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BEST PRACTICES IN RESILIENCE PROGRAMMING FOR EiE

9

Figure 3. Number of sources by topic. In the table below, sources may be represented in more than one categorical topic. Research topics included:!

Number of sources used in this paper:!

education in emergencies, reconstruction, and 45! transition! conflict-sensitive education

18!

accountability and coordination

12!

resilience

10

peace education

9!

education for all

6!

international aid and development

5!

human rights education

5!

refugees in education crisis

5!

teaching education in emergencies

5!

disaster response

4

international and comparative education

2!

Criteria for exclusion comprised main subjects not directly relating to EiE, for example works focusing on the examination of relationships, between conflict and education, as well as political and legal solutions, in the interest of upholding the humanitarian principles of independence, neutrality, and impartiality. Literature focused on violence, the nature and impact of attacks on schools, areas for future research, democracy, protection, gender, disaster risk reduction, and child soldier rehabilitation were taken into account but not heavily discussed; works published before the year 2000, when the landmark Dakar forum was held, and those dedicated to coordination before the advent of the cluster system were also excluded. This paper does


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BEST PRACTICES IN RESILIENCE PROGRAMMING FOR EiE

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Results The following EiE quick facts document the importance of education: • • • •

• • • •

• • • • • • • • •

Education is an enabling right; access to it allows the use of health and employment services as well as civic participation (Commonwealth Youth Development Index, 2013). Every year of a girl’s primary education results in a 10-20% increase in her wages later in life (Martone, 2007). Most conflicts result from a lack of resources and opportunities, including education (UNICEF, 2013). Poor, under-resourced, or “low income countries can make significant advances by providing young people with opportunities to seek quality education and training, and to participate in their country’s social, political and economic life” (Commonwealth Youth Development Index, 2013). Education empowers people to find solutions to their own problems and conflicts (UNICEF, 2013). Access to resources, enhanced by education, improves people’s ability to improve their circumstances and gain more resources (UNICEF, 2013). Community involvement and ownership in EiE enhances accountability and contributes to the long-term sustainability of education in the area (INEE, 2010). School buildings can provide physical protection; “when a child is in a safe learning environment, he or she is less likely to be sexually or economically exploited or exposed to other risks, such as recruitment into or joining a fighting group or organized crime” (Save the Children Australia, p. 1). Education is preventive (UNICEF, 2007). Education protects those it serves psychosocially and cognitively in emergencies (INEE, 2013). Children who go back to school sooner after a disaster than their peers cope better than those who do not resume schooling as quickly (UNICEF, 2007). In addition to aiding the mental wellbeing of children and youth, the “reinstatement of schooling also has a beneficial effect on the psychosocial condition of adults” (Sinclair, 2002, p. 40). EiE empowers people, restoring and enhancing “their sense of purpose, self-esteem, and self-worth through the process of learning” (Kagawa, 2005, p. 499). In conflict or post-conflict situations, children and youth fall through the cracks in terms of education (UNICEF, 2007). In the past few years, the percentage of out of school children living in conflict zones has steadily increased (Save the Children, 2013). Lack of education is often a cause of conflict (UNICEF, 2007). When children and youth get off track in their education, countries can


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Discussion As you can see in the results section above, for INEE, the three main connectors, or foundational standards uniting all other good practice, are coordination, analysis, and community participation. I expected coordination and capacity building to be highlighted in the word cloud I created for the INEE Minimum Standards. As you can see in the results section, I was wrong. This method of representing findings, merely counting words as they appear in text, illustrates how it may not convey all the most important themes. Denotation does not necessarily convey connotation; tone, underlying meaning, significance, and implication cannot be judged or inferred from mere tallies. I have learned in all of my disaster courses, and jobs, that capacity building is a key ingredient to resilient programming, underpinning coordination and community participation especially. “Emergencies can provide opportunities to work with communities for social transformation” (INEE, 2013). School systems and national educational structures can be reformed in order to “set conflict-affected societies on paths to sustainable peace and development” (INEE, 2010, p. 3). Education can impart new values, actively teaching about human rights, tolerance, and peace-building, helping communities foster peace, fend off conflict, and strengthen resilience (INEE, 2013). The importance of inclusive education and active participation can be reinforced in communities affected by crisis. New educational initiatives can “allow previously excluded groups, like girls, women and disabled children, to access an education” further enhancing social cohesion and thus individual and societal resilience (INEE, 2013). New skills can be taught to entire communities, including hazard mitigation, environmental conservation, disaster risk


