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Architecture Design Studio Air SARAH CHESTERFIELD


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h e W y n d h a m C i t y h a s b e e n a d d re s s i n g t h e i s s u e o f i t s i m a g e b y u n d e r t a k i n g s i g n i f i c a n t w o r k s t o u p g r a d e t h e c o n d i t i o n a n d a e s t h e t i c s o f i t s s t re e t s c a p e s , o p e n s p a c e s a n d p a r k s . H e n c e t h e G a t e w a y P ro j e c t , w h e re t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n w i l l e n h a n c e t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i ro n m e n t t h ro u g h t h e i n t ro d u c t i o n o f a v i s u a l a r t s c o m p o n e n t . A n e w a rc h i t e c t u r a l d i s c o u rc e i n t ro d u c e d b y c o m p u t i n g d e s i g n t h ro u g h t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s p a c e , n a t u re a n d m a t e r i a l i t y.

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IS ARCHITECTURE ART H O W A R C H I T E C T U R E A S A RT H A S A D V A N C E D DISCOURSE? A rc h i t e c t u re a s a r t i n t h i s c a s e a s a n e x p re s s i o n o f d e s i g n intent that have the power to evoke a feeling, emotion or a s s o c i a t i o n a n d p ro d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s t o i t s c o n s u m e r s , h a s b e e n a n o n g o i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e a rc h i t e c t u r a l discourse. T h e p y l o n s o f t h e K a r a n k t e m p l e a re s e e n a s a c a n v a s f o r a r t w o r k . I t i s a d o r n e d i n h i e ro g l y p h i c a n d re p re s e n t s a barrier a gateway to the inside of the temple that is a re p re s e n t a t i o n o f t h e re a l m o f t h e g o d s . T h e re a s o n w h y t h e y a re s o t a l l i n h e i g h t i s t o i n t i m i d a t e t h e u n w o r t h y. T h e s a m e i d e a o f d e c o r a t i o n h a s b e e n u s e d f o r m o re t h a n 1 5 0 0 y e a r s , l a t e r b y B r i t i s h a rc h i t e c t s i r J o h n S o a n e i n t h e adoring walls in home. The towering height and the chaos o f a r t w o r k s w e re c o n c e i v e d t o b e t r i c k t o o v e r w h e l m , a n d to cause a sense of severity and vertigo. One can see that e v e n t h o u g h S o a n e b o r ro w e d a p i e c e o f a n d i d e a f ro m K a rnak temple, that he also duly added his own intake to it.

HOW THIS HELPS CONTRIBUTE TO AN ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE?

I t l o o k s b a c k u p o n w h a t h a s a l re a d y h a p p e n e d / b e e n d o n e , re f l e c t i n g o n i t a n d re p ro d u c i n g i n i n a w a y t h a t b o t h re f l e c t s t h e z e i t g e i s t o f t h e t i m e a s w e l l a s o f f e r i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t w i l l b e b ro a d e n t h e m e a n i n g o f a rc h i t e c t u re and give the opportunity for someone else in other parts of a rc h i t e c t u r a l p ro f e s s i o n t o re p l a y t h e p ro c e s s . T h e p re v i o u s w o r k s s h o w n a re g re a t w o r k s o f a r t . H o w e v e r i t i s u n d e n i a b l e t h a t t h e y a re a l s o o u t o f d a t e . I t i s m a n d a t o r y t h a t a rc h i t e c t u re a s a n a r t re f l e c t s t h e s o u l o f t h e c u r re n t a g e . A n d r i g h t n o w t h a t a g e d e m a n d s f o r s o m e t h i n g contemporary dynamic a parametric manifesto.

HOW ARCHITECTURAL AS SIGN HAS ADVANCED THE ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE? O n c e w e h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a rc h i t e c t u re c o u l d b e a n art form, the question that follows is “Because it is tha s u b j e c t i v e , t h e n h o w d o w e i n t e r p re t i t ? � I t i s p re c i s e l y t h i s q u a l i t y i n a rc h i t e c t u re t h a t a l l o w s i t t o be defined also as a sign. A rc h i t e c r u e a s a s i g n i s h i g h l y re l a t e d t o t i t s a s s o c i a t i v e p o w e r s . T h ro u g h o u t h i s t o r y a rc h i t e c t u re h a s b e e n u s e d t o s h o w p o w e r, re p re s e n t a p o l i t i c a l s t a n c e , re p re s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l g ro u p s p re s e n c e , e t h n i c a l i d e n t i t y, o r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y. F o r e x a m p l e , s k y s c r a p e r s h a v e l o n g s i n c e b ro k e t h ro u g h f ro m i n t i a l m e e t i n g i t s s p a c e c o s t e f f i c i e n c y. d i f f e re n t f ro m i t s e a r l i e s t p re d e c e s o r s o f p ro t o - s k y s c r a p e r s . T h e y a r n o w a rc h i t e c t u r a l s i g n s o f m o d e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n a p ro o f o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l , e n g i n e e r i n g a d v a n c e , p ro o f o f f i n a n c i a l p o w e r, d e s i g n a n d c u l t u r a l p ro w e s s a n d s a t u re o f a n a t i o n .

T h i s i s w h a t i t m e a n s t o l o o k a t a rc h i t e c t u re a s a s i g n . Lo o k i n g a t a rc h i t e c t a s a s i g n m e a n s l o o k i n g a t a rc h i t e c t u re a n d i t s m e a n i n g a n d i m p a c t i n t h e p u b l i c s e y e . I n o rd e r t o p ro p e r l y i n t e r p re t a rc h i t e c t u re a n d t h e m e a n i n g s b e h i n d i t o n e m u s t l o o k a t i t s c o n t e x t i t s p re d e c e s s o r s , its design drivers and constraints and the designers and consumers. T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e a rc h i t e c t u r a l d i s c o u r s e . I n t e r p re t a t i o n o f a s i n g l e a rc h i t e c t u r a l e n t i t y w i l l n o t b e a c h i e v e d without the extensive discussion that will touch upon other a re a s i n t h i s s u b j e c t . I t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e d i s c o u r s e b e c a u s e i n t e r p re t a t i o n o f a rc h i t e c t u re re l i e s o n a rc h i t e c t u r a l s y m b o l s a n d g e s t u re s , w h i c h h a v e d i f f e re n t m e a n i n g s o v e r t i m e . T h e re f o re l o o k i n g a t a rc h i t e c t u re a s a s i g n c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e a rc h i t e c t u r a l d i s c o u r s e b e c a u s e i t i s e q u i v a l e n t t o i n t e r p re t i n g c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g l a n g u a g e , t h a t a re influenced by the changing social, political, cultural and h i s t o r i c a l e n v i ro n m e n t . A rc h i t e c t u re h a s t o h a v e t h a t c a p a c i t y f o r p e o p l e t o p ro j ect their own understanding and beliefs into them, in a s e n s e s , t h e p u b l i c m u s t b e a l l o w e d t o a p p ro p r i a t e a b i t o f t h e i n t e r p re t i v e a s p e c t o f a rc h i t e c t u re . I f n o t a rc h i t e c t u re i s m e a n i n g l e s s a n d t h e re f o re i s d e t a c h e d f ro m i t s m a i n a u d i e n c e , re n d e r i n g i t d y s f u n c t i o n a n d u n l o v e d .

ARCHITECTURE AS AN URBAN EXPERIENCE

Lo o k i n g a t a rc h i t e c t u re a s a n u r b a n e x p e r i e n c e d o e s n o t s u b j e c t b u i l d i n g s o r a n y o t h e r a rc h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s below the power of urban planners, or the city as a while. I t i s m e re l y a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e f a c t t h a t a rc h i t e c t u re d i s s o l v e s i n t o n o t h i n g m o re b u t a n a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e x p e r i ence, emotions, memories, activities and necessities within an urban fabric. I t i s i n t e re s t i n g t o e x p l o re t h e s i t u a t i o n s w h e n a n i n d i v i d u a l s t o p s p e rc e i v i n g t h e c i t y a s a n a g g l o m e r a t i o n o f buildings, but instead as a series of experiences shaped a n d m a d e b y t h e s e p re c i s e a r r a n g e m e n t s t y l e s , a n d d e s i g n o f b u i l d i n g s o r o t h e r a rc h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s .

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MIRROR FUN HOUSE N a m e : M i r ro r H o u s e Lo c a t i o n : C o p e n h a g e n Ty p e : Pa v i l i o n A rc h i t e c t s : M L R P A rc h i t e c t s Ye a r : N o v e m b e r, 2 0 1 1

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h o s a y s a rc h i t e c t u re c a n n o t b e f u n ? I n c o p e n h a g e n , M L R P A rc h i t e t s h a v e c re a t e d a f u n h o u s e t h a t t a k e s i t s e l f s e r i o u s l y. I n d o i n g s o i t h a s e v e v a t e d t h a a rc h i t e c t u re o f t h e p l a y g ro u n d t o s e r i o u s a rc h i t e c t u re , d e s e r v i n g o f w i d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . To o o f t e n a rc h i t e c t u re f o r c h i l d re n i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a d u l t s f a n t a s i e s f o r p l a y. W i t n e s s t h e m a n y a d v e n t u re p l a y g ro u n d s t h a t p l a u g e o u r c o u n t r y s i d e a n d a re b u i l t o u t o f m a s s i v e t a n a l i s e d t i m b e r m e m b e r s t h a t tiny hands could never grip. T h e m i r ro r h o u s e re l e c t s l i t t e r a l l y t h e p l a y o f c h i l d re n . I t i s b o t h s t r i c k i n g a n d s u t i b l e t h e e n d s a re e n t i re l y c l a d i n m i r ro r s w h i l e t h e v e r t i c a l t i m b e r s i d e s h i d e a s e r i e s o f d o o r s t h a t , w h e n o p e n e d , re v e a l c o n c a v e a n d c o n v e x f u n h o u s e m i r ro s . I n s i d e i s a f l e c i b l e s p a c e w i t h re s t ro o m s u s e d b y a k i n d e rg a r t e n d u r i n g t h d a y. A t n i g h t w h e n t h d o o r s a re c l o s e d a n o n y m i u t y re t u r n s a n t h e m i r ro re d e n d s q u i e t l e y re f l e c t t h e e n v i ro m e n t i n w h i c h t h e b u i l d i n g s i t s , w a i t i n g t o b e re a n i m a t e d b y t h e re t u r n o f t h e c h i l d re n . W h a t m a k e s t h i s h o u s e f re s h i s i t s a t t i t u d e t o i t s u s e r s a n d t o i t s e n v i ro m e n t . I t t a k e s c h i l d re n s e r i o u s l y a n d t h e y a re b e t t e r f o r i t . T h e h o u s e k n o w s i t s p l a c e a n d h o n o u r s i t . i f o n l y a rc h i t e c t s c o u l d a p p ro a c h t h e a d u l t w o r l d w i t h as much commitment and consideration, imagine the wond ro u s w o r l d w e c o u l d l i v e i n .

