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FABRICATION TOWER Sarah Durkin

BArch Thesis

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MUCH LOVE AND THANKS This book is dedicated to my amazing mother and beloved Nagymamรกm for your love and tremendous support. Without you both this never would have been possible.

Thank you to my family for all of your love, support, encouragement, and faith in me over the years. To my advisors, Erin Putalik and Ellen Braaten, for your guidance and patience with me, and allowing me the time to define this investigation for myself. Specifically, to Erin, for your time, dedication, and investment in your studio and our work. I know that you will be missed a great deal by all of your thesis superstars. Much love and thanks to my studio pals who have endured this journey with me. The countless days and late nights spent in studio encouraging and supporting one another will never be forgotten. I could not have come this far without all of you. The School of Architecture and the Virginia Tech community will always hold a special place in my heart.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

NOITCEPSNI MAET

GNITEKRAM

Precedents

Factory Re-interpreted

CIRBAF NGISED

Appendix

GNIHSINIF NGISED

NOITCUDORP GNINNALP

Vertical Industry

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Thesis Statement

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Vertical Factory Types

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Vertical Integration

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Vertical Factory Case Studies

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Project Site

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Program and Process

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Vertical Assembly Line

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Form Versus Function

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Transparency

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A New Urban Icon

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MAS Context: Production

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Furniture Case Study

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Site Analysis

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Design Process

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Bibliography

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“Historically, factories, those place of making, shaping and assembling things, were our cities, and our cities were factories filled with multi-storied dense spaces for making (Rappaport, 2012).”

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“While it is understood that some products will always be made more cheaply overseas in industrial manufacturing areas, because of low wages and tax free zones, others -- such as those that relate to local markets, including perishable food processing, elevator repair companies, high-tech, fashion, and furniture -- survive and thrive within cities. These staple industries, in fact, could serve to revive both communities and their factory infrastructures. If industrialists and urban planners reconsider the potential for building vertically in cities, this, in turn, would reinforce and reinvest in the cycles of making, consuming, and recycling as part of a natural feedback loop in a new sustainable urban spatial paradigm� (Rappaport, 2012).

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INTRODUCTION: VERTICAL INDUSTRY Urbanization marked the change from farm to factory, and had major implications on our cities and built environment. A great shift then occurred from early industrial, waterpowered mills and craft shops to the Machine-Age of mass production. Due to competition for expensive city land, buildings began to grow vertically. Factories either adapted vertically integrated manufacturing systems or grew upward to gain office space. As a building type the factory provided a freedom to explore spatial, structural, and organizational consequences that machines and production placed on vertical systems. Factories were once the tallest building typology that composed the urban landscape. They were integrated into city life and so was the process of making and consuming. Factories over time were pushed out to urban edges and beyond. The modern skyscraper (office tower) is now the most prominent feature of the city skyline. In a world where technology has decreased the need for large amounts of office space and a great number of people to complete certain tasks, the viability and relevance of the office tower typology is being challenged. This thesis is an investigation into the tremendous potential of the office tower typology as it seeks to tie the program of the factory back into the urban fabric and re-integrate it into city life. The urban factory of the future engages the city through the process of making by vertically stitching together the processes of design and fabrication.

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THESIS STATEMENT Fabrication Tower Furniture factory in downtown Chicago, IL Fabrication Tower examines how the program of the factory can be re-inserted into the urban fabric when re-interpreted within the typological condition of the office tower. The office tower typology acts as the testing ground for the future vertical factory within the city. By vertically stitching together the processes of design and manufacturing, Fabrication Tower explores the impact that production has on shaping the urban landscape.

SKETCH OF VERTICAL ASSEMBLY LINE

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VERTICAL URBAN FACTORY EXHIBIT RE-THINKING THE PROGRAM OF THE FACTORY WITHIN THE URBAN CONTEXT: “In the early 19th century, factories were often the tallest buildings in a town. They were tall to harness the energy from water or steam-powered machinery and concentrated to maximize their use of space on expensive city land located near markets, water transport, rail lines, and workers. Factories were integrated into city life and so was the process of making. As factories began to leave North American and European cities, they found cheaper land, production, and labor elsewhere. This has caused a change in the dynamic of our cities by removing the process of making from everyday life” (Rappaport, 2012). In her Vertical Urban Factory Essay, architectural historian Nina Rappaport asks: “How can the factory be re-integrated back into city life? Also, how can we provide spaces for manufacturing that encourage industries to take root in our cities and thrive?”

VERTICAL URBAN FACTORY EXHIBIT (Rappaport, 2012)

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PRECEDENTS A few key precedents throughout the project have contributed many critical questions to the exploration. The Vertical Urban Factory Exhibit by Nina Rappaport gives guidance for ways in which vertical factories can be organized and why we should build tall factories in our cities. American Apparel addresses the programmatic separation that traditionally exists between design and manufacturing through their vertical integration business model. All design and manufacturing happen in collaboration at their main factory headquarters in Los Angeles, California. Various examples of vertical factories ranging in scales and time periods were informative and re-affirmed the possibilities of the project.

