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Discover Europe

2011 World Copyright reserved First Published 2011 ISNB 1 85149 065 5 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, redcording or otherwise, without the prior permission of publishers.


iv

Barcelona

Berlin

CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 2

Introduction Barcelona Today Roman City History Geography Main Sights Antoni Gaudi

1 2 4 6 8 10 14

Introduction Barcelona Today The Spirit of berlin Geography history of berlin The Berlin Wall Culture The Arts

17 18 20 22 24 26 30 32


v

CONTENTS Prague

Paris

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 4

Introduction 35 Prague Today 36 The Spirit of Prague 38 Main Sights 40 History 42 Geography 46 Culture 50

Introduction Paris Today Main Sights City of Love Geography History Culture The Arts

53 54 56 59 61 62 64 67


1 | Barcelona

Barcelona Fancy a get-away to a vibrant, exciting new city? 看中了一個充滿活力,令人興 奮的新城市接應?

Barcelona is the capital and the most populous city of Catalonia and the second largest city in Spain, after Madrid, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of 101.4 km2 (39 sq mi). It is located on the Mediterranean coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs and is bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola ridge (512 m/1,680 ft). 巴塞羅那是資本和加泰羅尼亞人口最多的城市,並在 西班牙第二大城市,馬德里後,與內的土地面積101.4 平方公里(39平方英里)的行政限制人口的1621537。 它位於 Llobregat的河流和貝索斯的嘴之間的地中海沿 岸和西界的塞拉Collserola脊(512米/1,680英尺)。

Chapter 1 | Introduction

Introduction 介紹


Barcelona | 2

Barcelona Today 巴塞羅那今天

Barcelona is today one of the worlds leading tourist, economic and cultural sports centres...

Chapter 1 | Barcelona Today

Barcelona is today one of the world’s leading tourist, economic and cultural-sports centres, and its influences in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world’s major global cities. Indeed, it is a major economic centre and a growing financial centre (Diagonal Mar area); one of Europe’s principal Mediterranean ports, can be found here as well as Barcelona international airport, which handles about 30 million passengers per year. It also boasts an extensive motorway network and is a hub of highspeed rail, particularly that which will link France with Spain. Barcelona is the 16th-most-visited city in the world and 4th most visited in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome, with several million tourists every year. Barcelona is the 16th most “livable city” in the world according to lifestyle magazine monocle. 巴塞羅那是當今世界上領先的旅遊,經濟文化,體育 中心之一,並在商業,教育,娛樂,媒體,時尚,科 學,藝術及其影響的所有貢獻作為世界上主要的全球 城市之一的地位。事實上,這是一個主要的經濟中心 和一個不斷發展的金融中心(的Diagonal Mar區);歐洲 地中海的主要港口之一,可以在這裡找到,以及巴塞 羅那國際機場,每年處理約30萬人次。它還擁有廣泛的 高速公路網絡,是一個高速鐵路的樞紐,特別是那些 將連接法國與西班牙。巴塞羅那是訪問量最大的城市 在世界上16和第四大走訪後,倫敦,巴黎和羅馬在歐洲


Chapter 1 | Barcelona Today

3 | Barcelona


Barcelona | 4

Roman City 羅馬市

Chapter 1 | Roman City

Founded as a Roman city, Barcelona became the capital of the Counts of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, it became one of the most important cities of the Crown of Aragon. Besieged several times during its history, Barcelona is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination and has a rich cultural heritage. Particularly renowned are architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner that have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The city is well known in recent times for the 1992 Summer Olympics. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. As the capital of Catalonia, Barcelona houses the seat of the Catalan government, known as the Generalitat de Catalunya; of particular note are the executive branch, the parliament, and the Supreme Court of Catalonia. The city is also the capital of the Province of 作為羅馬城的成立,巴塞羅那成為巴塞羅那計數 的資本。與阿拉貢王國合併後,成為官方阿拉貢 最重要的城市之一。圍困在其歷史上的幾次, 巴塞羅那今天是一個重要的文化中心和主要旅遊 目的地,具有深厚的文化底蘊。特別是著名的建 築,已被指定為聯合國教科文組織世界遺產安 東尼高迪和Lluis多梅內克我蒙塔內爾的作品。在 最近時間為1992年夏季奧運會的城市是眾所周知 的。地中海聯盟的總部設在巴塞羅那。 加泰羅尼亞首府巴塞羅那房子加泰羅尼亞政府所 在地,被稱為 Generalitat加泰羅尼亞;特別值得注 意的是行政部門,議會,加泰羅尼亞最高法院。 這個城市也是巴塞羅那和Barcelonas comarca(希 雷)省的首府。

Founded as a Roman city, Barcelona became the capital of the Counts of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, it became one of the most important cities of the Crown of Aragon. Besieged several times during its history, Barcelona is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination and has a rich cultural heritage. Particularly renowned are architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner that have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The city is well known in recent times for the 1992 Summer Olympics. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona.


