the town’s future cultural economic opportunities. The final design, the “Viewfinder” serves as an icon in the landscape. Standing as a wood-frame, open-plank pavilion, the structure provides shade while acting as a windbreak framing the historical views of the town’s aviation and military history.

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plan, site a section, east-west b elevation, north c

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plan, joist structure d

d


digital tools

a

b

c

lighting

alykhan neky

LAMINAR LAMP Laminar Lamp features a unique curvilinear form consisting of a series of arched arms pierced with paper slats for soft radial light diffusion. A central light source creates a distinct gradient aesthetic across the diaphanous inserts. The angled overlapping slats diffuse illumination and offer a modern candelabra light ambiance. The eight primary exterior arches converge on an octagonal tip. Interior secondary and tertiary arched members enable the primary eight arms to expand and contract outward, allowing the lamp to exhibit dynamic properties. This mechanism is controlled by a small locking piece, inserted along the shaft of the base. This grants the user a degree of control over the form and aesthetic of the lamp and its resulting light diffusion. Laminar Lamp is developed for soft ambient or accent lighting, depending on the position of the arched arms. The lamp rests on a base, aptly suited for table or night table lighting. Alternatively, Laminar Lamp can be inverted and mounted on the celling as a supplementary ambient light source. Laminar Lamp uses 3mm MDF for the structure in addition to ‘rough finish’ watercolour paper for the slats. The pin connections consist of a metal Chicago screw, while the rest of the lamp housing and cord is prefabricated.

e diagram, base assembly a diagram, armature assembly b diagram, thread and screw c diagram, paper slat assembly d

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diagram, final form e


[r]ed[u]x lab

01 02 03 04

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medical unit

tiffany cheung, kenan elsässer, nathaniel mendiola, & stephanie tung

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MEDERI As Ryerson’s architectural science students are always looking to push their capacities to design, Mederi stretches the boundaries of collaboration outside of the undergraduate program. This experimental project incorporates the knowledge of our graduate students and biomedical engineering collegues. This motion-guided prototype seeks to improve the sanitary conditions within a medical surgery room environment, by reducing the number of contamination opportunities through compartmentalization and UV technology. The governing Kinect sits on a finished wood frame, which houses the acrylic panel systems. The kinetic systems incorporate the use of compact electric motors, intergrating custom 3D printed mounts that rotate the magnetic panel system in which various surgical instruments are attached. At the simple wave of a hand, the panels rotate, concealing the instruments within, where they are sterilized by UV rays.

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16 diagram, acrylic node assembly lateral support member node bracing notched acrylic rod node cross members node connecters

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diagram, rotating panel frosted acrylic panel acrylic panel acrylic panel notched acrylic rod frosted acrylic panel magnets

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diagram, assembled installation c structural mdf frame 12 kinect 13 rotating magnetized panel 14 notched acrylic rod 15 graphic user interface 16 acrylic node 17 electric motor with 3d printed mount 18

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digital tools

underarm crutch

knee

ankle

forearm crutch

hip

cane

polio

MS

weakness

balance

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extreme redesign

ketevan gonashvili & tiffany tse

CANEA CTION As a hybrid of a crutch and a cane, Caneaction addresses two issues for those with walking and balancing disabilities. First, during the rehabilitation process of temporary injuries, the option of a cane is present, encouraging users to use it instead of the crutch which is often misused, leading to further problems and injuries. 25% of injuries due to mobility aids are caused from auxiliary crutches, causing soreness, bruised ribs, nerve damage, arterial damage and more. Crutches are also two times more likely to be misused than any other mobility device, while canes offer a better gait and balance. Second, this allows for patients to own both a crutch and a cane in one product and adjust it to their preference, as many people with long term injuries and disabilities own both to allow for variety, choosing to use the most appropriate, depending on the particular situation. For example, while a cane may be less of a hassle and appropriate for quick trips, it restricts the mobility of the hands and may not be suitable for longer outdoor walks.

