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Published in December 2012 by Te Runanga O Ngāti Ruanui Trust PO Box 594, Hawera 4640, New Zealand Phone: +64 6 278 0148 Fax: + 64 6 278 1358 Email: gml@ruanui.co.nz

© Te Runanga O Ngāti Ruanui Trust 2012 This document is available on Te Runanga O Ngāti Ruanui Trust’s website

Te Runanga O Ngati Ruanui Trust


Mihimihi Ma te atawhai o te wahi ngaro, Tatou e hapai e manaaki ko te Atua to tatou piringa, Ka puta ka ora Tihei mouri ora Me tuku te mihi mamao kia ratou kua parita e te tai, Me ki kei paerau kei paerau I te hunga kahurangi i moe mai ra, ka urupa taku aroha e. Tihei mouri ora

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Contents Mihimihi...................................................................................................................... i Contents.................................................................................................................... ii 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1 2. How to use this plan .......................................................................................... 3 3. Whenuakura – The Land ................................................................................... 5 4. Te Puna Waiora – Water .................................................................................. 19 5. Te Moana Uriuri Tangaroa Takapou Whariki i Papatuanuku e Takoto Nei – Coastal and Marine Environment ................................................................... 31 6. Te Ai Tokorangi – Oxygen Air and Wind ........................................................ 38 7. Waahi Tapu ....................................................................................................... 41 8. Maunga Taranaki.............................................................................................. 46 9. He Whenua Momona (A Fertile Land) – Oil and Minerals ............................. 49 10. Whakahoutanga – Renewable Energy and Conservation ............................ 60 11. Engagement with Stakeholders ...................................................................... 65 12. Appendices....................................................................................................... 70

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INTRODUCTION


1. Introduction The Ngāti Ruanui Environmental Management Plan (The Plan) acknowledges and affirms the intrinsic relationship of Ngāti Ruanui with the natural environment. The Ngāti Ruanui Deed of Settlement contains the following statement on the cultural, spiritual, historic and traditional associations with Nga Taonga a Tane raua ko Tangaroa and provides the foundation for the development of the plan: “The whaikorero of [Ngāti Ruanui] Tupuna of old and now honoured by each generation thereafter places the utmost importance on the role of Ngāti Ruanui as kaitiakitanga for all life forms of the environment. Ngāti Ruanui have always believed that the environment including all indigenous species of fish, flora and fauna are inter-related through whakapapa and all are precious to Ngāti Ruanui. All species are important and play their particular role within the environment. The integration of all species in the environment is woven within the holistic pattern of life itself. Ngāti Ruanui as a people are part and parcel of the environment itself. Ngāti Ruanui recognise that any negative effects on one species may cause ill effects for other species. Ngāti Ruanui continue to maintain a kaitiaki role to look after all species within our environment. The mauri of all species is important to Ngāti Ruanui, the essence that binds the physical and spiritual elements of all things together, generating and upholding all life. All species of the natural environment possess a life force and all life forms are related.”1 Ngāti Ruanui holds fast to a number of values (described below) but there are two key values that are the basis of the plan. They are Whakapapa and Kaitiakitanga. Whakapapa is the foundation of the Ngāti Ruanui approach to environmental management. This is determined by the shared descent from Papatuanuku and Ranginui (through Tane Mahuta) and the genealogical connection between people, plants, birds and insects. Kaitiakitanga is an inherited responsibility of those who hold mana whenua to ensure that the mauri of the natural resources of their takiwa is healthy and strong, and the life-supporting capacity of these ecosystems is preserved. Kaitiakitanga is central to the protection of the natural environment and is fundamental to on-going existence of Ngāti Ruanui. Furthermore, Ngāti Ruanui as kaitiaki must protect and preserve the natural environment for future generations. The Plan has been developed by Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust. The Plan allows nga Uri me nga Hapu o Ngāti Ruanui to outline and express their position on matters relating to the environment in their takiwa. The takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui is bounded by the Whenuakura River in the South and the Waingongoro River in the North and 1

Part 13, Schedule 2 of the Schedules to the Deed of Settlement of the Historical Claims of Ngati Ruanui (May  2001). 

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extends inland to the east to the Matemateonga Ranges and as such includes large areas of the Eastern Taranaki Hill Country (as shown in Appendix One). The Plan reflects the need to balance the cultural, political, social, economic opportunities of Ngāti Ruanui with environmental imperatives. The Ngāti Ruanui Claims Settlement Act 2003 is the empowering legislation of Ngāti Ruanui. The Plan should be read in conjunction with the empowering legislation. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust is the mandated voice of Ngāti Ruanui and comprised of a representative of the 16 hapu that form Ngāti Ruanui. Appendix One lists the hapu and their respective Marae.

1.1. The values of Ngāti Ruanui The Strategic Plan of Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust has as it vision: “He Tangata Tomua, He Whenua Tomuri”2 The values given in the Strategic Plan and adopted for the purposes of the plan are: 

Whakapapa – our identity and where we come from;

Kaitiakitanga – sustainable guardianship over all resources for the use and enjoyment by future generations;

Tikanga – the spiritual, mental, physical and cultural determinants of Ngāti Ruanui;

Kotahitanga – unity so as to meet the same goal or common purpose;

Puawaitanga – to safeguard and preserve the environment through sustainable growth;

Taumatanga – to strive for excellence;

Manaakitanga – protection and preservation to ensure good health and wellbeing;

RaNgātiratanga – the right of Ngāti Ruanui uri to assert their selfdetermination over their turungawaewae; and

Whakawhanaungatanga – maintaining and growing relationships with all stakeholders.

Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust is committed to assisting whanau, hapu and marae, as kaitiaki, to take whatever measures are necessary to ensure the wellbeing and future good health of the environment. 2

Te tangata tomua: te whenua tomuri (the man first: the land after) – was an exclamation from a seminal hui  held at Manawapou in 1854 to determine the resistance of Ngati Ruanui to land sales. 

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2. How to use this plan The Plan should be read as a whole but is separated into seven sections that relate to specific parts of the takiwa. The sections provide the broad overview of the Ngāti Ruanui environmental position and they overlap with each other and are cross referenced accordingly. Where relevant, each section concludes with proposed policy direction for territorial and local authorities and government departments and ministries. The final section outlines methods of engagement for stakeholders including consultation guidelines. To assist, a glossary of Maori terms used in the plan is provided in Appendix Two. The sections of the plan are: 1. Whenuakura – The Land 2. Te Puna Waiora – Water 3. Te Moana Uriuri Tangaroa Takapou Whariki I Papatuanuku E Takoto Nei – Coastal and Marine Environment 4. Te Ai Tokorangi – Oxygen, Air and Wind 5. Waahi Tapu 6. Maunga Taranaki 7. He Whenua Momona (A Fertile Land) – Oil and Minerals 8. Whakahoutanga – Renewable Energy and Conservation 9. Engagement with Stakeholders The Plan is not to be used or construed as consultation. Consultation can only occur by meeting with the affected hapu. The hapu have the ultimate and final say over their mana whenua, mana moana and mana motuhake. It is the responsibility of external parties and consent and permit authorities to ensure that hapu are consulted. The obligation to ensure that consultation occurs resides with those parties and not the hapu. The Plan is prepared as a statutory document for the purposes of the sections 61, 66 and 74 of the RMA and must be taken into consideration by local and territorial authorities in the preparation and formulation of their district and regional plans and regional policy statements. The Plan is also considered a statutory document for the purposes of the Fisheries (Kaimoana Customary Fishing) Regulations 1998. This is a first generation plan and one that will be revised annually, as process develop and as new technologies emerge. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust reserves the right to review and amend the plan at any stage.

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The Plan seeks to compliment the environmental protection and development offered through the Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) and in particular section 6 (Maori interests recognised as a matter of national importance), section 7 (provides for kaitiakitanga), and section 8 (incorporates the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi in decision-making. Appendix Four gives the relevant legislation, policy statements, regulations and guidelines that Ngト》i Ruanui must consider and apply to each section of the plan.

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W HENUAKURA T HE L AND


3. Whenuakura – The Land Te Kura i huna (concealed knowledge of the land) – This is a traditional statement found in karakia and waiata. The ‘Kura’ is a traditional word for knowledge in Ngāti Ruanui. The knowledge that was held was distinctive and needed to be protected. Ngāti Ruanui held the view that knowledge was not be accessed widely but carefully maintained among experts to ensure its integrity. This statement recognises the unique characteristcs and traditions we have in Ngāti Ruanui that need to be preserved and secured for future generations and its relevance to Whenuakura – the land. Whakatauaki – “Te tangata tomua: te whenua tomuri”, the exclamation from the seminal hui at Manawapou 1854 signalled the determination of Ngāti Ruanui to retain their mana whenua and that they would fight to the death over their land. To that end Ngāti Ruanui asserts and exercises rangatiratanga and kaitiakitanga over its takiwa. Ngāti Ruanui seeks to protect the whenua and the indigenous flora and fauna that it contains. Through this the plan, Ngāti Ruanui wants to ensure that the whenuakura is not in placed in a position where it is highly stressed. The iwi is mindful of the need to balance environmental sustainability with progressive development. The takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui is typified by different land types and environments, from the coastal lowlands to the undulating ring plain, to the steeper hill country inland. Much of the environment is a consequence of the now dormant volcano, Maunga Taranaki and marine terracing. The whenua has been heavily modified since it was first inhabited. The whenua provided a basis for the on-going survival of many species and provides the food basket that sustains life. Much of the local economy is based on and derived from the whenua. Before the arrival of Maori to Aotearoa, the Taranaki region was one of the most densely forested areas of New Zealand. It was probably cleared as long ago as 1500 – 1550AD.3 The tupuna of Ngāti Ruanui were skilled in mohoao nui and paid special attention to te maramataka o Ngāti Ruanui, the lunar calendar of Ngāti Ruanui. For example there were proper and dedicated nights for planting kumara as a result of these environmental observations. When pakeha first arrived in South Taranaki, the dense ngahere came down to a line bordered by Katotauru, Ahipaipa, Mawhitiwhiti, Ketemarae, Keteonetea, Whareroa, Matangarara, Meremere and Manutahi. The ngahere was filled with massive Rata and Miro and was dense and abundant with birds. The warm damp climate was conducive to good growing conditions and the undulating plains were covered in fern, flax and other plants. Such fertile land was soon to be coveted by the early settlers.4

3 4

Sole, T. Ngati Ruanui. A History. Wellington: Huia Publishers, 2005.    ibid. 

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The ring plain comprises layers of volcanic soils formed by eruptions and the natural erosion of volcanic materials resulting in highly fertile soils considered to be amongst some of the most productive in the country. Those soils support a pastoral industry that focuses heavily on dairying. The eastern hill country contains steep dissected hills that support sheep/beef and forestry.

3.1 Issues The issues section is separated into the following: 

3.1.1 Land use

3.1.2 Biodiversity

3.1.3 Traditional knowledge systems

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3.1.1

Land use

The whenua is subject to an ever increasing number of land uses, from agricultural and pastoral, to the construction of multiple dairy factories and production stations for the oil and gas industry. Sites related to those industries have a significant impact on the whenua. Residential and built up areas have also heavily modified the takiwa and will continue to do so. Human habitation has had a significant impact on indigenous flora and fauna. Long term planning strategies and policies are important to help shape land use activities. To better manage the changing demands for residential commercial and industrial land, Ngāti Ruanui notes the South Taranaki District Council’s Urban Growth Strategy for Hawera the largest urban centre in central and south Taranaki region. Ensuring new development occurs in the newly identified zones provides certainty and enables environmental impacts and the need for infrastructure to be planned in advance. Ensuring the District Plan directs and controls development to these newly developed zones is very important. Overall Ngāti Ruanui advocates for a range of activities and development within all district plan zones, underpinned by an effects based approached envisaged by the Resource Management Act. Below are a number of specific issues relating to landuse. Table 1 provides further detail and policy relating to the specific land use issues outlined below. 3.1.1a: Rural and Coastal Subdivisions Over time as the housing demands of the population change, new houses need to be built to support the population change and evolving lifestyle trends. Rural land is being subdivided for lifestyle blocks and small residential lots. The intensive nature of subdivision places strain on existing resources and infrastructure and the surrounding environment. In the recent past, coastal subdivisions have become more commonplace. In the first instance, Ngāti Ruanui would prefer that existing coastal settlements are further developed as opposed to creating more settlements. Specific district Plan policy which supports this approach is considered essential for land-use planning to preserve the unique coastline. Ngāti Ruanui also seeks control of adverse effects arising from small lot subdivision. Subdivision is often the first step in different land use activities; statutory planning documents need to acknowledge the link between subdivision and land use activities, especially within the sensitive coastal environment. New activities often bring with them potential impacts, for example small lot subdivision and the disposal of waste. Ngāti Ruanui advocates the use of new technologies such as advanced septic tank systems that have two or more chambers and use both anaerobic and aerobic process to break down waste. Traditional septic tanks generally have only one chamber and process wastewater anaerobically.

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3.1.1b: Intensive Dairying The takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui is in the middle of a well-established dairying industry. The farming is generally very intensive with a heavy reliance on external inputs (synthetic fertiliser and stock feeds), high water take and high stock numbers per hectare to increase production. There are multiple factories and sites relating to the dairy industry, including the Fonterra site, at Whareroa, one of the largest in the Southern hemisphere. All have an impact on the surrounding environment both rural and urban. To ensure that the pressure placed on the whenua from intensive dairying practices is minimised, Ngāti Ruanui is of the view that the following should be considered by regulators: 

Controlling the impact of stock numbers ;

Limit water abstraction; and

Limit to the amount of fertiliser applied per hectare and when it can be applied.

The discharge of dairy effluent to land is becoming common practice. Effluent ponds require emptying and this typically involves pumping the contents into a tank and then applying it (by means of spraying) to the pasture. The Fresh Water Plan of the Taranaki Regional Council governs the consent conditions relating to this process. However, Ngāti Ruanui has successfully argued for a condition limiting the proximity to a waahi tapu and marae to be included as a consent condition. Ngāti Ruanui seeks further development of methods and control around any discharges to ensure the full spectrum of environmental effects including cultural impacts are carefully considered. 3.1.1c: Quarries Quarrying is a highly invasive process and needs to be managed carefully. A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. Quarries are generally used for extracting building materials, such aggregate, sand, and gravel. Quarries in central and south Taranaki typically occur around awa and stream beds where the base rock tends to be more accessible. Ngāti Ruanui requires strict land use controls in respect of quarry development and expansion of quarry sites. 3.1.1d Landfarms The method of landfarming to dispose of drill cuttings and fluids (muds) onto land is becoming more prevalent in the takiwa. Landfarming typically involves incorporating the drilling waste into the soil and then tilling and re-sowing the area to pasture. This allows natural bioremediation to occur as the natural soil processes biodegrade, transform and ultimately assimilate the waste. Ngāti Ruanui has formed a position on landfarming as a result of numerous resource consent applications made to it and this is outlined in the table at the conclusion of this section.