FIAT LINGOTTIO FACTORY (Rappaport, 2012)

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VERTICAL FACTORY TYPES FACTORY: A space for the making, shaping, or assembly of things

Hong Kong Distribution Balconies (Willis, 2013)

“Many urban making spaces are what I call vertical urban factories—really a synonym for dense urban manufacturing. They are organized as integrated spaces— companies that own their building, often with processing that goes up and down, or down and up, using the flow of gravity in many cases, or mechanized conveyors. Or, they are layered in pancake buildings, usually with leased spaces occupied by one or more companies sharing common areas such as elevators and loading docks or services such as power and water” (Rappaport, 2012).

TWO TYPES OF VERTICAL URBAN FACTORIES: INTEGRATED

LAYERED

The production flows from top to bottom, or vice versa, as components or raw goods are mixed, sorted, or assembled by workers or machines, then carried by conveyors or chutes to the end of the process for transport to market. The gravity method of production, which was later mechanized (type A), is most common in a multistory building of a single company, The processing can also move from bottom to top (type B), as at the Fiat Lingotto factory, in Turin, Italy (Rappaport, 2012).

There are separate stacked floors occupied by one or more companies sharing common areas and services such as lobbies, elevators, and power. While the building is multi-storied, the processing may be confined to all, or part of a single floor, or expand to adjacent floors (types C and D). Like office buildings, these production spaces are usually formed by real estate developers as rental properties rather than by factory operators who integrate the building with their machinery (Rappaport, 2012).

Factory Diagrams Above: (Rappaport p.7, 2012)

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1909 Interior of Ford Factory in Highland Park, Detroit (Rappaport, 2012)

WHY TALL FACTORIES? “If industrialists and urban planners reconsider the potential for building factories vertically in cities, this, in turn, would reinforce and reinvest in the cycles of making, consuming, and recycling for sustainable cities. Vertical Urban Factory asks how --given advanced computer technologies, material innovations, and the demand for cleaner and “greener” industries-- architects, engineers, and urban designers can integrate industry with everyday life, creating self-sufficient and sustainable cities. It would be integrated into the cityscape, educating city dwellers through the display of its production processes, eventually promoting an ethic of making things locally” (Willis, 2013).

Volkswagen Factory, Dresden Germany (Gill, 2012)

“Urban manufacturing could lead to more entrepreneurial, leaner, cleaner, and greener industries. New industries such as nano tech and bio tech-- not to mention high-design furniture and fashion, printing, specialty and ethnic food, and other niche products-- could revitalize urban economies and become active parts of neighborhoods. By focusing on local consumption, urban manufacturing could also reduce transit costs and commuter time, and save energy similar to the adoption of urban agriculture” (Rappaport, 2012).

Buckminster Fuller’s Vertical Cotton Mill (Rappaport p.7, 2012)

Buckminster Fuller, working with 20 graduate students from the architecture and textile schools of North Carolina State College at Raleigh, conceived the vertical cotton mill, also known as the “fountain factory”. Cotton would be suctioned upwards through the building and then processed downwards toward the ground floor. The central mast core was both functional and structural: it housed the elevator, utility lines, air ducts, and water supply, and suction tubes; it also suspended a triangulated, open truss-work floor with tensioned cables. The open trusses allowed goods to transfer between floors at multiple points. Although Fuller’s mill was never built, industrialists and the architecture community alike praised his design (Willis, 2013). 13


VERTICAL INTEGRATION MODEL AMERICAN APPAREL LOS ANGELOS, CALIFORNIA “We believe that having manufacturing under the same roof as design, marketing, accounting, retail and distribution gives us the ability to quickly mobilize all departments, to respond directly to changes in the market, and to have complete visibility over our product - start to finish. An added bonus - this business model is inherently sustainable. Vertical integration is not only smart for our company, but for our community, our local and regional economy, our environment, and, in turn, our customers (American Apparel, 2013).�

Explore Our Factory (American Apparel, 2013)

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WHY VERTICAL INTEGRATION?

“Looking at the basic production of the t-shirt: The t-shirt starts as spools of yarn that are knit into rolls of fabric in one of the three knitting facilities in Southern California. These rolls are then dyed, either within the same facility, or in another one of the dye houses, at most 30 miles away. These lots of fabric are then cut, sewn and packed into a box under the same roof at one of the three factories in Southern California. At the same time these garmets are being made, the creative department, including photographers, models, and graphic designers, are creating the marketing campaign for the brand without the help of an outside PR firm. The shipping and retail departments handle the distribution of these products that are sold in more than 280 stores� (American Apparel, 2013).

Vertical Integration Sketch (American Apparel, 2013)

Our Manufacturing Footprint (American Apparel, 2013)

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VERTICAL FACTORY CASE STUDIES FIAT LINGOTTIO FACTORY

GiacomoMatte-Trucco Turin Italy, 1926. Lingotto reversed Highland Park’s top-to-bottom production, moving the automobile from the ground floor up to the final rooftop-testing track in a spectacle of production. Here, finished cars were tested, and then driven down to the street via spiral ramps with concrete structural ribs (Willis, 2013).

FORD MOTOR COMPANY

Albert Kahn Detroit Michigan, 1913 Manufacturing proceeds from top to bottom with gravity, chutes, and innovative mechanized assembly lines. Verticality, both organizational and physical, became a corporate mantra for process control - from raw materials to final distribution, all accomplished on site (Willis, 2013).