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diagram, axonometric removable/adjustable forarm rest adjustable ergonomic handle collapsible cane body rounded crutch footing lock connection

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diagram, compact form, 500mm b

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diagram, expanded form and armrest rotation c

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Moves to Center and Reveals Drinking Lip

digital tools

Aperture Rotates Counter-Clockwise

01 Retention Screw

(aluminum) 02 Aperature Lid

(plastic) 03

Drinking Lip (plastic)

04 Aperature Blades

(plastic) 05 Aperature Base a

Rotate Counter-Clockwise

(plastic)

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Lip comes up for Drinking

Rotator Shaft 06 (aluminum)

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Lid Body & Drive S (plastic & aluminum) c

Aperture Rotates Counter-Clockwise

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Moves to Center and Reveals Drinking Lip

08 Retention Pin Plug

(plastic)

extreme redesign

anthony gugliotta & gerald karaguni

rTHERMOS

(plastic) w/ water-tight rubber gask

The current selection of hot beverage travel mugs does not address the issue of cleanliness, with either an exposed drinking surface with potential to gather dust and airborne bacteria, or the requirement to bring your hands near the drinking surface to open a lid. In either instance, the user is forced to compromise the integrity of the drinking surface. rThermos addresses both concerns. With a simple twist motion, the drinking surface is fully retracted into the lid of the mug, and a spinning cover slides into place. In the same motion, a rubber stopper on the inside of the cup seals the drink to ensure a water-tight seal. The apparent simplicity and operation of the mug is a social and design statement. With a near-360째 drinking lip, the timeless Lip experience from Rotate Counter-Clockwise comes of updrinking for Drinking a coffee mug is retained. The ease of operation allows the user to forgo difficult screw and slide mechanisms, or lids and surfaces that gather dirt and bacteria. While designing the rThermos, the apparent tolerances of the 3D printer proved a challenge in creating a hermetic seal for the casing and its components. The issue was resolved through the use of rubber stoppers in conjunction with the ABS plastic of the printer, in a similar fashion to that of a traditional thermos. Determing proper gear ratios for the upper portion of the mug provided another challenge. The role of the gears was two-fold: to spin the aperture into the centre of lid to open the drinking cavity and also to lower the plug to allow the liquid to flow through.

diagram, rotate counter-clockwise a diagram, lip comes up for drinking b diagram, aperture rotates counter-clockwise c

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09 Plug

diagram, moves to center and reveals drinking lip d

diagram, axonometric retention screw (aluminum) aperture lid (plastic) drinking lip (plastic) aperture blades (plastic) aperture base (plastic) rotator shaft (aluminum) lid body & drive shaft (plastic & aluminum) plug retention pin (plastic) plug (plastic) w/water-tight rubber gasket plug stopper (plastic) rotator sleeve (accent material) cup body (aluminum/metal)

10 Stopper Plug

(plastic)

Rotator Sleeve 11 (accent material)

Cup Body (aluminum/metal) 12

e 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

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digital tools

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e

extreme redesign

sahel tahvildari & jessica walker

STEAPER

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Daily commutes can range from one to two hours. The average tea requires one to three minutes for brew, while exceptions ranging from one to ten minutes are found. The obvious disconnect between travel and brew time can result in over-brewed or bitter tea, leading to wasted money and beverages. Currently, tea sales are escalating due to the increasing awareness of their health benefits. Unfortunately, the morning rush disables the transport of beverages on route to one’s destination. With existing tea tumblers, tea becomes bitter and unpleasant throughout the duration of one’s travel time. As well, they create inconvenient messes during travel, as it is very difficult to discard tea leaves, yet discarding the leaves prior to commute wastes both money and reduces quality. The Steaper tumbler solves several issues regarding transport and brew time. With Steaper, tea leaves are inserted into a tea slot, which then slides into a joint track. This allows the user to gain control of their brew time. Water is added into the double glass body as the lid is placed on and tightened to allow steam to stay in the tumbler. After the desired brew time, the tea compartment is twisted to stop the brew. In turn, the perfect tea is yielded using Steaper. f

diagram, exploded axonometric tab sealant lid mesh joint track window tea slot threads filter twist track sealant filter indicator

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diagram, insert tea b

BREWING

diagram, insert hot water c

diagram, twist to stop brew d diagram, enjoy tea e section f plan g

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LOCAL ARTISANS Working as carpenters, Frank Bowen and Blaine Evans have learned a thing or two about combining poetry and technical understanding when working with the grain. Words

