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TROPICAL PALIMPSEST | SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
ARCH 515 | GRADUATE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, ART, & HISTORIC PRESERVATION ROGER WILLIAMS UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR NATHAN FASH SPRING 2017
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climate and environment geography contemporary uses social history and demographics architectural typology local precedents paseo presidente billini program proposal bibliography appendix
CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT climate | daylighting | design strategies | wind + rain | vegetation
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | temperature The first chart (top left) illustrates the relationship between the dry bulb temperature and relative humidity, The x-axis of the table measures hours of the day and the y-axis measures temperature. The data is plotted as points for every hour of the day. The green points represent humidity and the yellow represent the dry bulb temperature. Analysis of this data shows that there is an inverse relationship between the dry bulb and relative humidity in this environment.. During the nighttime, humidty is high while dry bulb is low. During the daytime, the dry bulb is high and humidity is low. The lack of humidity during the day results in a dry air that feels cooler. The second chart (top right) shows the range of temperatures throughout the year. The data measures the mean temperature, average highs, average lows, design highs, design lows, recorded high, and recorded low.According to the data, the average yearly temperature in Santo Domingo is around 78 degrees Fahrenheit. While the temperature is fairly consistent throughout the year, the climate gets slightly warmer during the summer months. The third table (bottom) measures the ground temperature throughout the year. The temperatures are taken at varying depths beneath the surface. In a tropical environment like the Dominican Republic, the ground temperature is very consistent throughout the year. 1
Dry Bulb x Relative Humidity
Temperature (Monthly average)
Ground Temperature (Monthly average)
Timetable Plot (DrybulbTemeperature)
The dry bulb temperature is the temperature that is measured by most common thermometers and does not factor in the humidity in the air. This measurement can be deceiving because the humidity in the air affects how the environment is going to feel to a person. This table is plotting the average dry bulb temperatures throughout each month. It is also tracking the time of day at which these measurements are taken. The yellow lines represent sunrise and sunset. Predictably, the temperatures during daytime hours are very warm, 75 - 100 degrees , while the hours without sunlight are a bit cooler. 1
Timetable Plot (Wetbulb Temperature)
Timetable Plot (Relative Humidity)
The wet bulb temperature is the temperature that a parcel of air would have if it were cooled to saturation, or 100% relative humidity, by the evaporation of water into it. When an environment has 100% relative humidity, the wet bulb temperature will equal the dry bulb temperature. As this table shows, the values are lower when the air is measured using the wet bulb temperature. 1
Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature. The table shows that there nearly always a high level of humidity in the air in the Dominican Republic. It is intriguing that the relative humidity is actually lower during the daytime hours than it is during the night.. The overall high humidity contributes to the uncomfortable environment that the Dominivan Republic creates. 1
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | design strategies The pyschrometric charts show several different pieces of information regarding the temperature and humidity that affect how the environment feels to a person. The table plots data in points that correspond to single hours throughout the year. The points are plotted on several different axes that measure dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, and humidity ratio. The blue comfort zone represents the area where the values of all those factors combined produces a comfortable environment. The points that fall within the comfort zone are green, while the points outside that are red. This chart represents a collection of all the data throughout the year, as there was not enough variation throughout the different months to have an effect on the results. In the tropical climate of the Dominican Republic, the environment is nearly always too hot and humid to be in the comfort zone. 1
Pyschrometric Chart (Yearly)
Pyschrometric Chart with Design Strategies (Yearly)
Since the environment in Santo Domingo is naturally exceedingly hot and humid, buildings must provide design strategies, both passive and active, in or to provide the inhabitants with comfortable conditions. The areas on the chart correspond to the color of each design strategy in the key. The most effective strategies in mitigating the hot climate are active mechanical cooling and dehumidification, although these are certainly not the most efficient options. The passive strategies of sun shading and natural ventilation will significantly improve the comfortability of the environment. Other passive design elements are high thermal mass and internal heat gain, which may improve the environment in more irregular condtions. 1
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | daylighting strategies The first table (left) shows the data for sun illumination on a monthly basis throughout the year. The data is given in footcandles which is a meaure of the level of light produced by the sun. The measure of footcandles requires a surface in which to measure the level of light on. The yellow and green bars represent the different surfaces that are used in this data.. The yellow bar shows Direct Normal values which are measured on a surface perpendicular to the angle of the sun. The green are measured on a horizontal surface. This helps to distinguish the level of light that could be produced on different building elements. The table gives the mean values, average high, average low, recorded high, and recorded low. The data shows that on the direct normal surface, the illuminance levels actually get lower during the summer months, whereas on the global horizontal, the levels get higher during the summer. 1
Sky Coverage Range
Sun Path Diagram
47 degrees from horizontal
Sun Angle at Noon, December 21 Sunrise Azimuth: Southeast, 115 degrees Sunset Azimuth: Southwest, 245 degrees
85 degrees from horizontal
Sun Angle at Noon, June 21 Sunrise Azimuth: Northeast, 65 degrees Sunset Azimuth: Northwest, 295 degrees
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | design techniques With consideration to previous analysis of Santo Domingo, the following are architectural techniques. Sunshadding 1. Porch/Arcade 2. Awning 3 3. Balcony 4. Alley with Vegetation 5. Louver/Screen 4 6. Trellice 7. Courtyard/Plaza with Vegetation 8. Large Overhanging Eave 5
Natural Ventilation 9. Passive Cooling 6
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | precedents The “bohio” house or hut is the traditional dwelling of the indigenous Taino people of the Dominican Republic. The huts are typically constructed from palm wood with a thatch roof made of the leaf or frond of the palm tree. The bohio house was used mainly by th middle to lower class Taino population. The wealthy and royal Taino families lived in larger versions of the hut called “caney” houses. The caney houses used similar construction materials and methods, but often doubled as ceremonial temples. Modern day “bohio” houses implement similar planning and organization as the original bohio style, but substitute more modern materials like metal roofs. The climate of the Dominican Republic allows for houses to be open to the elements allowing for natural ventilation to cool the spaces. 7
Casa de Campo Resort , Casa de Campo, DR
Casa Mastrolilli, Rafael Calventi, Santo Domingo, DR
Residence in Punta Cana, Perdo Borrell, Punta Cana, DR
This resort complex features a number of building elements typical to the Dominican region. The tropical vernacular calls for an architecture that uses local materials and passive design strategies to mitigate the extreme environmental conditions. Some elements seen are steep, sloped thatch roofs, deep overhangs, and vegetation for shading. The main building in this image is similar in form and materiality to the tropical bohio house.8
This house designed by Dominican architect Rafael Calventi represents a more modern interpretation of the Domincan vernacular. The design incorporates vegetation throughout the exterior and interior of the house. The outdoor space adjacent to the house is carefully protected by shading elements like an overhanging roof and a screened trellis. The large voids of the exterior walls allow for natural ventilation to passively cool the space. 9
Another Dominican architect, Pedro Borrell designed this house in Punta Cana. This design implements some of the building elements typical of the region. As seen in this photo, pergolas are used to shield the outdoor spaces from the sun. The huge overhanging eave also acts a shading device. The use of water in this project, and many projects in the region, may also contribute to making the outdoor spaces feel cooler. While they primarily function as swimming pools, the bodies of water actually psychologically make people feel cooler than they actually are. 10
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | wind, rainfall, + hurricanes The wind diagrams illustrate a number of categories of data, and most importantly indicate the direction of each of the factors. The innermost ring of the circle shows the maximun, average, and minimum wind speeds measured in all directions. Each of the charts, which are broken down by season, show that the highest intensity of wind comes from the east and reaches peaks of 25 miles per hour of sustained wind. The next ring of the circle show the percentage of relative humidity in the air. The next ring measures the temperature of the wind. The outermost ring shows the percentage of total hours that wind occurs in that direction. The overall data shows that the most wind comes from the east, and it is cooler and more humid than the other directions. The chart below illustrates a more concise measurement of the range of velocity of the wind in each month. 1
Wind Velocity Range (Monthly)
Wind Wheel (Winter)
Wind Wheel (Spring) legend
Wind Wheel (Fall)
Wind Wheel (Summer) legend
Santo Domingo is transmitted on balance 1447 mm of rainfall per year, or 120.6 mm per month. On average there are 110 days per year with more than 0.1 mm of rainfall or 9.2 days with a quantity of rain, snow, sleet etc. per month. The driest weather is in March when an average of 53.8 mm of percipitation occurs. The wettest weather is in May when an average of 187.7 mm of rainfall occurs. 11 The native Taino people created the word hurricane. They called the storms that passed through the Caribbean ‘hurakans’ which translates to ‘God of Evil’. Hurricane season in the Dominican Republic and all of the Caribbean begins in June, has its strongest month in September, and ends in November. Although the Dominican Republic is located in the Caribbean which is often hit with hurricanes, the Dominican Republic only gets a direct hit from a hurricane about every 23 years. Tropical storms, however, are more frequent on the island. In 2003 a Tropical Storm Odette hit the island with 60 mph winds and destroyed about 85% of their banana crops, 60,000 homes, and killed 8 people. Some of the most devastating hurricanes that have hit the Dominican Republic were Hurricane San Zenon in 1930, Hurricane David in 1979, Hurricane George in 1998, and finally Tropical Storm Jeanne in 2004. Tropical Storm Jeanne was a smaller storm it hit in the worst way. It destroyed bridges mostly in the eastern tourist areas of the country including Punta Cana and made it very difficult to travel. 12
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | vegetation The Dominican Republic is home to a very diverse group of vegetation. From trees to shrubs, and flowers to grasses, there are a variety of plants to study. Some of the most common trees can create a canopy and let little light through giving a visitors shade in the humid and hot days. Most of these trees and larger vegetation can be found in El Parque Mirador del Norte in Santo Domingo. Orchids are a very common flower in the Dominican and there are over 1,800 types of orchids. 13
Flowers 1. Orchid - Lepanthopsis constanzensis 2. Canellaceae 3. Bayahibe Rose 4. Magnolia pallescens 5. Orchid - Psychilis dodii 6. Orchid - Tolumnia henekenii Flowering Trees 7. Pitcairnia domingensis 8. Vachellia barahonensis 9. Sarcopilea 10. Salcedoa mirabaliarum 11. Cubanola domingensis 12. Pinguicula casabitoana Shrubs & Trees 13. Podocarpus hispaniolensis 14. Mangrove Tree 15. Dominican Cherry Palm 16. Silver Palm 17. Mahogany Tree 18. Hispaniolan Pine Tree 18
GEOGRAPHY overview | historical evolution | urban organization
GEOGRAPHY | overview Santo Domingo (officially Santo Domingo de Guzman) is the capital of the Dominican Republic. The city is located on the Caribbean Sea, at the mouth of the Ozama River, on the south coast of the island. Founded by Bartholomew Columbus in 1498, on the east bank of the Ozama River and then moved by Nicolás de Ovando in 1502 to the western bank of the river. Known for being the site of the first European settlement in America, and for being the first seat of Spanish colonial government in the New World. It lies within the boundaries of the National District, and then later turn its bordered on three sides by the province of Santo Domingo. It bordered on the south by the Caribbean Sea, the east with the municipality “Santo Domingo Este”, west to “Santo Domingo O este”, and north by “Santo Domingo Norte”; between all they form the Great Santo Domingo. In Santo Domingo are the first cathedral and the first castle of America; both located in the Colonial City, area declared as World Heritage by UNESCO in 1995. Santo Domingo is one of the largest cultural, financial, political, commercial and industrial centers of the Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo also serves as the main port of the country. One of the ports of the city lies at the mouth of the Ozama River and is home to the largest vessels, capable of receiving both passenger and freight traffic. Today, Santo Domingo is the most important metropolis in the country, and most populous city in the Caribbean.
GEOGRAPHY | historical evolution The City in 1492 This maps illustrates the site where the city of Santo Domingo was founded marked at the mouth of the river, with mangroves along its borders (represented as small green dots) and precipices more than twenty meters high. The City in 1510 The map shows the first settlement of the Europeans in the eastern part of the Ozama river and then by 1510, the growth of the city was transferred to the western part. The dark brown areas indicate the already established blocks and the Light brown color indicate occupied blocks in the process of development., the schematic plans of the grid used by Nicolas de Ovando in 1510, with its squares or blocks in the process of being inhabited. The map also shows the direction of the axes pertaining to the streets in geographical relation to the north. The first street traced was Las Damas, pointing north, with a curve of 8° 37’ to the west. The next street (today is known as Isabella Catolica) has a curve of 9° 45’ in relation to the north, Arzobispo Merino Street curves of 7° 1 ‘. As a result, these streets are almost parallel. Streets running east to the west have more variations, such as Padre Billini, with its east-west axis at 12° 53’ and Arzobispo Nouel at 14° 29’, both of which curve towards the south. This tendency is even more notable with regards to Conde Street where the curve towards the south is 17° 55’.
GEOGRAPHY | historical evolution THE CITY IN 1540 The map shows the urban development around 1540, by which time the Cathedral had been constructed as well as several convents, the Atarazana, and many of the principal homes, including the Columbus Palace. The Central Plaza had also been defined. with the jail and the City Hall. The “Plaza del Contador” or “Plazuela de Abajo”, the wharf by the Ozama River, the Viceroyal Palace, and the Royal Houses, together constitute the most dynamic and lively center of the young city in the early years of the XVI century.
The City in 1586 The maps shows the total extension of the walls from the 16th century to the 18th century, distinguishing its phases of construction. By this time the city began to be fortified due to the very frequent invasions as for example the one of 11 of January of 1586, where a group of approximately 1,000 - 1,200 men commanded by the well-known English pirate Francis Drake seized of the City after waging a bloody battle with the Spanish residents of that time. And after their departure on February 11 of that same year, they burned houses and important buildings that were in the surroundings of the cathedral and the main squares.
GEOGRAPHY | historical evolution The City in 1737 The city began to present radical changes by the eighteenth century, and this map from the year 1737, shows the perfectly formed urban profiles of the city. There is a detail that is an extramural settlement identified as “Isle of the Islanders and that today we can identify as” the suburb of San Carlos “, whose grid layout is ordered around a central square where the church. This map also shows an urban panorama enriched by new monuments that were erected in the network of streets, squares and plazas of the old city. The map also describes everything yellow as unoccupied areas, orange for fully occupied blocks, dark brown for streets and squares.
The City in 1786 A highly transcendent fact was the division of the city into four quarters to achieve a better government. The ordinances of 1786 gave a sense of more organization and character to the city. The fundamental reasons for these divisions were to control the crime of slaves and to control robberies. All these conditions meant that for an order to be applied, the ordinance had to design an order of authorities; therefore the city was divided into four barracks and each quarter had to have four hearers of the Royal Audience and the dean among them was the head. In each barracks, there were two mayors, who could serve as ministers of justice and other functions. The urban organization in barracks began to establish a neighborhood identity. As the barracks disappeared, they began to take names of neighborhoods. For this time, the urban center of the city is enriched with works that fall within the code of the baroque style and the Bourbon neoclassicism.