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3.1.1e: Windfarms A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electric power. Windfarms in New Zealand are typically small in scale and the land between the turbines is often used for agricultural or other purposes. A windfarm is constructed following a test period when monitoring masts are erected to determine the suitability of a site. Whilst there are currently no windfarms in central and south Taranaki, there is the possibility that they may be developed in the future with the move towards more sustainable forms of energy generation. In addition, marae may consider the use of wind power (and other types of sustainable energy generation) as an energy source. At the time of writing the plan, there were a limited number of monitoring masts in the takiwa of Ngト》i Ruanui. Wind farms are often perceived to have a negative visual impact. There is also the likelihood that windfarms in south Taranaki will be developed in the coastal area and as such Ngト》i Ruanui would seek adequate control and consent approval process to mitigate and control any negative impact of the windfarm on the landscape. Landscape protection will be of particular significance in the coastal protection zone both at a localised and broader level. The District Plans of Local Authorities must recognise the need for landscape assessments, and they will need to carefully consider how any policy and rules will be applied across the landscape spectrum. Achieving the right balance for landscape protection will require an inclusive and collective process to ensure practical and workable outcomes.

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3.1.2

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem. Biodiversity is also a measure of the health of ecosystems. Greater biodiversity implies greater health and is in part a function of climate. The range of biodiversity in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui can be encompassed in the saying “from the mountain to the sea”. Flora and fauna including all indigenous species are found from the flanks of Maunga Taranaki, through the eastern hill country, over the Taranaki ring plain, to the wetlands and sand dunes of the coastal and marine environment. Indigenous vegetation has all but disappeared from the ring plain and pressure continues to bring even more land into production. Ngāti Ruanui will continue to work with the Department of Conservation and other organisations/ groups to ensure that the different programmes that they administer including (transfer of native species and endangered species recovery programmes) continue to operate in a manner that is culturally acceptable, environmentally sustainable and will not put at risk the individual animal or bird. The protection and enhancement of natural habitats is paramount – especially those with indigenous species contained within them. On-going development is placing pressure on natural environments and habitats. Ngāti Ruanui seeks retention of current level of biodiversity as a bare minimum. The iwi expects demonstrated improvement of the current level of biodiversity over time. The on-going and negative impact of development and the effect of invasive pests (plants and animals) on the many ecosystems in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui is of utmost concern. Ngāti Ruanui advocates for the maintenance and on-going restoration and expansion of indigenous species across their natural range and that indigenous species are given higher priority and preference. Underpinning the Ngāti Ruanui position on biodiversity is the draft National Policy Statement (NPS) on Biodiversity released in 2011. The NPS on Biodiversity is in direct response to the continued loss of indigenous biodiversity outside of publicly held land over the last 20 years, despite a range of legislative tools available. The draft 2011 NPS is endorsed by Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust. The Ngāti Ruanui Claims Settlement Act contains the Crown's acknowledgement of the special association of Ngāti Ruanui indigenous fish, flora, and fauna species found within the DoC protocol area. Ngāti Ruanui advocates for the Crown’s acknowledgement to be applied across the takiwa and for Local Authorities to incorporate the principles of the acknowledgement into their regional and district planning documents. There has been a significant increase in the number of beehives in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui and in particular the eastern hill country (which includes large tracts of DoC estate).The eastern hill country is where indigenous vegetation is regenerating. Manuka is a popular target species for beekeepers and their bees as there are proven medicinal and antibacterial benefits that are contained in the honey that is gathered from bees feeding on manuka.

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3.1.3

Traditional Knowledge Systems

Rongoa is the term for using medicines that are produced from native plants. In the past, the use of these medicines prevented many sicknesses and provided remedies for those who were already sick. Rongoa is still being practised by uri of Ngāti Ruanui and is used extensively today. The protection of the ecosystems and environments of rongoa plants is critical for the survival of this way of being. The gathering of rongoa must be carried out in a sustainable way to ensure that there will still be some the next time it is needed. Some of the plants used for rongoa have other uses including food, weaving and carving. Ngāti Ruanui has an obligation to ensure that habitats and ecosystems are protected so that those who use native plants and water in rongoa can readily access them. The acknowledgement of the importance of traditional knowledge systems by policy makers and regulators is a starting point to ensure protection of the taonga and the transfer of that knowledge within the iwi. Ngāti Ruanui considers that rongoa should be a specific criteria for determining protection for an area or areas of native vegetation. Land-use controls should specifically identify the cultural aspect of rongoa. In addition, Ngāti Ruanui takes the following position on bio-prospecting. Bioprospecting is a broad term that describes the discovery of new and useful biological mechanisms, often without the help or input of traditional knowledge, and usually without compensation being paid to the indigenous people whose knowledge is being exploited. Ngāti Ruanui takes a strong view in that bio-prospecting is unacceptable in its takiwa. At the time of writing the plan, the WAI 262 (2011) Report was being considered by the Government and as such, the recommendations of the Waitangi Tribunal and the Governments response to them have not been considered in this section.

3.2 Objectives 

That the concept of kaitiakitanga as defined by Ngāti Ruanui is applied to the management of natural and physical resources.

The whenua is protected and enhanced for future generations through long term land-use strategies and land-use zoning and performance standards founded upon an effects based philosophy.

Preserve, expand and develop the indigenous flora and fauna within the takiwa for future generations.

Traditional knowledge systems are acknowledged, maintained and protected.

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That local authorities develop and maintain mechanisms for sensitively and adequately addressing the requirements of Ngāti Ruanui in respect of the management of natural and physical resources.

3.3 Broad Plan Policies 

That district plan objectives, policy, methods and performance standards reflects the status of Ngāti Ruanui as a partner in landuse planning across all zones.

That a range of activities and development be allowed across planning zones and environments reflecting effects based planning methodologies.

That land-use policy, methods and performance standards encourage coastal development to occur in existing settlements with strict landuse control on other coastal developments.

That the Hawera Urban Growth Strategy is supported and adequate controls are in place in the South Taranaki District Plan to direct development to newly created zones for residential, commercial and industrial growth.

That mechanisms that minimise intensive dairying practices with particular emphasis on improving land-based irrigation methods recognising cultural impacts and effects are endorsed.

That policy, methods and performance standards developed for windfarms in district plans adequately considers visual impact and the potential cumulative impact, and are practical and applicable to immediate and broader district landscape values.

That indigenous species shall be given a higher level of protection than that of exotic and introduced species.

That the draft National Policy Statement on Biodiversity (2011) is endorsed.

That rongoa is considered a specific criterion for determining the protection of native vegetation through district plan landuse use controls and identification of significant natural areas.

That bio-prospecting will not occur in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui without its prior agreement.

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3.4 Methods and Procedures 

Ensure those activities that impact significantly on the whenua and biodiversity are monitored and assessed and appropriate reports are provided.

Seek and obtain feedback from hapu and uri in relation to the health of the whenua and biodiversity and assist hapu to respond to resource consent applications.

Meet with hapu representatives on site to discuss consent applications.

Preparation of cultural impact assessments prior to providing written approval to a significant resource consent application.

Arrange karakia and blessings when necessary and required.

Assert the use of rahui and reserves to protect ecosystems.

Engage with policy makers and regulators on all significant issues relating to the whenua and biodiversity including provision of input into the formulation of District Plans.

Promote and enhance partnerships between Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui and central government, regional and district councils.

Prepare and make submissions to central government, regional and district councils.

Receive weekly updates on all resource consents applications lodged and respond accordingly.

Engage with industries and companies to ensure that the Ngāti Ruanui environmental position is acknowledged and understood and to minimise negative environmental impacts.

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The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities Local Authorities should note that Ngāti Ruanui: 

Seeks land-use planning controls through zoning and performance standards reflecting the partnership between the Councils and Ngāti Ruanui and an effects based approach recognising the concept of Kaitiakitanga.

Endorses the coastal protection area as a mechanism to control subdivision and development within the South Taranaki District Plan.

Encourages coastal development to occur within existing settlements, and strict controls are placed on new residential type development within the coastal protection area.

Seeks the Hawera Urban Growth Strategy to be supported by adequate performance standards which ensure new urban growth around Hawera is directed to the newly created residential commercial and industrial zones.

Seeks clear policy to be developed to encourage the minimisation of the effects of intensive dairying including improved land-based irrigation systems and the recognition of the cultural impact.

Seeks adequate land-use control standards to be developed within district plans to manage visual and amenity impact, including cumulative effects both localised and district wide.

Endorses the National Policy Statement on Biodiversity (2011).

Seeks rongoa be considered a key criteria in determining the protection of native vegetation and the identification of significant natural areas.

The specific policies for quarries, landfarms, rural and coastal subdivisions, discharge of dairy effluent and windfarms are outlined in Table 1 below.

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3.5 Specific Land Use Plan Policies The table below outlines specific policies that have been developed for actual and likely resource consent applications that have occurred within the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui. Quarry Policy 1. Life of a quarry to be set. 2. Quarry to be a minimum of 25 metres from any awa or water course. 3. Require detailed information relating to the use of settling ponds (contaminant control, method for capturing and controlling water levels, anything piped to rivers, how the pond will be maintained) 4. Limiting the amount of working area at any one time. 5. Provision of expert engineering and/or geological advice to ensure long term security of the quarry development. Reinstatement 1. Reinstatement methods and final contours of the quarried area required including the reinstatement of the settling pond and general working areas of the quarry site. 2. Protect the stock piles of material stripped (topsoil and clay) to reinstate each quarry working area is required. Monitoring 1. Ngāti Ruanui will visit the site annually with the applicant to monitor. 2. The monitoring condition is to form part of the formal consent conditions. 3. All monitoring reports from the relevant Councils to be forwarded to Ngāti Ruanui for information. Recording and Protection of Significance of Site 1. Ngāti Ruanui will record any site of cultural significance and provide a copy to the land owner and applicant. This will be included as part of the consent application. Where a site of cultural significance is identified Ngāti Ruanui will identify options for protection and where possible alteration to the application and intended activity. Where methods for protection cannot be resolved Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek the independent protection of the site.

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Landfarm Policy 1. Coastal/sand-dune restoration and riparian planting plans to be prepared where relevant. Planting to occur progressively within a defined time period irrespective of application of drilling mud’s. 2. Total area of riparian protection is to be 20 metres either side of any stream or water course. The fencing of riparian area to occur with the commencement of planting. Drilling Muds Water based muds will be generally accepted within the defined area. Application of synthetic based mud’s (SBM’s) only to occur with Ngāti Ruanui approval. A specific protocol must be developed which will detail the approval process for synthetic muds. To be included as part of formal consent conditions. Generally a protocol will include: Synthetic Based Mud’s to be stored onsite for typically 3-6 months and generally be diluted and mixed with water based muds. Once the quantity of mud is sufficient for land-farming to be undertaken, further testing would be done to assess the composition of the final mix, Ngāti Ruanui supplied with results at this stage. If any parameters are over set limits, further dilution (with clean earth) would be employed, before the landfarming activities are undertaken. This process includes a close working relationship with the Taranaki Regional Council’s technical staff. All final mud mix must comply with consent conditions 1. No oil based mud’s to be applied to the site. 2. No well work over fluids (also known as fracking fluids) shall be applied to the site. Monitoring 1. Ngāti Ruanui will monitor the site every six months with the applicant. 2. The monitoring condition is to form part of the formal consent conditions. 3. All monitoring reports from the relevant Councils to be forwarded to Ngāti Ruanui for information. Recording of Significance of Site 1. Ngāti Ruanui will record the cultural significance of the site and provide a copy to the land owner and applicant. This will be included as part of the consent application. Where a site of cultural significance is identified Ngāti Ruanui will identify options for protection and where possible alteration to the application and intended activity. Where methods for protection cannot be 16 | P a g e

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resolved Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek the independent protection of the site.

Rural and Coastal Subdivision Policy The subdivision of rural and coastal land is of significance to Ngāti Ruanui. Residential subdivisions occur in environments that are already heavily modified, therefore rural and coastal subdivisions applications must consider: 1. An appropriate minimum allotment size; 2. Consideration of waahi tapu; 3. Protection of waterways; 4. Use of advanced septic tank systems (two or more chambers); 5. Discharge of storm water needs to consider filtering, riparian planting; 6. Landscape plans and use of esplanade reserves; 7. Cumulative assessment of affects; and 8. On-going monitoring to ensure resource consent conditions are met. It is noted that the Assessment of Environmental Effects (AEE) provided with many applications is often not appropriate to the subdivision. 9. Ngāti Ruanui expects early consultation on all subdivision applications irrespective of resource consent activity status. Recording of Significance of Site 1. Ngāti Ruanui will record the cultural significance of the site and provide a copy to the land owner and applicant. This will be included as part of the consent application. Where a site of cultural significance is identified Ngāti Ruanui will identify options for protection and where possible alteration to the application and intended activity. Where methods for protection cannot be resolved Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek the independent protection of the site. Coastal protection area 1. No new settlements in the coastal protection area in the short- to mediumterm.

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Discharge Waste from Dairy Farm Effluent Policy A common process undertaken on dairy farms is to discharge waste from effluent ponds, herd home shelters and feed pads onto and into land. This is usually achieved by spraying direct to the pasture. In addition to consent conditions set by the Taranaki Regional Council, the following condition has been added. 1. No contaminants shall be discharged within 50 metres of a marae or known waahi tapu site/area.

Windfarm Policy 1. Ngāti Ruanui is an affected party to any windfarm development in its takiwa. 2. The construction of a commercial based wind farm shall be a discretionary activity within any district Plan. 3. Key landscape features, local and broader district wide are identified and protected through the resource consent process and the landscape criteria listed in the District Plan. 4. The towers shall be designed to minimise noise and negative visual impacts. 5. Due to the potential to situate windfarms within the coastal area, Ngāti Ruanui will undertake a cultural assessment and if required record the cultural significance of the site and provide a copy to the land owner and applicant. This will be included as part of the consent application. Where a site of cultural significance is identified Ngāti Ruanui will identify options for protection and where possible alteration to the application and intended activity. Where methods for protection cannot be resolved Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek the independent protection of the site. Table 1: Ngāti Ruanui policy on specific land uses 

Cross reference with other sections 

Te Puna Waiora

Waahi Tapu

Maunga Taranaki

He Whenua Momona

Whakahoutanga

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T E P UNA W AIORA W ATER


4. Te Puna Waiora – Water Ngāti Ruanui believes the mauri of the land does not come from the people it comes from the essence of Taranaki Maunga, from the sacred water that flows freely from the slopes. Ngāti Ruanui connection with the land and its mauri is part of its identity. Manaakitia mai to mokopuna. Wai tapu has always been used by Ngāti Ruanui to heal, protect and cleanse. Wai tapu is an important component of the spirituality for Ngāti Ruanui. Karakia:

Tipi nuku, tipi rangi, tipi raro, tipi haahaa Ka tipi te wai, ka ora te wai, he wai ora.

We need to keep our waters clean because they circle the universe, if the universe is clean the world is. It personifies the representation of the forces of life and death transversing the world of the dead and the world of the living. Water is a taonga that must be protected for future generations and this can be done by ensuring that the quality of water is maintained and improved. Ever increasing demands for water abstraction has a potentially detrimental effect on water levels and flow rates. The relationship of Ngāti Ruanui and its culture and traditions with its ancestral waters must be recognised and provided for by consenting authorities. The preservation of the mauri of a watercourse is important to Ngāti Ruanui. A consistent supply of quality water is crucial for human consumption, industry and business in the region. Ngāti Ruanui will work with territorial authorities to determine individual plans for the key catchment areas that it has identified and chosen. Water must be seen and managed in an integrated holistic manner and that it is inextricably linked to all other resources within the environment. As kaitiaki, Ngāti Ruanui wants greater involvement of in the management of the different water forms in their takiwa to make certain that the allocation mechanisms of water is improved and better managed. The traditional environmental knowledge of Ngāti Ruanui in relation to water must be acknowledged and utilised. There are 35 catchment areas within the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui (including the boundary awa of the Waingongoro and the Whenuakura) and these are listed in Appendix Five. There are ten named catchments and 25 unnamed catchments. The unnamed catchments are significantly smaller in size than the named catchments. There are five key catchment areas outlined in the plan and are considered in more detail at the conclusion of this section. The 66 named awa and streams in the takiwa are given in Appendix Five.