RESIDENCE AND FACTORY IN HONG KONG

Sha Tsui Road Factory Hong Kong, 1950-87. Clusters of high-rise factories developed post World War II in the tight spaces of Hong Kong. It continues as a model for local controls and organization within the global market place and manufacturing base, as it expanded to the Pearl River Valley. Numerous vertical factories rise in close proximity to residential and commercial uses, but are gradually being transformed to other programs (Willis, 2013).

VOLKSWAGEN FACTORY

Gunter Henn Dresden Germany, 2006 Volkswagen’s six-story assembly plant accommodated the city’s infrastructure by incorporating the tram network for their distribution system. The glass facades make a visual spectacle of manufacturing to the consumer in a showcase design featuring assemblyline movement in an automated choreography (Willis, 2013).

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SWISS DAIRY FACTORY

Toni Molkerei Zurich, 1977 The milk and yogurt processing plant was the largest dairy in a city in Europe and included a spiral truck roadway for deliveries of milk products to be processed in the plant and then distributed. The building is an urban factory housing its separate departments under one roof. Based on Toni-Molkerei’s slogan, “fresh from the farmer to the table,” the scheme showcased a three-story, quarter mile-long ramp to allow milk trucks to drive from the city street directly onto the production floors. The factory also produced powdered milk, and there was an eight-story volume to fit stainless steel tanks (Willis, 2013).

SAINSBURY

Sir Owen Williams & Partners London, England, 1934 - 36 Food-processing factory, which produced cooked meats, sausages, and pies in the heart of industrial London. Using the concept of “shell surrounding a process,” Williams conceived of a multistoried 150,000-sq-ft factory with 12-in flat-slab concrete floors supported by mushroom columns. Steel casement windows with translucent upper panes filled the framework. With 700 workers in each shift, hygiene was a priority, and the floors were fitted with easy-toclean tiles. Raw goods were unloaded on the ground floor, and moved to the upper floors by lifts and elevators. Gravity chutes sent final goods down to lower floors for packaging (Willis, 2013).

VAN NELLE FACTORY

Brinkman and Van der Vlugt / Mart Stam Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1925 - 31 The Van Nelle coffee, tea, and tobacco factory is known for its curved glass and steel facade and glass bridges between its multistoried buildings, exemplifying the Modern Movement in architecture. The company owner, Kees van der Leeuw was motivated by his theosophist beliefs, and sought to create a utopian workplace with light and air, and ergonomic furniture. Production moved from the upper to the lower floors, and used overhead conveyors to transfer finished products through the glass bridges to the warehouse (Willis, 2013).

BAT’A

Frantisek Lydie Gahura, Zlín, Czechoslovakia, 1923 - 39 Bat’a modeled factory production on Ford’s methods by using automated conveyor lines to assemble footwear in multi-storied factories. In 1917, 5,000 workers made two million pairs of shoes annually; by the early 1930s, production was up to 36 million. Although the factories in Zlín were nationalized after WWII, the corporation expanded, building standardized towns and manufacturing facilities in 26 countries around the world (Willis, 2013).

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AXONOMETRIC SKETCH OF FACADE

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FACTORY RE-INTERPRETED: FABRICATION TOWER Fabrication Tower is a small-scale furniture factory that is sited in downtown Chicago, Illinois; a city that once thrived on the industry at its center. The typology of the office tower is reinterpreted to intertwine the traditionally separated programs of design and manufacturing. The designer, fabricator, and entire production process are supported within the tower. Three floors of public retail space exist on the lower levels of the building allowing the public to be engaged in the early stages of the process, along with the final product. The way in which the building reveals and conceals the assembly process to the city is explored through the relationship between the facade and its reaction to interior programmatic functions. Formally, the tug of war that exists between the interior function of the building and its more formally driven enclosure begins to shape the new urban landscape of production. EXTERIOR NIGHT RENDER SEEN FROM THE RIVER

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SITE PLAN

MERCHANDISE MART DRIVE

Delivery Access Plaza

Woodshop

Lobby

SCALE: 1/64” =1 64’

32’

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128’

Retail

Cafe


PROJECT SITE: MASTERPLAN Located at the confluence of the Chicago River, the project site is adjacent to the Chicago Sun Times and Merchandise Mart. A large plaza spans from Merchandise Mart Drive and leads the public into a small cafe and three floors of retail space within the building. The plaza and outdoor area surrounding the cafe steps down to the waterfront. A large space for delivery and material access is located on the northwest corner of the building. There is a drop-off for employees to the southwest which is adjacent to a public dock and waterfront park space.

SITE CIRCULATION SKETCH

AERIAL VIEW OF PROJECT SITE

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PARTI SECTION DIAGRAM

PACKAGING DESIGN OFFICES

EVENT SPACE 10

MARKETING OFFICES PHOTOGRAPHY

MARKETING OFFICES

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INSPECTION OFFICES

INSPECTION

INSPECTION OFFICES

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FABRIC DESIGN OFFICES

FABRIC DESIGN OFFICES

SEWING

7

FINISH DESIGN OFFICES

FINISH DESIGN OFFICES

6

FINISHING APPLIED

PRODUCTION PLANNING

PRODUCTION PLANNING

ASSEMBLY

5

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PART SORTING 4

MATERIAL LIBRARY

MATERIAL TEST LAB

CONCEPT DESIGN

CONCEPT DESIGN

3

RETAIL

WOODSHOP

RETAIL

2

DELIVERY // MATERIAL STORAGE

RETAIL 1

LOBBY

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LOBBY

CAFE


PROGRAM AND PROCESS: DISTRIBUTION PLANNING Spatially and programmatically the building is organized so that design and fabrication happen simultaneously throughout, and are in constant collaboration with one another. Design and fabrication are organized around a large central atrium space containing a vertical assembly line. There are ten overall design and assembly steps to the process that are made possible by a series of platforms. A horizontal loop is taken at each level, or stage, and contributes to the main vertical flow of the fabrication process. FABRICATION TOWER