5 | Barcelona

Chapter 1 | Roman City

作為羅馬城的成立,巴塞羅那成為巴塞羅那計數的資 本。與阿拉貢王國合併後,成為官方阿拉貢最重要的 城市之一。圍困在其歷史上的幾次,巴塞羅那今天是 一個重要的文化中心和主要旅遊目的地,具有深厚的 文化底蘊。特別是著名的建築,已被指定為聯合國教 科文組織世界遺產安東尼高迪和Lluís多梅內克我蒙塔 內爾的作品。在最近時間為1992年夏季奧運會的城市是 眾所周知的。地中海聯盟的總部設在巴塞羅那。


Barcelona | 6

History 歷史 Founding Barcelona 成立巴塞羅那

Chapter 1 | History

The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends. The first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules 400 years before the building of Rome. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family, in the 3rd century BC. About 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum (Roman military camp) centred on the “Mons Taber”, a little hill near the contemporary city hall (Plaça de Sant Jaume). Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district, probably as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco (modern Tarragona); but it may be gathered from later writers that it gradually grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour. 巴塞羅那的成立是兩個不同的傳說的主題。第一個屬 性建城建設前羅馬神話中的大力士400年。第二個傳說 屬性直接到歷史的迦太基的漢尼拔的父親,誰命名的 城市Barcino後,他的家人在公元前3世紀,Hamilcar巴 薩,城市的基礎。約公元前15年,羅馬人重劃鎮作為 castrum(羅馬軍營)“蒙斯泰伯”,當代大會堂附近 的一個小山丘(前往Plaça桑特烏梅)為中心的。在羅 馬,它是一個殖民地Faventia姓,或在科洛尼亞 Faventia 朱莉婭奧古斯塔皮婭 Barcino或科洛尼亞朱莉婭奧古斯 塔 Faventia帕特納 Barcino。MELA區小城鎮中提到它, 可能因為它是由它的鄰居 Tarraco(現代塔拉戈納)黯 然失色,但它可能是從後來的作家聚集,逐步增長的 財富和後果的青睞,因為它是一個美麗的形勢和優良 的海港。


7 | Barcelona

Important Ruins Some important Roman ruins are exposed under the Plaça del Rei, entrance by the city museum (Museu d’Història de la Ciutat), and the typically Roman grid-planning is still visible today in the layout of the historical centre, the Barri Gòtic (“Gothic Quarter”). Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, also known as basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343. The city was conquered by the Visigoths in the early 5th century becoming for a few years the capital of the whole Hispania. Afterwards by the Arabs in the early 8th century, reconquered in 801 by Charlemagne’s son Louis who made Barcelona the seat of Carolingian “Spanish Marches” (Marca Hispanica), a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona. 市博物館(博物館,Historia德拉Ciutat),暴露了一 些重要的古羅馬廢墟下前往Plasa DEL麗,入口和典型 的羅馬電網規劃仍是可見的,在今天的歷史中心的佈 局,Barri Gotic(“哥特區”)。羅馬城牆的一些剩餘 的片段已被納入大教堂。大教堂,又稱教堂拉SEU,表 示已成立於343。西哥特人征服的城市,在5世紀初的幾 年成為整個 Hispania資本。後來由阿拉伯人在公元8世 紀初由查理曼的兒子路易斯在801重新征服,巴塞羅那 的加洛林王朝的“西班牙進行曲”(馬卡 Hispanica) 所在地,一個緩衝區裁定巴塞羅那伯爵。

Chapter 1 | History

重要遺址


Barcelona | 8

Geography 地理 Barcelona is located on the northeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula, facing the Mediterranean Sea... 巴塞羅那位於伊比利亞半島東北部 沿海,面臨地中海 Chapter 1 | Geography

Barcelona is located on the northeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula, facing the Mediterranean Sea, on a plateau approximately 5 km (3 mi) wide limited by the mountain range of Collserola, the Llobregat river to the southwest and the Besòs river to the north. This plateau has 170 km2 (66 sq mi), of which 101 km² (38.9 sq mi) are occupied by the city itself. It is 160 km (100 mi) south of the Pyrenees and the Catalonian border with France. The city borders are the municipalities of Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besòs to the north; the Mediterranean Sea to the east; El Prat de Llobregat and L’Hospitalet de Llobregat to the south; and Sant Feliu de Llobreg at, Sant Just Desvern, Esplugues de Llobregat, Sant Cugat del Vallès, and Montcada i Reixac to the west. 巴塞羅那是位於伊比利亞半島東北海岸,面臨地中 海,在高原約5公里(3英里)寬 Collserola,西南和貝 索斯河北Llobregat的河流山脈有限。高原第170筆資料 平方公里(66平方英里),其中第101筆公里²(38.9 平方英里)佔用城市本身。它是160公里(100英里) 南部的比利牛斯山脈和加泰羅尼亞與法國邊境。 城市 邊界,直轄市的聖科洛馬 - Gramenet和桑特ADRIA DE 貝索斯北,東地中海;寶勒 - Llobregat的厄爾尼諾和L’ Hospitalet的Llobregat的南;和Sant Feliu DE Llobregat的, 桑特Desvern Esplugues Llobregat的,桑特庫加特 DEL VALLES,和西方Montcada我Reixac。