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Pratt Institute’s Higgins Hall A rc h i t e c t s : S t e v e n H o l l A rc h i t e c t s Name: Pratt Institute’s Higgins Hall Lo c a t i o n : N e w Yo r k , U S A Ty p e : A rc h i t e c t u re S c h o o l Ye a r : 1 9 9 7 - 2 0 0 5

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f t e r a 1 9 9 6 f i re a t P r a t t I n s t i t u t e ’ s H i g g i n s H a l l , Steven Holl was commissioned to design a connection b e t w e e n t w o p re e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s . T h e re s u l t i n g d e s i g n f e a t u re s a n e w , c l e a r l y o r i e n t e d c e n t r a l e n t r a n c e c o u r t , in which the focal point of the façade is an asymmetrical composition of channel glass and steel sash windows. S t e v e n H o l l w a s a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e t h i s i n s e r t i o n h a l l f ro m the façade employing traditionally industrial materials in a new, institutional context. Detailing on channel glass, a re l a t i v e l y n e w m a t e r i a l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , h a d n o t evolved beyond what had been in use for several decades i n i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g i n E u ro p e . H o l l h a s c re a t e d a t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e b e t w e e n t w o d i f f e re n t l a n g u a g e s . A s t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s n o t j u s t t h e f a c a d e but also the transition between the interior spaces, as you t r a v e l f ro m t h e p re e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g , s m a l l e r d a r k e r a re a , i n t o a l a rg e b r i g h t l y l i t s t u d i o . T h e u s e o f t r a n s l u c e n t m a t e r i a l s w h i c h c o v e r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g c re a t e a e x c i t i n g e n e rg e t i c i n t e r i o r d u r i n g d a y a n d n i g h t . To m e e t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p e r f o r m a n c e d e m a n d s of an institutional building in the US as well as Steven Holl’s aesthetic objectives, Heintges developed a detailing strategy to integrate custom steel windows within the glass-channel cladding. Higgins Hall is also one of the f i r s t b u i l d i n g s i n t h e U S t o e s t a b l i s h t h e u s e o f t r a n s p a rent capillary insulation encapsulated within channel glass, e n a b l i n g t h e p ro j e c t t o m e e t s t r i c t t h e r m a l p e r f o r m a n c e re q u i re m e n t s a n d e n s u re c o m f o r t d u r i n g N e w Yo r k ’ s c o l d winters.


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NORWEGIAN WILD REINDEER CENTRE PAVILION A rc h i t e c t s : S n o h e t t a N a m e : N o r w e g i a n W i l d Re i n d e e r C e n t e r Pa v i l i o n Lo c a t i o n : D o v re f j e l l N a t i o n a l Pa r k , S w e e d e n Ty p e : Pa v i l i o n Ye a r : 2 0 1 1

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wed by the design of the Norwegian Wild Re i n d e e r C e n t re Pa v i l i o n o b s e r v a t i o n p l a t f o r m . T h e 9 0 - s q u a re - m e t e r s t r u c t u re w a s d e s i g n e d b y O s l o - b a s e d l a n d s c a p e , i n t e r i o r a n d a rc h i tectural design firm Snohetta. The Norwegian W i l d Re i n d e e r C e n t re Pa v i l i o n i s l o c a t e d a t H j e r k i n n o n t h e o u t s k i r t s o f D o v re f j e l l N a t i o n a l Pa r k , o v e r l o o k i n g t h e S n à ¸ h e t t a m o u n t a i n r a n g . The 90m2 building is open to the public and serves as an observation pavilion for the Wild Re i n d e e r F o u n d a t i o n e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g r a m s . T h e N a t i o n a l To u r i s t Ro u t e s s c h e m e i s a s u c c e s s f u l l o n g - t e r m a rc h i t e c t u r a l i n i t i a t i v e t h a t has transformed parts of rural Norway into nat i o n a l t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s . P re v i o u s l y i s o l a t e d a re a s h a v e b e c o m e d e s t i n a t i o n s i n t h e m s e l v e s t h ro u g h t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f a v a r i e t y o f b u i l t p ro j e c t s . A b o u t 5 0 h a v e b e e n u n d e r t a k e n , m a n y o f t h e m b y y o u n g e r a rc h i t e c t s , a n d t h e y i n c l u d e river saunas, viewing platforms and bridges, l a y- b y s , s t e p s a n d p a t h s d o w n t o w a t e r o r u p a mountain slope, cafes, hotels and exhibition and i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t re s . T h e p ro j e c t s s p a n f ro m t h e s o u t h e r n t o w n o f J a e re n t o t h e n o r t h e r n t i p o f Va re n g e r. V i s i t o r s a n d N o r w e g i a n n a t i v e s a l i k e a re a f f o rd e d t h e l u x u r y o f s a f e ro a d s a n d re v e l i n g i n c l e a n a n d re l a x i n g a rc h i t e c t u r a l l y i n s p i re d v i e w p o i n t s . T h e o n g o i n g p ro j e c t h a s b e e n a p t l y n a m e d , T h e N a t i o n a l To u r i s t Ro u t e s I n N o r w a y, a n d f e a t u re s a n a r r a y o f a rc h i t e c t s i n c l u d i n g M a rg re t e F r i i s , Pe t e r Z u m t h o r, PU S H A K a r k i t e k t e r, C o d e A r k i t e k t u r, M a n t h e y K u l a , S n ø h e t ta AS, and Jensen and Skodvin to name a few.

“ C O N S I D E R A B L E E M P H A S I S I S PU T ON THE QUALITY AND DURABILITY OF THE MATERIALS TO WITHSTAND THE HARSH CLIMATE.” “THE SIMPLE FORM AND USE OF NATURAL MATERIALS REFERENCE LO C A L B U I L D I N G T R A D I T I O N S . ” A 1 . 5 k m n a t u re p a t h b r i n g s v i s i t o r s t o t h i s spectacular site, 1200 meters above sea level. Beautiful and functional, but laughably out of context. The building design is based on a rigid outer s h e l l a n d a n o rg a n i c i n n e r c o re . T h e s o u t h f a c i n g e x t e r i o r w a l l a n d t h e i n t e r i o r c re a t e a p ro t e c t e d a n d w a r m g a t h e r i n g p l a c e , w h i l e s t i l l p re s e r v i n g the visitor’s view of the spectacular panorama. Considerable emphasis is put on the quality and durability of the materials to withstand the h a r s h c l i m a t e . T h e re c t a n g u l a r f r a m e i s m a d e i n r a w s t e e l re s e m b l i n g t h e i ro n f o u n d i n t h e l o c a l b e d ro c k . T h e s i m p l e f o r m a n d u s e o f n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s re f e re n c e l o c a l b u i l d i n g t r a d i t i o n s . H o w e v e r, a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i e s h a v e b e e n u t i l i z e d b o t h i n t h e d e s i g n a n d t h e f a b r i c a t i o n p ro cess. Using digital 3D-models to drive the milling m a c h i n e s , N o r w e g i a n s h i p b u i l d e r s i n H a rd a n g e rf j o rd c re a t e d t h e o rg a n i c s h a p e f ro m 1 0 i n c h s q u a re p i n e t i m b e r b e a m s . T h e w o o d w a s t h e n a s sembled in a traditional way using only wood pegs a s f a s t e n e r s . T h e e x t e r i o r w a l l h a s b e e n t re a t e d with pine tar while the interior wood has been o i l e d . T h e p a v i l i o n i s a ro b u s t y e t n u a n c e d b u i l d i n g t h a t g i v e s v i s i t o r s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o re f l e c t and contemplate this vast and rich landscape.

“ A D V A N C E D T E C H N O LO G I E S H A V E BEEN UTILIZED BOTH IN THE DESIGN AND THE FABRICATION PROCESS.”