GEOGRAPHY | historical evolution The City in 1806 This map represents the city during the first years of the nineteenth century, recording a document from 1805 where the cityâ€™s growth is perceived and beginning to be accentuated in the region of San Lorenzo de Los Ă ngeles Rosario (what is now the Minas) San Carlos and the location of the State-Savannah cemetery during the siege of General Dessalines. It is, undoubtedly, an appendix of the city outside the walls, which confirms a growing demography that creates a first population nucleus with its own identity outside the colonial urban fabric, where the wall is not only defensive but marked the limit of the city, defining the characteristic of the ground between urban and suburban, establishing a new limit to the city. East-West abandoned its It is noteworthy that for this period, the use of the gates that were in the wall change and begins to greater use of them towards the west, marking already definitively the new axis of growth of the city that will be East-West, Axis Original traced by Ovando, who was North-South.
The City in 1900 By 1900 we can see the rapid growth of the city, and it seems to be built on a solid limestone formation that slopes slightly towards the Antilles sea, which facilitates the takeoff to the existing sector of Ciudad Nueva (New City). It is evident that by this time there were few buildings of relevant importance, public buildings are not at all noticeable, except in the solidity of its construction, and styles of typical Hispano-America. Something very notorious and of great relevance is that by this time the sector of San Carlos begins to be urbanized, and begin to be very notice the outlines of important zones like La Primavera and Villa Francisca.
GEOGRAPHY | historical evolution The City in 1924 By 1924, the rapid sustainable expansion of the city, both in its surroundings and in its historical center, is very remarkable. You can see the subdivisions of the plots of new developments. By this time, the city begins to expand towards the eastern zone of the river Ozama and we see the settlement of the Ensanche Calero and Villa Duarte. Areas like La Primavera, La Aguedita, La Fe, and Gazcue are already being urbanized a better organization of its streets and block. As the city grows, the works of the architectengineer Osvaldo Baez are the most notorious and are considered as a first expression of the architecture in the Dominican Republic, making the city feel very well traced and conceived. Among his works of neoclassical and eclectic style are the municipal slaughterhouse (demolished) located at the front of the fort of San Gil, the Reconstruction of the Government Palace (Casas Reales) and the Palace of Justice (demolished ) That was located in the street Padre Billini, where is located the Institute of SeĂąorita Salome UreĂąa.
The City in 1938 By 1938,, the country was under the power of Dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo and in honor of himself, he took the liberty to rename the city as Ciudad Trujillo. As the city and inhabitants grow; economic stability grew as well resulting in the construction of some of today most important avenues and streets, such as Avenida 27 de Febrero, Avenida Tiradentes, Avenida Simon Boíivar, Calle Duarte, Cale 30 de Marzo, and more. Due to the rapid growth of the city the architect López - Penha begins to propose a master plan for the city, which was realized by the architect Gustavo Ubrí.
GEOGRAPHY | historical evolution The City in 1944 City Trujillo begins to expand mainly towards the northeast. New constructions are also being noticed, such as the Perla Antillana Hippodrome, the Social Improvement Neighborhood, the University City General Andrews Airport and the Malecon The Palacio Nacional houses the Executive branch of the Dominican Republic, its construction began in the same year and it was completed in 1947. The building stands on the grounds of the former Presidential Mansion, built during the United States military occupation of 1916-1924. 15 The City in 1956 Looking at this 1956 map, it really has branched outward from about 100 years ago. One of the most evident additions is the Aeropuerto General Andrews. The terminal was placed along what is now John F. Kennedy Ave. Construction for the airport in Punta Caucedo “Las Americas International Airport” began in the late 1950s on the other side of the Rio Ozama. The area of wherethe Aeropuerto General Andrews’ runway was is now where the Stadio Olimpico Felix Sanchez sits.1 The map also shows part of the Ciudad Universitaria, where the UASD is the public university of the Dominican Republic. The University of Santo Tomás de Aquino was first created for a Papal bull from Pope paul III. It was closed down in 1822 and through a few different presidents and establishments, it was finally named the University of Santo Domingo in 1914. 16
The City in 1978 With the death of dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo in 1961, the city of Santo Domingo grew exorbitantly because many of the people who were previously not allowed to live and much less study in the city began arriving from all parts of the country in search of job opportunities and better living conditions. This resulted in many suburbs and construction of many unregulated residential and commercial buildings. The map to the left shows as green areas the direction of the greater growth of suburbs caused by the massive migration to the sectors of Villa Mella, Sabana Perdida, Mendoza, Boca Chica and La Guayiga. The blue areas represent the areas of lower growth such as Hatillo, Engombe, Manoguayabo, Los Alcarrizos, La Isabela, etc. The map below shows the density of the inhabitants after the expansion of the city after the death of Trujillo. Yellow areas refer to low density, pink to medium density, and dark gray to high density.
GEOGRAPHY | historical evolution The City in 1990 In 1990, the United Nations Organization for Science, Art and Culture (UNESCO) declared the Colonial City of Santo Domingo “Cultural Patrimony of Humanity”. For this period, the city has a territorial extension of more than 40.32 sq miles (104.44 km²), and there are a number of important works that show a reflection of the advance and evolution of the city.
GEOGRAPHY | urban organization The Ozama River runs 148 kilometers before emptying into the Caribbean Sea. The position of Santo Domingo on the banks of the Ozama was of great importance for the economic development of the city and the growth of commerce during the colonial period. The Ozama River is where the busiest port in the country is. The city of Santo Domingo limits the north with the Isabela river; To the east of the river Ozama; south the Caribbean Sea; And to the west from the Isabela River following the Highway of the Isabela until the Highway Duarte continuing until the Kennedy with Luperรณn and continuing the Luperรณn until Av. Independencia including the Costa Azul urbanization. Until October 16, 2001, Santo Domingo was a single province, but it was divided into four different provinces. To the east is the province of Santo Domingo Oeste, to the north Santo Domingo Norte, to the west Santo Domingo Este, and to the south the National District, enclosing the capital city of Santo Domingo, the Colonial City, the University City, and other important sectors of the capital allowing the National District to not have rural or underdeveloped areas.
CONTEMPORARY USES | transportation Roads and Highways Santo Domingo is connected to the southwest of the country by the national highway DR-2, and with the cities of the country’s northwest by DR-1, which serves as a direct link to the city of Santiago de los Caballeros. DR-3 connects Santo Domingo directly to the east of the country, including the cities of San Pedro de Macorís, La Romana, and major tourist sites such as Punta Cana and Bávaro, and to the Samaná Province in the northeast via the Samana Highway. In the city, “motoconchos” (motorcycle taxis), “guaguas” or ”voladoras” (low quality public buses), and “carros públicos” or “conchos” (shared taxis) are common modes of transport. Public Transit Santo Domingo has an underground and elevated rapid transit metro system. It is the most extensive metro in the Caribbean and Central American region by length and number of stations. The Santo Domingo Metro is part of a “National Master Plan” to improve transportation in the city and the rest of the nation. The first line was planned to decongest the Máximo Gómez and Hermanas Mirabal Avenue. The second line, which opened in April 2013, is meant to relieve the congestion along the Duarte-Kennedy-Centenario Corridor in the city from west to east. In August 2013, the metro consisted of these two lines. Four more lines
are in planning in the near future, for a total of six. Before the opening of the second line in 2013, 30,856,515 passengers rode the Santo Domingo Metro in 2012 Airports Santo Domingo is served by two airports. Aeropuerto Internacional La Isabela a newly constructed airport located in the northern section of the city, within kilometres of the city center. It serves mostly domestic and charter flights. The major international airport that serves the city is Santo Domingo Las Americas, which serves North and South America and also Europe. La Isabela Airport is the major hub for Dominican airlines that operate small airplanes. The Joaquin Balaguer International Airport opened in February 2006 to replace Herrera International Airport. It serves mostly the Dominican Republic with domestic flights and some international flights to other Caribbean islands. The Las Americas International Airport is an international airport located in Punta Caucedo, near Santo Domingo and Boca Chica in the Dominican Republic. The airport is the second busiest in the country, after Punta Cana International Airport and one of the largest in the Caribbean. The airport opened in 1959 as the official airport of Santo Domingo.
CONTEMPORARY USES | transportation The Sans Souci Terminal The San Souci Terminal  welcomes some of the worldâ€™s largest ships. It encounters a high volume of passengers and crew. The terminal includes duty-free shops, check-in/out facilities and pier access. The ground level is for baggage handling and disembarking. The mezzanine level has shops, internet center, information stand and a great view of the river side and Colonial City. The second floor is mainly open and acts as a footbridge crossing over the structure and ship access points. This terminal provides a great amount of parking.
The Don Diego Terminal The Don Diego Terminal  along the Ozama River has two cruise reception areas. The information booth, internet and calling center, and the currency exchange booth is at the first reception area. The second is a shopping outlet. Porto de Santo Domingo Porto de Santo Domingo  is where the Ferry from Puerto Rico docks. This port stores cargo and container ships. A pedestrian bridge was added to allow pedestrian movement over the main avenue running along the waterfront.
CONTEMPORARY USES | parks and plazas
CONTEMPORARY USES | parks and plazas The city of Santo Domingo has various parks, many of which are relatively large. Santo Domingo is surrounded by a green boundary called the Santo Domingo Greenbelt. Mirador Norte Park lies in the north of the city, close to Villa Mella and Mirador Sur Park is located in the southwest section of the city. Mirador del Este is located on the East bank of the Ozama river and it is the seat of the Columbus Lighthouse. Independencia Park and Colón Park are located in Zona Colonial. Parque Colón (Columbus Park) is a shady park next to the cathedral. This park is utilized by tourists as a place to take a break from sightseeing. Popular with locals as well, it offers plenty of opportunities for people watching and relaxation. Parque Duarte, a small Colonial Zone park across the street from the Convento de los Dominicos, is a good choice for a relaxing break. Offering shady benches under trees, it is a popular meeting place for locals. The sculpture in the center of the park depicts Juan Pablo Duarte, one of the founding fathers of the Dominican Republic. Parque Independencia, located at the end of Calle El Conde, is surrounded by busy streets. This enclosed park commemorates the Dominican Republic’s struggle for independence. This park also contains the Altar de la Patria, built by Trujillo to hold the remains of the country’s founding fathers: Juan Pablo Duarte, Matías Ramón Mella and Francisco del Rosario Sánchez. Jardín Botánico Nacional, a botanical garden with
over 2 sq. km. of lush vegetation native to the island, can be explored on foot or by electric train. Highlights include the Japanese garden, the flower clock, aquatic plants, orchids, ferns and more. There is also an Ecology Museum where visitors can learn more about the countryâ€™s different ecosystems, with information on mangrove forests, cloud forests and pine forests, as well as coastal environments.
There are many plazas in Santo Domingo where the locals and tourists spend most of their time. These spaces throughout the Dominican Republic are constantly activated by crowds of people for gatherings, events, and activities. Some of the parks or plazas are small and intimate while others are grand, where many cultural activities are held. Many of which are designed to be flexible in order to host various activities, such as concerts or art exhibits. Plaza Juan Baron is an open-air plaza in Santo Domingo with a grand view of the sea. This plaza covers 21,000 square meters, has spaces to sit along the Caribbean Sea, restaurants, and shops of all types. Playa de Guibia is the only swimmable beach in the city of Santo Domingo. This area used to be popular among the locals until the hotels were constructed. For a long time, Playa de Guibia was utilized mainly by surfers, but today the plaza includes sand volleyball courts, a recreational area, bike paths, kiosks, a childrenâ€™s play area, and a stage for concerts and other activities. There is also a gazebo extending out on the Caribbean with a boardwalk leading to it. The area is currently being restored so that it
CONTEMPORARY USES | landmarks The performing arts are very important in Santo Domingo. The city has its own symphonic orchestra, chamber orchestra, opera company, ballet company, folkloric company, and national theater, including a number of smaller groups. The Plaza of culture is the center of activity, but there are concerts, ballet, folklore, and other performances throughout the city. Casa de Teatro is the gathering place of avant garde artists, actors, and musicians. It stages art and literature exhibitions and offers painting, drama, and dancing courses and monthly contests for poetry, short stories, and other forms of literature. Santo Domingo is the location of numerous museums, many of which are located in the Zona Colonial district. In the Zona Colonial is the Museum of AlcĂĄzar, in Diego Colonâ€™s restored palace, the Museum of the Casas Reales, with artifacts of the colonial period and a collection of ancient weapons donated by Trujillo, the Naval Museum of the Atarazanas, in the former naval yards, Museo de la Catedral, Museo Memorial de la Resistencia Dominicana, documenting the struggle for freedom during the regimes of Trujillo and Balaguer, Museo Duarte, dedicated to the hero of Dominican independence, and the World of Ambar Museum.
Plaza de la Cultura also houses the city’s most important cultural venues, including the Teatro Nacional (National Theater) and various museums; the Palacio Nacional, which houses the Presidency of the Dominican Republic; the Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), a neoclassical building that is the permanent home of the country’s National Symphony Orchestra; and the Boulevard 27 de Febrero, a pedestrian promenade located on the busy Avenida 27 de Febrero, which displays works of art from prominent Dominican artists and sculptors. Another attraction is the Centro Olímpico Juan Pablo Duarte, a sports complex in the center of Santo Domingo. This complex was used during the 2003 Pan American Games. In the Plaza de la Cultura are the Museum of the Dominican Man, with artifacts from the preColumbian Taíno civilization, the National Museum of History and Geography, the Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Modern Art. Other museums include the Museo Bellapart, a prominent private collection of 19th- and 20th-Century Dominican painting and sculpture and the Museo Prehispanico, a major private collection of pre-Columbian Taíno art.
CONTEMPORARY USES | religious buildings Monesario de San Francisco17 In its current condition the Monastery of San Francisco exist as a ruin to what was considered the first monastery of the new world. Commissioned by Nicolas De Ovando, Governor of the Indies who is known for his brutal conquest of Hispaniola in 1508. Construction on the main part of the church began in 1544 and was completed on July 23, 1556. In 1586 it was damaged by Francis Drake with repairs in 1664, and once again damaged in 1673 by an earthquake and repaired by 1751. During the Battle of Palo Hincado (1808) against the French, a piece of artillery was deployed on the roof. From the 1880â€™s to the 1930â€™s the building operated as a mental asylum but when a hurricane caused excessive damage, repairs were never made. Currently this site operates as a social gathering place used for social and cultural events and is protected by law and by the country of Efemerides. Iglesia Santa BĂĄrbara18 This is one of the oldest churches with a fort in the colonial period. The church and fort were built separately with the church being constructed in 1537. The church is a single long building with five distinct sections, as can be seen from the outside of this building. The ceiling is still covered with the original bricks. When the fort was built both structures were incorporated together. This is a very unique thing to have a fort and church entwined. The bunker for the fort is included in this building.