Sarah Lipsit

Photos Michelle Ashurov Sarah Lipsit


325: How did you become interested in carpentry? What is your background as a craftsman and working with wood as a material? Frank Bowen: My father was the first person to get me into carpentry, and then when I was in high school, I took all of the trades to learn the craft. Carpentry took me to Alberta where I worked for a while and then I came to Ryerson. Blaine Evans: I’m a licensed carpenter; I came to Ryerson when I was 18 and took two years of architecture, but then quit to become a carpenter and work in the trades. It’s all I ever wanted to do, I was always interested in architecture and building. I worked out in the field, doing commercial and residential construction, but came back to school in 1996 to graduate from the program. Having been away from school for so long, I wasn’t used to being in an academic environment, so I spent most of my time in the shop working with Frank as an assistant. After graduation, he got me a job at the School of Interior Design in the shop that he had built when he worked there before coming to the architecture department. 325: What are your favorite things about working as a craftsman and as a wood worker? FB: Designing something, building it, and seeing it come to life. You execute a plan from beginning to end and hope you’re successful. The challenge is trying to make that thing as perfect as you can make it. When you have an idea, you have influence. You design, you build, and you create! That’s what draws me to it. 325: Is a project ever completely finished? Are you entirely happy with the final design? FB: Oh yeah, you’re always happy, but there’s always something that you’ll want to change. If you go back to make it again, you’d build it a little better, or faster, or more detailed. But, you wouldn’t stop working if you weren’t happy. 325: What are your favourite kinds of projects to work on or to do in your spare time? BE: My favourite project is always the one I’m working on currently. It could be anything. I build musical instruments, I build lamps, we build everything. If I take on the challenge of building a musical instrument, then I’m not doing it just to build the instrument, but to learn how it works; how, why, what wood makes it the best. Building is about constantly learning. FB: You always want to build something new, something that’s a challenge rather than something you already know. You never want to do the same thing twice unless you’re building for production, because then the learning stops. 325: Is there a particular tool or machine that you use most often? BE: I design with our CNC [Computer Numerical Control] router. When the machine came along, it changed the way we think. Before then, everything was cut and built by hand. It was a different way of approaching the craft, and now the CNC has evolved that process. Honestly, the CNC has made me lazy, because it is able to do so many things much faster and with more accuracy than possible when building the same things by hand.

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At the beginning of a project you want the wood to speak to you. You want the personality of the wood to guide how it should be shaped. But the CNC doesn’t care about personality. It’ll cut the part you design, but it doesn’t have any respect for life or beauty, because it could be made out of anything. The machine treats everything the same. However, on the other end, you can’t build two wood objects that are exactly the same. That’s the beauty of wood – it’s always different. Even in production, identical wood parts are always different in terms of individual quality, whereas metal is metal, plastic is plastic - they’ll always be the exact same – except maybe the colour [laughs]. FB: It’s not that you lose something entirely. It’s just different, and you have to design for that. The key is to understand the technology and use it to design effectively. It takes time and patience to explore how to manipulate both the machine and the objects that you put into it in order to create a good design. 325: Are there certain species of wood, or other materials that you prefer to work with? FB: I have several favourites. Amboyna Hawaiian hardwood is really nice, it smells like chocolate. I use a lot of fir – Western red fir, and Eastern fir, it’s versatile. I like to mix things up by also working with metals, acrylics, and plastics. I like experimenting to a certain degree. It’s about the appropriateness of the material for the job. If you’re designing an object, there’s a lot of that stuff you actually want to figure out before you start, and you can only discover through experimentation. BE: Right now, I’m using a lot of Iroko and maple. One is local and one isn’t. When I build something, I like to intertwine them so they kind of unionize nature. You can combine materials in unconventional ways to make truly unique and beautiful designs. 325: What is your initial design process as you approach your own projects? Do you draw your ideas, or just jump into it? FB: I have friends who don’t draw anything, they just make; they don’t use drawings, they have the idea in their head and they just start. They start assembling and cutting the wood and they can end up with some pretty fantastic objects. But it’s a question of your style of working, and how you feel, and about what you’re doing. Some people are more plan-orientated. I like both approaches, actually, it creates a little balance within the design. Sometimes, you want to have a happy accident. BE: You need to take a piece of wood, and just have the wood talk to you; it has its own personality, its own way. If you let the wood guide you, you get to see it change without any idea of how it’ll turn out. It’s a surprise, and that’s what really makes working with wood genuinely exciting. Not always do you have that luxury, though. Most of the time we’re busy – someone is usually asking us to build something specific or already has the idea, but sometimes it’s nice to drop something and see how it breaks. FB: Or carve it out of something. Carve it and see what comes out of it. It’s really a question of working with the wood itself, and the grain. Every piece of wood has the potential to turn into something unique. BE: That’s what all those things above our cabinet are [see image at right], things waiting to become something, which they will; we just don’t know what yet. Until then, they’ll just sit there. But, their time is coming. FB: Yeah, their time comes. I’ve had wood that I’ve owned for about 30 years. You just hold onto it, eventually, waiting for the design to reveal itself.