Tibidabo Tibidabo, 512 m (1,680 ft) high, offers striking views over the city and is topped by the 288.4 m (946.2 ft) Torre de Collserola, a telecommunications tower that is visible from most of the city. Barcelona is peppered with small hills, most of them urbanized and that gave their name to the neighbourhoods built upon them, such as Carmel (267 m), Putxet (181 m) and Rovira (261 m). The escarpment of Montjuïc (173 m), situated to the southeast, overlooks the harbour and is topped by Montjuïc castle, a fortress built in the 17–18th centuries to control the city as a replacement for the Ciutadella. Today, the fortress is a museum and Montjuïc is home to several sporting and cultural venues, as well as Barcelona’s biggest park and gardens. Tibidabo,512米(1,680英尺)高,提供驚人的意見,並 在城市上空288.4米(946.2英尺),托里 - Collserola, 電訊塔,是從城市的最可見的突破。巴塞羅那是穿插 小山丘,其中大多數是城市化,這給了他們的名字, 如卡梅爾(267米),Putxet(181米)和羅維拉(261 米),建在他們的街區。Monjuic蒙特惠奇(173米), 位於東南懸崖俯瞰海港和Monjuic蒙特惠奇城堡,在17 〜18世紀建造的要塞,控制城市作為更換的Ciutadella 一個突破。如今,堡壘是博物館和Monjuic蒙特惠奇是 多個體育和文化場館,以及巴塞羅那的最大的公園和 花園。


Chapter 1 | Geography

9 | Barcelona


Barcelona | 10

Main Sights 主要景點 The Gothic Quarter 哥特區

Chapter 1 | Main Sights

The Barri Gòtic (“Gothic Quarter” in Catalan) is the centre of the old city of Barcelona. It stretchs from the Mediterranean seafront to Ronda de Sant Pere. Despite several changes undergone in the 19th and early 20th century, many of the buildings date from Medieval times, some from as far back as the Roman settlement of Barcelona. Remains of the squared Roman Wall can be seen around Tapineria and Sots-Tinent Navarro to the north, Avinguda de la Catedral and Plaça Nova to the west and Carrer de la Palla to the south. El Call, the medieval Jewish quarter, is located within this area too. The Barri Gòtic retains a labyrinthine street plan, with many small streets opening out into squares. Most of the quarter is closed to regular traffic although open to service vehicles and taxis. Many of the buildings date from medieval times, some from as far back as the Roman settlement of Barcelona. Catalan modernisme architecture (often known as Art Nouveau in the rest of Europe), developed between 1885 and 1950 and left an important legacy in Barcelona. A great number of these buildings are World Heritage Sites. Especially remarkable is the work of architect Antoni Gaudí, which can be seen throughout the city. Barri Gotic(加泰羅尼亞語的“哥特區”)是巴塞羅 那老城區的中心。它stretchs從地中海海濱隆達de桑特 Pere。儘管在19世紀和20世紀初經歷了幾次變化,許多 建築物的日期從中世紀時期,一些早在巴塞羅那的羅 馬解決。可以看到周圍 Tapineria和Sots大陸納瓦羅北 部,的Avinguda de la大教堂和前往Placa新星到西部和 Carrer de la Palla南平方羅馬城牆的遺跡。

Barri Gotic保留一個迷宮般的街道規劃,與許多小街 道,廣場開放到。本季度大部分是封閉正常的交通雖 然開放服務車輛和的士。許多建築物的日期從中世紀 時期,一些早在巴塞羅那的羅馬解決。加泰羅尼亞 modernisme架構(通常稱為新藝術運動在歐洲其他國 家),1885年和1950年之間,並在巴塞羅那留下了一個 重要的遺產。 大量的這些建築物是世界遺產。尤其引 人注目的是建築師安東尼高迪,可以看到整個城市的 工作。他最有名的工作是巨大的,但還沒有完成的教 堂Sagrada Familia教堂,其中有自1882年開工建設,仍 是由私人捐款資助。截至2007年,完成計劃為20


11 | Barcelona

The Barcelona Pavillion

巴塞羅那館 巴塞羅那也是密斯凡德羅的巴塞羅那館。在1929年的 德國國際博覽會設計,它是一個標誌性建築,來到以 象徵現代建築體現麵包車 DER德羅的格言警句“少就 是多”和“上帝在細節”的巴塞羅那館是作為一個意 臨時結構,並在1930年比一年後,其構造,被推倒。 現代再創造一個由西班牙建築師現在在巴塞羅那,然 而,建造於 1986年。巴塞羅那贏得了其體系結構的 1999年英國皇家建築師學會皇家金質獎章,第(和) 截至2009年,時間,冠軍一直是城市,而不是一個單 獨的建築師。 Chapter 1 | Main Sights

Barcelona was also home to Mies van der Rohe’s Barcelona Pavilion. Designed in 1929 for the International Exposition for Germany, it is an iconic building that came to symbolize modern architecture as the embodiment of van der Rohe’s aphorisms “less is more” and “God is in the details.” The Barcelona pavilion was intended as a temporary structure, and was torn down in 1930 less than a year after it was constructed. A modern re-creation by Spanish architects now stands in Barcelona, however, constructed in 1986. Barcelona won the 1999 RIBA Royal Gold Medal for its architecture, the first (and as of 2009, only) time that the winner has been a city.