The National Pantheon19 Jesuits held mass here from 1746-1767. After 1767 it was used as a tobacco warehouse and then as the first Dominican theater for purely artistic purposes by the society Amantes de las Letras in 1860 until 1878 when it became theater La Republicana which operated until 1917. It housed governmental offices until 1956. In 1956, Spanish architect Javier Borroso renovated the structure to serve its new purpose as a national mausoleum, by order of then dictator Rafael Trujillo. Today it is the place where the countryâ€™s most famous persons are honored, among others Trujilloâ€™s assassins.
Iglesia Convento de Los Dominicos20 (Church and Convent of the Dominicos) After the arrival of Columbus to the Island of Hispaniola in 1492 the process of colonization started with the arrival of 15 friars were sent as representatives to Santo Domingo. Upon arrival in 1510, the delegates convened in a wooden home while the arrangements were made for the construction of a proper chapel. Due to lack of funding from Spain construction did not begin until 1522 and was not completed until 1532. In 1538 the convent became the first university in America by order Bula in Apolstolatus Culmine, with blessing from Pope Paul the third. Remarkably throughout the chapels history it has undergone constant reconstruction due to natural disasters and foreign invasions. In 1681 the buildingâ€™s roof and internal structure was in disrepair and needed reworking.
CONTEMPORARY USES | museums What can be found in the museums of Santo Domingo? Museums located within the colonial sector offer a wide variety experiences ranging from historical to significant local industry. All these locations play an import part in framing the diversity and cultural influence spread throughout this region. They offer a way of looking at the past through art and artifacts to find out what makes this place unique. CASA DEL TOSTADO21 The museum is located in the Casa de Tostado, which was built in the 16th century and belonged to writer Francisco Tostado. The architectural features of the building is not to be missed, especially the double Gothic window over the front entrance (see first image of post) which is said to be the only one of its kind in the Americas. The museum itself features a variety of furniture and artifacts belonging to a wealthy Dominican family in the 19th century. As such, we see a variety of sitting room, dining room and kitchen furnishings on the first floor. Also on the first floor is a very nice courtyard where visitors can take a stroll. MUSEO DE LAS CASAS REALES22 Built in the Renaissance style during the 16th century, this building was the longtime seat of Spanish authority for the entire Caribbean region, housing the governorâ€™s office and the powerful Audiencia Real (Royal Court), among
others. It showcases colonial-period objects, including many treasures recovered from Spanish galleons that foundered in nearby waters. Each room has been restored according to its original style, and displays range from Taíno artifacts to dozens of hand-blown wine bottles and period furnishings.
Trampoline, Children’s Museum23 Trampoline is a children’s museum located in one of the older buildings in the Colonial city, Casa de Bastidas. The building has a wonderful patio and restored architect. Their desire in to spark an interest in history and knowledge while making it fun and interesting to the children. It is an interactive place for children to learn about their Universe, Planet earth, Energy, People and Society, Ecology and Ecosystems and what surrounds them. There are rooms for children’s workshops, a cinema theater, an outdoor theater, a cafeteria and library services. Amber Museum24 The museum of larimar is the second educational entity created by AMBAR NACIONAL – ABASA – of Santo Domingo. The objective of this entity, founded and managed by Jorge Caridad and his wife Arelis de Caridad, is to organize the most important chain of privately operated educational museum in the Dominican Republic. The cornerstone of this network is the world of Amber Museum in Santo Domingo, which opened its doors to the public on September 5 1996. Employing a simple and accessible design, this new museum displays
CONTEMPORARY USES | waterfront The Santo Domingo Port is located on the Rio Ozama25 and has two major terminals â€“ Don Diego Terminal (Colonial Zone side) and San Souci Terminal â€“ for ferry and cruise ship access. The Port has recently undergone a major 700 million USD renovation in hopes to attract more tourists to the Colonial Zone. The new Don Diego terminal is contemporary style, and is 1,352 square meters (14,553 square feet) with a variety of stores inside for tourists to pass the time. Further down the Port is the terminal for shipping and receiving of trade goods via ocean freight28,30,46. The Avenue Francisco Alberto Caamano Deno runs along the length of the port, as well as part of the old fortification wall27,29, and on the city side of the Avenue are several parks/green spaces. Several of these spaces are associated with historical sites (The Fortaleza Ozama, Fray Anton de Montesinos monument, and Alcazar de Colon), and as such, they are probably more frequented by tourists rather than the locals. Where the old defense wall runs through these green spaces, there is a steep drop off on the riverside of the wall, and the lower green area is usually unkempt. The locals do make use of some of the open space, as can be seen by the skate park opposite the Fray Anton de Montesinos monument26.
gardens trading port cruise terminal defense wall
CONTEMPORARY USES | residential The Colonial City was originally built by the Spaniards in the colonial style31, but has evolved over history to include several architecture styles, such as gothic and baroque. The layout is a simple grid pattern. This was the first griddesign city of the New World47. With such a layout, residential buildings are intertwined throughout the city, which is one of the reasons all of the streets come alive at night with locals playing domino games, dancing, and listening to music. Because of hot weather, the streets are emptier during the day, and become much busier after the sun goes down and the temperature cools off. Hot water in houses is scarce throughout the city, and electricity can be spotty, but there is a renovation plan to install underground electric power. Personal Wi-Fi is also limited, but there are several cafes, restaurants, and hotels that provide Wi-Fi access. In streets with more commercial stores, the buildings are mixed-use with the first floor being storefronts and the floor(s) above being residential use33,34. A typical residential building will have access to an interior courtyard and/or several balconies as a means to provide access to on outside space that is not just a busy street, and also to provide crossventilation to help keep indoor temperatures down32.
CONTEMPORARY USES | hotels and shopping Hotels Ciudad Colonial offers a large variety of types of places to stay. Apartahotels are available for long term stays. There are all-inclusive resorts as well as traditional large hotels. The city also has bed and breakfasts35, boutique hotels36, and it is also possible to rent rooms in peopleâ€™s homes. It is important to note that not all of these establishments have hot water, or electricity 24 hours a day. Air conditioning is not common despite the climate of the area. While there are a few more hotels in the center of the city than elsewhere, the hotels are generally spread out across the city. Shopping There are many opportunities to shop in Ciudad Colonial. Every Sunday, the antique flea market, called Pulga de Antigedades, takes place between Calle Las Damas and Isabel la Catolica at the Plaza Maria de Toledo. On the first Saturday of every month there is a German market held at the Dominican-German Center. They sell a range of German food and crafts, and also have cultural displays. There are many small stores throughout the city. Many do not have signs and can be small enough to pass without noticing them. Calle el Conde37-39, the long pedestrian way through the center of the city, has a variety of stores The city also has many colmados, which are small general stores, as well as several larger grocery stores.
hotels commercial HOTELS SHOPPING
CONTEMPORARY USES | restaurants Ciudad Colonial boasts a large variety of restaurants of all different origins. Visitors of the city will find no shortage of international cuisines â€“ Mexican, Japanese, Italian, American, among many others. However, it can be much more difficult to find excellent, traditional Dominican food in the area. While some of the restaurants below feature incredible atmospheres, others rely only on excellent home-cooked meals to wow their guests â€“ locals and tourists alike.
restaurants RESTAURANTS AND BARS
Meson de Bari40, 41 Sr. Marisol, the owner of this lively two-story, blue restaurant, has spent the last thirty years serving his grandmother’s recipes. Meson de Bari features “high-concept” Caribbean food such as crab and conch empanadas, tender stewed chivo (goat) on the bone, crab-stuffed eggplant, and many others. After 8 pm, the place fills mostly with locals, particularly artists and intellectuals, but tourists are welcome as well. The first-floor bar features Dominican baseball games on the television in the corner, and local art adorns the walls.
D’Comer Colonial42 Much more casual than Meson de Bari, D’Comer Colonial serves only lunch, cafeteria style. Patrons take a tray to the counter where a woman – the chef herself – serves up portions of rice, several types of chicken, beef, beans, and even half an avocado. The interior of the restaurant is undecorated, though bustling with locals hunched over their meals.
Buche Perico43 Buche Perico features a beautiful patio filled with plants and herbs as well as a waterfall which helps to keep the diners cool. The restaurant has a beautiful view of the city. Live musicians play in the patio Wednesday through Sunday nights, offering visitors an experience of local music during their meal. This restaurant caters more to tourists than locals.
CONTEMPORARY USES | composite map Ciudad Colonial is a vibrant and colorful city that is made up of a variety of programs. The city is currently undergoing a wide range of revitalization projects, from its parks to its monuments. The intervention in the city should consider the active and celebratory nature of the Dominican people and incorporate a flexible public space for large gatherings. The intervention should maximize the potential of the cityâ€™s waterfront land. The city is in a prime location between luscious green fields, wide rivers, parks, historic architecture, and the Caribbean Sea. However, the strip of highway that cuts the waterfront away from the city center poses a problem for the region. The locals tend to have no reason to cross the busy street to access the waterfront. The proposal for an adaptive reuse project will activate the waterfront and attract locals as well as tourists to the area.
parks plazas landmarks religious buildings museums gardens port cruise terminal defense wall residence hotels commercial restaurants
SOCIAL HISTORY AND DEMOGRAPHICS social history | timeline | culture | demographics
SOCIAL HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS | social history Before Christopher Columbus encountered the island in 1492, the Taino Indians inhabited the island they called Quisqueya (mother of all lands) and Haiti (land of high mountains). The Taino Indians were the subgroup of Arawaks whose origins were from the tropical forest of South America. They dispersed in 400 BC, and the Taino people embarked on a seafaring journey to the Caribbean Islands, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and Bahamas. Columbus renamed the Spanish, who now occupy the Republic of Haiti. At that time, the territory of the island consisted of five chiefdoms: Marien, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua and Higuey. These were governed respectively by caciques (native chief): Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, and Cayacoa. While the first settlement dates back to 1493, when the first Europeans settled on the island, it was officially founded on August 5, 1498 by Bartholomew Columbus. Under the name of La Nueva Isabela after the earlier settlement was built by his brother Christopher Columbus; both in honor of the Queen of Castile, Isabel I. Later it was renamed “Santo Domingo”, in honor of Santo Domingo, the patron of Domenico Colombo, father of Christopher Columbus. The city became known as the “gateway to the Caribbean.” Santo Domingo was destroyed by a hurricane in 1502. Nicolas de Ovando, the new governor, had it rebuilt at another nearby site, west of the river. The original design of the city and a large part of its defensive wall can
still be seen today in the Colonial Zone, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1990. The Colonial Zone, bordered by the Ozama River, is an impressive collection of sixteenth century buildings including palatial houses and churches that reflect the architectural style of the Middle Ages. Several important colonial buildings in the city are: the Cathedral of Santa Maria la Menor (Cathedral of America), the Alcázar de Colón (the first castle America and residence of the Viceroy of the Indies), the Monastery of San Francisco (the ruins of the first monastery in America), the Museo de las Casas Reales (the former Palace of the Governor General), the Palace of the Royal Court, the Columbus Park (a historic square), the Fortaleza Ozama (the oldest fortress in America), the Pantheon of the Fatherland (an old building Jesuit that houses the remains of several distinguished representatives of the Dominican Order), and the Church of the Convento Dominico (the first convent in America). Throughout its first century, Santo Domingo was a platform of great part of the exploration and conquest of the New World. In 1586, Francis Drake occupied the city demanding a ransom for it. The invasion and looting of Drake of the Spanish weakened. The capital was abandoned and left to the mercy of the pirates for more than 50 years. An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was
From 1795 to 1822 the city changed command several times. It was ceded to France in 1795, occupied by slaves Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802, and again recovered by Spain in 1809. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of the Independent State of Spanish Haiti. Two months later, the new state was occupied by Haiti. The city and the colony lost much of the Spanish population as a result of these events. Santo Domingo once again became a free nation, when Dominicans gained their independence from Haitian rule on February 27, 1844 devised by the Dominican national hero, Juan Pablo Duarte. The city was a prize contested by various political factions in the coming decades of instability. Moreover, the country had to fight many battles with Haiti; the Battle of March 19, the Battle of March 30, the Battle of Las Carreras, and the Battle of Beler. In 1861 the country returned to Spanish hands, who reached an agreement with the Dominican leader Pedro Santana by the latter won numerous honorary titles and privileges, in exchange for the annexation of the young nation to Spain. The Dominican Restoration War began in 1863. However, in 1865, the country was free again after Spain withdrew. During the next two-thirds of the century, Santo Domingo and the Dominican Republic had many other conflicts. Changes in government were relatively brief; in 1916-1924 the addition to the occupation by the United States. The city was hit by hurricane San Zenรณn in 1930, that
SOCIAL HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS | timeline
SOCIAL HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS | history of dominican republic Like many other attributes, the Dominican Republic has a rich and varied cuisine. There is a strong Spanish influence due to the former colony located in the Dominican Republic, along with African and Taino traditions. The cuisine is similar to other Latin American cuisines including Puerto Rican and Cuban where the focus is heavily focused on meat and starches. Fruits and vegetables are integrated into the daily consumption but are often served as freshly prepared tropical fruit juices: chinola (passion fruit), lechosa (papaya), zapote (sapote) and tamarindo (tamarind). Some traditional ingredients that are specific to the Dominican Republic are yuca or cassava (a root used to make a flatbread, casabe) and tayota (a type of squash). Most Dominican dishes are accompanied by sofrito, a mixture of sauteed vegetables seasoned with herbs and spices. The Dominican Republic also has a favored choice of alcohol. Most of the native people order MamaJuana, similar to a port wine; a bottle of tree bark and herbs submerged in a mixture of rum, red wine, and honey. The Taino Indians originally created this mixture of herbs and bark as a herbal tea but alcohol was later added after Columbus. Still with alcohol, some positive health effects vary when consuming MamaJuana including flu remedy, digestion and circulation aid, blood cleanser, and kidney and liver tonic. 63
