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Module 1 Summary [Sarah]

Module one saw the exploration of my ideas in and around the concept of a second skin and my feelings around personal space. I experimented with different materials and joining methods. Playing in Rhino was difficult, dispite the hours of tutorials watched. The drawing and measurement aspect of the object and the ideation was very enjoyable.

Module 1 Summary [Bill] What I have done in the first module basically expresses my ideas and actions for my material system, which is an inflatable object. Working with a floaty, I was able to gather ideas for my second skin by playing around with a material that can be inflated, which in this case was a garbage bag. The key aspect of this process is to help give me an idea of how to incorporate inflatable objects as a second skin. This then led onto the next step of my ideation process, which was to create second skin concepts. The whole module is basically a step by step process, which needs one step to be completed to press forward onto the next. In this case, we were told to play around with rhino using our material system, followed by playing around with real materials, and from that design potential ideas for an actual second skin.

Module 1 Summary [Jackie] Working with a panel and fold system allowed me to explore how personal space can be interpreted from a protective point of view, where the back of a persons body is the most vulnerable, and requires a larger amount of protection than the front. As a result of the back of a body being the most vulnerable part, I thought I would cover the majority of the back with spikes, then leave most of the front exposed, as people are more likely going to be able to defend their front. Personal space is all about the relative distance from one individual to another. If I created a second skin that would make other people uncomfortable in entering a space, this would allow for a barrier to be created between two people. I believe this is exactly what personal space stands for.

Precedence of Ideas We looked at nature, and animals within nature, and how the different aspects within nature could be emphasized within our design. We drew some inspiration mostly from animals, as they have properties that allow them to protect themselves against threats, properties that humans do not have. We found that quite a few animals actually have spikes, predominately on their back, and their bellies are often quite soft. This is because generally animals have a greater amount of control and awareness with what comes in contact with their front in comparison to their back. A good example of an animal that closely relates to a panel and fold system is that of a crocodile. The spikes on the crocodiles back are very systematic as they are aligned in rows, and run down the entire back. This use of spikes running down the back has a significant influence on personal space and what we perceive it to be. The projection that take on the appearance of spikes on animals such as crocodiles act as a protection barrier to minimize unsuspected attacks from places on the body that are not easily visible by the organism itself. It is therefore evident that personal space is more crucial at the hind of an animal (or human) when it comes to achieving consolation.

In our design, we would like to incorporate spikes that resemble the back of a crocodile, in that they vary in shape and size, and are fairly coherent in the way they orderly run down its back.

An animal that is similar to a panel and fold system as well as an inflatable system is a puffer fish. In its deflated form, the puffer fish is reasonably soft and forgiving, though when it feels a threat is present, it takes on its inflated form, raising its spikes in order to create a barrier between itself and its threat. This idea of being able to inflate only when the animal (or person) is feeling threatened is intriguing, and raised some ideas about incorporating a system on a part of the body that is able to inflate. This would produce comfort for a person knowing they have they extra layer or ‘second skin’ that they can rely on when feeling uneasy. Humans are much the same as animals when it comes to personal space, in that both have a primary objective of protection, though humans also rely on personal space for comfort. This is why we thought looking at animals and natural systems of animals would be a good starting point for our design. The entire body becomes a part of the inflatable system, with almost every section covered with a protective layer of spikes. Appearance is unwelcoming and not approachable

The body is confined to smallest form this allows for tranquil and swift movements. Spikes are almost unrecognizable in a flat position – threat is not suspecting of defense mechanism Appearance is approachable

In our design, we would like to create an inflatable system that is able to differ in size in accordance to the individuals needs and wants of protection and comfort of personal space

Exploration of ideas - Composite Materials

Idea Consolidation [Idea One] Features includes: - Spikes dominated back (panel and fold) - Bubble dominated back (inflatables) - Protection from behind - adjustable, comfortable depiction of personal space infront

The composite system works with the individuals sense of personal space as a form of protection, illusion and barrier system that can be altered to reflect the current context of the wearer.

Barb/spike dominated back: - Gives off a warning to people approaching from the back - Encourages approach from a more visible angle

Bubbles on the front: - Attractive, approachable appearance - The size of bubbles adjust the scale of personal space depending on the situation

Idea Consolidation [Idea Two] Armour based panel and fold system - Covers a large propotion of the torso - Hidden by inflatable cloud (physically depicts a larger sized personal space

Inspiration was drawn from chain mail aspects of armour (allows for movement and protection)

Material type becomes a determining factor due to the heavy nature of chainmail and the restrictions it causes to movement.

The idea of an armour second skin is similar to that of a crocodile or lizard - Panels are connected to the skin - Movement is relatively flexible - Enhanced protection in mobility

Surfaces can make volumes. To create an inflatable surface, we thought of using different panel surfaces to create a type of polygon, which could then be inflated to form a volume. Developed a surface with panels that can be opened out and practical for fabrication in the future.