Barcelona | 12

Concept 概念

Chapter 1 | Main Sights

Mies was offered the commission of this building in 1928 after his successful administration of the 1927 Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart. The German Republic entrusted Mies with the artistic management and erection of not only the Barcelona Pavilion, but for the buildings for all the German sections at the 1929 Universal Exhibition. However, Mies had severe time constraints—he had to design the Barcelona Pavilion in less than a year—and was also dealing with uncertain economic conditions. In the years following World War I, Germany started to turn around. The economy started to recover after the 1924 Dawes Plan. The pavilion for the Universal Exhibition was supposed to represent the new Weimar Germany: democratic, culturally progressive, prospering, and thoroughly pacifist; a self-portrait through architecture. The Commissioner, Georg von Schnitzler said it should give “voice to the spirit of a new era”. This concept was carried out with the realization of the “free plan” and the “floating room”. 密斯是提供本建設委員會在1928年後,他1927年在斯圖 加特 Werkbund展覽的成功管理。德國共和國委託密斯 不僅是巴塞羅那館與藝術管理和勃起,但所有在1929年 世界博覽會的德國部分建築物。然而,密斯有嚴重的時 間限制,他設計的巴塞羅那館在不到一年,也是不確定 的經濟條件下處理。德國在第一次世界大戰後的幾年, 開始扭虧為盈。經濟開始復甦後,1924年道威斯計劃。 世界博覽會館應代表的新的德國魏瑪:民主,文明進 步的蓬勃發展,並徹底的和平主義者;通過建築的自畫 像[1]專員,格奧爾格馮施尼茨勒說,它應該給“聲音 一個新時代的精神“。 這個概念與實現”自由計劃“ 和”浮房“。


13 | Barcelona

大廈

Mies’s response to the proposal by von Schnitzler was radical. After rejecting the original site because of aesthetic reasons, Mies agreed to a quiet site at the narrow side of a wide, diagonal axis, where the pavilion would still offer viewpoints and a route leading to one of the exhibition’s main attractions, the “Spanish Village”. The pavilion was going to be bare, no trade exhibits, just the structure accompanying a single sculpture and purpose-designed furniture (the Barcelona Chair). This lack of accommodation enabled Mies to treat the Pavilion as a continuous space; blurring inside and outside. “The design was predicated on an absolute distinction between structure and enclosure—a regular grid of cruciform steel columns interspersed by freely spaced planes”. However, the structure was more of a hybrid style, some of these planes also acted as supports. The floor plan is very simple. The entire building rests on a plinth of travertine. A southern U-shaped enclosure, also of travertine, helps form a service annex and a large water basin. 密斯馮施尼茨勒的建議作出的回應是激進的。拒絕因 為美學原因原址後,密斯同意一個在一個寬,對角線 軸,窄端的地方展館將仍然提供觀點和一個路線是導 致本次展覽的主要景點之一,在“西班牙村寧靜的網 站“ 。 展館是裸露的,沒有貿易展覽,只是一個單一 的雕塑和目的設計的家具(巴塞羅那主席)所附的結 構。這種缺乏住宿啟用密斯視為一個連續的空間館;模 糊內外。 “的設計結構和絕對的自由面間距穿插十字 形鋼列外殼定期電網之間的區別為前提。” 然而,結 構是混合風格,這些飛機也作為支持 的平面圖非常簡 單。整個建築由基座上的鈣華。南部的U形外殼,鈣 華,有助於形成一個服務的附件和一個大型水流域。

Chapter 1 | Main Sights

Building


Barcelona | 14 Barcelona

Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (Riudoms or Reus, 25 June 1852 – Barcelona, 10 June 1926) was a Spanish Catalan architect and the best-known representative of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí’s works are marked by a highly individual style and the vast majority of them are situated in the Catalan capital of Barcelona, including his magnum opus, the Sagrada Família. 安東尼高迪我短號(Riudoms或雷烏斯,6月25日1852 巴塞羅那,1926年6月10日)是西班牙加泰羅尼亞建築 師和最知名的加泰羅尼亞現代主義的代表。高迪的作 品被標記為一個高度個人化的的風格,他們中的絕大 多數都坐落在巴塞羅那的加泰羅尼亞首都,包括他的 巨著,Sagrada Familia教堂。

Much of Gaudí’s work was marked by the four passions of his life: architecture, nature, religion and his love for Catalonia. Gaudí meticulously studied every detail of his creations, integrating into his architecture a series of crafts, in which he himself was skilled, such as ceramics, stained glass, wrought ironwork forging and carpentry. He also introduced new techniques in the treatment of the materials, such as his famous trencadís, made of waste ceramic pieces. After a few years under the influence of neo-Gothic art, and certain oriental tendencies, Gaudí became part of the Catalan Modernista movement which was then at its peak, towards the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Gaudí’s work, however, transcended mainstream Modernisme, culminating in an organic style that was inspired by nature without losing the influence of the experiences gained earlier in his career. Rarely did Gaudí draw detailed plans of his works and instead preferred to create them as threedimensional scale models, moulding all details as he was conceiving them in his mind.