INITIAL CONCEPTUAL PARTI DIAGRAM

PACKAGE DESIGN

PACKAGING

PACKAGE DESIGN

INSPECTION TEAM

FINAL INSPECTION

INSPECTION TEAM

MARKETING

PHOTOGRAPHY

MARKETING

FABRIC DESIGN

UPHOLSTERY

DESIGN OFFICES

FABRIC DESIGN

FABRICATION

FINISHING DESIGN

PRODUCTION PLANNING

FINISHING

FINISHING DESIGN

ASSEMBLY

PRODUCTION PLANNING

PART SORTING

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

MATERIAL TEST LAB

CONCEPT DESIGN

CUTTING / BENDING

RETAIL

DESIGN OFFICES

SHIPPING/ RECEIVING

LOBBY

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8

There are two main entrances to the building: one for employees that leads into the main lobby, and a public entrance from the plaza that leads into retail space. 7 A ramp leads vehicular traffic down from Merchandise Mart Drive to the delivery area and lobby entrance. All back of house shipping and delivery is located on the northwest corner of the building. There are four large bays that allow delivery trucks to bring materials to and from the building. A forty foot high grand entrance to the lobby captures views of the movement of the vertical assembly line, retail levels, and the river. Retail floors capture views of material storage, the wood shop, and the first series of platforms as they move up the assembly line. 6

CAFE

MATERIAL STORAGE

5

LOBBY

RETAIL

RETAIL

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GROUND FLOOR: GROUND FLOOR: LOBBY AND DELIVERY LOBBY AND DELIVERY

2nd FLOOR: 2nd FLOOR: RETAIL AND CAFE RETAIL AND CAFE

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RETAIL

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

WOOD SHOPMATERIAL LIBRARY

RETAIL 2 CONCEPT DESIGN

PART SORTING

DELIVERY / MATERIAL STORAGE

6th FLOOR: CONCEPT LOBBY DESIGN AND MATERIAL LIBRARY

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RETAIL

1

CAFE

7th FLOOR: LOBBY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND PART SORTING


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PROGRAM AND PROCESS: DISTRIBUTION PLANNING In the first step of the assembly process, the first platform transfers materials up from storage to the wood shop on the second level. The 7 space dedicated for material storage is thirty-four feet high, which allows for plenty of vertical storage and can be viewed from the lobby and first level of retail space. The three levels of retail space exist on the first four floors within the lobby. The wood shop occupies a double height space on the third floor, which is adjacent to the second level of retail.

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WOOD SHOP

5

RETAIL

RETAIL

4

3rd FLOOR: 3rd FLOOR: WOOD SHOP AND RETAIL CUTTING / BENDING WOOD AND RETAIL

4th FLOOR: 4th FLOOR: RETAIL RETAIL

3 PRODUCTION PLANNING

RETAIL

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT WOOD SHOP

RETAIL 2 ASSEMBLY

DELIVERY / MATERIAL STORAGE

8th FLOOR: LOBBY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

CAFE 1

9th FLOOR: LOBBY PRODUCTION PLANNING AND ASSEMBLY

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10

MATERIAL STORAGE

Once raw materials are cut down to size they are transferred onto the second platform, which brings them up to the material test lab located on the fifth 9 floor. Concept design offices are adjacent to the material test lab on the opposite side of the central assembly line. Designers have access to the material test lab as they are developing and testing ideas for new products. A material library occupies the sixth floor above the testing lab. Another level of concept design offices exists on the other side of the sixth floor as well.

LOBBY

RETAIL

GROUND FLOOR: LOBBY AND DELIVERY 8

MATERIAL LIBRARY

7

MATERIAL TEST LAB

CONCEPT DESIGN

CONCEPT DESIGN

6

5th FLOOR: 5th FLOOR: CONCEPT DESIGN AND MATERIAL CONCEPT DESIGN AND TESTING LAB MATERIAL TEST LAB

6th FLOOR: CONCEPT DESIGN AND 6th FLOOR: MATERIAL LIBRARY CONCEPT DESIGN AND MATERIAL LIBRARY

5 PRODUCTION PLANNING

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

FINISH DESIGN

PART SORTING 4

MATERIAL LIBRARY

CONCEPT DESIGN FINISH APPLIED

10th FLOOR: MATERIAL TEST PRODUCTION PLANNING LAB 3

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CONCEPT DESIGN

11th FLOOR: FINISHING DESIGN AND FINISHES APPLIED


10 CAFE WOOD SHOP

PROGRAM AND PROCESS: DISTRIBUTION PLANNING Tested materials are brought up to a double height space on the seventh floor to be sorted for assembly. Product development is housed in the 9 adjoining space, as well as on the eighth floor. Sorting and development of products are in direct collaboration during the assembly process. RETAIL