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4.1 Issues This section is divided into the following: 

4.1.1 Environmental Effects

4.1.2 Allocation

4.1.3 Specific Catchment Areas

Due to complex nature of addressing the water resource, each section has its own issues, objectives, polices, methods, procedures and policy direction. Table 2 outlines the Ngāti Ruanui position on specific water catchment areas.

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4.1.1

Environmental Effects

The relationship between Ngāti Ruanui and its traditional waters is paramount and must be preserved. The protection of the creeks, streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, swamps, springs and aquifers of the takiwa is essential due to their life supporting properties. There are two primary factors that have a negative environmental impact on freshwater and they are i). Discharges of pollutants, contaminants or intrusion and ii). Abstraction and water take. Discharges have a significant impact on the quality of water contained in the waterways and coastal areas of the takiwa. Discharges can occur in many ways, including: 

storm water from built up areas enter numerous water courses;

contaminants from roads enter streams and tributaries;

discharges from point sources;

leaching from septic tanks can enter water tables; and

Run-off from rural farm land.

Accidental spills

One of the risks to the fresh water in the takiwa is a result of intensive farming practices that use fertilisers to boost pasture growth and increased stock numbers to increase production. Common contributors to water pollution are nutrients and sediment which typically enter stream systems through surface runoff, or flushes them out of the soil through leaching. These types of pollutants are considered nonpoint source pollution because the exact point where the pollutant originated cannot be identified. Such pollutants remain a major issue for water ways because the inability to trace their sources hinders any attempt to limit the pollution. Working with interest groups, farmers and local government to reduce the effects of intensive farming practices is of utmost importance. The use of streamside fencing prevents stock from fouling waterways, while streamside (riparian) vegetation protects and enhances water quality by intercepting nutrients and run-off and shading the water and keeping temperatures down. Further, Ngāti Ruanui advocates for the development of land-based sewage treatment systems as an alternative to assimilation into coastal waters. Underground aquifers must be protected from saltwater and nitrate intrusion as result of exploration and exploitation by dairy farmers seeking alternative sources of water. Older septic tanks also have the potential to leach harmful contaminants into aquifers. Aquifers are also vulnerable to extraction methods used by the petroleum industry. Careful consideration of these methods is required to ensure environmental

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protection is robust. A cautious approach will always be applied in such circumstances. The ability of Uri to access sites associated with Mahinga Kai for food gathering must be maintained. The sites need protection to ensure that the food gathered there is safe to eat. The negative impacts on the diversity of Mahinga Kai species due to habitat loss, insufficient flow and invasive species are apparent. The ability to safely gather kai and the areas to do so are under ever increasing pressure. Water take or abstraction is a significant issue for Ngāti Ruanui. According to anecdotal evidence from Ngāti Ruanui Pahake, the levels of the awa and streams of central and south Taranaki have decreased over the years. The water flow from puna have decreased. The need for industry and urban populations to take more and more water and perhaps most significantly is the impact of the dairy industry and the intensive farming practices employed today has changed many awa and stream catchments. The negative consequences of these elements mean that catchment areas, rivers, streams and underground aquifers are under ever increasing pressure. A sustainable management system must be applied for future activities The challenge for Ngāti Ruanui is to work with decision makers to ensure cultural beliefs, values and practices are recognised and that the methodology for assessing and developing standards for fresh water uses proven approaches based on a kaupapa Maori framework and is not dominated by western science techniques. Ngāti Ruanui supports the work of central and local government in ridding the water ways of invasive species and understands the huge undertakings of the task. Invasive species such as perch, carp and catfish can be devastating to indigenous species. In the same vein, invasive plant species can have equally devastating effects on water course. The preventative approach of agencies to minimise the risk of cross contamination from other areas is commended. To assist in better water management, Ngāti Ruanui advocates for the development of water management zones to minimise unintended enrichment and/or bacterial contamination and control water extraction. The zones may be based around catchment areas or areas of heavy concentration (for example the Tawhiti Stream east of Hawera).

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4.1.1a

Objectives

That the concept of kaitiakitanga as defined by Ngāti Ruanui is applied to the management of natural and physical resources.

Preservation of the mauri of watercourses.

Water quality standards for ecosystems, recreational, cultural and water-use values are identified.

Contaminant discharges to water ways are minimised, controlled and monitored to ensure standards are met.

Water abstraction is sustainably managed.

The impact of intensive farming practices is better controlled.

Traditional knowledge systems are acknowledged.

4.1.1b

Broad Plan Policies

That Ngāti Ruanui identify in conjunction with the Taranaki Regional Council water management zones that are most affected by nutrient enrichment and/or bacterial contamination and water extraction and promote innovative, sustainable management practices concerning water in these zones.

That the Taranaki Regional Council ensures the Regional Fresh Water Plan uses a mixture of persuasion, advice, rules and enforcement to manage agricultural run-off in water management zones.

That access and availability to clean water to exercise cultural activities such as rongoa and mahingi kai is recognised and enhanced.

That the Taranaki Regional Council strengthens the rules within the Regional Fresh Water Plan to achieve more active riparian planting and fencing plans.

That the mauri of the awa and stream environment be considered to assist in the development of minimum flow regimes is incorporated into the Regional Fresh Water Plan.

That Ngāti Ruanui advocates for land based sewage treatment systems.

That the Taranaki Regional Council ensures non-point and point source discharge standards protect customary freshwater food gathering practices and users.

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The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities Local Authorities should note that Ngāti Ruanui: 

Supports policy development that uses explicit linkages between the association of tangata whenua with awa and stream catchments.

Supports the development of the Fresh Water Plan of the Taranaki Regional Council that includes the development of water management zones to manage nutrient enrichment and/or bacterial contamination and extraction.

Seeks the continued and enhancement of the riparian management programmes.

Advocates for the identification of catchments that need specific management policies and rules to protect cultural interests.

Seeks greater engagement in policy structure development including the use of cultural impact assessments for fresh water resources.

4.1.2 Allocation methods 4.1.2a Issues The mechanisms relating to water allocation are a concern to Ngati Ruanui. A regime based on first in first served is not sustainable in the long term. Industry and the influence that it wields (i.e. economic development and job creation) mean that environmental concerns are at times seen as secondary or subservient. Due consideration must be given to the length of resource consents (and their subsequent renewals) and the quantities of water extracted. Ngati Ruanui acknowledges the Taranaki Regional Council Freshwater plan as being the primary document for the management of fresh water within its takiwa. Ngati Ruanui also notes the intention of the National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management but argues that it does not go far enough to protect the rights of Ngati Ruanui by ensuring meaningful engagement and involvement with regulators occurs. Ngati Ruanui believes there are opportunities within the existing and emerging freshwater structures to encompass a degree of collective decision making in the allocation of water rights to achieve sustainable outcomes. Ngati Ruanui shall seek to explore co-governance and co-management arrangements for specific water ways, awa and catchment areas. The co-governance and co-management arrangements would: 

Provide legal mechanisms for Ngati Ruanui participation in governance and management;

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Further recognise the entrenched relationship that Ngati Ruanui has with the Crown; and

Provide a Ngati Ruanui perspective.

4.1.2b

Objectives

Water allocation is managed in a sustainable manner.

Active involvement and participation of Ngati Ruanui in the water allocation process.

Traditional knowledge systems are acknowledged and protected.

Long term commitment to formal co-management and co-governance of specific freshwater resources.

4.1.2c

Broad NREMP Policies

That Ngati Ruanui develop a frame work with the Taranaki Regional Council where co-management principles of particular awa catchments can be developed and acknowledge in the Fresh Water Plan.

That Ngati Ruanui establish relationship mechanisms with the Taranaki Regional Council

That those activities that impact significantly on water are monitored by relevant agencies and Ngati Ruanui participate in the monitoring feedback process to complete the policy development cycle (improvements and additions to the Fresh Water Plan)

That Ngati Ruanui develop processing steps for resource consents, but not decision making, with regard to specified applications for resource consent relating to identified awa and stream catchments.

The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities Local Authorities should note that Ngati Ruanui:  

Intends to explore co-management and co-governance arrangements for key awa catchments including consent processing inclusion. Supports detailed involvement at policy development phases on statutory planning documents including participation in freshwater monitoring and policy feedback.  

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4.1.2d

NREMP Methods and Procedures

Seek and obtain feedback from kaitiaki, hapu and uri in relation to the health of waterways and food sources found within and assist hapu to respond to resource consent applications.

Meet with hapu representatives and kaitiaki on site to discuss resource consent applications where possible.

Preparation of cultural impact assessments prior to providing written approval to a significant resource consent application.

Consider the use of rahui and maitaitai reserves to protect ecosystems.

Arrange karakia and blessings when necessary and required.

Engage with policy makers and regulators on all significant issues relating to freshwater including the provision of input into the formulation of Regional and District Plans.

Promote and enhance partnerships between Te Runanga o Ngati Ruanui and central government, regional and district councils.

Prepare and make submissions to central government, regional and district councils.

Receive weekly updates on all resource consents applications lodged and respond accordingly.

Engage with industries and companies to ensure that the Ngati Ruanui environmental position is acknowledged and understood and to minimise negative environmental impacts.

Advocate for best practice approaches and the use of new technologies and processes and seek to have them included in resource consents.

4.1.3 Specific Water Catchment Areas There are a number of significant catchment areas in the takiwa of Ngati Ruanui. The identification of specific catchment areas is not an attempt to state that these specific catchments are more deserving of attention than those not listed, but simply an attempt to provide clarity to those areas that, at the time of writing the NREMP, require more specific detail and policy. The remaining water catchment areas of the takiwa shall be considered on a case by case basis. Ngati Ruanui will seek to undertake projects with specific catchment areas when required.

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Patea River The Patea Awa is significant in terms of size and location. The Awa is the embodiment of the saying “from the Mountain to the Sea”. The Awa begins as a spring on Taranaki Maunga and works its way through the takiwa of Ngati Ruanui to the sea. The man-made lake, Lake Rotorangi remains an important recreational feature for the district. The Patea Awa is a Statutory Acknowledgement area under the Ngati Ruanui Claims Settlement Act 2003. The Patea Dam operated by Trust Power has a significant impact on the Patea Awa. At the time of writing the NREMP, the Resource Consent for the Dam had just been renewed. Ngati Ruanui has been involved in this process in developing specific aquatic monitoring plans to ensure the survival of native species. The impact on migratory species has a particular focus which means that specific policies have been created for the migration of Elvers.

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Tangahoe and Manawapou Awa As with all awa in the takiwa of Ngati Ruanui, the Tangahoe and Manawapou Awa are of significance to their respective hapu. There are numerous smaller tributaries that feed into these two awa. Whilst they are not as long as the Patea River, they provide food resources for the hapu that live near to them. The Tangahoe Awa begins in the hill country to the north east of Hawera and winds its ways to the coast, reaching the sea only a few hundred metres to the north of the Manawapou River. The Manawapou Awa has its beginnings in the Tarere Ngahere, in the hill country to the east of Hawera. The coastal area where the two awa enter the sea form part of a coastal management area that is monitored by the Taranaki Regional Council.

Manawapou Awa

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Tawhiti Stream The Tawhiti Stream catchment is the location of several industries that include a meat processing plant and a meat rendering plant. The companies that run these industries hold a number of resource consents to allow abstraction of water, discharge of storm water to the stream and placement of structures across the stream. The catchment of the Tawhiti Stream is placed under such stress that no further resource consents should be granted. In addition, as resource consents are renewed, the conditions attached to the consents must demonstrate environmental improvements as a minimum consideration.

Boundary Awa– Waingongoro and Whenuakura Awa The boundaries of Ngati Ruanui are shared awa with its neighbouring iwi. The Waingongoro Awa is shared with Nga Ruahine and the Whenuakura Awa is shared with Nga Rauru Kiitahi. Table 2: Specific catchment areas of Ngati Ruanui

The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities for specific water catchment areas Local Authorities should note that Ngati Ruanui:      

States that no new resource consents are to be granted for the Tawhiti Stream and catchment area. Advocates that any renewal of a resource consent for the Tawhiti Stream must demonstrate environmental improvements on the existing conditions. Intends to apply for central government funding to assist in the clean-up of the Tawhiti Stream. Advocates that these river catchments be considered for water management zones. Seeks cultural health indexes for these river catchments and more integrated comprehensive monitoring be implemented in the lower reaches of each identified catchment. Seeks discussion and implementation of co-governance and/or comanagement of these identified catchments.

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Cross reference with other sections 

Te Moana Uriuri TangaroaTakapou WharikiI Papatuanuku E Takoto Nei

Whenuakura

Waahi Tapu

He Whenua Momona

Whakahoutanga

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T E M OANA U RIURI T ANGAROA T AKAPOU W HARIKI I P APATUANUKU E T AKOTO N EI C OASTAL AND M ARINE E NVIRONMENT


5. Te Moana Uriuri Tangaroa Takapou Whariki i Papatuanuku e Takoto Nei – Coastal and Marine Environment Te Moana uriuri Tangaroa Takapou Whariki I Papatuanuku E takoto nei

The depths of the water including all the sealife The mat of the ocean and everything on the seabed to the mother that embraces everything else

Ngāti Ruanui believe you only take from the sea what you need to live off. The coastal and marine environment is a vital component of the plan as it encompasses a diverse and changeable range of ecosystems. For the purposes of this plan, the coastal and marine environment includes coastal wetlands, estuaries and sand dunes, encompassing the foreshore and seabed extending to the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and Extended Continental Shelf (ECS). Ngāti Ruanui has a longstanding association with the coastal and marine environment and the life forms found within it. The protection of fisheries, marine birds and marine mammals is important to Ngāti Ruanui in its role as kaitiaki. The coastal and marine area continues to provide a multitude of food resources to Ngāti Ruanui. The impact of the human habitation is longstanding and in recent times, the sceptre of mining of the oil and mineral industry in the coastal and marine areas has become more and more visible with potential long-term implications as a result of offshore iron sand mining. Furthermore, whilst not an issue for this iteration of the plan is the potential for tidal power generation to occur in the coastal and marine area. Ngāti Ruanui notes the intention of the Regional Coastal Plan for Taranaki of the Taranaki Regional Council to protect the coastal environment. Ngāti Ruanui notes that the jurisdiction of the Council only extends to the 12 nm territorial limit. Ngāti Ruanui supports the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) having a role in protecting the marine and coastal environment to the 200nm EEZ and ECS. Ngāti Ruanui recognises the relatively small number of coastal structures and occupations with the coastal, immediate foreshore and seabed area. However, where such structures and occupations do exist, the inclusion of Ngāti Ruanui in any consenting and on-going monitoring is critical. Any new structures, occupations and developments within the foreshore and seabed areas will be carefully evaluated.

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5.1 Issues Human Habitation has resulted in the clearing of the indigenous vegetation. Pollutants and contaminants enter the coastal and marine environments from the awa and streams that flow into it. Therefore the following seven issues are of importance to Ngāti Ruanui within the coastal and marine environment.