15 | Barcelona

Today he is admired by both professionals and the general public: his masterpiece, the Sagrada Família, is one of the most visited monuments in Spain. He awakened to his Roman Catholic faith during his life and many religious images can be seen in his works, a fact which has led to his being nicknamed “God’s Architect” and calls for him to be beatified. 今天,他是由專業人士和廣大市民都羨慕:他的傑 作,Sagrada Familia教堂,是在西班牙的訪問量最大 的古蹟之一。他驚醒,他的信仰羅馬天主教在他的一 生,在他w的作品中可以看到許多宗教圖像,從而導致 他被暱稱為“上帝的建築師”,並呼籲他是享福。

Chapter 1 | Antoni Gaudi

高迪的作品大部分是標誌著他一生的四個情慾:建 築,自然,宗教和他對加泰羅尼亞的愛。高迪認真研 究他的作品的每一個細節,他的建築集成工藝品系 列,他自己是熟練的,如陶瓷,彩繪玻璃,鍛造鐵器 鍛造,木工。他還介紹,在治療如他著名trencadís的 材料,廢陶瓷片製成的新技術。經過幾年的新哥特式 的藝術,和某些東方傾向的影響下,高迪成為加泰羅 尼亞的Modernista運動是邁向19世紀的結束,然後在其 高峰期和20年初的一部分。然而,高迪的作品,超越 了主流Modernisme,最終所取得的一個有機的風格,是 由大自然的啟發,而不會失去經驗的影響,早在他的 職業生涯。很少做高迪繪製詳細的計劃,他的作品, 而首選規模三維模型創建,鑄造的所有細節,因為他 構思在他的腦海。


Berlin | 16


BERLIN

17 | Berlin

A city of Paradoxes, it exerts a magnetic charm that few can resist 一個城市的悖論,它施加一個磁場的魅 力,很少人能抗拒he

簡介

Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany’s largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany, it is the center of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has 4.4 million residents from over 190 nations. Located in the European Plains, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes. 柏林是德國的首都,是德國的16個國家之一。隨著人口3.45萬 人,柏林是德國最大的城市。這是第二人口最多的城市,適 當和歐盟人口最多的第七市區。在位於德國東北部,它是柏 林/勃蘭登堡大都市區,其中有來自190多個國家的440萬居民 的中心。柏林位於歐洲平原,是由溫帶季節性氣候的影響。 圍繞一個全市面積的三分之一是由森林,公園,花園,河流 和湖泊。

Chapter 2 | Introduction

Introduction


Berlin | 18

An exhibit in the Jewish Museum Berlin, titled “It Was As Simple As That,” explores the experience of Jewish children in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria since 1945.

Chapter 2 | Berlin Today

Berlin Today 柏林今天 Munich may be richer and Hamburg more of a commerical powerhouse, but neither attracts the attention Berlin does. A colourful army of Zuzugler (newcomers) from all over the world and all walks of life have come and seem unable to leave. The number of tourists visiting the city has rocketed since 2000,placing Berlin in third place in Europe after London and Paris. Some 6.5 million overnight visitors were registered in 2005. Berlin has something for evryone. In few places is the drama and tradgedy of 20th-century European history so deeply etched into the fabric of the city. Berlin’s galleries are world class and cultural calender is jammed. With three opera houses, the Berlin Ohilharmoniker, and a thriving local gallery scene, Berlin is busy all year-round. Night owls have myriad opperuntites to test thier staying power in the restuarants, bars, and clubs of several different districts. 慕尼黑可能會更加豐富和漢堡的商業重地,但也吸引了關注 柏林。 Zuzugler(新人)來自世界各地和各行各業的一個豐富 多彩的軍隊來​​,似乎無法離開。訪問城市的遊客人數猛增自 2000年以來,放置在歐洲柏林排在第三位,僅次於倫敦和巴 黎。 2005年錄得約 650萬過夜遊客。 柏林為 evryone的東西。在少數地方,是20世紀歐洲的歷史如 此之深蝕刻成的織物的城市戲劇和tradgedy。柏林的畫廊都是 世界一流的文化日曆卡。三個歌劇院,柏林Ohilharmoniker, 一個蓬勃發展的當地畫廊場景w,柏林是全年都忙。 夜貓子有無數 opperuntites,以測試他們的後勁在幾個不同地 區的restuarants,酒吧和俱樂部。


Chapter | Berlin Today Chapter 2 2| Introduction

19 | Berlin


Berlin | 20

The Spirit of Berlin 柏林精神 Locals are known for there Schnauze, the Berlin version of attitude. Yes, berliners can have a curt and grouchy side, pretty much like any big-city follk. They also have a limitless sene of humour and self-deprecation. Berliners will be the first to smile and admit that they forever meckern (grumble) about almost everything (another big-city malady). Chapter 2 | The Spirit of Berlin

One thing that attracts so many ohter Germans to Berlin is that the city is, well, so un-German. To many, it is a mysterious East European city, far removed from the center of things and having more in common with Warsaw or Moscow than with the former capital, Bonn, or the banking city of Frankfurt.


21 | Berlin

當地人都知道有Schnauze,柏林版本的態度。是 的,柏林可以有一個簡短的和不高興的一面,很 像任何大城市follk。他們也有一個無限的塞內的 幽默感和自嘲。柏林將是第一個笑容,並承認, 他們永遠 meckern(嘰)對幾乎所有(城市的另 一大弊病)。 吸引這麼多ohter德國柏林的一件事是,城市,以 及,使聯合國德國。對許多人來說,這是一個 神秘的東歐城市,遠離中心的東西,比前首都波 恩,法蘭克福的銀行城市華沙或莫斯科共同。 柏林是德國最大的大學城,與三所大學,其他各 種高等教育中心,超過 130,000名學生。城市的 主要左傾政府倒入藝術的錢。柏林是在全國最便 宜的城市之一,出租,餐飲,娛樂自己。所有這 一切都有助於 TI在柏林舉行的的通電的感覺。

Chapter 2 | The Spirit of Berlin

Berlin is the biggest college town in Germany, with three universities, various other higher education centers, and more than 130,000 students. The city’s mostly left-leaning governments pour money into the arts. Berlin is one of the cheapest cities in the country for renting, dining, or entertaining yourself. All of this has contributed ti the energized feeling in Berlin.