Traditional Dishes: Mangu- A typical breakfast dish made from mashed plantains (green bananas), served with sauteed onions, cheese, or salami. La Bandera Dominicana (The Dominican Flag)- A typical lunch dish, it consists of rice, red beans, meat and a vegetable side dish. Empanada- Bread dough or flour tortilla stuffed with meat, cheese or vegetables and then fried. Paella- The local version of a Spanish rice dish using annatto instead of saffron. Mofongo- Fried plantains flavored with olive oil, garlic and bacon. SanchochoA hearty stew made with large chunks of meat and vegetables. Moro de guandules con coco- Rice with coconut milk and pigeon peas. Sopa de mondongo- A soup made by slowly cooking tripe, cabbage, peppers, carrots, tomatoes, onions, celery, cilantro and garlic. Casabe- A flat bread made from cassava (a root vegetable). Arroz con maiz- Sweet corn with rice. Habichuelas con dulce- A dessert made with red beans, coconut milk, condensed milk, raisins, butter, cinnamon, salt and sugar. 63
Language & Religion Dominican Republic is dominantly a Spanish spoken country. With higher emigration to the United States, english has become more common amongst the people. Haitian immigrants speak French Creole. Roman Catholic church contains more than four-fifths of the Dominican people influencing society by cultural, political, and economic life. The early Spanish and African communities developed the syncretic religious beliefs and practices. Evangelical groups are recognized as a small and growing portion of the population. Other religions including Judaism are also recognized. 4
Ethnicity & Demographic Trends Dominantly occupied of mulatto people (mixed African and European ethnicity), the Dominican Republic also contains small minorities of black and white. Taino people, first inhabitants of the Caribbean countries, were decimated by disease, warfare, and effects of forced labour after contact with Europeans. A Taino legacy is seen in Dominican language and material culture. The Dominican Republic experienced one of the worldâ€™s highest urbanization rates where in 1950 roughly one-fourth of Dominicans lived in cities, but by late 1990s two-thirds of the population lived in urban cities. In result, Santo Domingo, amongst other cities, grew crowded in terms of rural zones and urban slums. 62
Education For students between the ages 7 and 14, primary education is free and required. It is later succeeded by a two-year intermediate school and four-year secondary course. The bachillerato diploma is then awarded. Few lowincome students reach higher education while middle- and high-income students prepare for university education. Founded in 1538, Autonomous University of Santo Domingo is the oldest institution of higher education in the Western Hemisphere. The university started with a Roman Catholic affiliation and later in 1914 reorganized to have the government provide most of the funding. 62
SOCIAL HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS | socio-cultural events
Sports Baseball; the most popular sport in the country. The Dominican Republic Professional Baseball League has two teams that is home to Santo Domingo: the Leones del Escogido and Tigres del Licey. In Santo Domingo, the stadium in which they play is called Estadio Quisqueya, which can hold around 11,300 people. Tigres del Licey was founded in 1907 and has won 21 national championships since 1951. Leones del Escogido was founded in 1921 and has won 15 national championship since 1951. Additional sports that are played in Santo Domingo are basketball, volleyball and boxing. 65
Dominican Carnival Every Sunday in February, especially the last of the month when many people in the area get together to listen to live music, entertainment and dress in beautiful costumes along El Conde and the Malecon. The Dominican Republic is famous for their two musical styles: merengue and bachata which are very common to hear during this event. The bachata musical style was established in the early twentieth century from the rural countryside but has spread to other parts of Latin America. This style includes instruments including the guitar, bongos and guiras. The bachata was originally considered rural country music but is well recognized throughout Latin America since the 1990s. 66
Merengue Festival The Merengue Festival began in the 1980â€™s by the Dominican Government and held in the Santo Domingoâ€™s El Malecon region during the last two weeks of July. This event is based around culture music, food and dance which brings many people together from all ages, races and social classes. The merengue style of music is very common to hear during this event. The merengue musical style was founded in 1854 but was accepted in 1930 after Trujillo gained dictatorship. It features many instruments including an accordion, a tambora (two-sided drum), and a guira (a cylindrical sheet of metal with small bumps on it that is played with a stiff brush). 65
Son Festival Son Festival celebrates Cuban music with many different events and entertainment during the last two weeks of March. Son cubano is a style of music that originated in Cuba but later gained worldwide popularity in the 1930s. It is one of the most influential forms of LatinAmerican music. This style of music is a mix of the Spanish guitar (tres), melody, harmony, and lyrical traditions with almost no original native traditions. 65
Independence Day On February 27, a carnival parades takes place in the main cities in Dominican Republic. Some of the most famous are in Santo Domingo, La Vega and Santiago. It is a celebration of the day when many people fought for National Independence; when the Haitians occupied their country for 22 years back in 1844. On this day, the President of the Dominican Republic usually gives a speech to pay a tribute to the individuals that declared war for Independence of Santo Domingo. 65
Semana Santa Semana Santa festival is one the cityâ€™s western outskirts which happens the week leading up to Easter Sunday, in April, with parades and beautiful pageants. In the parades a statue of Christ is brought through the streets. Semana Santa is considered to be Dominican Republicâ€™s Holy Week before they celebrate Easter. It is a time for the community to meditate and a week for observance in respect to the sacrifices of Jesus Christ. Good Friday, the Friday before Easter Sunday, is a big part of this week and is the major day for the community to show respect to Jesus Christ. 67
SOCIAL HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS | crime, safety rates and cost of living Cost of Living Santo Domingo holds 2.945million of the 10.607million people that populate the Dominican Republic. Cost of living in the city of Santo Domingo is relatively inexpensive compared to other cities within the Dominican Republic. On average, an individual spends 20,546.93RD$ equivalent to 441.01US$ for a one bedroom apartment in the city with basic inexpensive restaurant meal utilities (electricity, heating, water, garbage).
RD$ US$ US$ US$ inexpensive restaurant meal $ 300.00 $ 6.44 $ 12.00 $ 5.00 McMeal at McDonalds $ 350.00 $ 7.51 $ 7.00 $ 5.05 domestic beer (pint) $ 100.00 $ 2.15 $ 2.00 $ 1.00 imported beer (sm bottle) $ 160.00 $ 3.43 $ 3.50 $ 2.00 cappuccino (regular) $ 84.33 $ 1.81 $ 2.46 $ 1.45 RD$ US$ US$ US$ US$ soft drink (sm bottle) $ 35.00 $ 0.75 $ 1.31 $ 1.00 $ 300.00 $ 6.44 $ 12.00 $ 5.00 $ 18.00 water (sm bottle) $ 23.12 $ 0.50 $ 1.27 $ 0.50 McMeal at McDonalds $ 350.00 $ 7.51 $ 7.00 $ 5.05 $ 8.00 pack of cigarettes (Marlboro) $ 165.00 $ 3.54 $ 7.20 $ 1.00 domestic beer (pint) $ 100.00 $ 2.15 $ 2.00 $ 1.00 $ 6.00 When compared to cities around the world like cinema ticket (international release) $ 300.00 $ 6.44 $ 8.00 $ 0.25 imported beer (sm bottle) $ 160.00 $ 3.43 $ 3.50 $ 2.00 $ 7.50 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Havana, Cuba, and New fitness club (monthly fee) $ 2,057.14 $ 44.15 $ 29.41 $ 7.50 cappuccino (regular) $ 84.33 $ 1.81 $ 2.46 $ 1.45 $ 4.24 York City, United States of America, Santo jeans (Levis) $ 2,666.67 $ 57.24 $ 40.00 $ 30.11 soft drink (sm bottle) $ 35.00 $ 0.75 $ 1.31 $ 1.00 $ 1.99 Domingo is, on average, the second least summer dress (Zara, H&M) $ 3,240.00 $ 69.54 $ 54.00 $ 30.00 water (sm bottle) $ 23.12 $ 0.50 $ 1.27 $ 0.50 $ 1.62 expensive. Havana, Cuba ranks the least running shoes (Nike) $ 5,375.00 $ 115.37 $ 75.50 $ 67.66 pack of cigarettes (Marlboro) $ 165.00 $ 3.54 $ 7.20 $ 1.00 $ 13.00 expensive in most of the listed items. Overall, as basic utilities (915sqft apartment) $ 3,213.60 $ 68.98 $ 172.25 $ 2.00 cinema ticket (international release) $ 300.00 $ 6.44 $ 8.00 $ 0.25 $ 15.00 a city, Santo Domingo has a lower cost of living. rent: 1 bedroom apartment (city) $ 17,333.33 $ 372.04 $ 815.22 $ 733.33 fitness club (monthly fee) $ 2,057.14 $ 44.15 $ 29.41 $ 7.50 $ 72.18 rent: 1 bedroom apartment (suburb) $ 9,227.27 $ 198.05 $ 534.09 $ 115.00 68 jeans (Levis) $ 2,666.67 $ 57.24 $ 40.00 $ 30.11 $ 51.41 rent: 3 bedroom apartment (city) $ 40,416.67 $ 867.50 $ 1,445.45 $ 600.00 summer dress (Zara, H&M) $ 3,240.00 $ 69.54 $ 54.00 $ 30.00 $ 39.74 rent: 3 bedroom apartment (suburb) $ 19,000.00 $ 407.81 $ 958.33 $ 253.33 running shoes (Nike) $ 5,375.00 $ 115.37 $ 75.50 $ 67.66 $ 85.23 basic utilities (915sqft apartment) $ 3,213.60 $ 68.98 $ 172.25 $ 2.00 $ 130.41 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic [1 US Dollar (US$) = 46.59 Dominican Peso (RD$)] rent: 1 bedroom apartment (city) $ 17,333.33 $ 372.04 $ 815.22 $ 733.33 $ 2,899.29 San Juan, Puerto Rico rent: 1 bedroom apartment (suburb) $ 9,227.27 $ 198.05 $ 534.09 $ 115.00 $ 1,820.41 Havana, Cuba rent: 3 bedroom apartment (city) $ 40,416.67 $ 867.50 $ 1,445.45 $ 600.00 $ 5,736.20 New York City, United States of America rent: 3 bedroom apartment (suburb) $ 19,000.00 $ 407.81 $ 958.33 $ 253.33 $ 3,275.32 Legend Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic [1 US Dollar (US$) = 46.59 Dominican Peso (RD$)] San Juan, Puerto Rico Havana, Cuba New York City, United States of America
US$ $ 18.00 $ 8.00 $ 6.00 $ 7.50 $ 4.24 $ 1.99 $ 1.62 $ 13.00 $ 15.00 $ 72.18 $ 51.41 $ 39.74 $ 85.23 $ 130.41 $ 2,899.29 $ 1,820.41 $ 5,736.20 $ 3,275.32
SAFETY RATES mugged or robbed
walking alone during daylight
items stolen from car walking alone during night
CRIME RATES mugged or robbed
items stolen from car
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic San Juan, Puerto Rico Havana, Cuba subject to a physical attack New York City, United States of America due to skin color, ethinic origin or religion
property crime (vandalism and theft) attacked
subject to a physical attack due to skin color, ethinic origin or religion
violent crimes (assault and armed robbery)
corruption and bribery property crime (vandalism and theft) SAFETY RATES violent crimes (assault and armed robbery)
corruption and bribery
SAFETY RATES walking alone during daylight
walking alone during daylight
walking alone during night
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic San Juan, Puerto Rico Havana, Cuba
Crime & Safety Rates 20 Aside from the beauty, Santo Domingo has a higher crime index than safety index. Crime 78 index stands high at 65.82 and safety index low 49 at 34.18. There is a high level of crime which has increased in the past 3 years by 79.25%. The community worries about being robbed (armed and unarmed), mugged, attacked, insulted, assaulted, and bribed. Some are subject to physical attack due to skin color, ethnic origin or religion. Many worry about walking alone during the daylight verse alone during the night. When compared to cities around the world like San Juan, Puerto Rico, Havana, Cuba, and New York City, United States of America, Santo Domingo does not rank the highest in crime or safety. While the rates are higher in the Santo Domingo and San Juan, Havana is also very high and therefore dangerous. For example, people worry more about items being stolen from a car in San Juan and Santo Domingo than in Havana or in New York City. Similarly, people worry more about walking alone during the day than walking alone during the night in all four cities. 69
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY typical blocks | unique blocks
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | typical blocks Ciudad Colonial, Santo Domingo consists of four main roads and various smaller streets. Blocks within Ciudad Colonial are either typical or unique. Some unique blocks are larger and include plazas, monuments, and historical buildings. Typical blocks are mostly filled with commercial and residential buildings. There are three main types of typical blocks: type A, type B, type C. Type A typical block is a very dense block with many smaller lots. Buildings with heights ranging between 1-3 stories fill these lots. These buildings are mostly residential. Type B typical block is a dense block but incorporates a small green space within the block. The green spaces are usually at the core to allow each smaller lot access . Type C typical block is a less dense block that incorporates a large green space. This space is similar to that in Type B but is much larger in scale.
Typical Type A Typical Type B Typical Type C Unique Blocks
Typical Pedestrian Walkway
Typical Street Section
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | typical block a 27 ft 8 m
71 ft 21 m
Nou o p s i
b Arzo e l l Ca
l Ca om nt Sa e
15 ft 4.5 m
514 ft 156 m
A typical block in Santo Domingo is difficult to define due to the variety of styles and components. In this block in particular, there are changes in heights and program. Generally, the lower level is filled with commercial and the second or third levels are residences. Furthermore, the populated streets, such as Calle Arzobispo Nouel, are lined with commercial while secondary streets are more residential. In addition, on the secondary streets the plots are thin and more dense, except on the corner. Although some corners have a celebrated entry, others contain wires and telephone poles, seen below. Overall, the block incorporates greenery
residential commercial 226 ft
eR eye s
390 ft 118 m 276 ft 156 m
b zo r A
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | typical block b
residential museum restaurant/bar
142 ft 43 m
This block contains a variety of programmatic elements, such as restuarants, bars, shops, museums, and residential apartments. The majority of the buildings within the block have access to outdoor courtyard spaces. The largest open space is located at the center of the block, which contains parking spaces for the residents. Located within this particular block are the Hotel Villa Colonial (1), the Museo de la Porcelana (2), Museum Memorial de la Resistencia Dominicana, and the Museo Fernando Pena Defillo.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | typical block c
lle Ca ra ne Ge up lL
59 ft. (18m)
147 ft. (45m)
181 ft. (55m)
8m) 256 ft. (7
s to s Ho
Something very notorious is that many of the houses have internal courtyards, very characteristic of Spanish homes. The sidewalks are usually very narrow ranging from 2-3 feet, made of brick or stones. Within the architectural characteristics, we can notice patterns very similar between them, and typical styles of both Spanish and French architecture. Some of the houses have solid doors, and others ventilated French doors, balconies (in some cases with roofs), the use of iron for bars and/or bars for windows, deep niches for doors and windows, Doors, and the use of moldings for both door frames and parapets. Another very typical characteristic is that the majority of them have colonial tiles roofs that replaced previous straws roofs.
This is an interesting example of a typical block in the Colonial city and it is located between the streets, Hostos, Salome Urena, General Luperon, and Duarte. If we observe it carefully, we can notice that the buildings in this block have many similarities between them. We can find mostly typologies of houses, shops, and hotels ranging from 1 and 2 levels. Something that really stands out is that the buildings do not have any boundary between them, which contributes to that they share walls and thereâ€™s not really a clear sense of privacy.
Sa m lo e a
s to s Ho
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | typical facades Typical features that appear almost unanimously across the residential buildings are exterior stucco coatings in a variety of colors (white, pastels and vibrant pinks, blues, and greens), and first and second floor windows and doors have decorative metal bars in the openings. The number of stories varies throughout the city, mainly in the range of oneto two-story buildings, with a few three-story buildings in the mix. When there are two or more stories, there will typically be at least one balcony on above ground levels - either full bar railings, solid walls, or a solid wall up to railing height then railings on top creating a cage look. Another common balcony type is the Juliet style. There are also a fair amount of rooftop gardens or decks. Almost all buildings have decorative trim in some form or another. Approximately two-
thirds have window/door trim, half have either cornice trim or header trim above windows, and another common application is a band of trim used to separate the first and second floor. Another common feature is decorative wooden doors. Almost every building has windows that are the same width as the doors - approximately three feet wide. The heights varied from square to 1.5x the width. A facade would typically have even spacing between all the openings, and for the two or more story buildings, about 75% would have the windows and doors above align with the first floor openings.