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325: Is there a certain philosophy that craftsmanship or woodworking embodies? Something higher than just ‘making it’? FB: In some cases, yeah, depending on what and why you are building. Why are you building it? What is the purpose? Some people go at it in a specific way. Maybe they want to perfect the form, they turn the same object over and over again until they get it just right, until they reach a point where they can’t make it any better or more perfect. They are perfectionists to some degree, but these days they’re also playing with technology. There are a lot of complex tools that do very complex things, and a lot of people seek to find a way to combine traditional methods with new technologies to push design to a new level. BE: You push it to a point until it breaks. Then you go and make another one, and stop right before it just about breaks because you know how hard to push it. Every project is individual. One project done by a hundred different people will have a hundred different results. That’s what makes the work and the approach so interesting. 325: As a craftsman, do you see materials differently than you used to before having experience with it? How have you seen the trade and wood as a material progress over the years? FB: Most of it depends on what you were trained to do – I was trained in furniture design. You take drawing classes, sculpture, you learn colour; everything is so technical. The question is, what materials are you working with? What are they appropriate for? What are you building? Are you using the right materials for the project? Some things are easier to work with than others, and you find out the answers to those questions with experience and progress over the years. BE: But, you can take the wrong material and make it work – bend the rules! Lots of times, people use a material not knowing what the material does, and the end results is usually silly and wrong. First, you need to know what the material or tool does. You should know the rules before you try to break them, not just because you want to be a rebel, but because you should be curious. When I do look at an object, what intrigues me is why. Why did they build it. What are they trying to say with it? Because, you’re always trying to say something with design. You’re either showing off your ability, or you’re showing off the wood, or you’re showing off that you understand the wood enough to show off the beauty of your object. 325: What lessons or advice would you give to individuals interested in becoming great craftsmen like yourselves? FB: Don’t stop. Work as hard as you can and as fast as you can. It’s about coaxing out an innate ability, or learning from experience. Either way, you have to keep designing and building. Learn your materials. All design falls into the same category, where you’re trying to get good at what you do. No matter how you do it, it’s just training, time, and effort. Build, build, build! Get lots of experience, and don’t stop learning.

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NIGHT MARKET The Stop is one of Canada’s first food centers that works to increase access to healthy food in a manner that maintains dignity, builds healthy communities, and challenges inequalities. Every June, the organization curates an event to benefit anti-hunger and anti-poverty programs called ‘Night Market’. A two night event modeled after global examples sees top restaurants in Toronto serving small treats or hors d ‘oeuvres on one-of-a-kind carts created by local designers. This year, teams of students from Ryerson’s Department of Architectural Science produced the following three carts. Simultaneously showcasing their design and fabrication skills while supporting an initiative for better social change within the community, all carts were built by hand using renewable and sustainable resources.

Photos Michelle Ashurov Rémi Carreiro Margot de Man Dana Salama


[R]ed[U]x Lab Team: RĂŠmi Carreiro Ailsa Craigen Ariel Cooke Gary Luk


DAS Bees derived inspiration from food co-operatives that also influence social behaviour in a community; and the most outstanding organization was that of the beehive, where essentially all food sustenance is gathered for the entire bee society, and maintain life and growth within the hive. We chose to replicate the goals of The Stop, concerning food accessibility and equality. DAS Bees Team: Michelle Ashurov Jonathan Day Sara Duffin Dana Gurevich Sarah Lipsit Emily Mutch Adam Rosenberg Dana Salama


The concept of DBG’s food cart is rooted in the ability to adapt, reuse and reimagine existing materials and to push the boundaries of innovative sustainable design. Our aim with the cart is to promote the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in an urban setting. DBG hopes to embody into the design and construction of our cart a framework founded on a shared ethos of nature, food and community holism. Design - Build - Grow Team: Sarah Ives Mark Grimsrud Margot de Man Ron Noble Stuart Vaz Newton (Ziju) Xian


[r]ed[u]x lab

Hybridizing plant life within a digitally fabricated matrix, the Chlorophytum project explores synthetic methods to augment and showcase physiological processes within plants including capillary action, phototropism, thigmotropism, and diurnal behaviours. This room installation suspends an acrylic matrix containing a series of nutrient reservoirs which sustain a latticework of modest planting. Within this environment, the plants’ responses to the various stimuli in the room are highlighted via the use of black light. The tessellation of plant and fabricated components atop visitors will prove to be an engaging piece that draws attention the self-organizing systems at play in plant growth, but also investigates the dichotomy of natural and artiďŹ cial.

a

This project participated in Toronto’s design event Grow-Op, held annually at the Gladstone Hotel.