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h e u s e o f C o m p u t e r s e n a b l e s a rc h i tects to do things that used to be virtually impossible. Contemporary compu¬tational d e s i g n t e c h ¬ n i q u e s a re a d v a n c i n g i n s u c h a m a n n e r, w h i c h , n o t o n l y t re m e n d o u s l y a s sist practitioners in portraying their ideas, b u t a l s o a i d s i n p ro v i d ¬ i n g c r u c i a l i n s i g h t s t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h a rc h i t e c t u re , h a n d i n h a n d w i t h t e c h n o l ¬ o g y, w i l l b e h e a d i n g . Through the following heading we can explor and get a better understranding on how contemporary compu¬tational design tech¬niques are advancing design and contiunue to see these this technology in built works: Pa r a m e t r i c M o d e l i n g - W i t h i n p a r a m e t r i c modeling a range of possible solutions is derived within infinite potentials, designe r s a re a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e i n t e r n a l g e n e r a tive logic rather than mold external forms. This allows design to be consistent, cont i n u a l a n d d y n a m i c . A s a s h i f t f ro m m a k i n g f o r m s t o f i n d i n g f o r m s , t h e h i e r a rc h y o f t h e b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y i s c h a n g i n g a s t h e re s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d d u t y o f t h e a rc h i t e c t e v o l v e s . Pe r f o r m a t i v e D e s i g n - Pe r f o r m a t i v e d e s i g n enables the incorporation of various factors of consideration to be analysed at once for example the financial, spatial, social and c u l t u r a l . T h i s a l l o w s t h e u s e o f re a l - t i m e building performance as a design principle and guiding over traditional form making. Thus utilises finite element method to m e a s u re s t r u c t u re e n e rg y a n d f l u i d d y n a m i c at once as build form is actively shaped a c c o rd i n g t o i m m e d i a t e c o n d i t i o n s . E m e rg e n t D e s i g n - W i t h t h e e v e r y i n c re a s i n g m o v e m e n t a w a y f ro m d e t e r m i n i s t i c t r a d i t i o n design methods allows us to embrace comp l e x i t y o f e m e rg i n g d e s i g n . T h i s i n v o l v e s c re a t i n g a g e n e r a t i v e s y s t e m w h i c h c o n t ro l s behaviour on a smaller scale and selects and o u t f ro m t h e f o r m w h i c h e m e rg e s a l l o w i n g

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T a complexity and variation to motivate cons t r u c t i o n w i t h c l o s e r re l a t i o n s h i p s t o w a rd s n a t u r a l s y s t e m i n t h e e n v i ro n m e n t . A s t h e d e s i g n e r s w i t c h e s ro l e s t o a n e d i t o r h e i n t e r p re t s a n d m a n i p u l a t e s t h e e m e rg i n g d a t a . Data Fabrication- Data fabrication is a every expanding technology within not only in the a rc h i t e c t u re w o r l d b u t w i t h i n a l l d e s i g n a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n . C h a n g i n g t h e i d e a s a rc h i t e c t s can draw to what they can build and build what they can draw. It involvesthe use of c o m p u t e r n u m e r i c a l c o n t ro l l e d f a b r i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s w i t h d e v e l o p a c l o s e r ro u t e t o p ro d u c t i o n t h ro u g h t h e f i l e t o f a c t o r y p ro cess. This method simultaneously depends o n n e w d i g i t a l t e c h n o l o g y a s i t e m e rg e s t o v a l i d a t e a n d g i v e c re d i b i l i t y t o t h e c o n structability of digital design methods. N e w M a t e r i a l s - N e w m a t e r i a l s a re a d i re c t o u t c o m e t o n e w t e c h n o l o g y ’ s a s t h e re m u s t b e a m e a n s t o e x p re s s a rc h i t e c t u r a l l y t h e s e new aesthetic and spatial effects. A shift in c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o w a rd s m o re s u r f a c e a r t i c u l a t i o n t h e re f o re t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e n e w materials must be able to meet design intent i o n s a n d f u l f i l s t r u c t u r a l re q u i re m e n t s . T h u s a n i n t ro d u c t i o n o f c a r b o n f i b re s c o m p o s i t e materials and even intelligent materials has changes the digital design landscape. P ro d u c t i o n S t r a t e g i e s - W i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y the use of digital design technology mediu m s a l l o w s t h e a c l o s e r re l a t i o n b e t w e e n d e s i g n , a rc h i t e c t s a n d e n g i n e e r i n g . t h e u s e o f d i f f e re n t m a t e r i a l s a n d m e a n s o f p ro d u c t i o n c a n i n f l u e n c e f ro m t h i s c a n b e s e e n i n p ro j e c t s s u c h a s t h e S y d n e y O p e r a H o u s e . P ro d u c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s e n a b l e c u r v e s a n d m o re f l u i d f o r m s t o b e g e n e r a t e d i n t h e re a l w o r l d .

h e E m b r y o l o g i c a l H o u s e b y G re g Ly n n e x p l o re s t h i s i d e a o f u s i n g a s y s t e m o f m a n i p u l a t i o n t h ro u g h c o n t ro l p o i n t s . T h e s e c o n t ro l p o i n t s w e re re s p o n s i v e o f a q u e s t i o n s t h a t w h e re b a s e d o n a b a s i c c l i e n t w i s h e s , f o r e x a m p l e t o ro o m s i z e . T h u s t h e f o r m g r a d u a l l y e m e rg e d a s t h e c l i e n t re s p o n d e d a n d d a t a g re w . T h e p ro j e c t w a s i n t e n d e d t o b e e n gaging with the contemporary issues of variation and customisation.

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r a n k G e h r y ’ s Wa l t D i s n e y C o n c e r t H a l l ’ s facade is made possible by the use of digit a l t e c h n o l o g y. T h i s i n n o v a t i o n o f f e re d b y t h e t e c h n o l o g y b e c a m e e x t re m e l y u s e f u l i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a g e s o f t h e p ro j e c t . A s t h e u n i q u e c o m p o n e n t s o f e a c h f o l d w e re t o o c o m plex to be managed by conventional drawing, techniques and fabrication, digital technolo g y a l l o w e d o n e m o d e l t o c o n t a i n f o r a p ro j e c t . A l l o w i n g a rc h i t e c t s t o n o l o n g e r s p e n d t i m e o n j u s t 2 d d r a w i n g s b u t s p e n d m o re t i m e f o c u s o n c re a t i n g t h e f o r m t h e n c o l l a t i n g a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f ro m t h e i r m o d e l s . T h i s p ro c e s s i s n o t o n l y m o re e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e a rc h i t e c t i s i t a l l o w s p re c i s e b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n t h ro u g h c o m p u t a t i o n a l d e s i g n m o d e l s . F r a n k G e h r y ’ s Wa l t D i s n e y C o n c e r t H a l l ’ s w a s e n h a n c e s b y t h e u s e o f c o m p u t a t i o n a n d a rc h i t e c t u r a l s o f t w a re . w h i c h e n a b l e d t h e a rc h i tect’s ability to deal with both analytical skill a n d c re a t i v i t y t o p ro d u c e d e s i g n . T h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e i n a rc h i t e c t u re a l s o h e l p s t h e a rc h i t e c t t o c re a t e a n d b r i n g t o l i f e o f m u c h m o re f l e x i b l e s h a p e c o m p a re d w i t h m a n u a l o l d - f a s h i o n s t y l e o f a rc h i t e c t u r a l d r a w i n g s .

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DIGITAL TEA HOUSE WORKSHOP

h e u s e o f s c r i p t i n g f o r t h e ‘ We s t e r n G a t e w a y s D e s i g n P ro j e c t ’ h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f c o m p u t a t i o n a l d e s i g n a l l o w i n g f o r m a t e r i a l a n d t i m e e f f i c i e n c y. M o re i m p o rtantly computational design can be engage in culturally sensit i v e i s s u e s d e v e l o p i n g a m e t ro p o l i t a n i d e n t i t y. We c a n s e e t h i s i n t h e c a s e s t u d y t h e ‘ D i g i t a l Te a H o u s e ’ u n d e r t a k e n i n 2 0 1 0 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l u m b i a a n d U n i v e r s i t y o f To k y o a n d l e a d b y K a o n Ko a n d S a l v a t o - J o h n L i o t t a . B y e x e rc i s i n g t h e u s e o f scripting to use advanced techniques of parametric design and d i g i t a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g , t o “ p ro d u c e n e w i m a g e s o f t e a h o u s e a n d re n e w i t s c o n c e p t u a l m e a n i n g s ” A t t h e e n d o f t h e w o r k s h o p t h e t h re e t e a m s h a d a s s e m b l e d t h re e t e a h o u s e s , t e s t i n g c o n c e p t s , m e t h o d o l o g i e s a n d m a t e r i als that had been developed in the meantime.

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PARAMETRIC DESIGN IN PAVILIONS

“ Pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n c a n a l s o b e i n t e r p re t e d t h ro u g h s p e c i f i c , c u l t u r a l l e n s e s , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e s e n s i b i l i t y re tains its unmistakably unique character even when it is filt e re d t h ro u g h t h e u s e o f R h i n o a n d G r a s s h o p p e r ” . - K a o n Ko a n d S a l v a t o r- J o h n A . L i o t t a S c r i p t i n g w a s a n e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p ro c e s s a s c o n t a c t w i t h the generative system enabled active feedback thus helping re s o l v e i s s u e s t h e y o c c u r re d a n e n a b l i n g a m o re e f f i c i e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n p ro c e s s . T h e u s e o f s c r i p t i n g t o i n t e g r a t e d c o n struction and design is also by Achim Menges: ‘material information should become a generative driver rather than an a f t e r t h o u g h t i n d e s i g n” . tools”.

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By closely looking at the “Space of Waves”, which took the technical qualities of pressboard to its limits, bending it as far as possible to obtain a curvature effect inspired by the imperfect forms of the cup used during the tea ceremony. The cylindrical pavilion following the shape of the cup is dematerialized and is composed of tilted “waves” of plywood that, thanks to incisions made through the numerical controlled machines, create the space of the pavilion. The “waves” cast a calming repetitive pattern that sugg e s t e d i d e a s o f r e l a x a t i o n . Yo u c a n s e e h o w t h e l i g h t c a n be used to cast shadows of calm or excitment, this is an impor tant “theme” we want to express.