Berlin | 22

Geography 地理

Chapter 2 | Geography

Berlin is located in eastern Germany, about 70 kilometers (43 mi) west of the border with Poland in an area with marshy terrain, and is surrounded by the federal state of Brandenburg. The Berlin–Warsaw Urstromtal (ice age melt water flow), between the low Barnim plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by water flowing from melting ice sheets at the end of the last ice age. The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, Berlin’s westernmost borough, the Spree meets the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. The course of the Havel is more like a chain of lakes, the largest being the Tegeler See and Großer Wannsee. A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which flows through the Großer Müggelsee in eastern Berlin.

柏林位於德國東部,面積沼澤的地形與波蘭 邊境以西約 70公里(43英里),是由聯邦 州勃蘭登堡包圍。柏林 - 華沙 Urstromtal( 冰河時代融水流量)之間的低Barnim高原北 部和Teltow的高原南部,成立了由水​​流動的 冰蓋融化在最後一個冰河時代結束。施普雷 如下現在這個山谷。在柏林的Spandau,西 端市鎮中,施普雷符合河,流向從南到北, 通過柏林西部的哈維爾。哈弗當然更像是鏈 的湖泊,最大的Tegeler和格羅瑟萬湖。一系 列的湖泊也送入上部的大禮包,通過在柏林 東部的格羅瑟 Müggelsee流動。


23 | Berlin

The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Urstromtal and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. The highest elevations in Berlin are the Teufelsberg and the Müggelberge. Both hills have an elevation of about 115 metres (377 ft). The Teufelsberg is in fact an artificial pile of rubble from the ruins of World War II.

當今柏林的施普雷河河谷兩側擴展到低高 原。大部分地區市鎮 Reinickendorf和Pankow Barnim高原上的謊言,而大多數市鎮夏洛滕 堡 - 威默爾斯多夫,Steglitz Zehlendorf,滕 珀爾霍夫的Schöneberg,和新克爾恩 Teltow 的高原上的謊言。

Map of Berlin, Germany

德國柏林地圖

市鎮的Spandau在於部分在柏林Urstromtal和 部分Nauen平原,一直延伸到柏林西部。在 柏林的最高海拔Teufelsberg的Müggelberge。 兩個丘陵,海拔約115米(377英尺)。 Teufelsberg實際上是從第二次世界大戰的廢 墟瓦礫的人工樁。

Chapter 2 | Geography

Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie on the Barnim plateau, while most of the boroughs Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, and Neukölln lie on the Teltow plateau.


Berlin | 24

History of Berlin 柏林的歷史 Earliest Evi-

Chapter 2 | History

The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today’s Berlin is a wooden beam dated from approximately 1192. The first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. The former is considered to be the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties and eventually merged in 1307 and came to be known as Berlin. 在今天的柏林地區的定居點的最早證據是從大約 1192年的木樑。首份書面記錄的城鎮面積從12世 紀後期在現今柏林日期。 Spandau酒店是第一次 提到在1197和Köpenick在1209,雖然這些地區沒 有加入,直到1920年柏林。柏林的中央部分可以 追溯到兩鎮。 Cölln的Fischerinsel是第一次提到 在1237筆,和柏林,橫跨在什麼是現在所謂的的 Nikolaiviertel的狂歡,是在一個文件中引用從1244 。前者被認為是城市成立之日起。隨著時間的推 移兩鎮形成了密切的經濟和社會的關係,並最終 在1307年合併和後來被稱為柏林。

Fact 事實上 The origin of the name Berlin is unknown, but it may have its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today’s Berlin, and be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- “swamp”.

In 1435, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. His successor, Frederick II Irontooth, established Berlin as capital of the margraviate, and subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled until 1918 in Berlin, first as electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and eventually as German emperors. In 1448, citizens rebelled in the “Berlin Indignation” against the construction of a new royal palace by Frederick II Irontooth. This protest was not successful, however, and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. In 1451 Berlin became the royal residence of the Brandenburg electors, and Berlin had to give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. In 1539, the electors and the city officially became Lutheran. 1435,腓特烈一世成為選民的勃蘭登堡 Margraviate,這是他統治,直到1440。他的繼任者,腓特 烈二世Irontooth margraviate資本,建立柏林,隨 後霍亨索倫家族成員統治,直到1918年在柏林, 首先為選民的勃蘭登堡,當時的普魯士國王,並 最終為德國皇帝。在1448,公民背叛對腓特烈二 世Irontooth的建設的一個新的王宮中的“柏林憤 慨”。然而,這次抗議活動是成功的,和公民失 去了許多的政治和經濟特權。柏林在1451年成為 皇室居住的勃蘭登堡州的選民,柏林不得不放棄 其作為一個自由漢薩城市的地位。 1539年,正式 成為選民和城市路德。


25 | Berlin

Few of europes cities have had such a roller-coaster

Chapter 2 | History

ride in so short a time. From imperial metropolis to bombed-out, walled-in Cold War hostage and on to hip new capital, Berlin tells a story whose high drama few cities can match. And few could of seemed less destined to play a significant role in the world affairs inthe early days of thier existance. London, Paris, and Rome all had more than a thousand years of history behind them when Berlin was little more than a huddle of muddy, medieval huts on the Spree River.