5.1.1

Coastal Protection Area and Coastal Structures

Although it has been heavily modified, the Coastal Protection Area is an important part of the regional ecology and must be protected. To that end, coastal subdivisions and other projects such as construction of windfarms and industrial sites must be controlled. In the short to medium term, Ngāti Ruanui advocates for no new coastal settlements within the coastal protection area defined by the South Taranaki District Plan. The Fonterra Whareroa Outfall extends 1875 metres into the Tasman Sea and is the only outfall of its type in the Ngāti Ruanui takiwa. The effects of the outfall must be monitored to ensure the immediate environment surrounding it is not negatively impacted upon. Ngāti Ruanui also endorses that all activity within the defined coastal protection area shall require a resource consent. Any new coastal structure or occupation must require consent/approval either through the RMA or other legislation. The involvement of Ngāti Ruanui will be required with the possibility of joint decision making roles with local authorities and/or the EPA.

5.1.2

Iron Sand Mining

From an environmental perspective, the concern held by Ngāti Ruanui is that the impact of offshore iron sand mining is unknown. This issue is also addressed in the Oil and Minerals section. Ngāti Ruanui advocates that mining be considered a noncomplying activity as opposed to a discretionary activity at both a district land-use consent level and regional consent level.

5.1.3

Fisheries

Te Kupe o Moananui is a traditional food source for Ngāti Ruanui and has been since the descendants of Ruanui first settled along the coastline. Numerous villages supported the fishing industry that grew following settlement. Ngāti Ruanui has a role as kaitiaki to protect the fishing resource whilst at the same time protecting its enshrined customary rights. The tupuna of Ngāti Ruanui were skilled in fishing and paid special attention to te maramataka o Ngāti Ruanui.

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Ngāti Ruanui and the Ministry of Fisheries have a Protocol that sets out how the Ministry will interact with Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui in relation to specific matters including:  Recognition of Ngāti Ruanui interests in all species of fish and aquatic life;  Development of sustainability measures; and  Customary non-commercial fisheries management. In terms of the coastal area, the Fisheries Protocol area is bounded by the Waingongoro Awa to the North and the Whenuakura Awa to the South and includes the adjacent waters. The taonga species of Ngāti Ruanui as given in the protocol are contained in Appendix Six. Given the significance of fisheries to the iwi and the multi-layered facets that are interwoven throughout the fisheries landscape, it is envisaged that in due course fisheries will be expanded to a standalone section of this plan. The Pan will therefore be treated as a planning document for purposes of the RMA and must also be taken into account by the Minister of Fisheries for the purposes of section 10(b) of the Treaty (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act (1992).

5.1.4

Protection of marine birds and mammals

Ngāti Ruanui advocates the use of fishing techniques that reduces the occurrence of by-catch. By-catch is a term that is usually used for fish (and other marine life such as birds and mammals) unintentionally caught while intending to catch other fish. Whilst stranded whales are not common place on the coastline of Ngāti Ruanui, they have occurred in the past and are likely to occur again. Traditionally, stranded whales were a food source and their bones and teeth were highly prized for making implements, weapons and ornaments. Ngāti Ruanui and the Department of Conservation (DoC) shall work together when a stranding does occur to determine the appropriate response. In the event that the mammals cannot be returned to the sea, Ngāti Ruanui and DoC will determine the most appropriate means of disposing of the carcass, extraction and distribution of material for scientific use and appropriation of materials for cultural use.

5.1.5

Mahinga Kai

The ability of uri of Ngāti Ruanui to access its mahinga kai sites must be protected both formally and informally. The customary rights of Ngāti Ruanui are enshrined in legislation. The rights to access those sites will be severely diminished if they are not protected from pollution and poaching. Clear acknowledgement of these rights through local planning documents provides a practical outcome to the intent of the Crown.

5.1.6 Aquaculture The Plan does not fully consider the implication of any possible aquaculture developments that may occur along its coastline. This is due to the fact that in the short-medium term it is unlikely that any commercial aquaculture projects shall Ngāti Ruanui Environmental Management Plan

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occur. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust reserves the right to review this position if circumstances change.

5.2 Means of Protection The table below outlines three legislative approaches that can be implemented by Ngāti Ruanui to protect its fisheries. Mataitai Reserve Mataitai reserves are one of a suite of management tools created under Part IX of the Fisheries Act 1996. These are designed to give effect to the obligations stated in the Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Claims Settlement Act 1992 to develop policies to help recognise the use and management practices of Maori in the exercise of non-commercial fishing rights. The Part IX tools provide practical recognition of the rights guaranteed to tangata whenua under the Treaty of Waitangi. Under the Customary Fishing Regulations (Kaimoana Customary Fishing Regulations 1998), tangata whenua may apply to the Minister of Fisheries to establish a mataitai reserve on a traditional fishing ground for the purpose of recognising and providing for customary management practices and food gathering. A mataitai reserve will have the following effect: Excludes commercial fishing (can be permitted through regulations);    

Does not exclude recreational fishing; Does not require recreational fishers to obtain permits or prevent non-Maori from fishing; Does not prevent access to beaches or rivers not on private land; Allows for bylaws for fishing to be made.

Rahui A rahui is a temporary closure. Section 186B of the Fisheries Act 1996 allows for the closure or restriction of fishing methods in an area. The purpose of a rahui is to improve the size and / or availability of fish stocks, or to recognise the use of tangata whenua management practices.

Taiapure A taiapure identifies an area (being estuarine or littoral coastal waters) that has customarily been of special significance to an iwi or hapu as a source of food or for spiritual or cultural reasons. The provisions for taiapure are contained with Part IX of the Fisheries Act 1996. Taiapure make provision for a management committee to be established to give advice and recommendations to the Minister responsible for Fisheries and for regulations to provide integrated management of the fisheries in that area. Members of the management committee are nominated by tangata whenua and may include representatives from all fisheries stakeholders (including commercial), as well as other interest groups. Table 3: Legislative means of protection  

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5.3 Objectives 

Minimise negative impacts on the coastal and marine environments.

Minimise negative impacts on aquatic life forms, marine birds and mammals.

Traditional knowledge systems are acknowledged and protected.

Protection of customary fisheries.

Acknowledgement of mahinga kai through local planning documents.

5.4 Broad Plan Policies 

That no new settlements are developed within the coastal protection area.

That those activities that impact significantly on the coastal and marine environment are monitored and assessed.

That the use of a coastal protection area within the South Taranaki District Plan is retained and all activities within this area require resource consent, including Ngāti Ruanui taking a joint decision making role in the consenting /approval process.

The defined coastal area within the South Taranaki District Plan is reviewed in conjunction with Ngāti Ruanui.

That any renewal of a resource consent and/or variation shall demonstrate an improvement on the existing conditions.

That all new coastal, foreshore and seabed structures or exclusive occupations require consent/approval either through the resource management Act 1991 or other legislation, including Ngāti Ruanui taking a joint decision making role in the consenting /approval process.

That Ngāti Ruanui endorses the use of fishing techniques that reduce the occurrence of by-catch.

That Ngāti Ruanui endorses the development of protocol agreements with DOC for the protection of marine birds and mammals.

That Ngāti Ruanui endorses the Exclusive Economic Zone and Extended Continental Shelf (Environmental Effects) legislation including greater environmental control by the Environmental Protection Agency.

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5.5 Methods and Procedures 

Seek and obtain feedback from hapu and uri in relation to the health the coastal and marine environment and assist hapu to respond to resource consent applications.

Preparation of cultural impact assessments prior to providing written approval to a significant resource consent application.

Meet with hapu representatives on site to discuss resource consent applications where possible.

Consider the use of maitaitai reserves, rahui and taiapure to protect ecosystems.

Arrange karakia and blessings when necessary and required.

Engage with policy makers and regulators on all significant issues relating to the coastal and marine area including fisheries including provision of input into the formulation of Regional and District Plans.

Promote and enhance partnerships between Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui and central government, regional and district councils.

Receive weekly updates on all resource consents applications lodged and respond accordingly.

Prepare and make submissions to central government, regional and district councils.

The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities Local Authorities should note that Ngāti Ruanui:      

Does not support the development of new coastal settlements. Requires strict control on subdivision development. Expects that any renewal of a resource and/or variation to consents shall demonstrate an improvement on the existing conditions. Expects the continuation of the South Taranaki Coastal Protection Area through the District Plan and all activities within this area to require resource consent. That Ngāti Ruanui is actively engaged in any re-definition of the Coastal Protection Area in the South Taranaki District Plan. That all new coastal structures and or occupations within the foreshore and seabed area require consent. That options around joint decision making powers between Ngāti Ruanui and local authorities be considered for all activities within the coastal protection area, foreshore and seabed areas.

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Cross reference with other sections 

Te Puna Waiora

Whenuakura

He Whenua Momona

Whakahoutanga

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T E A I T OKORANGI O XYGEN A IR AND W IND


6. Te Ai Tokorangi – Oxygen Air and Wind Te Toa o Tawhirimatea – The strength of Tawhirimatea. This is a Ngāti Ruanui traditional statement abstracted from the waiata Poua. Tawhirimatea is the epitome of determination, resolve and standing up for what you believe in. Tawhirimatea continues to fight against the older brothers because he did not agree to the separation of their parents Ranginui and Papatuanuku. The determination of Ngāti Ruanui to reinstate the ‘mana’ they hold over the environment is likened to the attributes of Tawhirimatea, conflict and resolution. Poua – karakia Tenei taku toa ko Tawhiri-maa-tea Tenei taku toa ko Waitara ki te pahua

6.1 Issues Air is the most basic necessity for sustaining life. As kaitiaki, Ngāti Ruanui must do what it can to ensure that the quality of air is maintained and enhanced for the benefit of current and future generations and for all other living things. Generally, the air in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui is of a high quality. In comparison to other regions, the takiwa has a relatively low population base; it is widely dispersed, without significant heavy industry. Central and South Taranaki is reasonably windy and exposed in nature. Whilst it is very difficult for Ngāti Ruanui to have significant influence over the majority of the discharges/emissions that occur in its takiwa, the cumulative effects of these must be considered. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust notes the Regional Air Quality Plan of the Taranaki Regional Council and the complex issues involved in determining, measuring and monitoring air quality. The wind is also considered under the broader concept of air. Windfarms provided a sustainable means of energy generation that is becoming increasingly relevant. Windfarms cross over a number of sections in the plan (Te Whenua, Takutai Moana and Sustainable Energy Development and Conservation) and as such are explored in more detail in the relevant sections. However, the starting position of Ngāti Ruanui in respect of windfarms is that they shall be considered with a particular focus on site selection and landscape impact.

6.2 Objectives 

Air is protected for future generations.

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6.3 Policies 

That Ngāti Ruanui notes the intention of the Taranaki Regional Council’s Regional Air Quality Plan.

That any renewal of a discharge to air resource consent must demonstrate an improvement on the existing conditions.

The development of windfarms shall be considered on a case-by-case basis with an emphasis on site selection and landscape impact.

6.4 Methods and Procedures 

Ensure that all new and renewed resource consents will not have a negative impact on air quality.

Make submissions on resource consent applications relating to significant air discharges/emissions.

Promote and enhance partnerships between Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui and central government, regional and district councils.

Prepare and make submissions to central government, regional and district councils.

Advocate that new and renewal consent conditions require a shorter consent period, more stringent monitoring and means to offset the negative impacts.

Receive weekly updates on all resource consents applications lodged and respond accordingly.

Advocate for best practice approaches and the use of new technologies and seek to have them included in resource consents.

Preparation of cultural impact assessments where appropriate.

The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities Ngāti Ruanui notes:  

the intent of the Regional Air Quality Plan of the Taranaki Regional Council; and that windfarm applications shall be considered on a case-by-case basis with an emphasis on site selection and landscape.

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Cross reference with other sections 

Whenuakura

Whakahoutanga

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W AAHI T APU


7. Waahi Tapu Pou Herenga-nuku Pou Herenga-rangi Ko te Pou o te whakatina Ko te Pou o te Whakatoka Ko te Pou o te Parapara Ko te Pou o tenei matua iwi Hui e Taiki e From the earth to the sky wahi tapu whenua is more than just dirt and dust it has an instrinc value to Ngāti Ruanui iwi. Ngāti Ruanui are the kaitiaki of their waahi tapu. Too many, waahi tapu are commonly thought of as simply an urupa, but they are much more than that. The term waahi tapu means a place or area that is sacred, significant or important. They are often places where significant events have occurred or people lived long ago. They are both tangible and intangible and often have spiritual dimensions and values attached to them. Appendix Seven contains a list of the different types of waahi tapu that occur in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui. The wider community is often at a loss when uri of Ngāti Ruanui speak of waahi tapu and where they are, as they are often not clear to the naked eye. By raising awareness and understanding of waahi tapu, Ngāti Ruanui seeks to provide a greater level of protection to their waahi tapu than they currently receive. The protection of Waahi Tapu is a key priority for Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui.

7.1 Issues The issues section is separated into the following: 

7.1.1 Protection

7.1.2 Raising awareness and access

7.1.1

Protection

Over time, bearings and markers change, families move on taking with them the knowledge of their waahi tapu and those who cared for them means that waahi tapu risk being lost. The disturbance, desecration and destruction of waahi tapu has however, in recent times, reduced as awareness of their existence and significance increases in the general public. However, the ability to protect waahi tapu from those who choose not to follow process remains a vexed issue and too often goodwill is relied upon to enable protection and access. To date there is no formal list of Ngāti Ruanui waahi tapu held by the District or Regional Councils. This creates a reactive rather than proactive approach by

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Councils when consents are lodged or waahi tapu are discovered. As a consequence, the waahi tapu (of which there is many) are not currently afforded any level of protection under the district and regional plans. Protection of waahi tapu through district and regional planning documents is therefore becoming a priority as this protection is transparent and inclusive. There are also many examples around the country where waahi tapu protection through a planning document is considered positive and relationship improving. While single point identification of a particular waahi tapu can often occur, the identification of area or waahi tapu zones can also be relevant to areas. It may be necessary to have different policy, rules and performance measures in planning documents for such areas and/or the concept of waahi tapu zones. Further, protection can be strengthened by the development of specific protocols with councils and other agencies to deal with discovery of waahi tapu. It is acknowledged that assembling and including waahi tapu for inclusion in planning documents is timely and may not be suitable for all waahi tapu. The disclosure of information by hapu and whanau is also another important issue which must be resolved. With this in mind a range of protection tools may need to be developed from formal to informal over a period time. The use of silent files even in a formal setting may need to be used to provide security and comfort to those who hold information. A register administered by Ngāti Ruanui in the first instance could be developed that holds the location and other specific information relating the waahi tapu. The register will allow for the hapu or whanau affected to be contacted when a resource consent is lodged. In lieu of this, protocols with the district or regional councils will be critical to ensure acknowledgement and protection. The development of a pilot project for waahi tapu also has real merit which could showcase various means of protection and provide a structure for a wider process. In the event of koiwi tangata (or other artefacts) being discovered, Ngāti Ruanui endorses the use of the New Zealand Historic Places Trust guidelines of the discovery of Koiwi Tangata. Ngāti Ruanui advocates the use of the Accidental Discovery Protocol provided in the table below. Accidental Discovery Protocol In the event of an “accidental discovery” of archaeological material the following steps must be taken: 1. All work on the site will cease immediately. The contractor/works supervisor will shut down all equipment and activity. 2. The contractor/works supervisor/owner will take immediate steps to secure the site (tape it off) to ensure the archaeological remains are undisturbed and

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Accidental Discovery Protocol the site is safe in terms of health and safety requirements. Work may continue outside of the site area. 3. The contractor/works supervisor/owner will notify the TRoNRT, the Area Archaeologist of the NZHPT and any required statutory agencies if this has not already occurred. 4. The NZHPT will appoint/advise a qualified archaeologist who will confirm the nature of the accidentally discovered material. 5. If the material is confirmed as being archaeological, under the terms of the Historic Places Act, the landowner will ensure that an archaeological assessment is carried out by a qualified archaeologist, and if appropriate, an archaeological authority is obtained from the NZHPT before work resumes. 6. If burials, human remains/koiwi tangata are uncovered, steps 1 to 3 above must be taken and TRoNRT, the Area Archaeologist of the NZHPT , the New Zealand Police must be contacted immediately. The area must be treated with discretion and respect and the koiwi tangata/human remains dealt with according to law and tikanga. 7. Works at the site area shall not recommence until an archaeological assessment has been made, all archaeological material has been dealt with appropriately, and statutory requirements met. All parties will work towards work recommencement in the shortest possible timeframe while ensuring that archaeological and cultural requirements are complied with. Table 4: Accidental Discovery Protocol  

7.1.2

Raising awareness and access

Raising awareness in a manner that is non-threatening (i.e. no dramatic loss in the value of their land) to the land-owners where waahi tapu are situated is an issue to address. As an iwi alienated from its traditional lands, many Ngāti Ruanui waahi tapu are now on land that is in private ownership. This raises issues relating to access for maintenance and on occasion, to acknowledge the past events relating to the waahi tapu. The goodwill of the landowners is often the only reason that uri can access waahi tapu.