A s K a o n Ko a n d S a l v a t o r – J o h n L i o t t a i n t i m a t e d “ m o s t a rc h i t e c t s t o d a y a re f o rc e d t o s q u e e z e t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n t h ro u g h t h e p re f a b r i c a t e d s t r u c t u re s o f e x i s t i n g p ro t o c o l s w h e re a s s c r i p t ing enabled designers to ‘tweak the constraints of their tools”. A sentiment also echoed by Mark Burry when he stated that d e s i g n e r s t h a t re l y o n c o m p u t a t i o n a l d e s i g n y e t d o n’ t s c r i p t “ a t o n c e p l a c e t h e i r e n t i re t r u s t i n t h e s o f t w a re e n g i n e e r s ” .

SPACE OF WAVES

C O LU M B I A U N I V E R S I T Y P A V I L I O N

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Nami-no-ma (space of waves) pavilion app ro p r i a t e a s a n J a p a n e s e a e s t h e t i c s t o o k t h e t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f p re s s b o a rd t o i t s l i m its, bending it as far as possible to obtain a c u r v a t u re e f f e c t i n s p i re d b y t h e i m p e r f e c t forms found in the traditional Japanese tea b o w l w a s e x p re s s e d i n t h e o u t e r s k i n o d t h e p a v i l i o n w h i c h a l s o c re a t e d a b a r r i e r t o t h e o u t s i d e . C o m p o s e d o f t i l t e d “ w a v e s ” o f p l yw o o d i n w h i c h i n c i s i o n s m a d e t h ro u g h t h e n u m e r i c a l c o n t ro l l e d m a c h i n e s c re a t e s t h e space of the pavilion.

Designed by the students of the Columbia U n i v e r s i t y u s i n g t h e p a r a m e t r i c d e s i g n p ro c e s s a s a p re t e x t t o b r i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e t e a c e re m o n y t o t h e p ro j e c t .

The ‘130008252010’ pavilion was designed to perform its function only at a p re c i s e , p re d e t e r m i n e d t i m e : 1 3 : 0 0 , 2 5 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0 . T h e s u n l i g h t f i l t e re d t h o u g h the external surface consisted of a bold but gentle triangular composition, would fall on a similar pattern on the floor interplaying w i t h t h e p a t t e r n e d f l o o r. T h e o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e l i g h t a n d f l o o r p a t t e r n l a s t s o n l y b r i e f l y. T h e e f f e c t i s q u i t e d e l i c a t e , c re a t i n g a s y m m e t r i c a l a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e re d a p p e a l i n g i n J a p a n e s e c u l t u re a n d s p e c i f i c t o t h i s m o ment in time.

T h e y c re a t e d a s p a t i a l s e q u e n c e w h e re g u e s t s a n d h o s t s e n t e r f ro m s e p a r a t e e n t re e s a n d t h e s e a t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e t e a m a s ter and the two guests using them as “focal points and attractors”. This spatial distinct i o n w a s re i n t e r p re t e d t h ro u g h t h e c re a t i o n of attractor points for each part.


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ATTRACTOR POINT + COMPONENTS IMAGESAMPLER + COMPONENTS

MATHS FUNCTIONS + COMPONENTS

ATTRACTOR POINT + EXTRUDE

IMAGESAMPLER + EXTRUDE

MATHS FUNCTIONS + EXTRUDE

M U LT IP L E M A T H S FU NCT ION + EX T R U D E

ATTRACTOR POINT + ROTATION

IMAGESAMPLER + ROTATION

MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATION

M U LT IP L E M A T H S FU NCT ION + ROTATION

ATTRACTOR POINT + C O M PO N E N T S IMAGESAMPLER + C O M PO N E N T S

MATHS FUNCTIONS + C O M PO N E N T S M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + C O M PO N E N T S

U S ING S ET + EX T R U D E

ATTRACTOR POINT + EXTRUDE

IMAGESAMPLER + EXTRUDE

MATHS FUNCTIONS + EXTRUDE

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + E XT R UD E

U S ING S ET + ROTATION

ATTRACTOR POINT + ROTATION

IMAGESAMPLER + ROTATION

MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATION

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + ROTATION

SURFACE GRID

EXPLICIT GRIDS

ATTRACTOR POINT + COMPONENTS

IMAGESAMPLER + COMPONENTS

MATHS FUNCTIONS + COMPONENTS

M U LT IP L E M A T H S FU NCT ION + COMPONENTSU S ING S ET + COMPONENTS

ATTRACTOR POINT + COMPONENTS

IMAGESAMPLER +COMPONENTS

MATHS FUNCTIONS + COMPONENTS

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + COMPONENTS U SI NG SET + COMPONENTS

ATTRACTOR POINT + EXT RU D E

IMAGESAMPLER + E X TRUDE

MATHS FUNCTIONS + EX T R U D E

M U LT IP L E M A T H S FU NCT ION + EX T R U D E

U S ING S ET + EX T R U D E

ATTRACTOR POINT + EXTRUDE

IMAGESAMPLER + EXTRUDE

MATHS FUNCTIONS + EXTRUDE

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + E XT R UD E

U SI NG SET + EX TRU DE

ATTRACTOR POINT + ROTATION

IMAGESAMPLER + ROTATION

MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATION

M U LT IP L E M A T H S FU NCT ION + ROTATION

U S ING S ET + ROTATION

ATTRACTOR POINT + ROTATION

IMAGE SAMPLER + ROTATION

MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATION

MULTIPLE MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATION

USING SET + ROTATION

SURFACE NORMS

OVERLAPPING PATTERNS


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h e f i r s t s e t o f m a t r i c e s t h a t w e re p ro d u c e d a re a re s u l t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h d i f f e re n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e p ro v i d e d d e f i n i t i o n s . T h e i n t e n t o f t h e s e m a t r i c e s w e re t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a n d e x p l o re t h e c h a n g e s t h a t w e re o c c u r i n g a s d i f f e re n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f i n p u t s , a s o c i a t i o n s a n d o u t t p u t s w e re c o m b i n e d . I n e v e r y g r a p h i c p re s e n t a t i o n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n is how to communicate graphically in the most succinct, effective and elaborate when needed too and non ambiguo u s l y. I n t h i s c a s e w h e re t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l d e s i g n p ro c e s s p ro d u c e s m u l t i p l e a n d o p e n e n d e d o u t c o m e s o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r o p t i m a l d e s i g n , i t i s t h e re f o re n e c e s s a r y t o l a y t h e m o u t i n a s t r u c t u re d w a y, n o t j u s t f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e c l i ent but also for the designers own benefit. S t r u c t u r i n g t h e re s u l t s i n a m o re s t r u c t u re d w a y a l l o w s t h e designer to declutter systematically his or her workspace a n d t h i n k i n g s p a c e a n d a l l o w s h i m o r h w e t o s e e e m e rg i n g p a t t e r n s o r v a l u e s i n h i o r h e r m a n y, m a n y d i f f e re n t c a n d i d a t e s . I t a l l o w s d e s i g n e r s t o e f f e c t i v e l y c o m p a re a n d c ro s s c h e c k w i t h t h e d i f f e re n t m e t h o d s h e o r s h e u s e d a n d m a k e a m o re i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n .

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T h e p ro c e s s o f e x p l o r i n g a n d c re a t i n g t h e s e m a t r i c e s c a n re l a t e t o K a l a y ’ s “ Pa r a d i g m o f D e s i g n” , i n t h i s c a s e , i t re l a t e s m o re t o t h e p ro c e s s o f “ p u z z l e m a k i n g ” . T h e m e t h o d s o f d i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f i r s t w e re d o n e , a s t h i s w a s t h e primary method used when exploring grasshopper definitions. Each grasshopper definition had its possibilities and candidates exhausted moving on to another candidate. T h e re w a s n o s p e c i f i c g o a l t o c re a t e a s p e c i f i c g e o m e t r y o r p a t t e r n a n d t h e re f o re d e s i g n i n g b e c o m e s a p ro c e s s o f d i s c o v e r y t h a t i s n’ t n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d b y c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t m i g h t ’ v e s u r f a c e d a s a re s u l t o f s e t t i n g g o a l s . T h i s m e t h o d m a y b e b e n e f i c i a l i n t h e p ro c e s s o f d e s i g n i n g W y n d h a m ’ s g a t e w a y a s i t c a n g e n e r a t e u n i q u e re s u l t s .

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O n c e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e g e o m e t r i e s t h a t c a n b e p ro d u c e d b y u s i n g d i f f e re n t i n p u t s , a s o c i a t i o n s a n d o u t p u t s , t h e p ro c e s s o f c re a t i n g m a t r i c e s b e c o m e s m o re g o a l o r i e n t­ a t e d , i n t e r m s k n o w i n g w h a t k i n d o f p a t t e r n s t h a t y o u w a n t t o a c h i e v e - t h e p ro c e s s o f “ p ro b l e m s o l v i n g ” a c c o rd i n g t o K a l a y. IMAGESAMPLER + EXTRUDE

IMAGESAMPLER + ROTATE

H a v i n g s p e c i f i c i n t e n t i o n s c re a t e s c o n s t r a i n t s w h e re b y a n y a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s a re t a i l o re d t o m e e t t h o s e re q u i re m e n t s . A p p l y i n g s u c h a d e s i g n p ro c e s s t o t h e d e s i g n i n g o f W y n d h a m ’ s gateway can be suitable as the gateway will be designed to meet the context of the site and w h a t t h e y re p re s e n t , h o w e v e r, t h e e n d d e s i g n m a y b e l i m i t e d t o i t s t y p o l o g y a n d m o r i e .

MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATE

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + R O T A T E

IMAGESAMPLER + COMPONENT

MATHS FUNCTIONS + COMPONENT

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + C O M PO N E N T

IMAGESAMPLER + ROTATE

MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATE

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + R O T A T E

SURFACE GRID

A f t e r p ro d u c i n g a l a rg e a r r a y o f o u t c o m e s i t b e c a m e c l e a r that this design method would need parameters in which would affect our choice of design solutions. W h a t a re t h e p a r a m e t e r s a f f e c t i n g o u r c h o i c e o f d e s i g n solutions? A lot of factors have been identified: site, f a b r i c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y, s t a k e h o l d e r s , b u t m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y it should also utilize, train and sharpen the designers i n t u i t i o n o r a r t , f ro m a n d c o m p o s i t i o n .