BEST PRACTICES IN RESILIENCE PROGRAMMING FOR EiE

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reduction, disaster prevention, sustainable development, and resilience (INEE, 2010). Moreover, education “can provide essential building blocks for future economic stability,” which also enhances overall resilience (INEE, 2013). In fact, “quality education contributes directly to the social, economic, and political stability of societies,” critical in fostering peace and resilience (INEE, 2010, p. 3). Social stability can be seen in the sustainability and development sections below. Economic stability is discussed in the development section. Political stability is presented through the lens of peace, part of the sustainability section. Sustainability Capacity building. When affected populations assist in all stages of program design and implementation, outcomes will be more positive and sustainable (Kagawa, 2005). Capacity building can be used to overcome barriers in program design and implementation by enhancing capabilities and empowerment, thus bolstering enabling factors (Chen, 2013). Like community health interventions, methods should emphasize citizen participation, including community forums, parent teacher associations, education committees, and youth leadership councils (Chen, 2013). When emergencies result in disaster, requiring outside assistance, capacity building should be undertaken with the aim of empowering local groups and national structures to be able to take over during recovery and into the future. If capacity building focuses on existing capabilities, abilities, and underlines the power to effect positive change, and there are local mechanisms for accountability, the chances for peace are increased (INEE, 2010; Burde et al., 2011)


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BEST PRACTICES IN RESILIENCE PROGRAMMING FOR EiE

35

Program Planning Figure 16. Quick reference guide to resilient EiE program planning. Program Planning Step:

Remember...

Organize.

Keep affected community members actively involved throughout the project or program cycle (Best Practice #2).

Set objectives.

Do No Harm (Best Practice #4-6, 8, 10). Ensure intervention is relevant, appropriate, and efficient (Best Practice #1, 2, 4, 14).

Assess local needs and local capacities.

Focus on resilience or protective factors instead of risk. Ask beneficiaries what they have; do not tell them what they need (Best Practice #2-4).

Design intervention.

Always get feedback and buy-in from the affected community; include children, youth, and marginalized populations (Best Practice #1-2, 6).

Coordinate.

Work within existing systems; collaborate with local authorities (Best Practice #1, 3).

Build capacity.

Hire and train locals; teach them how to manage projects themselves, without relying on outside assistance (Best Practice #3).

Allocate resources.

Procure and source locally; avoid the trap of aid dependence; do not "truck and chuck" (Program Planning p. 26-27).

Implement.

Monitor how the intervention is working, actively involving local populations; tweak the intervention if it is not benefiting affected populations as intended (Best Practice #2, 4); Program Planning p. 23-28).

Evaluate.

Document and share lessons learned with the entire community (Best Practicce #1, 15; Program Planning p. 27-28).

Handover.

Let the community be self-sustaining (Best Practice #3).

!


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About the Author Sarah M. Bellotti is finishing her Master of Science from the Disaster Resilience Leadership Academy at Tulane University. She has been involved in emergency response since the age of two, when she tried to facilitate a fire drill from inside her daycare crib. Since then, she has worked rebuilding and constructing homes and a youth centerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;first after the war in the former Yugoslavia with Youth Compassâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and then with Habitat for Humanity in the United States in 2004, 2007, 2011, and 2012. In autumn 2005, after hurricanes Katrina and Rita, Bellotti traveled to the New Orleans area as part of a school trip to help south Louisiana clean up and begin to rebuild after the storms. She graduated cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Southern Methodist University in 2007, where she was a Hunt Leadership Scholar, majoring in international studies and French, which she speaks fluently. She has lived abroad for nearly seven years. After graduating from college, she taught English in Chachoengsao, Thailand. She then moved to Washington, DC, where she was a research assistant and program coordinator at the top international affairs think tank in the world for three years. Bellotti has worked with the American Red Cross disaster services for more than a year and a half, in community partnerships as well as mass care, including sheltering and feeding. Bellotti has completed training from FEMA, IASC, Save the Children, and USAID. This summer she worked on child protection and social workforce capacity building in Rwanda. This semester she did community outreach for a project researching disaster recovery in New Orleans. Currently, as a weekend volunteer, she teaches children compassion, equity, peace, respect, tolerance, and the inherent worth and dignity of every person. Her courses at Tulane have focused on humanitarian assistance and include the topics of program skills in crisis and transition settings, disaster and humanitarian assistance evaluation, quantitative analysis in disaster resilience, vulnerable populations, disaster operations leadership management and policy, psychosocial and behavioral leadership, environmental hazards, leadership analytics, monitoring of program interventions in global health, food security, as well as information systems and logistics; this paper is for an independent study, which she hopes serves as a capstone to her graduate career.


Resilience Programming for Education in Emergencies: Analysis of Best Practices