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7.2 Objectives 

To prevent the destruction, damage and/or alteration of waahi tapu.

To formalise the protection of waahi tapu.

To raise awareness of the significance of waahi tapu.

To record the waahi tapu of Ngāti Ruanui.

7.3 Broad Plan Policies 

That all waahi tapu are to be afforded the highest level of protection.

That Ngāti Ruanui seeks formal protection of waahi tapu through their inclusion in regional and district plan and where appropriate silent files shall be used.

That waahi tapu areas and the provision of waahi tapu zones are used where required through their inclusion in regional and district plans.

That Ngāti Ruanui is the sole determinate of the significance of its waahi tapu.

That protection of waahi tapu shall be provided by not allowing: o structures to be erected on a waahi tapu; o earthworks or excavation to occur on a waahi tapu; and o clearance of vegetation from a waahi tapu.

That where relevant buffer areas and/or protective zones are used to protect waahi tapu. From development and/or activities which could impact on their significance.

That in the event of discovery of koiwi tangata, the New Zealand Historic Places Trust Archaeological Guidelines series No. 8 Koiwi Tangata/Human Remains shall be followed.

7.4 Methods and Procedures 

Perform applicable karakia.

Develop a register of all known waahi tapu.

Engage with policy makers and regulators on all significant issues relating to waahi tapu including provision of input into the formulation of Regional and District Plans.

Develop protocols with territorial and local authorities to ensure protection of waahi tapu.

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Make submissions on resource consent applications to ensure the physical and spiritual relationship of Ngāti Ruanui to their waahi tapu is recognised, protected and provided for.

Provide information that improves the understanding of the significance of waahi tapu.

Develop an alert system with territorial and local authorities to ensure that appropriate response occurs when a waahi tapu is located.

Investigate linking of waahi tapu sites to a GIS system.

The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities Local Authorities should note that Ngāti Ruanui: Shall work with local and regional councils with a view to formalising and protecting its waahi tapu under the Resource Management Act, including the development of specific plan change programmes. Develop protocols to help assist in the protection and recognition of waahi tapu, including methodologies for using silent files where relevant. Identifying potential pilot projects to show case different methods of waahi tapu protection. Consider the use of waahi tapu areas and/or zones within regional and district plan as a specific layer of policy and performance measure control.

   

Cross reference with other sections 

Whenuakura (in particular section 2.5)

Te Puna Waiora

Te Moana Uriuri TangaroaTakapou WharikiI Papatuanuku E takoto nei

Maunga Taranaki

He Whenua Momona

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M AUNGA T ARANAKI


8. Maunga Taranaki E kore Taranaki e makere atu! E kore Taranaki e makere atu! Tika tonu mai Kia Piata-kai-manawa Taranaki will not fall! Taranaki will not fall! It will always stand steadfast From Piata-kai-manawa (around the Maunga) to Piata-kai-Manawa. (Taiporohenui Marae Kohatu) Ngāti Ruanui asserts mana and rangatiratanga over its takiwa on Maunga Taranaki and in doing so acknowledges the mana and rangatiratanga of its fellow Taranaki iwi in respect of the Maunga. As a waahi tapu, Maunga Taranaki must be protected. The Plan aims to increase awareness and understanding of the sacred status of Maunga Taranaki as a waahi tapu, but at the same time ensure that the alpine and forest environment continues to be protected. Please note that the following relates to only the part of Maunga that Ngāti Ruanui asserts mana whenua. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui through its empowering legislation has a protocol with the Department of Conservation (DoC). The protocol sets out how DoC will perform and exercise its functions, powers, and duties in relation to specified matters and interact on an on-going basis and consult with Ngāti Ruanui, and also provide for the input of Ngāti Ruanui into decision-making processes. It should be noted that the Treaty of Waitangi claim of Ngāti Ruanui for Maunga Taranaki has not been settled at the time of writing this management plan.

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8.1 Issues The issues section is separated into the following: 

8.1.1 Waahi Tapu

8.1.2 Protection of the alpine and forest and environment

8.1.1

Waahi Tapu

Maunga Taranaki is a waahi tapu and it should be treated by all with respect and decency. There is an obvious gap in what people in general understand about the sacred status of the Maunga and why it is revered by Ngāti Ruanui. Consideration must be given to improving the information provided to people who seek to use the Maunga for outdoor pursuits and how that information is disseminated. Concessionaires on the Maunga must demonstrate that suitable and applicable training is undertaken so that they understand the significance of the Maunga to the uri of Ngāti Ruanui.

8.1.2

Protection of the alpine and forest environment

The protection and preservation of the unique environment of Maunga Taranaki is important to Ngāti Ruanui. The Maunga is an environment and eco-system on which the whole of the region depends. The Maunga influences weather patterns, the forest acts like a ‘sponge’ preventing run-off of the rain and melting snow that falls on the Maunga and it is the home for many endangered indigenous species. The many awa and streams that flow from the Maunga are the life blood of the region. Ngāti Ruanui does not support the use of 1080 poison as a management/eradication tool on Maunga Taranaki as it is not convinced that the long-term effects on the environment, animal and bird life is negligible. The impact of tourism (including buildings and tracks) and other man-made structures already on the Maunga requires monitoring to ensure the impact is negligible. The Department of Conservation (DoC) manages all concessions on the Maunga.

8.2 Objectives 

Increase awareness of the status of waahi tapu of Maunga Taranaki.

The alpine and forest environment of Maunga Taranaki is protected and enhanced.

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8.3 Broad Plan Policies 

That no new structures (including tracks) are to be erected on Maunga Taranaki without written approval of Ngāti Ruanui.

That indigenous flora and fauna on Maunga Taranaki must be given the highest priority in terms of protection.

That 1080 poison on the Maunga should not be deployed on the Maunga.

Concessionaires must demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the sacred place that Maunga Taranaki is as a waahi tapu.

8.4 Methods and Procedures 

Engage with policy makers and regulators on all issues relating to Maunga Taranaki to minimise any negative consequences of human impact.

Make submissions on resource consent and concession applications to ensure the physical and spiritual relationship of Ngāti Ruanui to Maunga Taranaki is recognised and protected.

Make information available through the Ngāti Ruanui website and at the Stratford Mountain House on why the waahi tapu of Maunga Taranaki must be respected.

Ngāti Ruanui will work alongside organisations who are tasked with preservation of the alpine environment such as DoC.

Preparation of cultural impact assessments where appropriate.

Local Authorities and Government Departments should note that in respect of the Ngāti Ruanui takiwa on Maunga Taranaki that: Concessionaires must demonstrate an understanding of the significance of the waahi tapu No new structures are to be constructed without prior approval. The deployment of 1080 poison is not supported.

  

Cross reference with other sections 

Whenuakura

Te Puna Waiora

Waahi Tapu

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H E W HENUA M OMONA O IL AND M INERALS


9. He Whenua Momona (A Fertile Land) – Oil and Minerals Te Manawa o te Whenua – Te Awatea Hou (the new economy) Whaia, Whaia, Whaia ki te uru tapu nui o tane Ngāti Ruanui were always in pursuit of goals involving indepth analysis, co-operation requiring focus on attention to achieve fulfilment of our goals. Ngāti Ruanui naturally were active traders and knowledge about the momona (productivity) of the land. We had flour mills, mara, were trading flax, spuds, pigs, tobacco, maize, gold, pounamu. Ngāti Ruanui rapidly linked onto technology and used them to our own advantage. All our goods we traded on were ‘capital’ goods not consumer items. Maori exploration existed prior to nationalisation of oil, in 1927 Sir Apirana Ngata was granted a permit and oil was nationalised in 1937. Well known Ngāti Ruanui tupuna pursued minerals, such as gold. Since the 1960’s there has been ever increasing exploration and development of oil and gas resources in the Taranaki region. The south and central Taranaki region has seen widespread exploitation of oil and gas fields with names given to these developments that are synonymous to both Ngāti Ruanui and the oil and gas industry. These names include Te Maari and Kupe. Ngāti Ruanui is located in an area where intensive mineral exploitation has occurred and has longstanding knowledge and understanding of minerals and their value. However Ngāti Ruanui has for many years been side-lined from fully participating in this industry because of impediments put in place by both the historic and contemporary legislative framework. The vexed issue of nationalised minerals means that Ngāti Ruanui are alienated from meaningful participation in the control and exploitation of the petroleum based minerals that reside in its takiwa. Exploration and exploitation continue with the latest development opportunity being iron sands which are known to be in abundance off the Taranaki Coast. These occur onshore and in both the 12 nm territorial limit and beyond to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) thereby adding another exploitable resource to that of petroleum. The Resource Management Act (RMA) covers extraction and production to the 12nm territorial limit, but environmental protection beyond that limit to the 200nm EEZ is less clear. Therefore, Ngāti Ruanui supports the Exclusive Economic Zone and Extended Continental Shelf (Environmental Effects) legislation that will allow the for the newly formed Environmental Protection Authority to be responsible for consenting, monitoring and enforcement of activities such as petroleum exploration and mining beyond the 12 nm territorial limit to the edge of the EEZ.

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Ngāti Ruanui encourages the development and implementation of sustainable means of energy generation. Included in this is sustainable wave, solar and wind power generation. Through the plan, Ngāti Ruanui seeks to achieve a balance between environmental sustainability and economic development. This can be achieved by an improved legislative framework and ensuring that the implementation of new technologies and processes are environmentally sound and through greater participation in allocation of permits and licences. Ngāti Ruanui and the Ministry of Economic Development through the Ngaati Ruanui Deed of Settlement have a Protocol that sets out how the Ministry will interact with Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust in relation to consultation on specific issues such as: 

New minerals programme for petroleum; and

Petroleum exploration permits.

Further, new allocation methods allocating petroleum exploration rights (Block Offer) supported as this provides for Iwi input prior to decisions being made.

9.1 Issues The issues section is separated into the following: 

9.1.1 Improved environmental sustainability

9.1.2 Waahi Tapu must be acknowledged and protected

9.1.3 Improved Legislative Framework

9.1.4 New Technologies and processes

9.1.5 Exploitation of iron sands

9.1.6 Decommissioning of offshore structures

9.1.7 Relationship with policy makers, regulators and companies

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9.1.1

Improved environmental sustainability

Ngāti Ruanui seeks to have input into the permit allocation process so that it can have a part in managing the finite mineral resources for future generations. In doing so it seeks to balance the sustainable management and exploitation of the resource with environmental protection. Ngāti Ruanui advocates a zero tolerance threshold for oil spills and other similar failures.

9.1.2

Waahi Tapu must be acknowledged and protected

Following the enactment of the Resource Management Act in 1991 and changes in corporate culture, there has been a significant improvement in the way that mining and oil companies interact with iwi. Through that legislation and development of meaningful company relationships, Ngāti Ruanui is in a better position to protect its waahi tapu.

9.1.3

Improved Legislative Framework

Ngāti Ruanui is seriously disadvantaged through the Crown Minerals Act (CMA) at both policy and permit levels, with little recognition of its rights. The iwi is afforded little protection under the CMA. Equally there are disadvantages of engagement for iwi through the RMA. To date there has been little meaningful recognition and participation of Ngāti Ruanui in the decision making process. All decisions are made by the Minister or Secretary of Energy. There is no public submission process and no final appeal rights. An obvious gap is the inability to ensure environmental protection beyond the 12 nautical mile territorial limit. Currently, the Taranaki Regional Council has regulatory authority over permit applications to the 12 nm limit. The environmental over watch beyond the 12 nm limit to the 200 nm Exclusive Economic Zone is provided by Maritime New Zealand. Ngāti Ruanui supports greater environmental control by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) beyond the 12 nm territorial limit. Ngāti Ruanui argues for a more seamless regime through an integrated legislative framework. At the time of writing the plan, the review of the CMA was on-going. Legislative changes past the 12 nm limit were also proposed. The legislative changes are generally endorsed as a starting point for improvement.

9.1.4

New Technologies and processes

Oil and gas companies seek to maximise production from existing oil and gas fields and they do this through the use of new technologies and processes. These processes are often brought to New Zealand having been tested and used overseas. They have the ultimate goal of fully exploiting the petroleum resource. In Taranaki, the following processes are either in use or are to be brought into use: 

Underground gas storage;

Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking); and

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Hot water injection.

Ngāti Ruanui acknowledges these new technologies and processes. However Ngāti Ruanui also recognises that the degree of environmental protection must keep pace, with stricter standards and accountabilities, to match industry advancements. The use of better than industry practice in protecting marine mammals by companies conducting seismic exploration in the off-shore takiwa is to be acknowledged. Where relevant Ngāti Ruanui will negotiate direct environmental monitoring agreements to ensure environmental standards are maintained and consent conditions fulfilled.

9.1.5

Exploitation of iron sands and other Minerals

The extraction process or mining of iron sands is highly invasive. Environmentally little is known about the long-term effects and impact that such an invasive process may involve, especially from the perspective of the South Taranaki coastline. It is known that the removal of sand from too close to shore can cause serious beach erosion. The widespread dredging or mining of the sea floor has potentially dire environmental consequences. There is some knowledge about deepwater species and ecosystems, potential impacts, and steps to recovery, but that understanding is far from comprehensive. Therefore, such an extraction process may give rise to the permanent destruction of sensitive marine environments which will in turn impact on marine life and traditional food sources of iwi. Ngāti Ruanui also recognises the prospect of other mineral exploitation. Ngāti Ruanui will seek high environmental thresholds to any permit or consent granted to a mining company. Ngāti Ruanui advocates that ironsand and other mineral mining be considered a non-complying activity as opposed to a discretionary activity in the 12 nm limit, and a discretionary activity in the EEZ. Under both regimes Ngāti Ruanui shall be considered as an affected party to all consent applications.