RETAIL

2nd FLOOR: RETAIL AND CAFE 8

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

7

3rd FLOOR: CUTTING / BENDING WOOD AND RETAIL

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

PART SORTING

6

7th FLOOR: PRODUCT 7th FLOOR:DEVELOPMENT AND PART SORTING PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND PART SORTING

8th FLOOR: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 8th FLOOR: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

5

PRODUCT FINISH DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

FABRIC DESIGN

PART SORTING 4

MATERIAL LIBRARY

CONCEPT DESIGN CUTTING FABRIC / SEWING

MATERIAL TEST LAB

12th FLOOR: FINISHING DESIGN

3

CONCEPT DESIGN

13th FLOOR: FABRIC DESIGN, CUTTING FABRIC, AND SEWING

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MATERIALMATERIAL TEST TEST LAB LAB

Parts that have been sorted and are ready to be assembled are loaded onto the fourth platform, and taken up to the construction area on the ninth floor. Offices for production planning occupy an adjacent space on both the ninth and tenth floors. This ensures that production planning and main assembly closely linked allowing for maximum RETAILare RETAIL cooperation at the point where the final product is assembled.

4th FLOOR: 4th FLOOR: RETAILRETAIL

CONCEPT CONCEPT DESIGN DESIGN

5th FLOOR: 5th FLOOR: CONCEPT CONCEPT DESIGN DESIGN AND MATERIAL AND MATERIAL TESTING LAB LAB 10 TESTING

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PLANNINGPLANNING

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PLANNINGPLANNING

9

ASSEMBLYASSEMBLY

8

9th FLOOR: 9th FLOOR: 9th FLOOR: PRODUCTION PLANNING AND ASSEMBLY PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PLANNING PLANNING AND ASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY

10th FLOOR: 10th FLOOR: 10th FLOOR: PRODUCTION PLANNING PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PLANNING PLANNING

7

FINISH DESIGN OFFICES

FABRIC DESIGN FABRIC DESIGN

MARKETING MARKETING

FINISHING APPLIED

FINISH DESIGN OFFICES

6

PRODUCTION PLANNING PHOTOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHY

PRODUCTION PLANNING

14th 14th FLOOR: 28 FLOOR: FABRIC FABRIC DESIGN DESIGN

ASSEMBLY 5

15th FLOOR: 15th FLOOR: MARKETING MARKETING AND PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHY


PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

MATERIAL LIBRARY

PROGRAM AND PROCESS: DISTRIBUTION PLANNING Once a product has been fully assembled, the fifth platform transports the product to the eleventh floor for finishing. All decisions regarding types of finishes are made by a teamPART of SORTING designers working in offices on the eleventh and twelfth floors directly next to the space in which finishes are actually applied. Once this step has been completed, the sixth platform brings products to be upholstered if necessary.

CONCEPT DESIGN

6th FLOOR: CONCEPT DESIGN AND MATERIAL LIBRARY

7th FLOOR: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND PART SORTING 10

FINISH DESIGN

FINISH DESIGN

9

FINISH APPLIED

8

11th FLOOR: DESIGN OF FINISHES AND APPLICATION OF 11th FLOOR: FINISH FINISHING DESIGN AND FINISHES APPLIED

12th FLOOR: DESIGN OF FINISHES 12th FLOOR: FINISHING DESIGN 7

FINISH DESIGN OFFICES INSPECTION TEAM

MARKETING

FINISHING APPLIED

FINISH DESIGN OFFICES

6

PRODUCTION PLANNING INSPECTION

PRODUCTION PLANNING

16th FLOOR: MARKETING

ASSEMBLY 5

17th FLOOR: INSPECTION TEAM AND FINAL INSPECTION

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PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

A large area exists on the thirteenth floor for sewing and upholstery that wraps around almost the entire perimeter of the central assembly line. Fabric design offices are adjacent to the sewing areas on the thirteenth and fourteenth floors. Fabric designers are in constant collaboration with the upholstery team to ensure that design and fabrication are being carried out properly. 8th FLOOR: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

ASSEMBLY

9th FLOOR: PRODUCTION PLANNING AND ASSEMBLY

FABRIC DESIGN

FABRIC DESIGN

CUTTING FABRIC / SEWING

10

13th FLOOR: FABRIC DESIGN AND SEWING 13th FLOOR: FABRIC DESIGN, CUTTING FABRIC, AND SEWING

14th FLOOR: FABRIC DESIGN 14th FLOOR: FABRIC DESIGN

9

INSPECTION OFFICES INSPECTION TEAM

PACKAGE DESIGN

INSPECTION

INSPECTION OFFICES 8

FABRIC DESIGN OFFICES EVENT SPACE

SEWING

FABRIC DESIGN OFFICES 7

30

18th FLOOR: INSPECTION TEAM OFFICE

19th FLOOR: PACKAGE DESIGN AND PACKAGING


PROGRAM AND PROCESS: DISTRIBUTION PLANNING CUTTING FABRIC / SEWING At this point in the process, product assembly is complete. The seventh platform brings finished products up to a final inspection area. The inspection team ensures that products meet all manufacturing codes and standards and are ready to be sold. Products are sold either directly in retail levels of the building or shipped elsewhere. The inspection team occupies the fifteenth floor and inspection offices are adjacent to the area on the fifteenth and sixteenth floors.