installation

ariel cooke, rachel law, gary luk, & hyebin yoon

CHLOROPHYTUM

diagram, growth a

116

plan, reflected ceiling b

b


digital tools

01

02

04

03

nuit blanche

jennifer bai, lily huang, arian hussainzada, victor huynh, eddy kwok, & jenny leung

a

ILLUSTRO As technology improves and evolves, the relationship between human presence and the digitized world is affected. The way we interact with technology is deďŹ ned through the interpretation of motion and proximity. The possibilities to augment humans with technology, replace humans with machines, and work side by side with machines are indeďŹ nite. Illustro looks at the relationship between humans and technology. This project is a wall to ceiling installation that reacts to human presence. Each light component illuminates once it detects motion, and the closer one gets, the brighter it becomes, symbolic of the interconnected realm between humans in the digital world.

b

diagram, assembly wooden frame acrylic plates wooden lattice plastic module

c

a 01 02 03 04

concept sketch b diagram, detailed axonometric c

118

diagram, cnc components d

d


119


digital tools

01 02 04

03

nuit blanche

neveen abdel-aal, marcelle-andree carneiro, ryan giuricich, jamie kwan, kevin pu, setareh shams, helena skonieczna, & sandra wojtecki

05

120

06 07 a

08

09

10

AD ASTRA Ad Astra, a latin phrase meaning “to the stars”, represents the curiosity we have for what is beyond our earth, which we cannot reach or fully understand. Ad Astra connects the user to this relationship and allows one to explore their physical actions as a part of our infinite world, both as a part of the spectacle and as the actors that transform its configuration. Here, the forces of our physical reality are identified within the user, which is that matter cannot be created or destroyed, and any action we perform has a consequence or reaction. Upon entering the space, one is faced with an infinite reflection of lights that create an endless spectrum of white glowing balls. Users are drawn to the silver coloured balls that once touched, play an instrumental portion of a melody and flicker the surrounding white balls. Once another silver ball is touched, or up to all eight of them at once, the melody simultaneously plays in its full orchestration. In a direct correspondence with the environment and the other visitors, the user’s actions create the visual and auditory experience of the space.

11

12

b

c diagram, axonometric arduino, pcb boards, capacitive sensors, wiring ceiling joist modules speakers tarp mirrors balls connected on wires stud wall modules

a 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

diagram, electrical scheme audio input to a/d converter input music sample to spectral analyser pcb board controls leds and speakers momentary capacitive sensor 5mm roll of led strip lights

b 08 09 10 11 12

diagram, movement through as astra c


digital tools

a

nuit blanche

catherine cohen, ketevan gonashvili, agatha kwiatkowski, annie pavia, aviv sarner, & tiffany tse

a

122

01

BLURRED LINES The intent of the project was to imitate a natural environment that would be both responsive to the user and be able to bring resemblance to a childhood experience of any given participant. An effect of walking through a wheat field was selected as a setting and form for the installation. The biggest challenge was finding a balance between rigidity of the material, which would allow for safety of both participants and the installation itself, and fluidity that can be seen in a natural environment. As a result, the project consists of rows of acrylic tubes of varying radii and lengths attached to wooden modules that, powered by individual A/C motors, move back and forth and light up, as a participant walks through. The installation explores the relationship between transparency and light through oscillation. While actively responding to user motion, the interactive environment creates an ambient experience for multiple users in the space. Upon entering the distinguished pathway, the installation follows the movement of its occupants. As the transparent tubes sway and illuminate, the path of the walker is imitated, while obstructing views towards other participants. The motion of swaying tubes imitates the experience of walking through a wheat fields as a child, where the field overpowers users in scale, volume and motion. The installation blurs the participants’ vision and abstracts the view of the person on the other side of the maze. Shimmering light and swaying field are all that make you aware of someone’s presence.

b

02 03 04

diagram, movement through a

05

diagram, motion b acrylic tubes 01 diagram, kinetic module 6mm acrylic lever arm 6mm acrylic base lever rotary motor 6mm plywood cover 3mm acrylic support led strip light 2 x 4 lumber base 12mm plywood legs

c 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

06 07 08 09

c


digital tools

diagram, exploded axonometric mass extraction segmenting exploding

a 01 02 03 04

diagram, massing axonometric b

01

diagram, CNC roof c

02

a

nuit blanche

anthony gugliotta, dorothy johns, gerald karaguni, krystyna ng, sahel tahvildari, & jessica walker