9.1.6

Decommissioning of offshore and onshore structures

The increasing prevalence of off shore oil and gas production stations within the takaiwa is an issue that will require close consideration as permit areas are brought online for production. The increasing use of floating production stations and modular construction for ‘permanent’ structures means that the footprint of a production station is less than that of the older platforms such as Maui A. Ngāti Ruanui will advocate for the use of these contemporary approaches to production stations. Ngāti Ruanui is of the strong view that marine disposal should be considered as a last resort only. Ngāti Ruanui prefers the reuse of the structure (where possible) and failing that, removal to land for recycling. The final seafloor footprint should be as small as possible.

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Apart from pipelines Ngāti Ruanui requires the full decommissioning of all onshore oil and gas production stations and associated structures. Sites should be returned to a suitable use and standard equal if not better to the standard when they were first developed.

9.1.7

Relationship with policy makers, regulators and companies

In its role as kaitiaki, Ngāti Ruanui seeks greater involvement in the allocation of all minerals permits. Through better engagement with policy makers and regulators Ngāti Ruanui will be in a position to encourage the use of sustainable exploration and exploitation techniques and methods. Ngāti Ruanui will engage with policy makers and regulators on all issues relating to minerals through submissions and direct engagement. Ngāti Ruanui will also seek to enter into meaningful engagement with oil and mineral companies using management agreements.

9.2 Objectives 

That the concept of kaitiakitanga as defined by Ngāti Ruanui is applied to the management of oil, gas and mineral exploration, testing and production.

Permit allocation must be managed in an equitable and sustainable manner through the Crown Minerals Act and EEZ legislation.

Oil, gas and mineral exploration activities are managed through long term planning strategies, nationally, regionally and local, using tools such as zoning and performance standards founded upon an effects based philosophy.

Waahi tapu sites and areas are recognised and protected from inappropriate oil, gas and mineral exploration.

That te whenua and nga wai are protected at all stages of oil, gas and mineral exploration and production, and are returned to an acceptable standard when no longer required for exploration and production activities.

9.3 Broad Plan Policies (see Table 5 below for more specific policies) 

Meaningful engagement of Ngāti Ruanui in the permit allocation for petroleum and mineral resources both at a national and local level.

Working together with local government and other policy and consenting agencies to establish objectives, policy, methods and performance standards which reflects the status of Ngāti Ruanui as a partner in planning across all environments.

Inclusion of Ngāti Ruanui in all oil spill response plans.

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Any significant new technology or process must demonstrate that there is no risk to the environment prior to the implementation.

Advocate for best practice approaches and seek to have them included in permit and resource consents, including the reinstatement and removal of structures once mining activities have been completed.

Establish clear and transparent monitoring regimes with both local government and mining companies.

Where relevant advocate for off-setting measures to compensate for adverse effects of mining activities.

Supports the intention of the Exclusive Economic Zone and Extended Continental Shelf (Environmental Effects) legislation including greater environmental control by the Environmental Protection Agency.

9.4 Methods and Procedures 

Prepare and make submissions to central government, regional and district councils on behalf of Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui Trust.

Receive weekly updates on all resource consents applications lodged and respond accordingly.

Preparation of cultural impact assessments where appropriate.

Meet with hapu representatives on site to discuss resource consent/permit applications where possible.

Arrange karakia and blessings when necessary and required.

Development of a hapu response guide in the event of an oil spill.

Work to engage meaningfully with key stakeholders including central and local government and oil and mineral companies to ensure that the Ngāti Ruanui environmental position is acknowledged and understood.

Discuss mining activities directly with mining companies and where relevant enter in direct agreements and monitoring regimes; including changes to environmental protection regimes through the development of joint Assessment of Environmental Effects.

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9.5 Specific Oil and Mineral Plan Policies Table 5 below provides further policy detail including some of the process and techniques that Ngāti Ruanui is aware of. This list is not exhaustive and as new process/techniques are disclosed by regulators and companies in the extractive industries, they will be evaluated and a position formed. Crown Minerals Act Permit Class Activities The Crown Minerals Act provided for the issuing of three types of permit: Prospecting Permit – the primary purpose of the prospecting permit is to define those areas that are likely to contain exploitable deposits. This is often very low impact and may involve a literature search, geological mapping, hand sampling or aerial surveys – Ngāti Ruanui will not typically oppose a prospecting permit. Exploration Permit – this permit type seeks to identify deposits and evaluate the feasibility of mining activities to delineate the extent of the mineral and determine its economic use. This may include literature review, seismic survey, exploratory well drilling, bulk sampling and mine feasibility studies – Ngāti Ruanui will not oppose an exploration permit as long as conditions such as proximity limits to waahi tapu, water courses, reefs, aquatic species including mammal management are considered. Best practice guides by other agencies such as the Department of Conservation will also be a relevant consideration. Mining Permit – this permit type is the most invasive of the three permits. It allows for the recovery of the identified resource through extraction and production – Ngāti Ruanui will assess each permit application on a case by case basis.

Underground Gas Storage This is a new technique that recently commenced at the Ahuroa site, Stratford. The process is used worldwide, but is in use for the first time in New Zealand. The process involves reinjection of gas (from another field) to a depleted reservoir for storage under pressure for use at a later date. As this is a relatively new process in New Zealand, Ngāti Ruanui will consider each resource consent application for this type of process on a case by case basis. The Taranaki Regional Council considers this process under its Fresh Water Plan as a discharge of a contaminant to ground and is a non-notified process. Ngāti Ruanui is an affected party to this type of resource consent application in its takiwa. Ngāti Ruanui has advocated that New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals (formerly Crown Minerals) consider this a new permit class.

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Underground Gas Storage Policies 

Ngāti Ruanui is an affected party to any resource consent in its takiwa for Underground Gas Storage.

Ngāti Ruanui will consider each resource consent application for Underground Gas Storage on a case by case basis.

Ngāti Ruanui advocates that underground gas storage be a new permit class under the Crown Minerals Act.

Ngāti Ruanui advocates that underground gas storage be a new activity under the regional planning regime.

Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek specialist independent advice.

Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) Hydraulic fracturing is a process that results in the creation of fractures in rocks. The fracturing is done from a wellbore drilled into reservoir rock formations to increase the rate and recovery of oil. Depending on the rock formation, different chemicals are used in the process to extract the oil. Environmental concerns associated with hydraulic fracturing include the contamination of ground water, risks to air quality, the migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals to the surface, and the potential mishandling of waste. There are concerns relating to the extent to which fracturing fluid used far below the earth's surface might pollute aquifers and contaminate surface or near-surface water supplies. A number of chemicals identified in fracturing fluid are hazardous chemicals that may cause health and environmental risks. Some chemicals are identified as carcinogens whilst other chemicals found injected into the earth identify as endocrine disruptors, which interrupts hormones and glands in the body that control development, growth, reproduction and behaviour in animals and humans. Ngāti Ruanui will request a list of the chemicals intended for use in any fracking project. Policies 

Ngāti Ruanui is an affected party to any resource consent in its takiwa that will use the Hydraulic Fracturing technique.

Ngāti Ruanui advocates that Hydraulic Fracking be an identified resource

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Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) consent activity under the regional planning regime. 

Ngāti Ruanui will consider each resource consent application for Hydraulic Fracturing on a case by case basis.

Ngāti Ruanui will request that companies provide a full list of chemicals to be used in the fracking process.

Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek specialist independent advice.

Work over fluids (also known as fracking fluids) must be not be landfarmed in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui.

Hot Water Injection Hot Water Injection is the process of injecting hot water (130°) into a depleted reservoir. This has the effect of decreasing the viscosity of the remaining oil allowing it to be extracted and thereby has the effect of increasing the volume of the reservoir. As this is a relatively new process in New Zealand, Ngāti Ruanui will consider each resource consent application on a case by case basis. Policies 

Ngāti Ruanui is an affected party to any resource consent in its takiwa that will use the Hot Water Injection process.

Ngāti Ruanui advocates that Hot water Injection be an identified resource consent activity under the regional planning regime.

Ngāti Ruanui will consider each resource consent application for Hot Water Injection on a case by case basis.

Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek specialist independent advice.

Decommissioning of Off shore and On shore structures As oil and gas fields are depleted, off and on shore production stations will require decommissioning. These will be considered on a case by case. Marine disposal should be considered as last resort only and other means of disposal must be considered prior to this occurring.

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Offshore iron sand mining The environmental risks attached to iron sand mining due the disturbance and destruction of coastal habitats as a result of the extraction techniques is potentially high. The risk of smothering of benthic (seabed) communities by sedimentation and coastal erosion is also apparent. It is also apparent that significant research on the environmental risks associated with iron sands must be undertaken before large scale mining occurs of the South Taranaki coast. Policies 

Ngāti Ruanui advocates for iron sand mining to be considered as a noncomplying activity within the 12 nm territorial limit area and a discretionary activity in the EEZ area.

Ngāti Ruanui will consider each resource consent application for iron sand mining on a case by case basis.

Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to seek specialist independent advice.

Table 5: Ngāti Ruanui oil and mineral policy position  

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The Plan Policy Direction for Local Authorities and Government Departments Local Authorities and Government Departments should note that in respect of the Ngāti Ruanui takiwa that:  

      

That Ngāti Ruanui is actively engaged in the Crown Minerals permitting process with early involvement and consultation. That Ngāti Ruanui is actively engaged in the development of district and regional policy documents in respect of oil, gas and mineral exploration/production; including the identification of specific activities that require consent including, but not limited to: fracking, hot-water injection and gas storage. Those options around joint decision making powers between Ngāti Ruanui and local authorities be considered for all oil, gas and mineral activities. That Ngāti Ruanui is considered an affected party to all oil, gas and mineral consent applications. Does not support the use and application of fracking fluids on land-farm activities. District and Regional Councils to consider this activity as a prohibited activity. That regional and district planning documents set clear and transparent performance standards of environmental protection including the use of environmental offsetting standards where adverse effects cannot be avoided. That clear and transparent regulations are developed for application in the EEZ area ensuring a cautionary approach for environmental standards and permitted activity status. That off shore iron sand mining, all phases of development, be considered a non-complying activity within the 12 nm limit and a discretionary activity in the EEZ area. That the Environmental Protection Agency, Regional and District Councils require the decommissioning of all structures and associated equipment, not including pipelines, both off and shore in respect of oil, gas and mineral development.

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W HAKAHOUTANGA R ENEWABLE E NERGY AND C ONSERVATION


10. Whakahoutanga – Renewable Energy and Conservation Te Kawa Puwai Nuku Te Kawa Puwai Ehu Te Kawa Puwai Rangi-Papa Te Kawa Puwai Rongo-ma-Tane Behold the principles of Ngāti Ruanui With respect to the laws of water utilisation, The laws of sun and earth The laws of sustainable life Ngāti Ruanui supports moving towards being more energy efficient, by advocating for the use of renewable energy resources and by having a focus on conservation there will be enduring benefit for the future generations of Ngāti Ruanui. In doing so, cost savings will be realised, the energy systems will be more secure, waste will be minimised and green-house gas emissions reduced. Coupled to these long-term aspirations are opportunities to improve environmental awareness within the takiwa through better communication and education of Ngāti Ruanui environmental practices.

10.1 Renewable Energy The takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui is abundant in sustainable and renewable energy potential. There are wind, solar and tidal opportunities that may be considered by Ngāti Ruanui as the technology relating to each develops over the medium- to longterm. This new technology will also lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The improved technologies should make renewable options cost effective. Furthermore, non-renewable energy sources such as oil and gas will become increasingly unsustainable over the long term meaning that the implementation of renewable energy sources becomes ever more relevant and urgent. Ngāti Ruanui takes a balanced view that, whilst ideally Aotearoa would be completely sustainable in its energy generation, this is unlikely to occur for many years. Therefore, the efficient use of non-renewable resources in conjunction with increased usage of renewable resources provides the best option for the foreseeable future. The following outlines the position of Ngāti Ruanui in relation to renewable energy generation, bearing in mind that this technology will probably not be implemented in the short-term. As part of the plan Ngāti Ruanui reserves the right to reassess its position on the following as they become more prevalent.

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10.1.1 Hydro energy Already within the takiwa is a significant provider of renewable energy. The Patea Hydro Scheme was completed in 1984 and has three 10,000 kW vertical Francis turbine generator sets and a 700 kW auxiliary generator for a total capacity of 30,700 kW and an average annual output of 118 GWh. The chance of a similar large scale scheme occurring again the takiwa is unlikely in the short- to medium-term, however this does not preclude smaller, localised hydro schemes being developed. Therefore, any hydro-scheme proposal would be considered on a case by case basis by Ngāti Ruanui. Of significance to the plan is the removing and reinstatement of obsolete hydroschemes. There are a small number of obsolete hydro-schemes within the takiwa and in time, these should be removed and the sites reinstated. Ngāti Ruanui is cognisant of the cost of undertaking such work, but would encourage land-owners to consider this as an option when redevelopment occurs in areas where these hydroschemes are located.

10.1.2 Windfarms As stated in the land use section of Te Whenua, windfarms are often perceived to have a negative visual impact. In addition to the visual impact is the problem that wind farms often face, namely that it is difficult to guarantee supply. Predicting weather patterns can be extremely problematic due to the fickle nature of wind, however, windfarms remain a viable means of harnessing energy. Ngāti Ruanui maintains an open position on the development of wind farms and will consider each on a case by case basis. Where possible (and as with solar energy below), it is a desire that the Marae of Ngāti Ruanui become self-sufficient in terms of energy consumption. In the future, small wind turbines might be constructed on those Marae that are exposed to suitable winds for power generation. As is likely with solar energy, in the short- to medium-term, the capital costs and on-going maintenance may preclude Marae from implementing such technology.

10.1.3 Solar energy Solar energy is often touted as a means of Marae becoming self-sufficient in terms of energy generation. Such claims however, hold an element of truth. Many marae cannot afford the capital outlay associated with the installation and maintenance of solar heating systems. Furthermore Marae often have conflicting priorities that take precedence over what is a ‘nice to have’ as opposed to a ‘need to have’. Marae lend themselves to solar energy, especially if they can ‘sell’ back to the national grid. Marae are typically not in full time use and have large roof areas that can be used to harness the suns energy. It is feasible that Marae can go into ‘credit’ in terms of power usage and this is seem as extremely beneficial to marae from a financial perspective. 61 | P a g e

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10.1.4 Tidal energy The nature of the Tasman Sea is changeable and unpredictable. Potentially, the Tasman Sea could be destructive to any generators situated in it. Also as there are no natural harbours in which tidal energy can be harnessed, technology required to situate tidal generators in the Tasman Sea will need to advance drastically. Significant research would need to be undertaken prior to any tidal energy generation occurring in the takiwa. Therefore in the short- to medium-term, it is unlikely that tidal generators will be situated in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui. However, Ngāti Ruanui maintains an open position on the tidal generators and will consider the merits and failings of any proposal on a case by case basis.

10.1.5 Biomass energy Biomass is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel. Examples of biomass include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings and wood chips. Biomass can also be used to generate electricity with steam turbines or produce heat, usually by direct combustion. In the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui there may be biomass energy generation options resulting from the harvesting of the exotic forests that have been planted over the past 20 years. It is conceivable that there may be a value placed on the waste of logging operations and that it may be converted to biomass energy. However, given issues relating to ease of access to the biomass may mean that such production is unsustainable, but remains as an option none-the-less that may be considered in the longer-term.