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IMAGESAMPLER + EXTRUDE

IMAGESAMPLER + ROTATE

MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATE

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MATHS FUNCTIONS + ROTATE

M ULT I PL E M A T HS F UN C T I O N + R O T A T E

EXPLICIT GRIDS

IMAGESAMPLER + ROTATE

OVERLAPPING PATTERNS


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A I R S P A C E T O K YO N a m e : A i r s p a c e To k y o A rc h i t e c t s : F a u l d e r s S t u d i o B u i l d i n g D e s i g n : S t u d i o M . To k y o Lo c a t i o n : To k y o Completed: 2007

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i r s p a c e To k y o d e s i g n e d b y S t u d i o M . To k y o i s a f o u r- s t o r y re s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e rc i a l m i x e d - u s e b u i l d i n g . The facade, which is one of the most attractive parts of the b u i l d i n g , u s e s t w o l a y e r s o f v o ro n o i p a t t e r n w i t h d i f f e re n t l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y. I t i s a p ro t e c t i v e a i r s p a c e t h a t re f l e c t s t h e u n i q u e p re e x i s t i n g l a n d s c a p e o f t h e s i t e . T h e f a c a d e m a k e s t h e a t m o s p h e re t r a n s f e r n a t u r a l l y f ro m t h e e x t e r i o r t o t h e i n t e r i o r a n d p ro v i d e s e s s e n t i a l p r i v a c y p ro t e c t f o r t h e re s i d e n t i a l a re a s . T h i s o v e r l a p p i n g p a t t e r n n o t o n l y c re a t e s a u n i q u e e x t e r i o r b u t a l s o c a n b e e n j o y e d f ro m t h e inside and still be private, even as you walk closer to the b u i l d i n g t h e p a t t e r n b e c o m e s d e n s e r a n d t h e re f o r p ro t e c t s t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e re s i d e n c e . “ T h e c e l l a r d e s i g n o f t h e p a t t e r n i s i n re f e re n c e t o b i o morphic density of the original vegetation. The design is generated by computation technology by the help of d e s i g n t e c h n o l o g i s t p ro c e s s � ( Pe l l , 2 0 1 0 ) A i r s p a c e To k y o i s a n e x a m p l e o f h o w t o c re a t e d 3 d e f f e c t with 2d patterns. The design itself contains two simple layers of 2d patterns, however with overlapping the patt e r n s a m o re s t e re o s c o p i c f e e l i n g h a s b e e n g e n e r a t e d t h ro u g h t h e i n t e r a c t o f t h e p a t t e r n s a s w e l l a s t h e g a p b e t w e e n t h e m . T h e l a y e r s s e e m t o l o o k m o re l i k e s e v e r a l layers of vegetation mixed together which is what Faulders S t u d i o w a s t r y i n g t o c re a t e . T h e l a y e r s c re a t e d a s p a c e i l l u s i o n t h a t m a k e s 2 d a n d 3 d . M o re o v e r t h e p e o p l e ’ s m o v e m e n t w i t h i n t h e b u i l d i n g c h a n g e s t h e p a t t e r n s c re a t i n g a n i l l u s i o n o f m o v e m e n t . T h i s re l a t e d t o t h e G a t e w a y p ro j e c t a n d t h e n o t i o n o f n a t u re , m o v e m e n t o f l i g h t a n d p a t t e r n . This technique of overlapping patterns becomes useful in m a k i n g 2 d , 3 d a n d a n a p p ro a c h t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e G a t e w a y P ro j e c t We s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r h o w n a t u re h a s b e e n u s e d n o t o n l y t h i s p i e c e o f a rc h i t e c t u re b u t m a n y p i e c e s o f a rc h i t e c t u re . T h e s t r u c t u re o f a t re e , t h e p a t t e r n o f a f l o w e r a n d e v e n t h e m i c ro o rg a n i s m s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d a n d m a d e re f e re n c e t o i n m a n y b u i l d i n g s . T h e A i r s p a c e s u s e d t h e re f e re n c e t o b i o m o r p h i c d e n s i t y o f v e g e t a t i o n i n a n a b s t r a c t w a y, t h i s g a v e a n d c a n g i v e a m u c h m o re m e a n i n g f u l b a c k g ro u n d i n t u r n m a y l e a d t o u n i m a g i n a b l e o u t c o m e s .


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hen traveling 100 kilometers per hour on the f re e w a y y o u w i l l t r a v e l a p p ro x i m a t e l y 2 7 7 m e t e r s p e r 1 0 s e c o n d s . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e s i t e t a k e s a p ro x i m a t l e y 4 5 seconds to pass and 20 seconds of which you pass the c h o s e n l o c a t i o n f o r s c u l p t u re .

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oiré patterning is an optical phenomenon that may appear as a wavy, rippled or circular pattern under certain lighting conditions. This illusion of movement in a s t i l l o b j e c t c a n b e a c h i e v e d b y a n i n t e rference pattern caused by two surfaces an angles with each other. The moiré feature is instilled in the design proposal for the Western Gateway Project.

SHADOS AND INTENCITY

SHADOS AND INTENCITY

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his diagram helps explain how traffic becomes very intense in the melbourne CBD. his diagram helps explain how traffic becomes very intense in the melbourne CBD.his diagram helps explain how traffic becomes very intense in the melbourne CBD.his diagram helps explain how traffic becomes very intense in the melbourne CBD.his diagram helps explain how traffic becomes very intense in the melbourne CBD.

WHEN AN OVERLAPPING PLANE DOESN’T HAVE MUCH OF DIRECTIONAL SHIFT FROM T H E P L A N E B E LO W I T, YO U C A N E N D U P WITH AN EFFECT LIKE BELOW. IT LOOKS JARRING AND WILL TAKE ATTENTION AWAY FROM YOUR DRAWING.

L i g h t e r Tr a f f i c H e a v y Tr a f f i c

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DISTANCE OF FOG Name: Distance of Fog Lo c a t i o n : To k y o , J a p a n Ty p e : H o u s e A rc h i t e c t s : s t u d i o g r e e n b l u e Ye a r : N o v e m b e r, 2 0 1 1

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istance of fog’ is a house that has been recently completed by Japanese studiogreenblue. Situated in the s u b u r b s o f To k y o , t h e p r o j e c t s i t e i s l o c a t e d o n a C u l d e sac with seven other single family homes. Cul de sac’s in Japan often are used as a common space for the families that live on them, and they are often used as children’s playgrounds or places of gathering but unfortunately, most suburban japanese homes tend to be disconnected to the street. The client requested an ‘expanse of space’ and an ‘open floorplan’ which suited their lifestyle. Therefore, the architects decided to design a house with a bright presence they also wanted to extend the brightness into the rooms and naturally illuminate the common spaces within. The home. privacy became the biggest challenge when deciding to open the home up to the street. it became apparent that the proximity of the home to the road presented a challenge of separation between spaces. So studiogreenblue decided to create a sense of distance with the concept of looking through fog.This concept breaks up the visual range, without creating a solid barrier. using the concept of filtering an image, we adjusted the level of visual information penetrating through multiple layers creating an effect similar to looking though fog. first, we moved the house to the back of the lot and maximized the front yard. Then they adjusted the level of visual information as it relates to the finish floor level, placement of walls, and also reflections on mirrors and glass. Furthermore, the architects separated the private room by using perforated metal screens, each one of a unique pattern, and they were arranged to very specific locations. By overlapping the perforated metal, a moiré pattern is formed, which creates a screening effect, similar to fog. The moiré pattern constantly changes according to the angle of the viewer, and it creates a twinkling pattern at night. Moreover, the light pattern is filtered onto the wall, the floors, and the ceiling and creates a softening effect like under water. it required the understanding of multiple levers of filtering to maintain brightness in the home and a new sense of distance to the public realm. through these design techniques, it successfully became the house on the cul de sac with a ‘bright sense of existence’ in suburban tokyo.

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LIGHT AND SHADOW

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o r h u n d re d s o f y e a r s a r t i s t s a n d a rc h i t e c t s h a v e been fascinated by cast shadows and perspective – the t w o s h a p i n g f a c t o r s o f s p a t i a l re p re s e n t a t i o n . To d a y t h e d i re c t c o n t ro l o f p ro d u c t i o n m a c h i n e r y b y m e a n s o f d i g i t a l d e s i g n t o o l s i m p a r t s a n e n t i re l y n e w c o m p l e x i t y t o ‘ o p t i c a l re l i e f s ’ , w h i c h n o t o n l y e n a b l e a n y i m a g e t o b e c re a t e d a s a c a s t s h a d o w , b u t a l s o m a k e i t p o s s i b l e t o re p re s e n t a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f i m a g e s i n o n e re l i e f s u r f a c e . A n o t h e r n e w f a c t o r i s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d u s t r i a l p ro d u c t i o n , w h i c h o p e n s u p n e w p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a rc h i t e c t u re i n p a r t i c u l a r.

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h e c h o s e n c u t s w h e re l a s e r c u t w i t h p a p e r i n o rd e r t o s e e h o w t h e y w o u l d e f f e c t w i t h l i g h t f ro m m u l t i p l e l i g h t s o u rc e s s h i n n i n g o n t o a n d t h ro u g h . We f o u n d t h e s h a d o w s g e n e r a t e d b y o v e r l a p p i n g t w o p a t t e r n s w h e re p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e re s t i n g . We a l s o t i re d s h i n i n g m u l t i p l e l i g h t s o u rc e s i m i t a t i n g c a r s d r i v i n g f ro m o n e a n d m u l t i p l e d i re c t i o n s .