03

124

04

SINE As an interactive environment, the user acts as the controller of their individual spatial surrounding; one that is disassociated with what is outside the installation. Conceptually, this environment envelops the user, embodying the geometric nature of musical formulation and organic patterns. Incorporating sound and light as the methodology of the sine waves representation, the physical structure manifests these uctuating rhythms. Massing then is broken down and formed, creating pods that initiate a reaction by the user. The pods are further broken down into petals that create the openings between petals and yet still act as a singular volume. Within these volumes the petals are sensitive to motion and gradually get brighter by proximity. Once within the petals, a second sensor triggers a piece of music that the user can manipulate. Each node will be programmed to play a speciďŹ c instrument within an orchestra. Once all of the nodes are activated, the users within the space will begin to experience the full effect of the symphony. Sine was a featured installation in the Bata Shoe Museum for the 2014 Nuit Blanche Fesitval in Toronto.

b


c


[r]ed[u]x lab

a 01

installation

ailsa craigen, rachel law, & matthew suriano

OPTICIANADO

03

04

b

This modest installation plays on one of Jane Jacob’s three characteristics of successful neighborhoods, notably the need for “Eyes on the Street.” A playful take on Jacob’s tenet for safe and engaged communities, this installation requests and initiates interaction with the public. By day, the installation serves as an engaging matrix supporting stylish eyewear, while in the evening the static form comes to life. With the sunset, the array of lights within the matrix illuminate behind the eye-wear in response to activity on the street and sidewalk outside the storefront. The installation also plays on the depth and field of vision of each individual, as one perceives it differently at various angles. This design won the Toronto Design Offsite People’s choice award in 2014.

02 01

03 04

elevation, front a diagram, components two nodal pieces, holding glasses and led lights backing struts connecting each node to another parametric cones

126

02

b 01 02 03 04

diagram, exploded axonometric c

c


128


SECTION FOUR what we design projects


ssef competition

diagram, axonometric detail arc member fabric split ring connection handrail pedestrian platform tensile HSS

a 01 02 03 04 05 06

diagram, cold formed HSS steel arc triangular HSS welded steel angle steel connector (flush fitting) steel bolt

b 07 08 09 10

diagram, concrete footing connection steel sleeve tensile arc member steel baseplate concrete footing

c 11 12 13 14

diagram, tension member footing steel bracket concrete footing welded steel strut

d 15 16 17

02

03

04

diagram, split ring connection e tensile steel cable 18 split ring 19 steel bracket 20 fork end 21 diagram, tensile arc member membrane plate steel clamp threaded stud stainless steel strut boundary pocket fabric

01

f 22 23 24 25 26 27

diagram, programmatic g

05

06 a 07 08

diagram, fabric h

09

plan, ground floor i

10

section, longitudinal j elevation, east k

b

11

CINE Every summer, the Toronto Port Authority holds their Sail in Cinema event that transforms the surrounding exterior space into a grand theatre. The annual festival provides the community with the opportunity to watch a movie under the open summer night skies. Unfortunately, this event only happens for a short period of time during the year. Cine addresses the need for more exterior programming along Toronto’s waterfront yearround, proposing the creation of a multi-functional pedestrian bridge that can perform as both a circulation route and incubator for social interaction. The waterproof fabric membrane acts as a projection surface on which the public can watch movies on opposing sides of the bridge. It is designed to take advantage of the modular and lightweight qualities of steel, creating a sense of streamlined elegance. The chosen site allows for ease of transportation as materials can be delivered via shipping barge. With regards to modularity and transportation of materials, Cine thrives on the aesthetic and structural qualities that steel provides.

12 13 14 c

15 16

17

d

18

steel

johnathan chan

19 20 21

e

g h 22 23 24 25 26

130

i

27

f


j

k


the small building

a

01

steel

ketevan gonashivili

ESCALATE

132

Although the built form, materiality, and spiritual meaning of religious buildings is quite definitive of the visitor’s experience, it is the journey towards and through the space that is one of the most powerful generators of contemplative experience. The proposed building feeds off of the expended energy generated by the climb. The longer a journeyer progresses through the mountains towards the final destination, the more sacred and deeply anticipated that destination becomes. However, before the final goal can be reached, the traveler is faced with a structure that invites them in, encloses them towards the middle, and releases them to the final view. Located in the mountains of Georgia in a Region of Tusheti, Escalate is a contemplative, transition space that plays on aspects of enclosure and open space allowing for the light to be filtered through in a precisely controlled manner. The structure consists of Corten Steel frame spaced out to allow narrow framed views out to the mountains. The central space of the structure is clad with a local stone, creating a circular enclosure meant for meditation and privacy and reflection. The structure is based on progression through spaces and journey to and through architectural monuments. Escalate serves as a threshold, where the building becomes part of the journey into the mountains, and the labour of the climb is eased by a soothing milestone waiting for the traveler at the peak. diagram

a

plan, site

b

detail axonometric, interior cladding

c

corten steel beams metal rods local stone - interior cladding steel ties metal plates corten steel frame concrete pedastal for cladding concrete foundation