10.1.6 Energy efficiency and conservation Ngāti Ruanui encourages energy efficiency at its ten Marae and also in the homes of its Uri. There are government programmes that seek to insulate homes and Ngāti Ruanui strongly agrees with these concepts. In addition, some Marae have benefited from these programmes. As stated above, Marae can be benefactors of sustainable energy generation and energy efficiency. The use of wind and solar energy can reduce costs in the longterm, these coupled with the sustainable use of water (e.g. rainwater collection), effective waste management (e.g. recycling, grey water reuse, wormerators and more efficient septic tanks) and energy efficiency initiatives such as insulation can have long-term benefits. It is highly likely that once the initial cost and maintenance of these new technologies are met, that the benefits should accrue.

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10.2 Objectives 

Ngāti Ruanui encourages sustainable energy development and conservation provided any environmental impact can be mitigated and minimised.

Encourage local/community based sustainable energy projects and development

10.3 Broad Plan Policies 

Sustianble energy developments are provided for in regional and district planning documents with performance measures to ensure that any adverse effects on the surrounding environment are avoided and mitigated.

District plans encourage local community sustainable power schemes.

Regional and District Authorities engage in a meanful way to ensure Ngaati Ruanui is involved to collectively consider significant sustainable energy developments especially where such developments impact upon awa/water and landscape.

10.4 Methods and Procedures Policy Direction for Local Authorities and Government Departments Local Authorities and Government Departments should note that:    

 

That regional and district planning documents provide for sustainable energy development with suitable controls for any generated adverse effects. That regional and district planning documents provide for local community sustainable power schemes. That options around joint decision making powers between Ngāti Ruanui and local authorities be considered for significant sustainable energy development where such development is impacting upon awa resources and landscape. That clear standards are set to ensure the preservation of natural aquatic environments can operate where awa resources are used for sustainable energy generation, and that Ngāti Ruanui is engaged directly to work with local authorities to provide advice and guidance on such developments. That regional and district councils require the decommissioning of all structures and associated equipment for hydro generation schemes when they are no longer required. That the regional council investigates policy for the removal of former hydro power schemes within the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui.

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10.5 Environmental Education As part of the focus on conservation, improving awareness through communication and education is an opportunity to enhance and improve the environmental status of the takiwa for all. This opportunity could be manifested through the promotion of positive environmental efforts within the takiwa by marae and hapu and the wider community in general. Communities can be informed of the environmental priorities of the hapu and iwi though this plan and individual Hapu or Marae Environmental Management Plans. Tamariki and rangatahi could be educated and informed through the development of school curriculum that tells of the close links of the iwi with the environment and the way that conservation and environmental sustainability was practiced by Ngāti Ruanui. Intergenerational transfer of knowledge through wananga is essential. It is envisaged that through the development of individual Hapu or Marae Environmental Management Plans this will occur.

Cross reference with other sections 

Whenuakura

Te Puna Waiora

Te Moana Uriuri TangaroaTakapouWharikiI Papatuanuku E Takoto Nei

Whakahoutanga

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E NGAGEMENT WITH S TAKEHOLDERS


11. Engagement with Stakeholders Ngāti Ruanui have an enduring and special relationship with the environment, a relationship that is acknowledged by the Crown. This is expressed through the empowering legislation of Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui and through the Treaty of Waitangi. This relationship is further reflected in the RMA, Conservation Act and other environmental legislation. Success in environmental sustainability will depend on meaningful involvement with decision making. At the very core of the Treaty of Waitangi are the principles of participation and equal partnership. This means real involvement by Ngāti Ruanui at various decision-making levels including regionally and nationally. The following outlines the different ways that Ngāti Ruanui will engage with its stakeholders to address the environmental matters that arise within the takiwa. Giving effect to the relationship between Ngāti Ruanui and the environment is dependent on communication and collaboration between those parties responsible for managing natural and physical resources, in particular local and regional authorities. Communication and collaboration are fundamental to genuine consultation and effective participation. On-going and constant communication with stakeholders will allow Ngāti Ruanui to build capacity and capability in this field. As kaitiaki and Treaty of Waitangi partners, Ngāti Ruanui have a particular interest in ensuring appropriate delivery and integration of matauranga Maori me ona tikanga into environmental sustainability. This integration must occur in a way that maintains the cultural integrity of Ngāti Ruanui knowledge systems and cultural practices. For Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui, effective participation is best achieved through establishing partnerships with local authorities and other agencies involved in natural resource management. In recognition of the role of local, regional and national government bodies, and the wider community, in natural resource and environmental management, Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui will seek to establish and maintain effective partnerships between Te Runanga and local and regional authorities, and other relevant organisations and groups. Effective partnerships mean that Ngāti Ruanui is involved in natural resource and environmental management at management and governance levels of decisionmaking. Furthermore, effective partnerships are founded in genuine and enduring working relationships that improve the nature and extent of tangata whenua participation in environmental management, and thus result in better environmental outcomes. One of the most effective ways to give effect to the values of Ngāti Ruanui in environmental management is to integrate them into the planning processes of local government. This should also include Ngāti Ruanui representation on planning committees, involvement in the preparation of district and regional plans or policy statements, submissions on particular issues, or participating in annual business planning meetings to discuss collaborative projects.

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11.1 Environmental Consultation Policy To achieve the objective of effective partnerships in environmental management, Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui has endorsed the following environmental consultation policy. The policy outlines the processes and protocols that should guide consultation with the Runanga on all environmental matters. Environmental Consultation Policy 1. All matters relating to environmental management in the takiwa of Ngāti Ruanui are to be directed to the Office of Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui. 2. The Plan shall provide the basis, but not a substitute, for consultation on environmental matters. 3. Local, regional and national authorities shall, to the fullest extent possible, recognise and provide for the values, goals, and policy directions outlined in the plan. 4. The Office of Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui will assist external agencies and applicants to determine the nature and extent of consultation required for specific issues. 5. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui encourages early consultation. Consultation at the earliest possible stage in the design and development of proposals, policies or plans can save both time and resources. This includes preapplication consultation on resource consent and concession applications. 6. Consultation requests must include sufficient information to allow Te Runanga to gain a comprehensive understanding of the issue, and thereby have the ability to make informed decisions. 7. Consultation processes must allow for sufficient time to make informed decisions and the applicants must be mindful of the need of hapu to meet and consider an application. 8. Adequate resourcing for consultation must be provided for. The value of technical, cultural and other advice provided by the Runanga must be recognised and if necessary the consulting agency or stakeholder shall be obliged to provide adequate resourcing. Preferably, the costs associated with the consultation, provision of karakia and other advice shall be determined and agreed at the outset. 9. Oral evidence, as part of accumulated knowledge base of the Pahake of Ngāti Ruanui, shall be considered equally with written evidence in all consultation processes. 10. Outcomes should reflect input and final decisions and outcomes must be an accurate reflection of the consultation process.

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11. Genuine consultation includes a willingness to change, and recognition of differing priorities, concerns and values. Table 6: Environmental Consultation Policy  

11.2 Ngāti Ruanui Claims Settlement Act and Deed of Settlement Implementation The Ngāti Ruanui Claims Settlement Act 2003 was passed to achieve full and final settlement of historical Ngāti Ruanui Claims against the Crown. The Deed of Settlement and the Act, amongst other things, established taonga species, statutory acknowledgements over particular areas and awa and Ukaipo site provisions. Such provisions aim to improve the effectiveness of Ngāti Ruanui participation in environmental management, specifically building on Part II of the RMA. The Act and the deed are the empowering legislation of Te Runanga.

11.3 Responding to consent, permit and concession applications The Office of Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui assists nga Hapu to respond to resource consent, mineral permit and concessions applications in the takiwa. The Office will engage with the district and regional councils, the Government Departments and Crown Agencies. Participation in such processes is required to allow Te Runanga to assess the proposed activities. The Plan, as a written compilation of policy, provides a tool to effectively and consistently assess applications. The Plan can also assist external agencies and stakeholders to better understand Ngāti Ruanui values, concerns, and policies. Councils can use the plan to make an initial assessment of applications, including identifying the kinds of information the Runanga may require to assess a particular application, or the kinds of conditions that may be appropriate to minimising adverse effects on cultural values. Further, consent and concession applicants themselves can use the plan while preparing applications, to identify potential concerns, or highlight positive outcomes, early on in the process. The way that Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui will respond to the applications is often dependant on what the application is for, where it is situated and the expected impact on the values of the iwi. The following outlines the different approaches that may be used by the Office of Te Runanga.

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11.4 Kanohi ki te kanohi Kanohi ki te kanohi means “face-to-face” contact. The primary way that dialogue has occurred in Maori for generations. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui encourages those wishing to consult to provide opportunities to meet in person, including site visits, field trips, famils, hui or informal meetings. Kanohi ki te kanohi consultation is a positive way of disseminating information, and is often the most effective way of exchanging ideas, resolving conflict or mediating between differences of values.

11.5 Cultural Impact Assessments A Cultural Impact Assessment (CIA) report is an assessment of the potential impacts of a given activity on resources and values of importance to Ngāti Ruanui. Such reports document Runanga values associated with an area, and provide appropriate measures to avoid, remedy or mitigate any adverse effects on those values. The reports are prepared by the Office of Te Runanga with assistance and guidance from Pahake and Hapu representatives. CIA reports are an effective means of providing cultural and technical input, mainly with respect to resource consent applications under the Resource Management Act. Such reports should form part of a resource consent application’s Assessment of Environmental Effects (AEE). Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui may advise an applicant or developer that a CIA is needed. A CIA may be required when: 

the cultural values associated with the site or in relation to the proposal need to be determined;

The proposed activity is either on, adjacent to or will impact upon a waahi tapu or species of cultural importance;

The size and scale of the proposed activity is such that multiple values or multiple effects need to be considered; and

The proposal is considered to have significant impacts on Ngāti Ruanui values.

An archaeological report may be required in some circumstances as a basis of the CIA.

11.6 Karakia The Pahake of Ngāti Ruanui may request that karakia is performed. Karakia are generally used to ensure a favourable outcome of important undertakings. The pahake shall be the sole determinants of the type and applicability of the karakia, when and how it is to be performed.

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11.7 Cultural monitoring Cultural monitoring is used to protect and manage cultural heritage resources in the takiwa, including waahi tapu. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui may require that certain activities involving activities such as excavation have a cultural monitor on site, particularly in areas where the risk of modifying, damaging or destroying archaeological sites or waahi tapu is high.

11.8 Environmental Monitoring In special circumstances environmental monitoring may need to be undertaken by Ngāti Ruanui. Environmental monitoring is the processes and activities that Ngāti Ruanui requires to characterise and monitor the quality of the environment. Environmental monitoring may also be used in the preparation CIAs, as well as in many circumstances in which human activities carry a risk of harmful effects on the environment. In all cases the results of monitoring will be reviewed and analysed.

11.9 Memoranda of Understanding and Direct Agreements Memoranda of Understanding are statements of intent. They establish and define the nature and extent of a working relationship between two or more parties. Te Runanga o Ngāti Ruanui will consider using Memorandum of Understanding (or similar Protocols) with external agencies and stakeholders to improve relationships and facilitate effective participation. Ngāti Ruanui welcomes to opportunity to enter into direct agreements that will benefit each party. The management arrangements provide in detail the specific opportunities and outcomes that the parties agree on and may include scholarships, endowment funds and rights of refusal.

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12. Appendices Appendix One – Map, Hapu and Marae

Eltham

Figure 1: The takiwa of Ngati Ruanui  (source: Te Puni Kokiri) 

 

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Hapu Ahitahi    Araukuku  Hamua  Hapotiki  Nga Ariki  Ngati Hawe  Ngati Hine 

Ngati Kotuku  Ngati Ringi  Ngati Takou  Ngati Tanewai  Ngati Tupaea  Ngati Tupito  Ngati Takou  Rangitawhi  Tangahoe  Tuatahi  Tuwhakaehu 

Marae Whakaahurangi     Ketemarae (Ngarongo) 

Wharenui Te Whetu o Marama  Kumea Mai te Waka  and Te Manawanui  Ngatiki   Hunga i te po  Taiporohenui  Whareroa  Taiporohenui  Whareroa  Meremere ( Ohangai Pa)  Tataurangi   Mokoia  Mokoia  Ararata   no wharenui   Ngatiki  Yet to be named  Meremere ( Ohangai Pa)  Tataurangi   Pariroa Pa  Taiporohenui  Whenuakura  Matangirei  Pariroa Pa  Taiporohenui  Pariroa Pa  Taiporohenui  Manutahi ( Te Takere)  Taumaha  Wharepuni  Tupaia  Wharepuni  Tupaia  Pariroa Pa  Taiporohenui  Whenuakura  Matangirei  Manutahi Pa  Te Ao Tawhi  Wai‐o‐Turi Pa  Rangiharuru      Pariroa Pa  Taiporohenui  Meremere ( Ohangai Pa)  Tataurangi  

Location Celia Street, Stratford  Mountain Road, Normanby  Ararata Road, Hawera  Ohangai Road, Hawera  Ohangai Road, Hawera  Ohangai Road, Ohangai   SH 3, Mokoia  Ararata   Ararata Road, Hawera  Ohangai Road, Ohangai   Wilson Road, Kakaramea  SH 3, Whenuakura  Wilson Road, Kakaramea  Wilson Road, Kakaramea  Lwr Taumaha Road, Manutahi  Fraser Road, Hawera  Fraser Road, Hawera  Wilson Road, Kakaramea  SH 3, Whenuakura  Lwr Taumaha Road, Manutahi  Lwr Kaharoa Road, Patea    Wilson Road, Kakaramea  Ohangai Road, Ohangai  

Table 7: Hapu and Marae of Ngati Ruanui (including Tangahoe and Pakekohi)  

Please note – in 1973 the Hawera County Council (now the STDC) written documents refer to all  marae in Ngati Ruanui as Pa and not Marae. Many signposts still reflect this.     