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he form was development by to try the chos e n C U T ( I m a g e S a m p l e r a n d R o t a t i o n ) o n a m o re dynamic shape with many plans, and see how the moiré patterning would cast. We wanted our object to blend into the landscape and not be seen, we didn’t want to form to be iconic but the experience. B y d e v e l o p i n g a s c r i p t i n G r a s s h o p p e r w e w h e re a b l e t o c re a t e a f o r m o f c o n t o u r s , t h a t re f l e c t e d t h e l a n d s c a p e a ro u n d . A l t h o u g h w e h a d m o d e l l e d i t with grasshopper and rhino this experiment didn’t e n d u p w i t h t h e re s u l t s t h a t w e w e re e x p e c t i n g . T h e form didn’t show the moiré pattern as well at we had e x p e c t e d b u t i n s t e a d c a s t a r a i n d ro p a p p e a r a n c e . T h e re s u l t w a s u n e x p e c t e d a n d h a s g i v e n u s s o m e t h i n g t o think about. Should this form be continued? T h e p re v i o u s p re c e d e n t s h a v e s h o w n t h a t c o m p u t a t i o n d e s i g n c a n b e v e r y u s e f u l i n a p p ro a c h t o a rc h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . I t p ro v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e m o re d e s i g n o u t c o m e s a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n p ro c e s s m o re c o n v e n i e n t . U s i n g c o m p u t a t i o n p ro c e s s i n t h e G a t e w a y P ro j e c t h a s a d v a n tages. It has also shown that computation designing does n o t a l w a y s c a s t t h e s a m e e f f e c t s f ro m c o m p u t e r t o l i f e .

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READING BETWEEN THE LINES A rc h i t e c t s : G i j s Va n Va e re n b e rg h N a m e : Re a d i n g B e t w e e n t h e L i n e s Lo c a t i o n : B o rg l o o n , L i m b u rg Ty p e : C u l t u r a l / Pu b l i c A rc h i t e c t s : G i j s Va n Va e re n b e rg h Ye a r : S e p t e m b e r, 2 0 1 1

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n a re c e n t p ro j e c t , B l e g i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n G i j s Va n Va a re n b e rg h h a s c re a t e d a s c u l t p u re , v i s s u a l l y t r a s p a re n t c h u rc h m a d e f ro m h o r i z o n t a l l a y e re d s t e e l . T h e s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r t h a n l i f e - s i z e d p i e c e , c re a t e d u s i n g 3 0 t o n e s o f p l a t e s t e e l s e p a r a t e d b y m e t a l b l o c k s , i s t i t l e d “ Re a d ing Between the Lines” and is not intended as an actual c h u rc h b u t r a t h e r a p l a c e o f re f l e c t i o n a n d i n t ro s p e c t i o n : “ b e c a u s e t h e c h u rc h d o e s n o t f u l f i l l i t s c l a s s i c a l f u n c t i o n , i t c a n b e re a d a s a h e r i t a g e re l a t e d re f l e c t i o n o n t h e p re s e n t v a c a n c y o f c h u rc h e s i n t h e a re a a n d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a r t i s t i c re u s e . ” D e p e n d i n g o n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e v i e w e r, t h e c h u rc h i s e i t h e r p e rc e i v e d a s a m a s s i v e b u i l d i n g o r s e e m s t o d i s s o l v e , p a r t l y o r e n t i re l y, i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , l o o k i n g a t t h e l a n d s c a p e f ro m w i t h i n t h e c h u rc h , t h e s u r ro u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e i s re d e f i n e d b y a b s t r a c t l i n e s . T h u s b r i n g t h e c h u rc h w i t h a ro m a n t i c n a m e o f “ Re a d i n g between the Lines”. When viewing in the landscape, the c h u rc h s e e m s t o d i s s o l v e i n t h e a i r. G i j s Va n Va e re n b e rg h w e re a l s o re s p o n s i b l e f o r c re a t i n g a n u p s i d e d o m e i n s i d e a n e x i s t i n g c h u rc h i n Le u v e n . T h i s a rc h i t e c t u r a l p i e c e a d v a n c e s a rc h i t e c t u r a l d i s c o u r s e b e c a u s e i t c h a l l e n g e s t h e i d e a o f w h a t ’ s u n re a l b y t a k i n g the concept of illusion, that dose not have a mass or form, a n d t r a n s l a t i o n i t i n t o a c t u a l b u i l t s p a c e . T h i s a p p ro a c h has power to critique our mundane, everyday concepts. A g a i n t h e m e a n i n g o f a rc h i t e c t u re i s p u s h e d e v e n f u r t h e r as these spaceless concepts or illusion become an actual 3d space. This concept of illusion could only be achieved by fabrication some form of visual or optical effect. The pavilion i s m a d e f ro m c h e a p b u i l d i n g s u b s t a n c e i t i s a c c e s s i b l e t o e v e r y o n e a n d y e t s t i l l m a n i p u l a t e s t h e p e rc e p t i o n a n d t h e n e w w o r l d o f t h e v i e w e r i n t o a n e w w h e re e v e r y t h i n g f a l l s s h o r t o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . V i e w s w i l l b e a l t e re d a n d u n e x pected experience will be made. T h i s p re s i d e n c e t h a t a s t r u c t u re c a n b e m a d e f ro m s u c h a h e a v y m a t e r i a l y e t d i s s a p e a r b e c o m e t r a n s p e re n t f ro m c e r t a i n a n g l e d i f f e re n t a n g l e .

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MIRRO CUBE HOTEL N a m e : M i r ro r Tre e H o u s e Lo c a t i o n : S w e d e n , H a r a d Ty p e : H o t e l A rc h i t e c t s : T h a m & V i d e g a rd Ye a r : J a n u a r y, 2 0 1 1

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e a d i n g o n f ro m re s e a rc h a n d t h e i d e a o n i n c o rporating the form parametrically into the landscape w e l o o k e d a t h o w w e c o u l d d o t h i s t h ro u g h t h e u s e o f m a t e r i a l s . T h e u s e o f m i r ro re d g l a z e d c l a d d i n g i n s p i re d u s t o l o o k i n t o c re a t i n g p i e c e o f a rc h i t e c t u re t h a t w o u l d n o t o n l y b e a p a r t o f n a t u re b y re f l e c t t h a t n a t u re . T h e S w e d i s h a rc h i t e c t u re T h a m & V i d e g a rd w h o in January of 2011 completed a unique and inspiring ro o m f o r t h e Tre e H o t e l i n n o r t h S w e d e n . B o t h p re a c h a l e s s - i s - m o re d e s i g n e t h o s t h a t h a s w o n w i d e a t t e n t i o n i n o u r p o s t - G e h r y p e r i o d w h e re e x t r a v a g a n c e . T h e c o n c e p t i s t o s u s p e n d a 1 3 - f o o t s q u a re b o x m a d e f ro m l i g h t w e i g h t a l u m i n u m a n d p l y w o o d a ro u n d a t re e t r u n k d e e p i n t h e w o o d s . T h e b o x i s c l a d i n m i r ro re d g l a s s , re f l e c t i n g b a c k i t s g re e n e n v i ro n m e n t a n d m a k i n g i t s m a s s a l m o s t d i s a p p e a r. T h e e x t e r i o r re f l e c t s t h e s u r ro u n d i n g s a n d t h e s k y, c re a t i n g a c a m o u f l a g e d re f u g e . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e x t e r i o r re f l e c t i n g t h e s u r ro u n d i n g s a n d t h e s k y c re a t i n g a c a m o u f l a g e d o r a l m o s t d i s a p p e a r i s w h a t w e w a n t t o a c h i e v e . F ro m a f a r y o u c a n o n l y s e e t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e b u t f ro m u p c l o s e e x p e r i e n c e i s v e r y d i f f e re n t .