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

b 02 03 04 05 06

07

08

c

09

10 11 12 13

14

exploded axonometric d corten steel beams 09 steel ties 10 interior cladding 11 corten steel beams 12 concrete bench 13 concrete deck 14 concrete foundation 15

15

d


steel competition

01 07 08

02

08

07 03 09 b

10

04 10

05 06

09

c

11 12 a

12

11

13

d

steel

eddy kwok

MURJ UAE and Iran are two Middle Eastern countries on opposing sides of the Persian Gulf. They are not only geographical counterparts, but also political, cultural, and economical. Disputing over claims and rights, Abu Musa is one island that particularly expresses political friction between the two countries. Located 75 km south of Iran and 65 km northnorthwest of UAE, the island will become the central site to transition into a peaceful threshold, uniting the two countries. Each country has resources they are either lacking or in abundance, and to direct UAE and Iran into a prosperous future, the border crossing proposes a bridge over the Persian Gulf to establish a physical connection and a strong relationship. Spanning a bridge from each country, the two cultures meet at the island to form one entity. Transitioning from bridge to building, the area allows both countries to occupy a mutual space while retaining their own identity. Seemingly merging into one another, the structure of the bridge becomes the exoskeleton of the building and merges back into a bridge. Throughout this transition, the two components borrow elements from each country, representing the ease and hardships of the association between them. Although blurred, the two identities are individually expressed through formal representation. As ow of trafďŹ c is greater coming from Iran to UAE, the structure of the border crossing grows in this direction. By singling out each country’s characteristics through the dimensions of the merged joint, the height, depth, and thickness of the arches, the design aspires to create a bonding link through the border crossing and its transitional merge.

13

e

14

f

diagram, axonometric cable detail connection diagram, steel cable steel connector cable to ground joint fins for stability pin connection bolts anchored to concrete

a 01 02 03 04 05 06

plan, ground level b customs: traffic/commercial 07 commercial loading 08 plan, second level c quarantine 09 holding cell 10 plan, second level commercial d storage 11 laboratory 12 plan, third level e office/administration 13 plan, roadway f route 14

134

section, longitudinal g


a

b

c

d

e g


ssef competition

Storage

Waiting

Triage

a

b

plan, ground level a plan, basement level b plan, second level c plan, third level d section, transverse e diagram, detail soilbed, vegetation substructure overarching beam beams grounding structure tension support

f 01 02 03 04 05 06

steel

dami lee

LIFE WITHIN TENSION

136

The Korean Demilitarized Zone has been a 4 kilometer buffer between North and South Korea since the Korean War in 1953. This restricted land has not been altered by human hands for the past 60 years and, as a result, has created a natural paradise for a diverse range of animal and plant species. The ecosystem has infinite environmental possibilities, and as a whole, could become the starting point for a natural wildlife corridor extending to Asia and the rest of Europe. However, the barbed wire that runs between the Military Demarcation Line is impenetrable, not only for humans, but for animals and plants as well. This creates a fragmented landscape between the two mega ecosystems, limiting any possibility of further growth. The project proposes a safe place of crossing that will allow animals to move freely between North and South Korea supplemented with a public viewing building on either side of the border for each country’s people to view the activity in the demilitarized zone. The site is located in a highway that connects South Korea and North Korea’s Kaesong Industrial Region; an attempt at an economic collaboration between the two countries. The site has direct rail and highway access between North and South Korea, and is the only existing connection between the two countries today. The highway is an ideal spot for a commercial border, and the building may function as a cross programming between a public viewing and private border crossing. Connecting the broken wildlife corridors in four directions, the structure commands public attraction close to the border while encouraging economic activity between the two countries.