Individual Notions of Personal Space Jackie



I believe personal space is more important at the back, as I feel more comfortable knowing how close someone is to me, which is easy to interpret if another person is approaching from the front. From the front, personal space definitely still exists, just not to the same extent. Hence, a person should have a larger amount of protection from the back than the front. I also feel like the head is quite sensitive to personal space, as there are so many senses that come from the head and face. Personal space does though; depend completely on who you are with at a certain time. For example, two people who are in love will be a lot more comfortable entering one another’s personal space than two people who have hardly met. Personal space also depends on the situation a person is in. For example a person will have much different measures of personal space if in a social situation in comparison to being in crowded public transport.

Personal space is personal. It reflects the context of the individual. The individual may choose the boundaries which they lay around themselves. Some boundaries are a product of cognative decision whilst others are formed naturally without direct recognision of their existance. There are certain situations where an individuals sense of personal space is hightened. For example when in unfamiliar areas ones personal space may enlarge itself in response to the hightened feeling of danger. In this sense personal space also indicates a boundary of protection. Using an inflatable system a preliminary boundary may be set up by an inflatable system that encompases the entirity of the body. This would create the illusion of protection. The power of illusions could also be utilised in an inflatable spiky element of the design. Whilst it performs an impression of danger those who are familiar with the individual will recognise this act is to displace others. This differentiation of those who can enter different layers of personal space is important. Personal space can be penetrated on different levels by those who are allowed. If however these is no concent personal space detects this and is therefore require to adjust accordingly.

When I think of personal space, automatically I think of where I am and what my surroundings are. I believe that personal space varies for people in terms of how much space they have to themselves to make them comfortable. A personal example of mine would be waiting at a bus stop or train station. While waiting, I would locate myself to the far side of the bench (if there is one), leaving me exposed to only one person sitting next to me. Generally I would like to keep to myself and enjoy the freedom of knowing there is no one beside me to cause any hassle. Others may beg to differ and want to have this attraction from other people, and would comfortably sit anywhere that pleases them, regardless of who is sitting down. This is why I based some of my ideas around the fat man suit, or the bubble man suit, as it will provide me with the extra space to remain comfortable. It may seem like a selfish act, but unlike others, I’d prefer to have the freedom of space whilst travelling on a crowded train to and from university.

Perception of personal space from the front and back



Provides: - Boundaries - Consent - Comfortable - Space - Senses

Provides: - Protection - Boundaries - Warning system - Space - Senses

Characteristics and determinants of personal space: - Situation (time/place) - Welcoming (front) - Cautious (back) - Sets boundaries (physical/mental)

Thomas Heatherwick - TED Talk

Reading [Lost In Parameter Space] What are the key differences between 'abstraction' and 'reduction'? Firstly, what is abstraction and reduction? Abstraction is the quality of dealing with ideas rather than events, therefore something that exists only as an idea. Reduction is about finding the optimal way to deliver ideas without altering the content already proposed. Key differences: Abstraction - Reducing the amount of information needed to describe somethingAbstracted models generally tries not to contain as much information as possible, but enough information to describe the properties explicitly. Reduction - Doesn’t throw away information, but rather uses all the information it has to maximise the concept. Does weight most of the information, however, uses normalisation, as a method of eliminating anomalies.

Thomas Heatherwick’s range of ideas for architectural struture is absolutely fascinating, and listening to where these ideas stemmed from really makes a lot of sense. Heatherwick noticed something so small that would not often be recognized, and transformed it into a large-scale structure – a seed. The cathedral he designed brought intricate detail to life, highlighting a part of nature and created a stunning piece of art. The transferal of natural light through the cathedral was also fascinating, as the glass stems retained the light and produced an illuminant glow at nighttime that lit up the exterior of the structure. The cathedral was designed with flexibility, in order to enable it to move with the wind and create a constant but gentle flow of movement. This adds character to the structure, making it seem as if the seed has come to life.

Computer-aided design (CAD) is a system used by architects in design modelling, which has been developed to eradicate most math complexities. Non-uniform rational b-splines (NURBS) allow the precise definition of complex shapes through control points, which can be used to abstract a mesh surface. Can you relate these ideas to the tasks you undertook in Module 1? Having to make an inflatable object using rhino involved using control points, which could be manipulated to help form the desired shape. Whilst modelling the shape, a way that reduction was used was through refactoring, as the object would be cleaned up from any unnecessary lines or points that weighted the model, creating more technical difficulties.