Balcony with metal railing Transom vents
Solid wall balcony
One-story building with typical features
Two-story building with typical features
Three-story building with typical features
Other noted features are short transom vents above the first floor windows and doors, one step up at the first floor doors, a few awnings throughout the city, and first floor doors that had arched top openings. Individual lots have a percentage of open to built space ranging from 11% to 22% open . The buildings are also make full use of each lot by building right up to the street edge, as well as sharing side walls with neighboring buildings.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 277-278 Within the walls of the Cuidad Colonial exist a unique grid organization that composes the blocks of the city. Among those blocks are unique instances where the standard block unit is broken as a result of a variety of different circumstances. In the case of the city block 277 and 278, not only does the built environment differ but the two blocks have been combined. The combination of city blocks results in the obstruction of vehicular travel that would have passed through the site. The combination of these two sites also creates a much larger footprint also increasing congestion within the city. The large block also consist of architecture that seems to differ from the surrounding areas, Unlike most residential buildings within the Cuidad Colonial where roof heights are relatively low, several of the structures in this unit reach four stories high with shallow gable end roofs.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 178-179 250’
This city block that exist on the outermost edge of the colonial district is bordered by the original defense wall of the city. Being that the block is tucked into a corner, its shape is very irregular combined with a drastic change in grade, the organization of this block is quite unique in comparison to the rest of the city grid. The citing of the church also adds to the character of the block, its has a substantial base that ignores the surrounding topography. Due to the existing defense wall, the city grid is interrupted and the street turns into a steep set of stairs leading to the top of the defense wall.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 434-435 This block occupies about 3.9 acres in the southeastern corner of Cuidad Colonial. The block is split in two by a pedestrian street that runs through the site into the open space adjacent to Convento de Los Dominicos, the large church that occupies the northeast corner. Much of the open space and courtyards within this block are heavily shaded by trees and other vegetation. The integration of landscape in and around the built environment procudes a lively, occupiable outdoor space.
Religious Museums Green Space Shopping Hotel Residential
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 436
375â€™ Restaurant Museum Shopping Green Space Car Parking Residential
This block occupies about 2.3 acres within the Colonial Zone of the Santo Domingo. The block falls between Calle Padre Billini, Calle Arzobispo Merino, Calle Arzobispo Portes, and Calle Hostos. The block is split nearly in half with residences and businesses on the southern half and Parque Fray Bartolome de las Casas on the northern half. The duality of the block provides immediate public space that is shaded by vegetation for the people who live there and patronize the businesses.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block The Catedral Primada de America resides in the center of the site with Parque Colon bordering the north of the site and Calle del Conde. The cathedral is a prominent feature of the site and also a major tourist attraction of Santo Domingo.. The cathedral is the oldest cathedral in the Americas and also is called the Catedral de Santa María la Menor. Parque Colon, previously known as Plaza Mayor, is a key plaza in the center of the Zona Colonial in Santo Domingo. Parque Colon is in a large tourist area and sits on the side of one of the busiest pedestrian walkways in the city, Calle del Conde. The south section of the block has a completely different feel than the north section. Along Calle Padre Billini, there are very clustered buildings that have mixed uses. There is another small plaza along this side as well and is named Plazoleta Padre Billini.
564’ 172 m
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 355 248’
215’ 65 m 336’ 102 m
On this site, the majority of the space is taken up by the San Francisco Monastery Ruins. This church is a significant part of Santo Domingo’s history, which was built in 1508 and is now part of a re-use competition for a new cultural center in the city. The ruins are in poor shape and is one of the reasons for the competition and revitalization. On the west side of the site, there is more open parts that have some ruins, but the site is very open for now. It is atypical because of the use of the space on the site as well as the shape of the site because it does not follow Santo Domingo’s typical grid.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block This block occupies about 3.89 acres in the northwestern corner of Cuidad Colonial. The block is shaped irregularly it has a large shared open space that is connected to Iglesia de San Lazaro adjacent to Convento de Los Dominicos, which occupies the northeast corner. The majority of the open space of the center shared space Is heavily shaded by trees and other vegetation. This block is position on a hill with the church being the highest point of the block the integration of landscape in and around the built environment produces a lively,
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 375 This block occupies about 1.6 acres in near the center of Cuidad Colonial. The block is shaped like typical block , with some unique stractures with in in. In the top right corner is Iglesia Nuestra SeĂąora del Carmen. which occupies the northeast corner. The majority of the rest of the block is taken up by Hospital Padre Billini. It has two open courtyardsand shareds a space with the church. The shared space Is heavily shaded by trees and other vegetation. The other half is mainly residential, with a couple of bars where that are mainly for the locals.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 327&437 Within the walls of the Cuidad Colonial exist a unique grid organization that composes the blocks of the city. Among those blocks are unique instances where the standard block unit is broken as a result of a variety of different circumstances. In the case of the city block 277 and 278, not only does the built environment differ but the two blocks have been combined. The combination of city blocks results in the obstruction of vehicular travel that would have passed through the site. The combination of these two sites also creates a much larger footprint also increasing congestion within the city. The large block also consist of architecture that seems to differ from the surrounding areas, Unlike most residential buildings within the Cuidad Colonial where roof heights are relatively low, several of the structures in this unit reach four stories high with shallow gable end roofs.
ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY | unique block 178-179 250’
Description This city block that exist on the outermost edge of the colonial district is bordered by the original defense wall of the city. Being that the block is tucked into a corner, its shape is very irregular combined with a drastic change in grade, the organization of this block is quite unique in comparison to the rest of the city grid. The citing of the church also adds to the character of the block, its has a substantial base that ignores the surrounding topography. Due to the existing defense wall, the city grid is interrupted and the street turns into a steep set of stairs leading to the top of the defense wall.
LOCAL PRECEDENTS monestario de san francisco | casas historicas
MONESTARIO DE SAN FRANCISCO | nieto sobejano Location: Cuidad Colonial, Dominican Republic Competition Year: 2014 Competition Abstract The San Francisco and Surroundings Ruins Events Center Project, as established in the call for competition, promotes the consolidation, preservation and enhancement of the San Francisco Ruins Complex and the functional and socio-spatial integration of this monumental complex The communities located north of the city, especially the neighborhoods of San Antón and Santa Bárbara, now segregated from the urban, tourist and economic dynamics of the Colonial City. It required the participants to insert new cultural and event uses in a predominantly residential area, aiming to generate an attractive and new central area capable of being inserted in the circuit of representative spaces of the city and of interacting with Plaza España, through a Quality spatial sequence that will improve living conditions so that residential use remains in the area, in addition to mixed uses compatible with the traditional life of the neighborhoods. Project Abstract The main objective of Nieto Sobejano Architects was to create a new focus on tourism and highlight the importance of the heritage and the historical significance of the location and allow for a stronger connection to the coastline. Their proposal is based essentially on the creation of a dialog between the existing architecture and the new interventions based on the needs of a new cultural center that would require an enclosure currently absent. The urban scale of the proposal is based on various zone of circulation especially pedestrian and the dynamic effect it has on the area. At a larger scale proposal begins to suggest a connection between the Iglesia de Santa Barbara, la Plaza
de Espaha and the ruins de San Francisco all in a way will work within the constraints of the future master plan. The goal of the intervention was to preserve the heritage and functionality in the original architecture while addressing known issues such as structural stability. This was accomplished through a clear adaptation of space that would express a clear dialog between the memory of the past and the innovation of the contemporary. The Monastery of San Francisco has gone through many different built stages but despite falling into ruin but the main architectural elements exist: the church, the chapel and the cloister. The clarity of the original formal structure of the church suggest that the architecture should be preserved with the suggestion of a folded platform that follows the contours of the ruins. This same type of approached is suggested in the configuration of public spaces.1 The new event center building and its surrounding areas hold a harmonious relationship with the monastery due to is archaeological site and relationship to the cloister. From this both areas become elements of connection and distribution among different public areas. The event center can be used as a flexible space and divided into different rooms. The stucco walls and folded steel cubicles cut into this formal abstraction and display the richness of the remains of the site. The new architecture will result in a balance to create a record of the past with a look towards the future2. 1 ”CENTRO DE EVENTOS RUINAS DE SAN FRANCISCO Y ENTORNOS.” Ruinasdesanfrancisco.arquitexto.com. Accessed February 14, 2017. http://ruinasdesanfrancisco. arquitexto.com/#levantamiento. 2 “CENTRO DE EVENTOS RUINAS DE SAN FRANCISCO Y ENTORNOS.” Ruinasdesanfrancisco.arquitexto.com. Accessed February 14, 2017. http://ruinasdesanfrancisco. arquitexto.com/#levantamiento.
MONESTARIO DE SAN FRANCISCO | dsdha with inconserca DSDHA, Inconserca, and the Polytechnic University of Valencia’s master plan proposal for the San Francisco Ruins is to historically and culturally re-establish the site as a center of civic activity. Their design includes an archeological park of the ruins and new cultural centers - such as a meeting space, a temporary exhibition hall, an event room, and a half-buried theater. These spaces connect to each other through open public areas allowing a variety of circulation paths through the site, with the main points of entry being the historic entrances to the church and the covent. To create an active environment, the Park will allow visitors to view ongoing excavation of the ruins, and new greenery will be added to bring life to the hsitoric site. The event room and exhibition hall will be located in the Church and Chapel, respectively, and the proposal calls for a clear distinction in materials between the old and the new. Another focal point of this adaptation is the half-buried theater, to be located across the Park. It is sunken into the ground to acknowledge the height and volume of this location historically, while still being visible from the Park.
Bibliography 1-10. Hills, David. “San Francisco Ruins, Santo Domingo.” DSDHA. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2017. <http://www.dsdha.co.uk/projects/577a288fef55840003000001/San-Francisco-Ruins-Santo-Domingo>.
DSDHA, Inconserca, and the Polytechnic University of Valenciaâ€™s master plan proposal for the San Francisco Ruins is to historically and culturally re-establish the site as a center of civic activity. Their design includes an archeological park of the ruins and new cultural centers - such as a meeting space, a temporary exhibition hall, an event room, and a half-buried theater. These spaces connect to each other through open public areas allowing a variety of
The prayer translate Urban value and Architectura value the social It also proposed plaza De SanAnton and intervene with Plaza Espana. Occupy a part of central north of the city object city is to centralize the city with this project. Once the center, want to bring the people to the city. the new addition of san francisco is to trying to integrate the old Colonial looks and
MONESTARIO DE SAN FRANCISCO | moneo brock studio .
CASAS HISTORICAS | house of the vessels One of the smallest and oldest homes in Santo Domingo, this house was the first example of residences in the European style of the west. Alonso Perez Roldan, Captain of the Colima a large exploration Vessel. It was 1 of 17 vessels under Admiral Christopher Columbus second voyage to discover the Americas. Roldan was one of the first Europeans to settle in the unknown lands. Roldan occupied the lands through agriculture. While Occupying these lands, he built some of the first of many European influenced stone manors. Roldan built four residences that he resided in and leased out when he was away. These four constructions became a small town and positioned adjacent to a structure called De Las Cuatro Calles. This helped the town turn into a successful and popular town for many years. Over the course of time the House of the Vessels became very dilapidated with a lot of wear and tear requiring much attention and restoration work. The structure of the building consists of thick Pise walls and brick masonry.
CASAS HISTORICAS | painter’s manor The Painter’s Manor is a 16th century home in the downtown part of Ciudad Colonial. Throughout its lifetime, this building was used as a residence, law offices, medical clinics, and a transport agency. It was home to Dominican painter and patriot Alejandro Bonilla at some point near the end of the 19th century. Ventana con poyos hacia la calle y encima del portal principal de la casa.
The house features a large courtyard, spacious interiors, thick walls, and a double-pointed arcade. Significant renovations were made in the 18th century; courtyard balconies and a stable were added.
Bay-window seats overlooking the street and located above the main doorway.
Perspectiva de la Casa del Pintor; al fondo el campanario de la Catedral Primada. Fachada Casa del Pintor.
Salón Segundo piso. Hall Second floor.
Detail Espacios interiores. Details Interiors.
Arcadas y brocal del pozo medianero. Archways and the dividing parapet.
Arcadas y brocal del pozo medianero.
Arcada del siglo XVI y al fondo posible área de caballerizas. Arcade XVI century, and in the background, possibly a stable.
Archways and the dividing parapet.
Vista of the Painter’s Manor; in the background, the Cathedral bell tower. Facade The Painter’s Manor.
At some point in the 19th cemtury, fine carpentry trim was added to to doors, windows, and shutters. These distinct Victorian AngloAntillean elements stand out from the original details of the house. The wood detailing of these openings contrasts with the rough finishes of expossed brick, stucco, and timbers.
CASAS HISTÓRICAS / HISTORICAL MANOR
CASAS HISTORICAS | the general’s manor The General’s Manor is located at 464 calle Arzobispo Meriño 464. Its name refers to its 19th century owner, General Abelardo Nanita. The general was highly respected and closely tied to the City Council. There he proposed many major actions for what was then considered progressive urban movements. At the main gate of the city walls, the Puerta del Conde, General Abelardo Nanita ordered an inscription that reads: “Dulce et Decorum est propatria mori” - Sweet and honorable to die for the Fatherland. The house was carefully restored in 2010 and currently operates as the host of the Imagen 83 Foundation. The Foundation has developed a major activities program, which includes art showings, photo exhibits, and theater shows, all of great artistic interest.
CASAS HISTORICAS | the vicini residence
point arches with polychrome stained-glass window.