c

d


01

02 03 04 05 06

e

f


asca competition

cross section orthographic a diagram, concept intersection canopy mass tear-between

b 01 02 03

plan, ground level c plan, amenity level d c

plan, china - russia cargo floor e plan, china - russia car floor f diagram, assembly g section, longitudinal

i

d

a

e b

01

02

03

steel

gerald karaguni, sahel tahvildari, & jessica walker

CROSSWAYS A border crossing is synonymous to the idea of a boundary or edge where one traverses into another, a moment which causes a formal and literal tear between two things. The border between China and Russia represents a tear between entities, both physically and historically, and as such, is defined as the place of uncertainty between two interweaving concepts. In doing so, the notion of vehicular and rail traffic, including both commercial and pedestrian forms are combined as a central node for passage between both countries, creating a connective network of surveillance, amenities and administrative services for both Russia and China. The design and structure of crossways calls for a construction that associates the separation between the two countries, emphasizing the undefined space through the connective nature of a border crossing. The skeleton superstructure of the building illustrates the transparency of the building’s tectonic expression, exposing the steel to its users and the elements to reference the architectural connectivity between the built forms and the landscape. In sequence of construction, the structure comprised of conventional wide steel flanges and administrative buildings and their respective roadways. The steel beams are then placed on top of the truss superstructure to allow for the large glass spans required for the canopy. Ultimately, the joint details of the steel structure become an experiment for the design in order to successfully achieve the desired form and organizational structure of the building. The formal connection creates an intense dialogue between the existing interior structure and the transparency of the canopy, providing a basis for tectonics of the building. The literal joint detail conveys a sense of lightness and separation whilst belonging within the whole structure itself, as a wholesome and collective point under which motor vehicles and trains pass through to enter the neighbouring country.

f

This project participated in the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture steel competition. 138

g


h


ssef competition

diagram, platform detail 500mm glass 100mm HSS 50mm steel ring 50mm steel pins nut and bolt 400mm HSS

a 01 02 03 04 05 06

diagram, steps detail 500mm glass 400mm HSS 100mm steel fins

b 07 08 09

diagram, exploded axonometric steel and canvas component zip line steel cables patterned glass steel fins and HSS beam structural lumber

c 10 11 12 13 14 15

diagram, cable connection detail i canvas 5mm kinetic steel rods steel ball with sensor 20mm steel cables

d 16 17 18 19

01 02 03 04 05 06

a

diagram, cable connection detail ii e plan, site f elevation, south g

07

08 09 b

10

11

SUSPENDED IN THE TREES Suspended in the Trees is a zip-line bridge located in Treetop EcoAdventure Park in Oshawa, Ontario. At Treetop Eco-Adventure Park, zip liners are suspended along a network of zip lines that span from tree to tree. The design of this bridge is based on these zip lines, borrowing the principles of span, suspend, and network. This bridge spans across two trees that are connected to zip lines on either side. Steel fins are suspended from the primary structural hollow steel section, which evokes the sense of flying associated with zip lining. The fins hold up the glass treads that are patterned similarly to the network of steel cables that enclose the bridge, and at the intersection points of the steel cables, there are umbrella-like components that open and close based on the zip liner’s movement across the bridge. These components create a dynamic façade allowing changing views and various degrees of light penetration. Zip liners experience a feeling of compression as they walk towards the centre of the bridge, as it becomes narrower and the components block their view outward. This approach juxtaposes the liberating and freeing feeling of zip lining.

12 13 14

15

c

16 17

18

19 d

e

steel

angela ng

This project was the recipient of the Award for Excellence in the SSEF (Steel Structures Education Foundation) Competition.

140

f


g


Photo Credits

Photos Photo Illustration Photo

cover, 82 4 6, 7

Photos

Michelle Ashurov Adrian Man Catalina Ardila Bernal Marcus Parisi Raul Taciu

Photos

8

Photos

12, 56 14, 117, 123, 127 128, 140

RĂŠmi Carreiro Sarah Lipsit


THANK YOU The publication of this collection of works would not have been possible without the support of our generous sponsors. Their dedication to promoting the success of our students and the profession of architecture is immeasurable, and for that, we graciously thank them.

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DURHAM COLLEGE CENTRE FOR FOOD

144

Ryerson University Student Centre

www.csparch.com


Supporting the future of the profession

ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS The Ontario Association of Architects represents, regulates, supports, and promotes the profession of architecture in the interest of all Ontarians, and leads the design and delivery of built form in the province of Ontario.


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The 325 Magazine Team, Department of Architectural Science, and Ryerson University are commited to making sound decisions that will reduce the environmental impact and ecological footprint pf contemporary printing processes. This publication continues the use of waterless printing for all volumes of 325 Magazine.

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14 GJ 65,711 60W light bulbs for one hour

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325 Magazine is a publication curated by students, to showcase the excellent and innovative ideas stemming out of Ryerson University's Depar...

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