Design Breif [Key Ideas]

Visualising and experimenting with model making

Component Making

We experimented by making both triangular and square based pyramids (which is the panel component) We also experimented with making different sized spikes in order to create an interresting pattern. Through doing this activity, we decided that we would like to use different shapes and sizes of pannels in our design in order to create interest in the pattern.

Moving Component This activity allowed us to explore and create rough ideas of potential inflatable systems Two main ideas explored - inflatable origami box - tabs and folding method (plastic blue box) The origami box was an effective inflate and deflate system that did not require air to be sealed inside or constantly introduced in order to retain its structural integrity. The plastic cube was unable to hold its shape, as the air inside eventually escaped, leaving the lean plastic to collapse.

This activity made us think about the material that we will utilise in the inflatable component of out design. Although we played with a cube shape, we will experiment further with different shapes.





Volumetric System Depiction What we gained from this excercise: - the ability to view our ideas as a tangible, 3D object - Raised some key design issues (including weight of the design as it has to be supported by one shoulder)

What we will consider as a result of this excersise: - Not use heavy weight materials - Placement of spikes (having them too close to the arms will restrict movement - Spikes rising too high at the shoulder will create uncomfort (intrusive in the head space)

Design laid out flat

Experimentation with paper shapes Square Based Pyramid

Triangular Based Pyramid


Dodecahedron Cone Hexagonal based pyramid

SHAPE EXPERIMENTATION Cube (for inflatable component) Cone (for panal and fold component)

Has a good aesthetic appeal, though does not apply a pannel and fold system as well as some other shapes. Does not appear to be as threatening as other shapes.

Very sturdy shape, though will not be as smooth rounded as a dodecahedron.

Triangular Based Pyramid

(for panel and fold component) This panel and fold system is simple, though will not provide enough complexity in our design, and will not have the same aesthetic effect as a square based pyramid.

Hexagonal Based Pyramid

(for panel and fold component) This pyramid appears to be a little too complicated for the purpous of a second skin, and might detract.



Square based pyramids provides a simple, yet visually enhancing pattern. Provides a good protection of personal space with lots of sharp edges to cover all areas

Dodecahedron will inflate well into an almost rounded shape.

Experimenting with arrangement of shapes Inflatables Alined ordered from biggest to smallest

Panel and Fold Alined ordered from biggest to smallest This arrangement is preferred because it will protect the areas of the body that are most volnerable - Resembles

Not in any particular order

This arrangement is preferred because the bubbles should look randomly placed.

Not in any particular order

Scenario: Crowded Room Robert Sommers reading on personal space gave us the idea of how we would tolerate close presence from strangers coming from the back as well as the front. This led to the idea of protecting our back, since our view of personal space resulted in the desire for protection, as the back seemed most vulnerable to intruding our idea of personal space.

Familiar person We took the idea of using the Galvanic skin response into hand, and tried to think of a way to incorporate it into our design. What we thought of was playing around with the size of the inflatable bubbles , where the bubbles would change in size according to how comfortable we were with the people approaching us from the front.

Unfamiliar person Although bubbles may inflate, it will still show that you can be social with others, at your own comfort.

The idea of the galvanic skin response is to pick up changes in skin conductivity, which means it picks up responses from stress and emotional behaviour.

Rhino Modeling - Experimentation with different tools We also experimented with the paneling tools - created an orderly pattern of spikes How we made it on Rhino: - We made a scaled base shape - Laid out a web of points - Points were selected and duplicated - Using the paneling tools we selected pyramid 1 (created a repetition of spikes

Experimenting with the extrusion tool (extrude to a point) - creates pyramid shapes This enabled us to have varied shapes and sizes, as well as the direction they were angled at. This would be more aesthetically pleasing, though far too time consuming.

Rhino Modeling [Further Development] When producing an inflatable object based on a panel and fold system pattern there has to be an understanding of the connections and of the unrolled model. Additionally when inflated, the seems of an inflatable system are unable to produce ridgid, flat surfaces and joints, rather they bulge and in the case of the dodecahedron create a largely spherical shape.

123D Catch [Attempt 1]

123D Catch [Attempt Two]

After taking about 60 photos, the result was quite blurred as a result of the model moving. It would be more successful if the model was in a sitting position, as movements would be more restricted. This attempt on 123D Catch was much more successful in that the body shape was much more defined with less movement. This will make it easier to shape the design accurately to the model. The only thing that was not quite up to scratch was the slight distortion of the face, where some movement must have occured during the photographing. This can be fixed through stitching on 123D Catch.

Rhino Tasks and Skill Development [PANELING TOOLS]




For practical reasons, we decided to develop a prototype that would be seen more as a representational model rather than a performative prototype. Our prototype represents what we will fabricate in the following weeks, as it is just signifying the prime components in our design (panelled spikes and bubbles)








Virtual Group Task Module 2  
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