The Vicini residence is located near the Dominican Monastery and the ancient university which was designed by Antonin Nechodoma. It was inherited by Ana Matilde Vicini Perdomo from 1900-1909 which later was passed to Juan Bautista Vicini Perdomo. The area of the residence building is located on a site that has beautiful gardens and open. The style of architecture for the building is a neoclassiceclectic building that uses reinforced concrete and galvanized sheets for its structure. Throughout the design, many elegant details are incorporated into the architectural detail of the project which is included in the beautiful marble and brown verandas for the main staircase. The material used for the floors were marble and parquet and they were from France. Also in the project incorporates a beautiful Chicago School-style window glass which brings in beautiful of light filtered into the interior spaces. Using this type of glass and the colors in the glass gives a great contrast with the white interior walls. The window display the Caribbean influences in the arts and crafts movements. The first floor plan includes dining room, a couple bedrooms, bathroom, and kitchen. The first floor opens out to a double height exterior courtyard and features a suspended ceiling which has two bronze and opal glass chandeliers. On the second floor consist of the more private spaces which include a master bedroom, offices, bathrooms and two spacious halls that have four elegant
CASAS HISTORICASLike | casa del arbol manor other residences in the area, this manor takes advantage of its existing sixteenthcentury structures. The reconstruction of Casa Del Arbol gave respect to existing walls and spaces. Historically, this estate falled within the Regina Angelorum Convent boundaries. The property was then in possession of Catholic Church, but the outbuildings to the Hatian Invasion of 1822. The plot remained unsettled until the Annexation to Spain in 1865, which it was then subdivided and the Convent use the abandoned structures as houses for native individuals. The structures was linked back to the master builder and artisan, Martin Febrillet in the last third of the nineteenth century. Elements such as the marble tiles create a connection to his work of his time, such as the Cathedral of Santo Domingo. His residence now serves as a hotel facility that consists of four bedroom suites, lounges and service quarters. There are features such as an elegant patio that are framed by towering palms and mango trees. The designs of Patricia Reid create a beautiful contrast to the historical elements. This special setting forms part of the high-quality accommodation Cases del XVI, running on several residences of the Colonial City.
CASAS HISTORICAS | la casa weber Calle Merino 355 This residence was constructed in the first decades of the sixteenth century. It is in the neighborhood Santa Barbara, the first peripheral sector of the Ciudad Colonial. It was built out of the same stone as many of the surrounding historical buildings such as the Fortress and Cathedral. The house is located on the street corner, so it has a high presence, especially with its characteristic little balconies. The particular balcony facing the street Los Plateros is a later addtion which defines the facade. In the interior there is a double arcade on both floors that overlooks the beautiful courtyard in the back. There is a special spiral staircase that leads from the second floor to the roof terrace, this luxury detail can be found in some other historic colonial residences, such as the Viceroyalty Palace.
CASAS HISTORICAS | paynado residence Mr. Francisco J. Peynado, an important Dominican lawyer and diplomat, served in difficult moments of the second decade of the twentieth century. In the late nineteenth century, the residence was built. Late, Architect Andres Gomez Pintado redesigned the house and, merged the house and office of Mr. Francisco J. Peynado. Adjacent to calle Las Mercedes, 19 de Marzo and Luperon this house has spacious halls on the first and second floors that connect by a concrete staircase. Balustrade doors (original entrance from calle Luperon) connect the second floor to the Las Mercedes via the hall and staircase. The second floor features individual balconies that are detailed with Art Nouveau- style iron railings. The design and construction was recognized by the City Council as the “most beautiful house in the city in 1910.”
“Peynado Pesidence” Casas Historicas De La Ciudad Primada De America. August 05, 2015. Accessed February 13, 2017.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI waterfront amentities
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | traffic patterns The waterfront of Santo Domingo has three main means of traffic: pedestrian, vehicular and watercraft. Pedestrian traffic is present along a main axis (east-west). Calle el Conde, the pedestrian road, is where the community gathers for shopping, eating, and communal events. Vehicular traffic is present in a variety of different roads. Av Francisco Alberto Caamano Deno, the main avenue that runs north-south along the waterfront, is named after the Dominican presidential figure of 1965 Francisco Alberto Caamano Deno. This four lane avenue continues into Paseo Presidente Billini as it takes the bend and runs east-west along the waterfront. Secondary roads located along the waterfront are mostly one way, used to navigate from the main avenue into the city of Santo Domingo. Some that fall within the site are: Calle La Atarazana, Calle Las Damas, Calle Jose Gabriel Garcia, and Calle Padre Billini. Puente Flotane, north of the sight, is a floating bridge used by both vehicular and water traffic. It connects both bodies of land surrounding the river Rio Ozama. Water traffic is most visible at the Terminal Don Diego, the reception of ferry, cruise, and other vessels into Santo Domingo. Although not used as docking, the majority of the waterfront is occupied by storage of shipping containers.
Main Avenue Secondary Road Pedestrian traffic Water Traffic
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | existing uses Government Building Historical Building Touristic Attraction Religious Building Plaza Hotel Transportation Residential Museum Restaurants Park
Historical Building Touristic Attraction Religious Building Plaza Hotel Transportation Residential Park
1. Ceiba de Colon (historical) 2. Puerta de Las Reales Atarazanas 3. Atarazana 4. Santo Libre 5. Museo del Ron Dominicano 6. Alcazar de Colon 7. Plaza de Espana 8. Centro Cultural de las Telecomunicaciones 9. Banco de Reservas 10. Museo de las Casa Reales 11. Museum of the Royal House 12. Reloj de Sol 13. Terminal Don Diego 14. Capilla Nuestra Senora de los Remedios 15. Plaza Maria de Toledo 16. Panteon Nacional 17. Hostal Nicolas De Ovando Santo Domingo 18. Las Escalinatas del Conde 19. Hodelpa Caribe Colonial 20. Embajada de Francia 21. Museo Infantil Trampolin 22. Chu Chu Colonial 23. Casa de Bastidas 24. Fortaleza Ozama 25. Iglesia de Santa Clara 26. Casa Naemie 27. Casa del Sol 28. Hotel Portes 9 29. Porto de Santo Domingo 30. Plaza de Fuerte de San Jose 31. Monumento de Fray Anton de Montesinos 32. Centro Cultural de Espana Santo 33. Iglesia Bautista Central
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | topography The topography of Santo Domingo greatly varies throughout the city. Towards the waterfront, there is a large change in grade that runs east west. Another large drop in grade occurs on the outer edge of the water.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | defensive wall La Muralla, the defensive wall, of Santo Domingo was the main method the Dominicans used to isolate themselves from the rest of the world. Erecting a wall was the doing of military engineers. Wrapping around the entire city, the wall was less than two kilometers in length. Mistreated over the years, the wall of Santo Domingo is not visible in some areas of the city. The historical wall weaves around the city and is mostly still visible near the waterfront.
Historical Building Touristic Attraction Religious Building Plaza Hotel Transportation Residential Park
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | public spaces Santo Domingoâ€™s waterfront is underutilized. The main avenue, Av Francisco Alberto Caamano Deno, that runs along the waterfront divides the land into two main categories: public spaces and cargo. The public spaces consist of historical buildings, religious buildings, touristic attractions, hotels, museums, and more. The most crucial area, on the outer edge, is used primarily of cargo. The terminal is located on the northern waterfront and runs along the waterfront edge to the Puerto Zona Oriental Ruo Ozama.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | accessibility The proposed site is within walking distance from any point3 in the Colonial Zone. To walk from the outer edge of the Colonial Zone to the waterfront site would take under 20 minutes (shown below). This is a major advantage for the proposed project because the site is easily accessible by pedestrians as well as vehicular traffic. 1. Plaza Pellerano Castro 2. Fortaleza Ozama 3. Alcazar de Colon 2 1
20 Minute Walk
15 Minute Walk 10 Minute Walk 5 Minute Walk
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | puerta de las reales atarazanas Originally owned by the Spanish Crown, this complex housed the shipyards, warehouses, custom house and tax offices of the old port of Santo Domingo. Today, it is part of the Colonial Zone of Santo Domingo World Heritage Site housing the Museo de las Atarazanas that exhibits artifacts recovered from underwater archeology.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | alcazar de colon & plaza de espana Located within the Colonial Zone of Santo Domingo World Heritage Site, the Alcazar de Colon is the oldest Viceregal residence. It currently is used as the Museo Alcazar de Diego Colon whose collections exhibit the most important ensembles of European late medieval and Renaissance works of art in the Caribbean. The palace is located within the Plaza de Espana. This plaza is an open area for the community used for outdoor art shows, concerts, and many other activities.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | las escalinatas del conde Calle El Conde, the old street of the Colonial City, is the only pedestrian street in Santo Domingo. The pedestrian street begins at the intersection with Palo Hincado street, the location of Puerta del Conde Monument. Running east-west, this street ends at the stone stairway, Las Escalinatas del Conde. Las Escalinatas del Conde is the stairway at the end of the pedestrian street down to the main avenue of Santo Domingo, Av Francisco Alberto Caamano Deno. This stairwell is a touristic attraction where events can be hosted and the community could gather. Great views could be provided from this location.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | fortaleza ozama Completed in 1505, this fortress was designed to guard the entrance to the port of Santo Domingo and defend the city from seaborne enemies. Originally built by the Spanish, the fortress overlooked the Ozama River and partially served as their prison. The Prevention Gate, the entrance gate, was built in 1608 along Calle Damas. In 1960, the prison was closed and the building was opened to the public.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | fuerte de san jose & skatepark de montesinos Fuerte de San Jose forms part of the defensive wall that was constructed around the city. Built around 1505, this fort was rectangular in shape. The defensive wall that extends the front of the site has three openings where the military personnel could be protected while keeping watch on the sea. Today, this fort is being occupied as a skatepark. Skatepark de Montesinos is open to the public of Santo Domingo and used by many middle aged people. Various ramps and jumps have been added to the park to make it a local hub for the community of Santo Domingo.
PASEO PRESIDENTE BILLINI | monumento de fray anton de montesinos Anton de Montesinos was a Spanish Dominican friar that preached against enslavement and poor treatment of the Dominican Republic’s people. In 1510, he joined a group of missionaries who journeyed to the new world. There he found that native inhabitants were held as slaves by King Ovando. Montesino gave a famous sermon, “Ego Vox Clamantis in deserto” that described in detail the sins committed. Several top officials and authoritative figures heard the sermon and made him flee the country. Although sent back, Montesinos managed to persuade the King to create regulations on local work force. In his honor, a statue was erected for the Dominican people.
PROGRAM PROPOSAL initial | preliminary | final
INITIAL PROPOSAL | intervention
The proposed site is an underutilized and devastated area of the Zona Colonial. The area is detached from the rest of the city because of the major highway, the Paseo Presidente Billini. Perhaps the most important characteristic of the site is the monument of Anton de Montesinos. The monument currently sits atop a structure that was meant to be transformed into a cultural center for the city. However, the program was never completed. Today, the 15 meter stone and bronze statue faces the sea as an icon of the city and a reminder of Anton de Montesino's courageous advocacy for the freedom of the Dominican people. The proposed building will provide a connection to the monument and allow for an architecturally aesthetic backdrop to the currently unfrequented tourist attraction.
INITIAL PROPOSAL | program The intervention serves to enhance the culture of Santo Domingo by providing a solution for the public gatherings and events held nightly throughout the city. The architecture and the sea will serve as a backdrop for the animated cultural experience. A performing art center in this area will allow for the people of Zona Colonial to not only continue their celebrations during the day, but also at night. With proper space and lighting, the natives will not be as restricted to daytime performances. The light from the building will provide a spotlight at night for these cultural events. The Oslo Opera House (1) by Snohetta is an example of a public plaza being incorporated into the overall design, giving the public both exterior and interior spaces for gathering.
The Copenhagen Harbour Bath by BIG + JDS (2) is an example of a public water facility adjacent to the waterfront. With proper circulation and shading devices, this would serve the natives and tourists with a place to cool off and escape from the hot, dry climate of the Dominican Republic.. Ill-Studio has collaborated with French fashion brand Pigalle to create a multicoloured basketball court between a row of buildings in Paris (3). Panels of blue, white, red and yellow ethylene propylene diene monome (EPDM) rubber â€“ a synthetic material commonly used in playground and sports areas â€“ have been
Lobby/Reception Auditorium Museum Gallery Ticket Sales / Office(s)
600 40000 10000 500 300
1 1 1 2 2
600 40000 10000 1000 600
Marketplace Restaurant/Cafe Kitchen
2000 1000 400
1 3 3
2000 1000 400
Pop-up Shops Shopping Center
Basketball Court Swimming Bath Plaza/Beachfront
4700 6000 -
1 1 -
4700 6000 -
applied to the floor. It serves an example of art and architure collaboration. James Beard Public Market by Snohetta (4) is an indoor and courtdoor marketplace acts as a gateway to downtown Portland and creating a recognizable icon at the center of the city. The market stalls are arranged along a pathway that connects the main entrances to the outdoor market and pedestrian street. Currently, the waterfront properties of the Zona Colonial are not capitalized on. To promote pedestrian circulation to the Caribbean Sea, two sites have been selected; both of which propose multifunctional program. The design accounts for a flexible plaza space for eating, dancing, and socializing. The program will enhance the culture of Zona Colonial while celebrating the beautiful views of the Caribbean Sea. Similar to Plaza Juan Baron, this property looks to create a variety of experiences that can evolve based on time of year in addition to celebrating existing historical landmarks. Santo Domingo will benefit from the revitalization of the waterfront. Creating spaces for gatherings and events strengthens their sense of community and is a welcoming environment for tourists.
INITIAL PROPOSAL | sketches
INITIAL PROPOSAL | scheme 1
Parking Plaza./Bridge Greenery Water Performing Arts Retail Cuisine Monument
INITIAL PROPOSAL | scheme 2
Parking Plaza./Bridge Greenery Water Performing Arts Retail Cuisine Monument
INITIAL PROPOSAL | scheme 3
Parking Plaza./Bridge Greenery Water Performing Arts Retail Cuisine Monument
INITIAL PROPOSAL | paths, greenery, and acoustic barrier Each scheme proposes to create a larger mass along the avenue to provide an acoustic, visual, and physical barrier from the main highway. This massing also considers the extreme change in grade as well as the footprint of current buildings existing on the site. This mass would include residential and commercial. The smaller mass proposed would include a performing arts center which would connect to Monument Montesino.
PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL | master plan Considering the topography and culture of the waterfront, this master plan takes into account several elements and looks to revitalize them. With consideration of scale, this plan looks at the relation between the individual, the street, and the water as define by the cities extreme waterfront grade change. To break up these different elements, this design allows for bikes and pedestrian to take their own route along the shoreline and throughout the site. In certain areas the path runs across the main avenue to create a connection back to the existing Colonial Zone. The intent of the ground connections are to be minimal with a simple change in material. At certain areas along the proposed site, however, there are bridges to create a connection to the grade across the avenue and the proposed buildings. Specifically, the existing staircase along the basketball courts connect to the second story of the Performing Arts Center and the proposed parking garage connects to the multi-use building.
WAKING AND BIKE PATH Plant deciduous trees for shady walkways and seating areas. Create additional seating areas for relaxation along waterfront. Create plazas for various activities, such as fishing.
PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL | paths, greenery, and acoustic barrier
Bike Path Pedestrian Path
PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL | paths, greenery, and acoustic barrier To take advantage of the views and large space, greenery and trees are scattered throughout the site. The trees also serve as a mean for shade within this hot climate. They are seen throughout the recreation area, along the paths, and within the court yards.
In addition, an acoustic barried is added to serve as a buffer between the waterfront and the busy avenue. It incorporates greenary along the wall, creatings an astheitcally pleasing and environmentally friendly addition to the design.