12th FLOOR: FINISHING DESIGN

13th FLOOR: FABRIC DESIGN, CUTTING FABRIC, AND SEWING

INSPECTION TEAM

INSPECTION TEAM

INSPECTION

10

17th FLOOR: 15th FLOOR: INSPECTION TEAM AND FINAL INSPECTION OFFICES AND INSPECTION INSPECTION

18th FLOOR: 16th FLOOR: INSPECTION TEAM OFFICE INSPECTION OFFICES

9

INSPECTION OFFICES

INSPECTION

INSPECTION OFFICES 8

FABRIC DESIGN OFFICES

SEWING

FABRIC DESIGN OFFICES 7

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PRODUCTION PLANNING

Before a product is sold it passes through marketing and advertising. An area for photography of products occupies the seventeenth floor. Marketing offices are adjacent to this area on the seventeenth and eighteenth floors. Combining the marketing department with the assembly of the product allows for a more cohesive understanding of the products.

10th FLOOR: PRODUCTION PLANNING

FINISH APPLIED

11th FLOOR: FINISHING DESIGN AND FINISHES APPLIED

MARKETING

MARKETING

PHOTOGRAPHY

17th FLOOR: MARKETING OFFICES AND PHOTOGRAPHY

18th FLOOR: 16th FLOOR: MARKETING OFFICES MARKETING

15th FLOOR: MARKETING AND PHOTOGRAPHY

PACKAGE

PACKAGING DESIGN DESIGN

EVENT SPACE SHIPPING

EVENT SPACE

10

MARKETING OFFICES

PHOTOGRAPHY MARKETING OFFICES 9

32

20th FLOOR: PACKAGE DESIGN AND PACKAGING


PROGRAM AND PROCESS: DISTRIBUTION PLANNING PHOTOGRAPHY

On the nineteenth floor there is a large double height private event space for employees to view final products before they become available for sale. The ninth platform brings products from photography up to the event space. Packaging design exists adjacent to the event space and as a mezzanine level on the twentieth floor. The final platform (tenth) brings examples of final products up to packaging designers to test packaging ideas. Packaging designers are engaged with the final product to better prepare the best packaging 15th FLOOR: design strategy for products being shipped out from the building. MARKETING AND PHOTOGRAPHY

14th FLOOR: FABRIC DESIGN

PACKAGE DESIGN

PACKAGE DESIGN SHIPPING

EVENT SPACE

19th FLOOR: 19th FLOOR: PRIVATE EVENT SPACE PACKAGE DESIGN AND PACKAGING

PACKAGING DESIGN

20th FLOOR: 20th FLOOR: PACKAGING DESIGN PACKAGE DESIGN AND PACKAGING

EVENT SPACE 10

MARKETING OFFICES

PHOTOGRAPHY MARKETING OFFICES 9

33


Additional mechanical space to support the building exists on the roof. Once products are ready to be sold they are taken down to retail by freight elevators. A series of these elevators are revealed on the north facade and allow the public to view final products coming down to be sold. Products that are being shipped out are taken to the shipping and delivery area to be packaged for sale.

MECHANICAL SPACE

PACKAGING DESIGN

EVENT SPACE 10

MARKETING OFFICES

PHOTOGRAPHY MARKETING OFFICES 9

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8

PROGRAM AND PROCESS: DISTRIBUTION PLANNING

7

MECHANICAL SPACE

6

EVENT SPACE

PACKAGING DESIGN

10

MARKETING OFFICES 5

PHOTOGRAPHY

MARKETING OFFICES 9

4

8

3

7

RETAIL

RETAIL

2

DELIVERY // MATERIAL STORAGE

6

RETAIL

1

5

35


SECTION LOOKING NORTH

SCALE: 1” = 20’ 20’

10’

36

40’


VERTICAL ASSEMBLY LINE: THE PLATFORM Production moves from bottom to top by means of the system of platforms that transfer materials from one stage to the next. These allow the process to become increasingly light-weight as assembly moves upward. The center of the building becomes a theatrical showcase of the process of design and making for the public and those that work there. The public gets a glimpse into the initial stages of the process by viewing raw materials that are being transfered up to the wood shop on the second level.

AXON DETAIL OF PLATFORM

VERTICAL ASSEMBLY LINE SKETCH AND DIAGRAM

37


VERTICAL ASSEMBLY LINE: THE PLATFORM The detail section of the first four levels of the building shown below illustrates the flows of various people and materials to and from the building. A plinth condition extending from Merchandise Mart Drive creates the public entrance from the plaza on the northeast side of the building. The cafe extends out from the retail space and onto the plaza. The entrance for the lobby exists fourteen feet below that level on the southwest corner of the building. Main access from the exterior to shipping and material storage is six feet below the main lobby space. Shown below in the section is a more detailed view of materials being transferred up to the wood shop from material storage. Each platform is twenty by twenty feet wide with a height of eight feet to allow for safety in the material transfer process. A hydraulic lift system enables each platform to move up one level and back down to its original location.