歐洲的城市很少有這樣的過山車在如此短的時間 內。帝國大都市炸毀的圍牆在冷戰的人質和髖關 節新的資本,柏林講述了一個故事極富戲劇性幾 個城市可以比擬。 ,當時很少有人似乎注定要在其存在的初期一個 在世界事務中發揮的顯著作用。倫敦,巴黎和羅 馬都超過上千年的歷史在他們身後年,當柏林只 不過是一個蜷縮在泥濘,施普雷河上的中世紀 木屋。

The Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, Germany

勃蘭登堡門, 柏林,德國


Berlin | 26


27 | Berlin

The Berlin Wall

Summary

摘要

The Third Reich & World War 11 第三帝國和二戰11

The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was

The fragile social peace came unstruck on October

a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the “death strip”) that contained anti-vehicle trenches, “fakir beds” and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the “will of the people” in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period. 柏林牆(德國:柏林莫爾)是1961年8月13日開 始,德意志民主共和國(東德,東德),完全切 斷周圍東德和東柏林,西柏林建造的一個障礙。 障礙包括崗樓沿大型混凝土牆,這規限廣域(後 來被稱為“死亡地帶”),載有反車輛壕溝,“ 騙子床”和其他抗辯。東方集團聲稱牆豎起來保 護其人口的陰謀,以防止在建設社會主義國家東 德的“人民的意志”的法西斯分子。在實踐中, 長城服務,以防止大規模的移民和倒戈,標誌著 在後二戰時期德國和共產主義的東歐。

25, 1929, the day of the Wall Street crash. The effects were felt in Germany almost immediatly. By 1930, the unemployed totaled a record half million in Berlin. Protests were again the norm. Until 1943, Berlin remained largely unscathed by the war. From that point on, however, allied bombing raids increased in intensity. By the end of the war, some 50,000 civilians had died in more than 360 air raids. Starting in Novemeber 1943, the gowwvernment evacuated up to one million civilians to “safe areas”, some located in occupied Poland and Czechoslovakia. 脆弱的社會和平來到 unstruck1929年10月25日, 華爾街崩潰的一天。在德國,幾乎都感受到immediatly的影響。到1930年,失業達創紀錄的一百 五十萬在柏林。抗議活動再次規範。 直到1943年,柏林戰爭仍然在很大程度上毫髮無 損。然而,從這一點上,專職轟炸的強度增加。 戰爭結束後,大約有50,000名平民死亡超過 360 空襲。在Novemeber1943年開始,政府疏散了100 萬平民“安全區”,有的設在被佔領的波蘭和捷 克斯洛伐克。

Chapter 2 | The Berlin Wall

柏林牆


Berlin | 28

The City Divided 市劃分 As a result of the political and economical tensions brought on by the Cold War, on 13 August 1961, East Germany began building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin and similar barriers around West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie on 27 October 1961. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. Chapter 2 | The Berlin Wall

Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other only through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners, travel to West Berlin or West Germany was no longer possible. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany and ended the potential for harassment or closure of the routes. In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November 1989, and was subsequently mostly demolished, with little of its physical structure remaining today; the East Side Gallery in Friedrichshain near the Oberbaumbrucke over the Spree preserves a portion of the Wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin again became the official German capital. In June 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the (West) German capital back from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999.

東德於1961年8月13日,由冷戰帶來的政治和經 濟緊張局勢,開始建設的東西柏林和西柏林周圍 類似的障礙之間的柏林牆,並在檢查點的坦克對 峙事件升級1961年10月27日查理。西柏林現在事 實上西德的一部分,具有獨特的法律地位,而東 柏林事實上東德的一部分。 柏林是完全分歧。雖然它是可能西方人傳遞,只 有通過嚴格控制的檢查站,從一個其他,對於大 多數東方人,前往西柏林的西德已不再可能。在 1971年,一個四國的協議保證的訪問乘汽車或火 車通過東德和西柏林和結束騷擾或關閉的路線的 潛力。 在1989年,隨著冷戰的結束和從東德人口的壓力 的柏林牆倒塌1989年11月9日,後來大多拆毀, 其物理結構,其餘的今天少;在弗里德里希附近 Oberbaumbrucke東邊畫廊在狂歡中保留了部分長 城。 1990年10月3日,德國兩個部分為德意志聯邦共 和國統一,柏林再次成為德國的官方資本。 1991 年6月,德國議會,德國聯邦議院投票移動座椅 靠背(西)德國首都從波恩到柏林,這是在1999 年完成。


Oberbaumbrucke

Berlin Wall

Checkpoint Charlie 1,065 crosses represent all victims of the East German border system