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JAPANESE PAVILION N a m e : E X T R E M E N A T U R E : La n d s c a p e o f A m b i g u o u s S p a c e s Lo c a t i o n : I n t e r n a t i o n a l A rc h i t e c t u re E x h i b i t i o n o f La B i e n n a l e d i Ve n e z i a Ty p e : Pa v i l i o n A rc h i t e c t s : I s h i g a m i Ye a r : 2 0 0 5 I s h i g a m i , b o r n i n 1 9 7 4 , w o r k e d f o r t h e re n o w n e d a rc h i t e c t u r a l f i r m S A N A A a n d i s o n e o f t h e m o s t c o n t ro v e r s i a l y o u n g a rc h i t e c t s i n J a p a n t o d a y. H e c o n t i n u e s t o a m a z e t h e w o r l d s o f a r t a n d d e s i g n a s w e l l a s t h a t o f a rc h i t e c t u re w i t h s t r u c t u re s t h a t a re e x t re m e b u t s o m e h o w a p p e a r n a t u r a l , s u c h a s t a b l e o f 2005, which was 9.5 meters long but only 3 mm thick, balloon of 2007, 14 meters high and weighing a t o n , a n d t h e K A I T S t u d i o o f 2 0 0 8 d e s i g n e d f o r t h e K a n a g a w a I n s t i t u t e o f Te c h n o l o g y, w h i c h h a s 3 0 5 c o l u m n s a r r a n g e d r a n d o m l y l i k e t h e s t a r s i n t h e s k y. H e h a s g o n e b e y o n d t h e d e s i g n s t y l e o f S A N A A t o e s t a b l i s h h i s o w n p o s i t i o n o n t h e c u t t i n g e d g e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y J a p a n e s e a rc h i t e c t u re . O rd i n a r i l y, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s h o w a c t u a l b u i l d i n g s i n a n e x h i b i t i o n o f a rc h i t e c t u re . M o d e l s , i m a g e s , o r d r a w i n g s a re u s e d a s s u b s t i t u t e s . T h e i n s t a l l a t i o n f o r m a t , a n a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d o f s h o w i n g a rc h i t e c t u r a l f o r m s , h a s a p a r a s i t i c a l re l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u re . I n t h e J a p a n e s e Pa v i l i o n , I s h i g a m i t a k e s a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e re n t a p p ro a c h i n o rd e r t o p re s e n t n e w p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a rc h i t e c t u re b y c o n s t r u c t i n g “ b u i l d i n g s ” a t a s c a l e o f 1 : 1 . T h e s e b u i l d i n g s , w h i c h a re d e s i g n e d w i t h p re c i s e s t r u c t u r a l c a l c u l a t i o n s s o t h e y a re j u s t b a re l y a b l e t o s t a n d , s u g g e s t t h e f u t u re p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a rc h i t e c t u re a n d t h e re f o re p o s e t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n : W h a t i s a rc h i t e c t u re ? T h e y a re e x t re m e l y d e l i c a t e g re e n h o u s e s w i t h a n e p h e m e r a l p h y s i c a l p re s e n c e t h a t b l e n d i n t o t h e e n v i ro n m e n t . S t r u c t u r a l p l a n s w e re p re p a re d by Jun Sato. I n t h e p re v i o u s I n t e r n a t i o n a l A rc h i t e c t u re E x h i b i t i o n o f La B i e n n a l e d i Ve n e z i a , s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s h a v e t e n d e d t o f o c u s o n t h e a rc h i t e c t u re o f t h e p a s t , b u t t h i s s o r t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n s h o u l d n o t f u n c t i o n l i k e a m u s e u m . I t s h o u l d b e a n a re n a f o r p re s e n t i n g t h e a rc h i t e c t u re o f t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n . T h e g re a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p o s i t i o n s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n s t a g e s f o r c h a l l e n g i n g e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t h a v e re v o l u t i o n i z e d t h e h i s t o r y o f a rc h i t e c t u re s i n c e t h e f i r s t G re a t E x h i b i t i o n o f Lo n d o n i n 1 8 5 1 , a s e x e m p l i f i e d b y t h e E i f f e l To w e r a n d t h e B a rc e l o n a Pa v i l i o n . T h e e x h i b i t i o n s a t t h e J a p a n e s e Pa v i l i o n h a v e a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n f o r t h e i r f i n - d e - s i è c l e a t m o s p h e re a n d d e c l a r a t i o n s o f t h e e n d o f a rc h i t e c t u re . T h e s e e x h i b i t i o n s h a v e d e a l t w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f e a r t h q u a k e s , c i t y o f g i r l s , a n d o t a k u c u l t u re . N o w t h a t w e h a v e e n t e re d a n e w c e n t u r y, h o w e v e r, i t i s t i m e f o r t h e J a p a n e s e Pa v i l i o n t o c o n s i d e r t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a rc h i t e c t u re r a t h e r t h a n i t s e n d . T h e C r y s t a l Pa l a c e , w h i c h h o u s e d t h e f i r s t g re a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p o s i t i o n , a d o p t e d t h e s t r u c t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y o f a g re e n h o u s e , s o t h e e x h i b i t i o n i n t h e J a p a n e s e Pa v i l i o n l o o k s b a c k t o t h e o r i g i n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p o s i t i o n s w h i l e s u g g e s t i n g p o s s i b l e b e g i n n i n g s f o r a n e w a rc h i t e c t u re . I s h i g a m i ’ s g re e n h o u s e s a re n o t e q u i p p e d w i t h a i r c o n t ro l s y s t e m s a n d a re n o t s e a l e d o f f f ro m t h e o u t s i d e b y a s t ro n g b a r r i e r, s o t h e y d o n o t c re a t e a p e r f e c t a r t i f i c i a l e n v i ro n m e n t . T h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e b a r r i e r re s u l t s i n a n a m b i g u o u s m i x i n g o f e l e m e n t s f ro m t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l e n v i ro n m e n t . W i t h t h e h e l p o f b o t a n i s t H i d e a k i O h b a , I s h i g a m i a i m s a t p re s e n t i n g a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t l i f e t h a t c re a t e s a s l i g h t d i s t u r b a n c e i n t h e l a n d s c a p e o f t h e p a r k . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e re s u l t i n g l a n d s c a p e s e e m s t o b e o rd i n a r y, b u t w e b e l i e v e t h i s i s a n e x t re m e l y p ro g re s s i v e a p p ro a c h t o t h e n a t u r a l e n v i ro n m e n t . T h e i n s i d e o f t h e J a p a n e s e Pa v i l i o n i s n e a r l y e m p t y, re v e a l i n g t h e b e a u t y o f i t s o r i g i n a l s p a c e . T h e g re e n h o u s e s s c a t t e re d a ro u n d i t g i v e t h e o u t s i d e s p a c e t h e a t m o s p h e re o f a n i n t e r i o r l a n d s c a p e . T h e a rc h i t e c t u re i s n o t g i v e n t h e d e f i n i t e q u a l i t i e s o f a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t a n d t h e re i s n o d u a l i s t i c re l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e . N o r i s p e rc e i v e d t h e o u t s i d e s p a c e a s a v o i d . T h e a rc h i t e c t u re d o e s not have an imposing façade that determines our view of the outside landscape. It is the interior s p a c e o f t h e g re e n h o u s e s , w i t h t h e i r t r a n s p a re n t v o l u m e , s e e m i n g l y f i l l e d w i t h e t h e r, t h a t m a k e s u s t h i n k o f e x t e r n a l s p a c e . F u r n i t u re i s a l s o p l a c e d o n t h e g ro u n d s a l o n g w i t h t h e g re e n h o u s e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h e i n t e r i o r o f a ro o m . T h e J a p a n e s e Pa v i l i o n i t s e l f i s m a d e t o a p p e a r a s a n a r t i f i c i a l e n v i ro n m e n t o r a n e l e m e n t o f t o p o g r a p h y. T h e o r i g i n a l o u t d o o r s p a c e o v e r l a p s w i t h t h e s p a c e t h a t e m e rg e s b e t w e e n t h e e p h e m e r a l s t e e l s t r u c t u re s c o v e re d w i t h g l a s s , c a u s i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a d o u b l e d ,


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LO N D O N S E R P E N T I N E : M I R R O R C LO U D P A V I L I O N N a m e : Lo n d o n S e r p e n t i n e Pa v i l i o n Lo c a t i o n : Lo n d o n Ty p e : Pa v i l i o n A rc h i t e c t s : S A N A A Ye a r : 2 0 1 0 “ M I N I M A L I S M W A S T H E R E I G N I N G S P I R I T. “

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a d e o f a l u m i n u m s h e e t s p o l i s h e d t o a m i r ro r f i n i s h , s u p p o r t e d b y s t a i n l e s s s t e e l c o l u m n s , t h e p a v i l i o n t o o k o n l y s i x m o n t h s f ro m c o n t r a c t t o c o m p l e t i o n . L i k e a n e t h e re a l p a r a s o l , o r s o m e s l e e k f u t u r i s t i c re i n c a r n a t i o n o f a n I t a l i a n s t o a , i t h o v e r s o n i t s s p i n d l y l e g s w h i l e v i s i t o r s t i l t t h e i r h e a d s u p a n d g a p e a t t h e i r d i s t o r t e d re f l e c t i o n s . D e s c r i b i n g i t a s ‘ d r i f t i n g f re e l y b e t w e e n t h e t re e s l i k e s m o k e , ” t h e a rc h i t e c t s i n t e n d e d t h e re f l e c t i v e c a n o p y t o “ u n d u l a t e a c ro s s t h e s i t e , e x p a n d i n g t h e p a r k a n d s k y. I t s a p p e a r a n c e c h a n g e s a c c o rd i n g t o t h e w e a t h e r, a l l o w i n g i t t o m e l t i n t o t h e s u r ro u n d i n g s . ” A l l o f t h e b u i l d i n g s i n S A N A A ’ s b a c k p o c k e t a re f a m o u s f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d a n c e a n d p l a y w i t h d a y l i g h t , a n d i n t h i s re s p e c t , S A N A A s e e m s t o b e k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r s i g n a t u re o f s h i m m e r i n g t r a n s p a re n c i e s a n d t r i c k s o f p e rc e p t i o n . ( S e e T h e N e w M u s e u m i n N e w Yo r k , Z o l l v e re i n S c h o o l i n E s s e n , C h r i s t i a n D i o r s t o re i n To k y o , I n s t i t u t e o f M o d e r n A r t E x t e n s i o n i n Va l e n c i a ) . Ye t t h i s p a v i l i o n d e p a r t s f ro m t h e i r u s u a l s t r a i g h t l i n e s a n d b o x i n e s s - - a n d m o v e s t o w a rd s a f l u i d , a m o e b i c re n d i t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o v e re d w a l k w a y. E a r l i e r t h i s s p r i n g , w h e n I w a s a s s i g n e d t o d e s i g n a ‘ Pa v i l i o n o f L i g h t ’ i n m y i n t e r i o r a rc h i t e c t u re s t u d i o , w e s t u d e n t s s p e n t t h e e n t i re f i r s t w e e k w h i n i n g a n d b a l k i n g a t t h e l a c k o f p ro j e c t c o n s t r a i n t s . A m i d s t a s e a s o n f u l l o f h i g h - p ro f i l e p a v i l i o n u n v e i l i n g s ( i n c l u d i n g M O S a t P. S . 1 , Z a h a H a d i d a n d B e n v a n B e r k e l a t M i l l e n n i u m Pa r k ) , I c a n’ t h e l p b u t w o n d e r a b o u t t h e m o d e r n s t a t e o f t h e p a v i l i o n’ s r a i s o n d ’ e t re . T h e a m b i g u i t y o f b o t h e n c l o s u re a n d f u n c t i o n h a s re n d e re d t h e t e r m i n t o a n a rc h i t e c t ’ s ‘ c a t c h - a l l ’ o f s o r t s , m e a n t t o l a b e l experimental showcases with insubstational purposes such as “a place to sit and ponder” o r “ t o i n v i t e i n s p i r a t i o n . ” N o w a l l s ? N o ro o f ? I s i t a s c u l p t u re ? N o , i t ’ s a Pa v i l i o n ! S t a t e d m o re n i c e l y, p e r h a p s Pa v i l i o n A rc h i t e c t u re a l l o w s a rc h i t e c t s t o e s c a p e a rc h i t e c t u re f o r a w h i l e , t o h a v e t h e f re e d o m t o e x p l o re a s i n g l e c o n c e p t a s a f u n c t i o n o f s p a c e t h a t i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f, w e l l , f u n c t i o n a l i t y. O v e r a l l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e s i g n s u c h a t h i n g f o r a n e x i s t i n g p a r k t h a t i s n o t a n a r b i t r a r y, i s o l a t e d o b j e c t ( s e e F r a n k G e h r y ’ s 2 0 0 8 S e r p e n t i n e Pa v i l i o n ) , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t h a s a n expiration date as well. But by blurring materiality and immateriality with their aluminum a n d p l e x i - g l a s s s u r f a c e s , t o t h e p o i n t w h e re i t i s a t t i m e s b a re l y v i s i b l e t h ro u g h t h e t re e s , S A N A A h a s m a n a g e d t o c o n n e c t s t r u c t u re t o e n v i ro n m e n t s u c c e s s f u l l y, a n d b r i n g s Lo n d o n a l o n g o n i t s c o n c e p t u a l j o u r n e y. M a y b e t h a t ’ s t h e re a l p u r p o s e o f p a v i l i o n s .