SCALE: 1/8” = 1’ 16’ 8’

38

32’


SECOND FLOOR PLAN

Delivery Access

Plaza

Public Entrance Cafe

Wood shop (Material storage below)

Lobby Retail

SECTION OF FLOORS 1-4

64’

128’

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AXONOMETRIC SECTION

40


FORM VERSUS FUNCTION: VERTICAL ASSEMBLY LINE ENCLOSURE AXON DIAGRAM OF FUNCTION AND DISTRIBUTION

A tug of war exists between ideal functional planning and the creation of a cohesive, iconic structure. The initial form was derived from stacking the purely functional and programmatic floor plans. Four overall volumes to enclose the main components of the building were then created. Heavy machinery along with public space is contained on the first few levels. Initial stages of design and material testing make up the second volume above. The third, or the large cantilever, holds the main components of construction and assembly space. Finally, the fourth volume contains space for marketing and private events. Formally, these moves allow for smaller office atrium spaces to exist on the exterior.

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FORM VERSUS FUNCTION: INTERIOR The functional structure of the platform system acts as a spectacle for visitors of the building. The image below illustrates the way in which mezzanine levels of retail space wrap around the central atrium. Separation is kept between the private offices and public space through the assembly line that exists within the atrium. Visitors are able to get a glimpse into the early stages of the assembly process by viewing the first few platforms bringing materials up to the wood shop and material testing lab.

VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR RETAIL SPACE

42


43


SOUTH ELEVATION

SCALE: 1/32” = 1’ 32’

16’

44

64’


TRANSPARENCY: REVEAL OF ASSEMBLY A vertical louver system which reacts to programmatic function of the tower serves as the main component of the facade. Office spaces are more opaque while moments of transparency reveal key stages in the assembly process to the public. A view from south of the river illustrates how the facade reveals changes in program on the exterior.

SKETCH OF SOUTH FACADE

45


EAST ELEVATION

SCALE: 1/32” = 1’ 32’

16’

46

64’


TRANSPARENCY: REVEAL OF ASSEMBLY A vertical moment of transparency in the facade allows the assembly line to be exposed to the city. Various platforms can be seen as they ascend upward. A series of freight elevators are exposed to reveal finished products to the public that are being sold and shipped.

SKETCH OF EAST FACADE

47


48


TRANSPARENCY: FACADE DETAIL The image on the left is a detail of the south elevation, which illustrates more closely how the louver system is reacting to changes in program on the interior. Below, the image reveals the exposed core on the north side of the building. This allows for a closer look at one the freight elevators that is transferring final products down to retail. VIEW OF FREIGHT ELEVATOR THROUGH EAST FACADE

49


50


TRANSPARENCY: FACADE DETAIL On the left is a closer look at an office atrium that is adjacent to the exterior of the building. Atrium conditions are revealed on the facade and appear more transparent than typical office spaces. The image below illustrates the change in the facade condition of the cantilever. To accentuate the shift in program that the cantilever represents, the louvers become horizontal members. There are moments of transparency within the louvers to reveal parts of the assembly process to the city.

FACADE OF ASSEMBLY FLOOR WITHIN THE CANTILEVER

51


TRANSPARENCY: FACADE DETAIL On the east facade a moment of vertical transparency reveals the system of platforms on the exterior. The office space that exists above the lobby and retail levels is much more opaque and hidden from the public. A plan drawing below illustrates the double glazed facade system as well as the way in which the louvers are attached to the exterior columns. PLAN DETAIL OF FACADE SYSTEM

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53


EXTERIOR NIGHT RENDER

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A NEW URBAN ICON: IMPACT OF PRODUCTION By vertically stitching together the processes of design and manufacturing, the fabrication tower explores the impact that production has on shaping the urban landscape. The structure and the assembly process within holds a true iconic presence on the river and the entire city. There is great potential for the project to become a catalyst that enables clean manufacturing in the downtown area, and an opportunity to engage the public in the process.

EXTERIOR RENDER LOOKING TOWARDS LAKE MICHIGAN

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APPENDIX

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MAS CONTEXT: PRODUCTION Issue 16 / Winter 2012 Chicago based quarterly journal created by MAS Studio that addresses issues that affect the urban context.

This issue of Mas Context deals with the impact of production in our cities and built environment. Nina Rappaports Vertical Urban Factory Exhibit is featured in the issue dealing with larger urban questions of factories in downtown cities. The issue also looks at indpendent manufacturing companies based in Chicago, IL and explores the larger implication of our need for production and consumption, as well as the celebration of craft, tradition, excellence and invention.

“The Spectacle factory represents what I call the “consumption of production.” A factory could engage and educate the public about making by displaying its manufacturing processes through large windows on our city streetscapes. Natural light would improve conditions for workers and those passing by could see how things are made. This would also elevate workers’ dignity and enhance their pride. It already exists in the VW factory in Dresden, Germany by Henn Architects” (Gill, 2012).

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59


Euromaxx. Series: Design Icons (01) Thonet Nr. 14 Chair.

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FURNITURE CASE STUDY: No.14 Chair During the functional planning stages of the project, the making of the Thonet No.14 Chair became an important case study. Fabrication Tower relies heavily on the human element during the assembly process. The process is relatively small scale with an emphasis on craftsmanship. This is achieved through more direct engagement between the fabricator and the product. A video dissecting the design and fabrication process of the No.14 chair became important in understanding and interpreting the processes of design and skilled assembly. It also allowed a better understanding into the overall process of making a wooden chair, and the spatial consequences of necessary machinery.