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Whakaahurangi  

Ketemarae Pa 

Ngaatiki  

Taiporohenui  

Meremere Pa 

Wharepuni  

Manutahi  

Pariroa Pa 

Wai‐o‐Turi  

Whenuakura  

Table 8: Marae of Ngati Ruanui 

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Appendix Two – Maori terms Aotearoa Atua    Hapu  Hau  Hinu    Iwi    Kaiarataki  Kaitiaki  Kaitiakitanga  Kanohi‐ki‐te‐kanohi  Karakia  Kaupapa Maori  Koiwi Tangata    Mahinga kai  Maitai  Mana  Mana Moana  Mana Motuhake  Mana Whenua  Manaaki  Manuka  Marae 

Te Maramataka o  Ngati Ruanui  Mataitai  Matauranga Maori  Maunga  Mauri  Miro  Mohoao nui  Ngahere  Ora  Pa  Pahake  Pakeha  Panui  Papa‐tu‐a‐nuku  Puna   

North Island – now used as the Maori name for New Zealand  Ancestor with continuing influence, god, deity    Sub tribe  Air, vitality of life  Oil    Tribe    Chief Executive Officer in the Office of Te Runanga o Ngati Ruanui Trust  Guardian(s)  Guardianship  Face‐to‐face  Prayer, blessing, incantation  Philosophical approach that incorporates the knowledge, skills, attitudes  and values of Maori society  Human bone, corpse    Cultivation, places where food was produced or gathered  Steel, iron  Prestige, authority, control, power, influence  Rights associated with tribal waters  Separate identity, autonomy  Territorial rights, power associated with possession and occupation of tribal  land  Support  Tea‐tree, Leptospermum scoparium – a common native scrub bush with  aromatic, prickly leaves and many small, white, pink or red flowers  Technically the open space in front of a wharenui. However, it is generally  used to refer to the whole marae complex, including the buildings and the  open space  The lunar calendar of Ngati Ruanui  Fish or shellfish, fish or other food obtained from the sea  Traditional knowledge  Mountain  Life principle  Brown pine, Prumnopitys ferruginea – a coniferous tree of lowland forest,  with curved leaves arranged in two rows  Forest or bush craft  Forest, bush  Health, vitality  Village  Elder, senior member of the tribe  Non‐Maori New Zealander typically of European descent  Public notice, announcement  Earth Mother  Spring   

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Rahui   Rangatiratanga  Rangatahi  Rangi‐nui  Rata  Rongoa     Taiapure  Takiwa  Tamariki  Tane Mahuta  Tangata Whenua  Taonga  Tikanga  Tupuna  Turungawaewae    Ukaipo  Uri  Urupa    Waahi Tapu  Wai  Whaikorero  Wananga  Whakapapa  Wharenui  Whenua 

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Put in place a temporary ritual prohibition  Chiefly  Youth  Sky Father  Metrosideros robusta (Northern) – large forest tree with crimson flowers  and hard red timber  To treat or heal using natural plants    A stretch of coast, reef or fishing ground set aside as a reserve for inland  kinship groups to gather shellfish or to fish  District, region, territory, area, border, space occupied by an iwi  Young child  Atua of the forests and birds and one of the children of Rangi‐nui and Papa‐ tū‐ā‐nuku  People of the land  Treasure, highly prized object  Correct procedure or custom  Ancestor  Place to stand, place of being    Source of sustenance  Descendant, member of Ngati Ruanui  Burial ground, cemetery, graveyard    Sacred place, site of significance  Water  Oral history, oration  Opportunity to meet and discuss, seminar, forum  Genealogy, lineage or descent  Meeting house  Land 

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Appendix Three – Abbreviations used AEE       CIA    CMA      DoC      ECS    EEZ    EPA    EU      GIS      MOU      NPS    NREMP     RMA      SDC    STDC      TRC    TRoNRT     WAI    

Assessment of Environmental Effects  Cultural Impact Assessment   Crown Minerals Act (1991)  Department of Conservation   Extended Continental Shelf  Exclusive Economic Zone  Environmental Protection Authority  Environmental Unit of Te Runanga o Ngati Ruanui Trust  Geographic Information System  Memorandum of Understanding  National Policy Statement  Ngati Ruanui Environmental Management Plan   Resource Management Act (1991)  Stratford District Council   South Taranaki District Council  Taranaki Regional Council  Te Runanga o Ngati Ruanui Trust   Waitangi Tribunal Claim 

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Appendix Four – Legislation, guidelines and regulatory authorities The following provides the specific legislation, policies and guidelines that are applicable to the  NREMP.      Whenuakura  Ngati Ruanui notes the following legislation/polices/guidelines for te whenua:   Ngati Ruanui Settlement Claims Act (2003)   Biosecurity Act (1993)   Resource Management Act (1991)   Crown Minerals Act (1991)   National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management 2011   National Policy Statement on Biodiversity 2011   New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010   Regional / District Plans of the Taranaki Regional Council and the Stratford and South  Taranaki District Council   Taranaki Regional Council Regional Fresh Water Plan      Te Puna Waiora  Ngati Ruanui recognises the following legislation/polices/guidelines for nga wai:   Ngati Ruanui Settlement Claims Act (2003)   Resource Management Act (1991)   National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management 2011   New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010   Taranaki Regional Council Regional Fresh Water Plan      Te Moana Uriuri Tangaroa Takapou Whariki I Papatuanuku E Takoto Nei   Ngati Ruanui notes the following legislation/polices/guidelines for the takutai moana:   Coastal and Marine Area (Takutai Moana) Act (2011)   Ngati Ruanui Settlement Claims Act (2003)   Submarine Cables and Pipelines Act (1996)   Maritime Transport Act (1994)   Biosecurity Act (1993)   Resource Management Act (1991)   Crown Minerals Act (1991)   Marine Reserves Act (1971)   DoC Marine Mammal Stranding Plan   Exclusive Economic Zone and Extended Continental Shelf (Environmental Effects) Act (2012)      Fisheries/aquaculture legislation   Maori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act (2004)    Maori Fisheries Act (2004)    Fisheries (Kaimoana Customary Fisheries) Regulations (1998)   Fisheries (Quota Operations Validation) Act (1997)    Fisheries Act (1996) 

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 

Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act (1992)   Maori Fisheries Act (1989)  

  Te Ai Tokorangi  Ngati Ruanui acknowledges and recognises the following legislation/polices/guidelines for te hau:   Resource Management Act (1991)   Taranaki Regional Council – Regional Policy Statement – Section 7 Air and Climate Change   National environmental standards for air quality       Waahi Tapu  Ngati Ruanui endorses the following legislation/polices/guidelines for the protection of waahi tapu  and koiwi tangata:   Ngati Ruanui Settlement Claims Act (2003)   Historic Places Act (1993)   Resource Management Act (1991)   New Zealand Historic Places Trust Archaeological Guidelines series No. 8 Koiwi  Tangata/Human Remains    Regional /District Plans of the Taranaki Regional Council and the Stratford and South  Taranaki District Council      Maunga Taranaki  Ngati Ruanui recognises the following legislation/polices/guidelines for the protection of the waahi  tapu Maunga Taranaki:   Ngati Ruanui Settlement Claims Act (2003)   Resource Management Act (1991)   Conservation Act (1987)   National Parks Act (1980)   Reserves Act (1977   Wildlife Act (1953)   DoC Environmental Care Code      He Whenua Momona  The regulation and administration of the exploration and exploitation of oil and minerals is governed  primarily under the following:   Maritime Transport Act (1994)   Crown Minerals Act (1991)   Resource Management Act (1991)   Continental Shelf Act (1964)   Petroleum Act (1937)   Exclusive Economic Zone and Extended Continental Shelf (Environmental Effects) Act (2012)      Other legislation/guidelines  Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act (HSNO) Act 1996   Ngati Ruanui will not agree to the use and development of genetically modified organisms in its  takiwa without due consideration or approval. Ngati Ruanui notes the intention of the Act which 

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provides for the regulation of genetic modification and represents a significant reform of  environmental legislation in that it gives consideration of the environment equal status in decision  making with other factors such as health or agriculture.       Public Works Act (1981)  The Public Works Act provides the Crown with the statutory authority to acquire land for a public  work. The Crown has the power to acquire or take land for a wide variety of purposes and may  negotiate for the land in the same way as a private purchaser. While the Crown's powers are wide, it  can only acquire land, whether by negotiation or compulsorily, in accordance with the Act. The  acquisition process generally takes place after all required consents for the use of the land have  been granted, or a designation has been provided for by the territorial authority.      Emissions Trading Scheme  The purpose of the scheme is to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted in New Zealand.  This is done by charging those who emit greenhouse gases while doing certain activities. Emissions  trading’ is a financial market‐based approach for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Emission  units – sometimes called ‘carbon credits’ – are traded between participants in the scheme. The  scheme introduces a price on greenhouse gas emissions to provide an incentive for people to reduce  those emissions and plant forests to absorb carbon dioxide.    

The New Zealand scheme covers emissions of the following six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide  (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and  sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). These are the greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol to which  New Zealand is a signatory. The scheme is to be administered by the Environmental Protection  Authority.       Local Government Act 2002  The purpose of the Local Government Act is designed to provide democratic and effective local  government that recognises the diversity of New Zealand communities. It aims to accomplish this by  giving local authorities more general powers and more flexibility to decide what they will do and  how. To balance this empowerment, the legislation promotes local accountability, with local  authorities accountable to their communities for decisions taken. The Act also enables local  authorities to play a broad role in promoting community well‐being, taking a sustainable  development approach.   

Local councils must ensure that they have processes in place for consulting with Maori. The Act also  requires councils to establish and maintain opportunities for Maori to contribute to decision‐making  processes, consider ways in which they can foster the development of Maori capacity to contribute  to decision‐making processes, and provide relevant information to Maori. Important decisions about  land or water bodies must take into account the relationship of Maori and their culture and  traditions.      Key Regulatory Authorities   Central Government   Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of Fisheries (now merged)   Department of Conservation   Ministry for the Environment    Ministry of Economic Development  

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  

Ministry of Arts Culture and Heritage   Environmental Protection Authority  Others (NZTA, Fish and Game, Historic Places Trust, Maritime New Zealand) 

  Regional and Local Authorities  Taranaki Regional Council    Resource Management Act obligations:  o resource consents  o regional policy statements  o regional planning documents   Local Government Act obligations      South Taranaki and Stratford District Councils    Resource Management Act obligations:  o resource consents  o district planning documents   Local Government Act obligations   Iwi Liaison Committee (South Taranaki District Council only) 

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Appendix Five – Awa, streams estuaries and reefs Ahuroa Stream  Aorere Stream  Ararata Stream  Chapmans Creek  Climie Stream  Hauha Stream  Hauroto Stream  Huinga Stream  Ingahape Stream  Kahouri Stream  Kaikura Stream  Kaitangi Stream  Kakapirau Stream  Kapapirau Stream  Katewheta Stream  Katoke Stream  Kiritae Stream  Makino Stream  Makioria Stream  Makoro Stream  Makuri Stream  Manawapou River  Manawawiri Stream  Mangakotuku Stream  Mangamingi Stream  Mangaone Stream  Mangaotuku Stream  Mangapoua River  Mangarangi Stream  Mangarata Stream  Mangaroa Stream  Mangatoromiro Stream  Ngakotana Stream    Reefs         Waihi Reef  Pukeroa Reef  North Trap  South Trap  Patea Reef 

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Ohaha Stream  Ohio Stream  Okirau Stream  Oroua Stream  Otauira Stream  Otoki Stream  Paetahi Stream  Pakerata Stream  Patea River  Patete Stream  Poroporo Stream  Puiatoe Stream  Rahui Stream  Tangahoe River  Tangarata Stream  Tauwharenikau Stream  Tawhiti Stream  Te Popo Stream  Teahitakawai Stream  Toakura Stream  Toko Stream  Tuikonga Stream  Tutaeriari Stream  Tututawa Stream  Upokorau Stream  Urekawa Stream  Waihapa Stream  Waihi Stream  Waikaikai Stream  Waingongoro River  Waireka Stream  Whenuakura River 

Estuaries   Tangahoe Estuary   Manawapou Estuary  Whenuakura Estuary     

Ngāti Ruanui Environmental Management Plan


Appendix Six – Taonga Species The following table gives the taonga species as per the Fisheries Protocol contained in the Ngati  Ruanui Claims Settlement Act 2003.    Maori Name  Common Name  Formal Name  Hapuka  Groper  Polypio oxygenios  Kaeo  Sea tulip  Pyrua pachydermatum  Kahawai  Sea trout  Arripus trutta  Kanae  Mullet  Mugil cephalus  Koeke  Common Shrimp  Palaemon affinis  Marari  Butterfish  Odax pullus  Moki  Blue moki  Latridopsis ciliaris  Paraki/Ngaiore  Common Smelt  Retropinna retropinna  Para  Frostfish  Lepidopus caudatus  Patiki mahoao  Black Flounder  Rhombosolea retiaria  Patiki rore  New Zealand sole  Peltorhamphus novazeelandise  Pakiti tore  Lemon sole  Pelotretis flavilatus  Patiki totara  Yellow belly flounder  Rhombosolea leporina  Patiki  Sand flounder  Rhombosolea plebeia  Patukituki  Rock cod  Parapecis colias  Pioke  Rig shark  Galeorhinus galeus  Reperepe  Elephant fish  Callorhynchus milli  Tuna heke  Eel – long finned  Anguilla dieffenbachi  Tuna roa  Eel –short finned  Anguilla australis  Wheke  Octopus  Octopus maorum  Koiro, ngoiro, totoke, hao,  Conger Eel  Conger verreauxi  ngoio, ngoingoi, putu  Koura  Crayfish  Jasus edwardsii  Kaunga  Hermit Crab  Pagurus novaeseelandiae  Papaka parupatu  Mud Crab  Helice sp.  Papaka  Paddlecrab  Ovalipes catharus  Kotere, humenga  Sea anemoe  Cnidaria group  Rore, rori  Sea cucumber / sea snail  Stichopus mollis  Patangatanga, patangaroa,  Starfish  Echinoderms  pekapeka 

SHELLFISH Kina  Kuku / Kutae  Kuku / Kutae  Paua  Paua  Pipi /kakahi  Pupu  Purimu  Rori  Tuangi  Tuatua 

Sea urchin  Green lipped mussel  Blue lipped mussel  Paua – black foot (Abalone)  Paua – yellow foot  Pipi  Pupu  Surf clam  Sea snail  Cockle  Tuatua 

Ngāti Ruanui Environmental Management Plan

Evechinus chloroticus  Perna canaliculus/mytilus edulis  Perna canaliculus/mytilus edulis  Haliotis iris  Haliotis australis  Paphies austral  Turbo smaragdus/zediloma spps  Dosinia anus et al.  Scutus breviculus  Austrovenus stutchburgi  Paphies subtriangulata, paphies 

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SHELLFISH Waharoa  Waikaka 

Horse mussel  Mud snail 

Tio, Karauria, ngahiki, repe  Tupa, kuakua, pure, tipa,  tipai, kopa 

Rock Oyster  Scallop 

donacina Atrina zelandica  Amphibola crenata, Turbo  smaragus, Zedilom spp.  Crassostrea glomerata  Pecten novazelandiae 

Table 9: Taonga Species  

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Appendix Seven – Types of Waahi Tapu There are numerous types of waahi tapu in the takiwa of Ngati Ruanui. The following is provided as a  guide only and the list is not exhaustive. Only nga Uri me nga Hapu o Ngati Ruanui can determine a  waahi tapu and it significance.    Status  Description  Waahi tapuketia  Buried taonga  Waahi ana  Important cave areas  Waahi tohu  Locators and their names within the landscape  Mahinga kai  Places where food was produced or gathered  Waahi paripari  Cliff areas  Kainga nohoanga  Occupation and residential sites  Tuuahu  Sites of importance to identity  Waahi raranga  Sources of weaving materials  Tauaranga waka  Canoe landing sites  Maunga  Mountain  Waahi rua  Food storage areas  Waahi kaitiaki  Resource indicators from the environment  Waahi kohatu  Rock formations  Waahi rakau  Areas of important trees  Urupa  Burial sites  Pa Tawhito  Ancient pa sites  Wai whakaheketupapaku  Water burial sites  Wai tohi  Areas of pure water  Wai mataitai  Important estuarine waters  Wai Maori  Important fresh water areas  Wai ora  Area of water used for healing  Wai puna  Important springs  Table 10: Types of Waahi Tapu  

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Environmental Management Plan  

A Statutory Environmental Policy document to help guide central and local government in formulating their Environmental Policy.

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