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h e s c u l p t u re w a s l a s e rc u t u s i n g p e r s p e x w h i c h deemed the most suitable material to portray the glass and p o l i s h e d m e t a l s u r f a c e t h a t i s t o b e u s e d i n re a l s c a l e . T h e s l e n d e r m e t a l p o l e s h o l d t h e s t r u c t u re w e l l w h i l s t b l e n d i n g i n t o t h e s u r ro u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e . T h e f i n a l d e s i g n o u t c o m e o f a d e l i c a t e , m o d e r n a n d n a t u r a l s c u l p t u re . T h e f i n a l d e s i g n w a s c re a t e d u s i n g f o r m e r a s p e c t s o f t h e p re v i ous experiments.This new form had a overlapping hanging l a y e r b e n e a t h t h e t o p s u r f a c e . T h i s e n a b l e d t h e m o i re e f f e c t t o t a k e p l a c e w h i l s t a l s o p o r t r a y i n g t h e i n c re a s i n g i n t e n s i t y a s f ro m a s i n g l e s u r f a c e t o o v e r l a p p i n g p l a n e s . H e n c e c re a t i n g a s m o o t h a n d d e l i c a t e s t r u c t u re .

PATTERN SURFACE

HANGING SURFACE

METAL POLES

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SUNRISE

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FINAL NOTES ABOUT OUR CONCEPT

I t i s a g o o d f i t f o r t h e g a t e w a y p ro j e c t b e c a u s e i t c a n n o t o n l y i n d i c a t e a c h a n g e o f re g i o n , b u t a l s o re f e r t o s o c i e t y a n d h i s t o r y, a s w e l l a s r a i s e re s p e c t s to life. The metaphor of evolution can also apply t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h u m a n s o c i e t y : a s m o re a n d m o re c o o p e r a t i o n g o i n g o n b e t w e e n p e o p l e , a b e t t e r s o c i e t y i s c re a t e d . R u l e s ( m a t h f u n c t i o n ) a n d c o o p eration (intersection) makes Werribe city (pattern) a p ro p e r f u n c t i o n i n g s o c i e t y. T h e c i t y h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t i m m i g r a t i o n h i s t o r y. T h e p l a c e w a s o r i g i n a l l y o c c u pied by aboriginal people. They formed a nice social network themselves (first pattern). Nevertheless, t h e a r r i v a l o f i m m i g r a t e s b ro k e t h e h a r m o n y o f t h e i r society and a conflict happened between aboriginal p e o p l e a n d i m m i g r a t e s t h a t d e s t ro y e d t h e o r i g i n a l social network (explosion). But with time goes on, t h e c o n f l i c t re d u c e d . W i t h e f f o r t s f ro m b o t h a b o r i g i n a l s a n d i m m i g r a t e s , t h e s o c i a l n e t w o r k g ro w s a n d f i n a l l y b e c o m e t h e c u r re n t W e r r i b e c i t y ( re p o s i t i o n t h e l i n e s t o b e c o m e t h e n e w p a t t e r n ) . W h a t ’ s m o re , t h i s d e s i g n c a n h e l p r a i s i n g re s p e c t s t o l i f e . Pe o p l e s h o u l d a l w a y s re s p e c t f o r l i f e e s p e c i a l l y i n h i g h w a y s . W i t h m i s t a k e s f ro m c a re l e s s d r i v e r s , n u m b e r s of life have lost under car wheels. With the metaphor re l a t e s t o t h e e v o l u t i o n p ro c e s s , a s w e l l a s t h e l i f e c i rc l e i n n a t u re , t h e d e s i g n s h o w s t h a t l i f e i s a d m i r a b l e a n d s h o u l d b e re s p e c t e d . O v e r a l l , t h e p ro j e c t c o m m u n i c a t e s t o p e o p l e . I t s h o w s a re l a t i o n t o o r n a m e n t a t i o n o f a rc h i t e c t u re history in which patterns and decorations of a b u i l d i n g a re c re a t e d t o h a v e h i s t o r i c a l , re l i g i o u s o r philosophical meanings. By using digital technolo g y, e . g . g r a s s h o p p e r, t h e g e n e r a t i o n p ro c e s s o f t h e d e s i g n b e c o m e s m u c h e a s i e r. R e p e a t i n g j o b s s u c h a s adding points by math functions, accumulating lines and basic geometries can be accurately done by the c o m p u t e r c a l c u l a t i o n a n d p ro c e s s i n g . W e c a n e a s i l y p ro d u c e v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s a c c o rd i n g t o o u r i n t e n s i o n a n d c h o o s e t h e b e t t e r o n e s f ro m t h e m t o d e v e l o p f u r t h e r. F u r t h e r m o re , i t i s m u c h e a s i e r t o c h a n g e t h e design in computer as we can simply change input d a t a o r p ro c e s s i n g r u l e s f o r t h e c o m p u t e r t o g e n e rate new designs.

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Le a r n i n g O u t c o m e s + Key Achievements T h e m e m b e r s o f m y g ro u p h a d s o m e b a s i c e x p e r i ence with grasshopper for an Ex-lab course in 2011. N o w a f t e r l o o k i n g a t p re c e d e n t C a s e S t u d i e s a n d trying to mimic and build them, we have a better understanding about the possibilities and the limitat i o n s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e a n d t h e d e s i g n p ro c e s s . F o r example, we understand Galapagos in grasshopper p ro d u c e s v e r y s i m i l a r l o o k i n g ( b o r i n g ) e x a m p l e s , a n d w e h a v e t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g o n m o re e x c i t i n g o u t c o m e s . A l s o , w e t r i e d t o p ro d u c e t h e p h y s i c a l model on perspex, but the material was both too e x p e n s i v e a n d w a s h a rd t o s e e t h e p ro g re s s i o n o f patterns because the material was so thick, it made t h e s t r u c t u re b l u r r y. W e w i l l u s e t h e l e s s o n s l e a r n t f ro m t h i s p ro j e c t t o b e n e f i t o u r f i n a l d e s i g n .

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n a re c e n t p ro j e c t , B l e g i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n G i j s Va n Va a re n b e rg h h a s c re a t e d a s c u l t p u re , v i s s u a l l y t r a s p a re n t c h u rc h m a d e f ro m h o r i z o n t a l l a y e re d s t e e l . T h e s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r t h a n l i f e - s i z e d p i e c e , c re a t e d u s i n g 3 0 t o n e s o f p l a t e s t e e l s e p a r a t e d b y m e t a l b l o c k s , i s t i t l e d “ Re a d ing Between the Lines” and is not intended as an actual c h u rc h b u t r a t h e r a p l a c e o f re f l e c t i o n a n d i n t ro s p e c t i o n : “ b e c a u s e t h e c h u rc h d o e s n o t f u l f i l l i t s c l a s s i c a l f u n c t i o n , i t c a n b e re a d a s a h e r i t a g e re l a t e d re f l e c t i o n o n t h e p re s

a re c e n t p ro j e c t , B l e g i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n G i j s Va n Va a re n b e rg h h a s c re a t e d a s c u l t p u re , v i s s u a l l y t r a s p a re n t c h u rc h m a d e f ro m h o r i z o n t a l l a y e re d s t e e l . T h e s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r t h a n l i f e - s i z e d p i e c e , c re a t e d u s i n g 3 0 t o n e s o f p l a t e s t e e l s e p a r a t e d b y m e t a l b l o c k s , i s t i t l e d “ Re a d i n g B e t w e e n t h e L i n e s ” a n d i s n o t i n t e n d e d a s a n a c t u a l c h u rc h b u t r a t h e r a p l a c e o f re f l e c t i o n a n d i n t ro s p e c t i o n : “ b e c a u s e t h e c h u rc h d o e s n o t f u l f i l l i t s c l a s s i c a l f u n c t i o n , i t c a n b e re a d a s a h e r i t a g e re l a t e d re f l e c t i o n o n t h e p re s

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