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LLE E MCCLURG CT.

SITE SKETCHES

R

SITE SKETCHES NavyPier

NAVY PIER

SITE QUESTIONS: - Circulation? - How public enters / public component of site - Isolate parking from entry - Site terrain: waterfront vs. material delivery - How different users enter - Movement of goods? - Movement of vehicular traffic? - Vertical circulation EL M for workers - Freight elevators: display to public on exterior?

KE MICHIGAN

ST SIDE

SITE ANALYSIS

CE DAR MAP LE

BE LLEVU E

OA K

DOWNTOWN DOWNTOWN DISTRICT MAPDISTRICTS

WA LTON

LOCUST

STREETERVILLE

HURON

ONTARIO

RIVER NORTH GALLERY DISTRICT

94

NORTH MICHIGAN

90

OHIO

GRAND

Trump International Hotel & Tower

House of Blues Marina City

RIVER EAST

NAVY PIER

RUSH

KINZIE Merchandise Mart

WABASH

STATE

DEARBORN

CLARK

LASALLE

HUBBARD

R

VE RI

WELLS

O AG

ORLEANS

IC CH

ILLINOIS

MCCLURG CT.

Northwestern Hospital

COLUMBUS DR.

ST. CLAIR

ERIE

KENNEDY EXPRESSWAY

E

SUPERIOR

RIV

RIVER NORTH

D RE

CHICAGO

LAKE MICHIGAN

HO ES

INSTITUTE

SITE QUESTIONS: DELAWARE - Circulation? - How public enters / public component of site - Isolate parking from entryCHESNUT GOLD - Site terrain: waterfront vs.PEARSON material delivery The Museum of COAST - How different users enter Contemporary Art - Movement of goods? - Movement of vehicular traffic? Northwestern University - Vertical circulation for workers - Freight elevators: display to public on exterior?

K LA

NEAR NORTH SIDE

CHESNUT

LAKE MICHIGAN

S

Spiaggia

Wrigley Building

Tribune Tower

Chicago Water taxi

CHICAGO RIVER

E WACKER

SITE CHICAGO RIVERWALK W WACKER

NEAR WEST SIDE

NEAR EAST SIDE

LAKE

RANDOLPH

City Hall

WASHINGTON

90

CHICAGO RIVER

KENNEDY EXPRESSWAY

WEST LOOP

LOOP FINANCIAL DISTRICT

ADAMS

WABASH

STATE

DEARBORN

JACKSON

CLARK

LASALLE

WELLS

FRANKLIN

CKE

CANAL

CLINTON

JEFFERSON

DES PLAINES

Sears Tower

Chicago Board of Trade

MICHIGAN AVE.

MADISON Chicago Mercantile Exchange

MONROE

MILLENIUM PARK

THEATER DISTRICT

LAKESHORE DRIVE

94

ART INSTITUTE

LAKE MICHIGAN

GRANT PARK

VAN BUREN

29 0

CONGRESS PARKWAY

BUCKINGHAM FOUNTAIN

SOUTH LOOP

62

S


SITE ANALYSIS The project site has a tremendous presence on the Chicago River which demands that the structure be an iconic spectacle for the city. Merchandise Mart’s proximity to the site played a role in determining the program and activating the public component to the building. Site sketches addressing how the building ties into its larger surrounding context were critical to understanding material distribution. Both the overall design of the building, and the organization of the site are intended to preserve the public waterfront and surrounding area. Site circulation sketches were key in determining the movement of various people and materials to the site and into the building.

SITE MODEL PHOTO

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64


DESIGN PROCESS

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66


DESIGN PROCESS

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

“American Apparel | Fashionable Basics. Sweatshop Free. Made in USA.” Vertical Integration. American Apparel, 2013. Web. 10 May 2013. < http://www.americanapparel.net/aboutus/verticalint/> Gill, Iker. “Production.” MAS Context 2.16 (2012): 19-111. Web. Dec. 2012. <http://www.mascontext.com/ issues/16-production-winter-12/vertical-urban-factory/>. Rappaport, Nina. “Production.” MAS Context 2.16 (2012): 1-18. Web. Dec. 2012. <http://www.mascontext. com/issues/16-production-winter-12/vertical-urban-factory/>. Rappaport, Nina. “VERTICAL URBAN FACTORY.” VERTICAL URBAN FACTORY. Israel Berger Architects, 2011. Web. 10 May 2013. < http://www.ninarappaport.com/VerticalUrbanFactory/index.html> Willis, Carol “The Skyscraper Museum: VERTICAL URBAN FACTORY WALKTHROUGH.” The Skyscraper Museum: VERTICAL URBAN FACTORY WALKTHROUGH. The Skyscraper Museum, 1997-2013. Web. 10 May 2013. < http://skyscraper.org/EXHIBITIONS/VERTICAL_URBAN_FACTORY/introduction.php>

Euromaxx. Series: Design Icons (01) Thonet Nr. 14 Chair. Youtube, 26 Jan. 2010. Web. 10 May 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoy5QP3Jibg>.

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Fabrication Tower: BArch Thesis  

Bachelor of Architecture Thesis

Fabrication Tower: BArch Thesis  

Bachelor of Architecture Thesis

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