Acoustic Barrier Greenery
PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL | paths, greenery, and acoustic barrier This proposal includes revitalization to the existing Montesino Monument, a Performing Art Center, Multi-Use Building, Market, and Parking Garage. The Performing Arts Center serves as a connecting mass between the plaza along the Multi-use Building and the Monument. The bridge system creates an enclosed seating area facing the city for outdoor performances. The Multi-Use Building includes residential on the second level and commecial on the main level. The commercial area also has smaller courtyards that are multi-level to create areas for seating and eating to support the tenants uses. The parking garage across the avenue serves as a needed addition to the city. The small arcade from the protruding mass breaks up the green wall, which serves as a connection the acoustic barrier.
A C B
MULTI-USE COURTYARDS Cafe/restaurant low seating Water fountains PERSPECTIVE B
TI-USE BUILDING PERSPECTIVE C
PROPOSED BUILDINGS AXONOMETRIC PROPOSED BUILDINGS
Performing Arts Center
FINAL PROPOSAL | coastal revival The project deals with the masterplan of the waterfront in the Zona Colonial, Santo Domingo. The intent is to breathe new life into a rundown, abandoned part of the city. The waterfront site is currently separated from the city center by a busy highway, Paseo Presidente Billini. The proposed buildings, along with a series of bike paths and vegetated walls, add a barrier along the street and focus the attention toward the Caribbean Sea. The design considers the site location within a historical zone, and aligns axes to an existing monument on the site, a statue to Fray Anton de Montesinos, as well as a nearby fortress and plaza. The proposed program includes a performing arts center, hotel, parking garage, apartments, restaurants, cafes, shops, marketplace, and a recreation area. The renovated monument houses a cafe on the lowest level as well as galleries and a cultural space. The main goals of the design are to: (1) connect the waterfront to the Zona Colonial (2) activate the waterfront as a site for tourism and (3) maximize the visual and physical connectivity to the waterfront.
PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION KEY: VEHICULAR CIRCULATION BUILDING FOOTPRINT GREENERY + BARRIERS CONNECTIVITY
PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION C
VEHICULAR CIRCULATION GREENERY + BARRIERS MASTER PLAN AT 1/64” = 1’ - 0”
BASKETBALL COURT SHADING BIKE/WALKING PATH
1. RECREATION + SHADE
2. BEACHFRONT + MONUMENT
3. PERFORMANCE + PLAZA
3. PERFORMANCE + PLAZA
4. WATER FEATURES
4. WATER FEATURES
SITE MODEL PHOTOGRAPHS
SHRUBS CHERRY PALM
WEST INDIAN MAHOGANY
SHRUBS CHERRY PALM
6. PLANTINGS + BARRIERS
6. PLANTINGS + BARRIERS
7. HOTEL + COMMERCIAL
7. HOTEL + COMMERCIAL
8. PARKING + HIGHWAY
7 3 2 4 5 6
PUBLIC PARKING PARKING PARKING
TRAFFIC RECREATION PUBLIC
PERFORMING ARTS CENTER
SITE SECTIONS SITE SECTIONS AT 1/16” = 1’ - 0”
CLIMATE + ENVIRONMENT | bibliography 1. Climate Consultant. Computer software. Version 6.0 BETA. Accessed February 5, 2017. 2. “Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times for the whole year.” Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times around the World - Gaisma. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/ santo-domingo.html. 3.Cassá,Roberto.“Cuantificaciones sociodemográficas de la Ciudad de Santo Domingo en el siglo XVI.” Accessed February 1, 2017.http://privateresidences.slh.com/residence/ casa-del-xvi-santo-domingo. 4. “Casa Kimball / Rangr Studio” 03 Jan 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed February 2, 2017. http:// www.archdaily.com/45140/casa-kimball-rangrstudio/ 5. “House in Casa de Campo / A-cero” 27 Dec 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed February 2, 2017. http://www.archdaily.com/44635/house-incasa-de-campo-a-cero/ 6. Noelle, Louise. “Premio Latinoamericano de Arquitectura Rogelio Salmona Segundo ciclo.” Archivos de Arquitectura Antillana, December 2016, 25. 7. Cambeira, Alan. 1997. Quisqueya La Bella : The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural Perspective. Perspectives on Latin America and the Caribbean; Perspectives on Latin America and the Caribbean. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. 8. Goldfarb, Brad. “Casa de Campo Resort in the Dominican Republic.” Architectural Digest. September 20, 2016. Accessed February 5, 2017. http://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/marca n tho ny- s ha nnon- d e- lima-muniz-ho medominican-republic.
9. Infante, Daniel. “Arquitectura Dominicana |1961-1978|.” Issuu, November 19, 2013. Accessed February 5, 2017. https://issuu.com/infante. liranzo/docs/doc-arquitectura-5. 10. BORRELL Arquitectura. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.borrellarquitectura.do/. 11. Climatemps, 2015. “Rainfall in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Average Precipitation and Wet Days.” 2009. Accessed February 2, 2017. http://www.santo-domingo.climatemps.com/ precipitation.php. 12. Tilanus, Alexander. “SeavisTours.” Hurricanes in the Dominican Republic - background info. Accessed February 02, 2017. http://www. seavisbayahibe.com/articles/Hurricanes-in%20 the%20Dominican-Republic.htm. 13. “Animals and Plants Unique to the Dominican Republic.” Animals and Plants Unique to the Dominican Republic. Accessed January 31, 2017. http://Intreasures.com/dr.html.
GEOGRAPHY | bibliography 14. “Foto e Historia del Aeropuerto “General Andrews”. Ciudad Trujillo, Republica Dominicana.” Foto e Historia del Aeropuerto “General Andrews”. Ciudad Trujillo, Republica Dominicana ~. Accessed February 07, 2017. 15. Editora Hoy. Nuestros Monumentos: Album Educativo en el Año del V Centenario del Descubrimiento y Envangelización de América. Santo Domingo: Editora Hoy,  16. “Universidad Autnoma de Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic).” Universidad Autnoma de Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Accessed February 07, 2017.
CONTEMPORARY USES | bibliography 17. “Seaport of Santo Domingo. Shipping to the Santo Domingo, “ Seaport of Santo Domingo. Shipping to the Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Shiplane Transport: #1 shipping company to the Caribbean, Central and South America. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www. shiplanetransport.com/shipping_to_dominican_republic/ shipping_to_santo_domingo.php. 18. El Higuero / JBQ - MDJB.” World / 891. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://voiceherald.com/world/page3491/. 19. accessed February 05, 2017, http://www.megatrip.ru/ airports/SDQ/Santo%20Domingo. Medelmonteu. Mi Propuesta. Accessed February 05, 2017. https://manueldelmonte.wordpress.com/2014/09/ 20. Mejia, MAI Arq. Kirsys. Decoremos con Kiki. Accessed February 05, 2017. https://decoremosconkiki.com/tag/ parque-mirador-sur/. 21. “El Parque Mirador del Norte es opción para no salir de la ciudad.” Vanguardia del Pueblo. April 17, 2014. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://vanguardiadelpueblo. do/2014/04/18/el-parque-mirador-del-norte-es-opcionpara-salir-de-la-ciudad/. 22-24. ”Whats on at the National Botanic Gardens of Wales this Summer.” Brecon Beacons Tourism Blog. July 19, 2016. Accessed February 05, 2017. https://breconbeacons. wordpress.com/2016/07/19/whats-on-at-the-nationalbotanic-gardens-of-wales-this-summer/. 25-27.”Calle el Conde.” Guide to the Colonial Zone and Dominican Republic. Accessed February 05, 2017. http:// www.colonialzone-dr.com/wp/calle-el-conde/. 28.“Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.arrivo.ru/ dominikana/krepost-osama.html. 29. “Zona Colonial Walking Tour | dr1guide.” Zona Colonial Walking Tour | 15.dr1guide. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.dr1guide.com/sights/zona-colonial-walking-tour.
30. Drlopezfranco. “Ruinas del Hospital San Nicolás de Bari/ Ruins of the 17. San Nicolas de Bari Hospital.” Flickr. March 02, 2016. Accessed February 05, 2017. https://www.flickr.com/ photos/drlopezfranco/24827412963. 31.“The World’s Best Photos of iglesia%2Ciglesiadesanfrancisco - Flickr Hive Mind.” The World’s Best Photos of iglesia%2Ciglesiadesanfrancisco Flickr Hive Mind. Accessed February 05, 2017. https:// hiveminer.com/flickr 32.Keys, Janette. “Dominican Republic Picture Index.” Dominican Republic Picture Index. Accessed February 05, 33.17. http://www.colonialzone-dr.com/pictures.html. 20.Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.rthvictoria.com/ jekskursionnye-tury/chto-posmotret-v-dominikane.html. 34.“Dominica video.” TravelBook.TV. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.travelbook.tv/videos/dominica. 35.Keys, Janette. “Colonial Zone Sight Seeing, Monuments, History.” Colonial Zone Sight Seeing, Monuments, History. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.colonialzone-dr. com/sights3.html#sights3-casa_tostado. 36.“Dulce de leche, patrimonio de todos.” Cultura Dominicana. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.ecoportaldominicano. org/culturadominicana/. 37.“The World’s Best Photos of tostadoshouse - Flickr Hive Mind.” The World’s Best Photos of tostadoshouse - Flickr Hive Mind. Accessed February 05, 2017. https://hiveminer. com/Tags/tostadoshouse/Interesting. 38-40.“Museo Del Ambar (Amber Museum).” Atlas Obscura. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.atlasobscura.com/ places/museo-del-ambar-museum-of-amber. 41. Playa Montesinos: La Capital’s Hidden Gem.” Exploristory. April 19, 2015. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://exploristory. com/video-playa-montesinos-la-capitals-hidden-gem/.
42-52. Keys, Janette. “Guide to Colonial Zone and Dominican Republic.” Guide to Colonial Zone, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www. colonialzone-dr.com/ 53.“Zona Colonial Walking Tour | dr1guide.” Zona Colonial Walking Tour | 15.dr1guide. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.dr1guide.com/sights/zona-colonial-walking-tour. 54.“El Parque Mirador del Norte es opción para no salir de la ciudad.” Vanguardia del Pueblo. April 17, 2014. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://vanguardiadelpueblo. do/2014/04/18/el-parque-mirador-del-norte-es-opcionpara-salir-de-la-ciudad/. 55. “The menu - Picture of Meson de Bari, Santo Domingo.” TripAdvisor. Accessed February 05, 2017. https://www. tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g147289d1976045-i144397674-Meson_de_Bari-Santo_Domingo_ Santo_Domingo_Province_Dominican_Republic.html. 56-59”Meson de Bari.” PanamericanWorld. Accessed February 05, 2017. http://www.panamericanworld.com/en/ article/meson-de-bari. 60. UNESCCO. “Colonial City of Santo Domingo.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Accessed February 01, 2017. http:// whc.unesco.org/en/list/526. 61. “Old Santo Domingo - Colonial City In The Dominican Republic.” WorldAtlas. November 04, 2016. Accessed January 31, 2017. http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/old-santodomingo-colonial-city-in-the-cominican-republic.html.
SOCIAL HISTORY & DEMOGRAPHICS | bibliography 62. “Our System Cannot Find City Santo+Domingo, Dominican+Republic Neither Santo+Domingo, Dominican+Republic.” Our System Cannot Find City Santo+Domingo, Dominican+Republic Neither Santo+Domingo, Dominican+Republic. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 63. “Dominican Cuisine.” Santo Domingo Tourism. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 64. González, Nancie L., and Howard J. Wiarda. “Dominican Republic.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 07 Sept. 2016. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 65. “Santo Domingo Festivals | About Santo Domingo.” Rough Guides. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2017. 66. Dominicanrepublic.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 67. “Dominican Republic.” Culture in Dominican Republic | Important Holidays in. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 68. “Cost of Living in Santo Domingo.” . Prices Updated Feb 2017. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 69. “Dominican Republic Demographics Profile 2016.” Dominican Republic Demographics Profile 2016. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 70. “Dominican Republic.” Dominican Republic Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation, Business, Trade, FDI, Corruption. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2017. 71. “Old Santo Domingo - Colonial City In The Dominican Republic.” WorldAtlas. N.p., 04 Nov. 2016. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS APPENDIX
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | castelvecchio Site location The building sits by the Adige river at the edge of the old city of Verona1. Building History The original neo-classical style Castle was built in the 14th Century. It was used as a residence for the Scala family, and later as a military barracks.In the 18th C. an addition was constructed of a new wing, which created the major courtyard3. In 1926 the castle was converted to a museum by Antonia Avena and Ferdinando Forlati in the late Gothic and Renaissance style. Their renovations included adding decorative elements to the facades which were later considered “false” as they did not fit the history of the castle. Carlo Scarpa renovated both wings in 1958-1974, and removed some of these false elements to reveal the history of the building, while also leaving some elements to bring attention the false nature (such as with the facade, by pulling back transverse walls to make it stand alone)2. Carlo Scarpa’s renovation is so noteworthy because it didn’t just create a space to view art, but the building created a new way of experiencing art. While a building’s form usually determines how you move through a space, in Castelvecchio the strategically placed art conrols a visitor’s path. This is because the focus is on a visitor’s movement creating interactions with the art and surroundings, as
opposed to focusing on a layout that provides historical lineage through the building8. A visitor beings the tour through the five sculpture galleries - with the entrance moved from the middle gallery to the end5 - that are arranged linearly. The statues are placed freely around the room and are on raised platforms to disconnect them from the space5. They are also arranged so they are not facing the entrance of each room - forcing a visitor to walk through the space and around each statue to see the front. At first they seem arbitrarily placed, but each statue is arranged so their gaze has a purpose. It either focuses on another statue, or crosses paths with another statue’s gaze; this forces the gaze to bring spatial meaning to the space and visitor. This awareness becomes apparent by moving through the space8.
The painting galleries follow the sculpture gardens and are accessed via two “axes of movement” that run along edges of the building. These hallways have two different perspectives. The courtyard hallway is connected to galleries with same floor finish and has openings cut into transverse walls. The riverside hallway creates an elongated perspective through the lack of connection of transverse walls to the outer wall, and because outer wall has inward concave angle and different floor finish than the gallery space7. These effects, create ambiguities of visual depth and scale of both the room and the art. The paintings are arranged on walls and on free-standing easels with the intent of juxtaposing paintings of different scales and visual depth to alter how they would traditionally be viewed6, 8.
Scarpa’s focus was on creating animation of the statues while being involved in the expressions, and using movement to change the perception of the overlapping spaces of the paintings. A visitor’s movement through the space is integral to how they see the art.