Chapter 2 | The Berlin Wall

29 | Berlin


Berlin | 30

Culture 文化

Chapter 2 | Culture

Berlin is noted for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. The diversity and vivacity of the Zeitgeist Metropolis led to a trend setting image among major cities. The city has a very diverse art scene and is home to around 420 art galleries. Many young people and international artists continue to settle in the city, and Berlin has established itself as a center of youth and popular culture in Europe. ww The expanding cultural role of Berlin is underscored by the 2003 announcement that the Popkomm, Europe’s largest annual music industry convention—previously hosted for 15 years by Cologne—would move to Berlin. Shortly thereafter, the Universal Music Group and MTV also decided to move their European headquarters and main studios to the banks of the River Spree in Friedrichshain. In 2005, Berlin was awarded the title of “City of Design” by UNESCO. 柏林指出其眾多的文化機構,其中許多享有國際 聲譽。全國各大中城市的多樣性和活潑的時代精 神大都市導致了一個引領潮流的形象。城市有一 個非常多樣化的藝術舞台,是約420藝術畫廊。 許多年輕人和國際藝術家繼續在該城市落戶,柏 林已成為在歐洲的青年和流行文化的中心。 柏林文化不斷擴大的作用是強調由2003年宣 布Popkomm展會,歐洲最大的年度音樂行業慣 例,15年以前由科隆主辦會搬到柏林。此後不 久,環球音樂集團和MTV還決定將其歐洲總部 和主要工作室在弗里德里希施普雷河的銀行。在 2005年,柏林被授予由教科文組織“城市設計” 的標題。


31 | Berlin

Media 媒體

Berlin is an important center in the European and German film industry. It is home to more than 1000 film and television production companies, 270 movie theaters, and around 300 national and international co-productions are filmed in the region every year. The historic Babelsberg Studios and the production company UFA are located outside Berlin in Potsdam. The city is also home of the European Film Academy and the German Film Academy, and hosts the annual Berlin Film Festival. Founded in 1951, the festival has been celebrated annually in February since 1978. With over 430,000 admissions it is the largest publicly attended film festival in the world. 柏林是許多國際和地區的電視台和廣播電台。公共廣播機構 RBB其總部設 在柏林以及MTV歐洲,爆,和N24的商業廣播。德國國際公共廣播機構德 國之聲在柏林的電視製作單位,大多數德國國家廣播演播室在城市。美國 全國公共廣播電台的廣播節目也播出調頻撥號。 柏林是一個在歐洲和德國電影業的重要中心。它是家庭1000多部電影和電 視製作公司,270個電影院,並在該地區約 300個國家和國際聯合製作拍攝 每年。位於柏林的波茨坦外的歷史性 Babelsberg工作室和公司生產的烏髮。 這個城市也是歐洲電影學院和德國電影學院的家,舉辦一年一度的柏林電 影節。成立於 1951年,一直慶祝節日在每年二月自1978年以來。超過 43萬 的招生,它是世界上最大的公開出席電影節。

Chapter 2 | Culture

Berlin is home to many international and regional television and radio stations. The public broadcaster RBB has its headquarters in Berlin as well as the commercial broadcasters MTV Europe, VIVA, and N24. German international public broadcaster Deutsche Welle has its TV production unit in Berlin, and most national German broadcasters have a studio in the city. American radio programming from National Public Radio is also broadcast on the FM dial.


Berlin | 32

Chapter 2 | Arts


The Arts 藝術

After The Wall 牆後

Today Berlin seeths with activity. Most dramatic in the city’s theatres, literary circles, and art galleries.

After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the graffiti artists marched straight into East Germany. Mitte, Friedrichshain, Prenzlauer Berg — all of the areas that the military had occupied became a new playground for the Western artists and became a new world for the Eastern artists who joined them. Few doubted that the East Germans’ work was weightier. It wasn’t that they were better artists, but that they could express — with authority — the one concept close to the hearts of all people now living in the city: what it meant to be free.

The numbers alone speak volumes: In Berlin there are 3 opera houses, about 150 theatres, 175 museums, and 300 art galleries. The city is reinventing itself in a fashion barely even imaginable in any other Western capital, and in the process fostering an electrifying creative dynamism. 單獨的數字說話卷:在柏林有3歌劇院,約 150個 劇院,175個博物館和300藝術畫廊。城市是重塑 自己在勉強甚至可以想像,在任何其他的西方資 本,並在這個過程中培養一個激動人心的創意活 力的時尚。

Graffiti 塗鴉 By the end of the ’70s, a new wave of graffiti artists, arriving with innovations such as stencils and spray cans, were contributing genuine works of art. Our East German friends would have been staring not just at the defacement of Communist property, but at what graffiti artists had by then claimed as their Mecca. 到70年代末,一個新的塗鴉藝術家波到達,如模 具和噴霧罐創新,提供了真正的藝術作品。會 盯著我們的德國朋友東已經不只是在共產黨的財 產毀損,但在什麼塗鴉藝術家然後聲稱他們的 麥加。

柏林牆倒塌後,塗鴉藝術家直入東德遊行。 Mitte區,弗里德里希,普倫茨勞貝格 - 所有的 軍事佔領的地區成為一個新的操場,為西方藝術 家,並成為一個新的世界的東方藝術家們加入他 們。很少有懷疑,東德人的工作是重。這不是他 們更好的藝術家,但他們可以表達 - 與權威 - 一 個概念接近全體人民的心中,現在居住在城市是 什麼意思是免費的。

Chapter 1 | Arts

33 | Berlin


Discover Europe  

This book is a 'Book Design Project' set by Hong Kong Design Institure (HKDI) We were asked to choose a number of places to research and rec...

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