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | olympic sculpture park This park is a revitalization project on one of Seattle’s last undeveloped waterfront properties. The site was sliced through with abandoned railroad tracks as well as an arterial road11. The site is split into three zones which are connected with a Z-shaped grassy platform, forming a connection from the city 40’ feet down the water13. This renovation project is significant because of it’s revitalizing and reconnection purposes – it forms an easily accessible connection from the city to beach so the public can regain access to the waterfront17. The park used to be an oil transfer facility, but fell to disrepair and was abandoned. To create the new park, the site was decontaminated, with new soil brought in to bring the topography back to it’s original condition . The new Z-shaped platform zigzags down the 40 foot decline from city to water, and forms a pedestrian infrastructure that bridges over the existing tracks and highway13,15. This pathway physically connects the city to the river, and also creates visual connections with the surrounding environment. The path begins with an 18,000 square foot exhibition pavilion14, then as a visitor moves down the path they experience radically different views – first is a view of the Olympic Mountains, second is the city and port, and third is the newly created beach. There is also a link between different vegetation. The zigzag connects a temperate evergreen forest, a
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | rafael moneo Location: Merida – Extreadura, Spain Project Completion Year: 1986 Analysis The commission for the museum came in 1979 due to the Spanish governments bi-millennial celebration of the founding of Emerita Augusta. By the end of the Roman Empire, Merida was the most important city. The new proposal would replace a museum on the same site located in one of the largest and best preserved Roman cities in Western Europe1. The museum is adjacent to an amphitheater and an ancient theater – the roman theater of Merida. Rafael Moneo put in place several unique strategies in an attempt to preserve the historic significance of the site and pay tribute to the domestic nature of the surrounding buildings. Through the use of carefully selected materials, building orientation and scale, the architect was able accomplish a building worthy of the Roman Empire. The Alignment of the new museum on the existing modern city grid through is grand presence and monumental scale accomplishes what Moneo was asked to provide, pay tribute to the Roman past while relating his building to the existing domestic buildings that surround it. Along with this it was decided that artifacts would not be showcased against a plain white wall but against textured masonry. In addition, the footprint of the new building would not simply copy the existing but rather establish its own identity, opposing existing geometry. Moneo later explains that the buildings of the present need to conform to the Zeitgeist, or the 1 Canales, Francisco González de, and Nicholas Ray. Rafael Moneo: building, teaching, writing. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015. 137
spirit of the time2. The concept behind the organization of the museum is to create clean, clear routes of travel for its visitors. The principle aim was to create a fast route along the main spaces of the museum or by experiencing each bay in a sequence, or allow the visitor to wander through which ever bay provides the most interest3. The under croft level is composed of a rigorous system of cross walls that create an interesting pattern between the existing and the new. The organization of the museum can also be explained volumetrically as ‘serving’ and ‘servant’ spaces which can be determined in the way he expresses different walls4. The primary material used throughout the project consist of a Roman scaled brick composed of local clay, used in the many arches within. Unlike the Romans he does not choose to create Vaults. Brick is used in a way that distances itself from Romans using such techniques as raking brick joints deeply. In connection with this is his use of furniture placement which is independent and free standing. Romans most likely would have utilized niches and naves as a source of built in furniture. Simple concrete slabs compose the floor sections consisting of steel channel sections, cost being the reason for this since the project was not very well funded5. Moneo refuses to conform to a precise Roman form of construction instead he uses a certain aesthetic to link the two styles. The Museum space is often referred to as 2 Canales, Francisco González de, and Nicholas Ray, 138 3 AD Classics: National Museum of Roman Art / Rafael Moneo.” ArchDaily. May 04, 2015. Accessed February 09, 2017. http://www.archdaily.com 4 Canales, Francisco González de, and Nicholas Ray, 139 5 Canales, Francisco González de, and Nicholas Ray, 139
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | koko architects Location: Tallinn, Estonia Project Completion Year: 2009 Background The Rotermann Quarter is located in a historically important part of Estonia, it has become the central point of the city. Rotermann is filled with historically significant buildings that are densely packed into a relatively small area. Originally developed by Christian Abraham Rotermann, the owner of the Rotermann factories that were established in 1829, these factories initiated the development of th e industrial district. Industry within the quarter has seen many prosperous years along with losses as well. During Soviet Occupation the building became abandoned and dilapidated to the point in which repairs seemed to extensive. In 2001 it was determined by the historical board that the building was historically significant and should be saved1. The reconstruction of this significant workshop is considered as one of the boldest additions to the Rotermann quarter. The use of the three futuristic towers pay homage to the industrial revolution int he 2oth century, the height of these features also allows for them to 1 Rotermann Carpenterâ€™s Workshop / KOKO architects.â€? ArchDaily. January 14, 2016. Accessed February 09, 2017. http://www.archdaily.com/780357/rotermann-carpenters-workshop-koko.
be seen from outside of the district.. The renovated floors of the old carpenters center serve commercial and service uses. The three new vertical elements added to the roof structure serve as very compact office spaces that were designed in an effort to resit harming the existing historic walls. Within the new structures are reinforced concrete cores that are placed on piles that further convey the integration of the old and the new. All the new materials such as the glass, facade elements and windows are all attached to the core further creating a separation between the existing building. The towers are lit up at night and convey a new modern value on the historic district2. The reuse and rehabilitation of this structure serves as a good example the mixture architectural preservation and extravagant new architecture. In comparison to The National Museum of Roman Art by Moneo which more closely retains the Roman ideals of architecture in terms of materials usage and composition, The carpenters workshop is similar in design intent. Moneo was apprehensive in conforming to a strict rebuilding of existing ruins, he instead choose to orient his building to the modern grid and let the ruins create a rich pattern between his building. The Carpenters Workshop achieves a similar aesthetic by creating a distinct separation between what is new and existing 2 KOKO.â€? KOKO. Accessed February 09, 2017. http://koko. ee/en/projects/year/workshop-reconstruction.
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | champollion museum The Champollion Museum was originally the home of Jean François Champollion, the “founding father of Egyptology.” He is known for his decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone. He lived from 1790 until his sudden death in 1832. In 1977, the townspeople of Figeac voted to turn Champillion’s home into a museum about his life and his work, and the original museum was completed in 1986. From 2005 to 2007, Agence Moatti et Rivière revitalized the original building. While the original façade was kept mostly in tact – except for the removal of the windows and doors – in order to ensure its continuity with the surrounding urban fabric of Figeac, the addition of the screen façade is a composition in glass and copper, “animated” by alphabets. At night, the script seems to glow, becoming a part of the city’s lights, and helps to give the museum an identifiable face2. During the day, light transposes the alphabet across the museum, an almost-tangible indication of the passage of time in rooms full of antiquities3,8. The screen is set back from the original façade and therefore creates a transition space between the square and the museum6. On the top floor, there is a soleilo, a feature common to the vernacular architecture in the Figeac region of France. This element helps to tie in the building to the rest of those in the area.
3 CHINESE SCRIPT
THE BOOK, A TANGIBLE MEMORY
BIRTH OF WRITING
M AYA GLYPHS
CHAMPOLLION AND WRITING
WRITING, GOVERNMENT AND THE CITIZEN
5 INVENTION OF THE ALPHABET IN READING THE MEDITERRANEAN3 ROOM8
MANKIND, THE WORLD, AND WRITTEN WORD
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | canadian museum of nature The contrast between old and modern architecture can have beautiful and unexpected results. That is the case of the Canadian Museum of Nature, a 1912 Beaux Arts-style building that was recently renovated by KPMB Architects. Located in Ottawa, The Canadian Museum of Nature is Canada’s oldest national museum, but with the renovation completed in 2010, it has shaken off its dusty image with a new glass tower, known as the Lantern, that fills the space with plenty of natural light, allowing the building to host may events like weddings and birthday parties. In 1915, the upper part of the building’s tower was removed, as its weight was causing the building to sink, and it was replaced by the glass structure that restores its original proportions. The project was a massive rehabilitation that included extensive spatial replanning to support the museum’s exhibition and visitor needs, seismic and building code upgrades, the replacing of the building’s mechanical and electrical systems, asbestos removal, the repair of significant masonry cracks, and restoration of the heritage fabric. A key feature of the design is the addition of a 20-meter glass lantern that honors the demolished stone tower. Located above the entrance, the lightweight, transparent addition acts as a “showcase” of the museum. It encloses a new butterfly staircase to improve the museum’s public circulation system. Filled with natural light, the museum’s interiors boast permanent contrasts between the old museum and new technology. Because of this brilliant addition, gallery spaces and circulation has been reconfigured, making the most out of these new naturally lighted spaces.
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | police and fire station Sauerbruch Hutton Architekten worked endlessly in the adaptation of reuse and new construction when designing the Fire and Police Station in Berlin, Germany. Blended with an existing structure in the government district of Berlin, the extension provides a strong contrast: existing heavy brick and new clad colored glass louvers. The original building was built in 1889 on the north bank river Spree beside the Reichstag and other government buildings. The renovation and expansion happened from 2001-2004. Realizing the nature along the site, the designers worked to integrate the reds and yellows of the autumn canopy into the façade of the new construction. The shiny glass louvers vary in shades of reds and greens (representing the dual roles of a firehouse and a police station) while reflecting the nearby leaves. The entire façade shimmers in the sun through the trees. Entering from the north (adjacent the elevated roadway), one travels along a footbridge to a public reception area on the second floor of the building. An existing window serves as the main door. Views from the bridge give a slight glimpse of the extension bending around the brick building. Parking for fire and police vehicles is nested under the lifted new construction. The design is “modest, simple and yet extremely elegant.” The simple structure utilizes a
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | beyazit state library Name: Beyazit State Library Architect: Tabanlioglu Architects Location: Istanbul, Turkey This contemporary implementation into Istanbulâ€™s oldest library is a reactivation of the site and context around it. It sits in the cityâ€™s oldest imperial mosque, the Beyazit Mosque, which is the main figure of the Beyazit Square. The library was founded in 1884, and it previously was a soup kitchen, a school, hospital, madrasah and hammam. The complex spatially defines the Square. The Library is connected to the spine of the historical peninsula, Divanyolu, and is one of the most vibrant spaces in the old part of the city. The minimal approach was to prevent disturbing the historical spirit of the place. Tabanlioglu implemented a sleek and plain language to the design in order to allow the visitor to fully appreciate the historic meaning of the space while using it for modern practices. The firm also focused a lot on the exisiting roofs while fine-tuning and restoring this historic mosque. Previously concrete, Tabanlioglu re-deisgned the roof covering the courtyard (which is now also the entrance) as a transparent and inflatable membrane, which filters light through and provides a controlled atmosphere. The black glass boxes that contain old manuscripts serve as a simple contrast in the space between what it is and everything else that surrounds it.
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | santa caterina market The Santa Caterina Market was renovated by architects Enric Miralles and Benedetta Tagliabue after their firm, EMBT, was awarded the project in 1997. EMBT won the competition with a proposal that incorporated the complex urban setting into into a diverse mix of programs under one roof. The idea was to create a main commercial market space that was complemented by residential and public zones, integrating all the activity of the neighborhood into a central hub. Located within the El Born district of Barcelona, the Santa Caterina Market was the cityâ€™s first covered market when it opened in 1848. The original structure served as the Convent of Santa Maria. The current market reopened in 2005 after the rehabilitation by EMBT. 1 The most distinguishable feature of the market is the undulating, polychromatic roof that covers the entire plaza. This gesture emphasizes the idea of bringing mixed use program into one gathering space, while paying homage to the form of the original building. The exterior of the roof is a mosaic of colored hexagonal panels, perhaps paying homage to Gaudiâ€™s work throughout the city. The rainbow created by the mosaic acts as an abstract expression of the concept of this marketplace. It visually mimics the arrangements of fruits and vegetables below, as well as the arrangement of program and community. The ground floor underwent a significant replanning, but maintains many original qualities. The roof symbolizes a blanket being draped over the space, tying everything together. 2
The organic form of the roof dominates the renovated market. The curves and undulations mimic the style of modern architecture that was established in Barcelona by Antoni Gaudi. Functionally, the fluid, vaulted ceilings allow the different spaces within the market to intermingle and overlap. The project feels like on cohesive whole instead of a composition of several elements. Pieces of the original structure are maintained while the new architecture is superimposed upon the old. The goal of the renovation was to streamline the program and ammenitities that the market offered. The interior food stands were rearranged to allow for more efficient service and accessibility. 1
NEW STALL LAYOUT
EMBT designed a building that improves upon the existing conditions and accentuates the pieces that work successfully. By rearranging parts of the program and adding necessary elements, the firm produces a building that functions efficiently and communicates with its immediate surroundings and greater urban context. Bibliography 1. EMBT. “Santa Caterina Market Renovation.” Miralles Tagliabue EMBT. Accessed February 7, 2017. http://www.mirallestagliabue.com/project/ santa-caterina-market-renovation/. 2. Miralles, Enric. “Santa Caterina Renovation.” El Croquis, 2009, 1-24.
3. “Park Guell – Works of Antoni Gaudí – Barcelona, Spain.” Architecture & Interior Design. July 10, 2015. Accessed February 10, 2017. https:// architectureandinteriordesign.wordpress. com/2015/07/10/park-guell-works-of-antoni-
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | st. ann’s theater This civil war era tobacco warehouse is the now the new site for the performing arts institution in Brooklyn NY. In 2015 it was converted into a theater for classical music for $31.6 million. St Ann’s Theater is housed in a former tobacco warehouse underneath the Brooklyn Bridge right on the waterfront With a breathtaking view of the New York City skyline. Work was done Marvel Architects, BuroHappold and Engineering company and Charcoalblue which is a theater, lighting, and acoustics company. Together they transformed 25,000-square-foot tobacco warehouse into the complex that St. Ann’s Warehouse is today. The theater includes two interior interchangeable performance spaces, the theater can completely reconfigure depending on the performance needs. It has a huge stage with a traditional stepped seating area. These renovations had to be done without sacrificing or hiding the historical assets the building had originally, its 24 ft. exposed brick walls, windows and openings. St Ann’s is on the National Register of Historical places.
This construction was possible due to the designers creating a smaller building within the existing structure consisting of steel glass and plywood to maintain a structural integrity of the existing brick walls. This allowed to the roof to be built upward onto the existing frame for the first time making a permanent roof structure. This new roof design allowed for natural light for people to work back stage. And lack shades when not needed. There is also an open air triangular garden housed within the existing walls. This garden acts as a public park, open during Brooklyn bridge park hours. As well as an impromptu stage space The owner and company’s creating the project wanted it to be a sustainable and energy effect theater space. Trying to receive an LEED silver certification with a goal of a 20 percent energy reduction over a comparable building. 4. “The New St. Ann’s.” St. Ann’s Warehouse. Accessed February 07, 2017. http:// s t a n n s w a r e h o u s e . o r g /a b o u t - s t - a n n s warehouse/tobacco-warehouse/. 5. O’Connell, Kim A. “This Brooklyn Theater Renovation Shows You Don’t Have to Choose Between Heritage and Sustainability.” ArchDaily. July 23, 2016. Accessed February 07, 2017. http:// www.archdaily.com/791475/this-brooklyntheater-renovation-shows-you-dont-have-tochoose-between-heritage-and-sustainability.
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | higgins hall Higgins Hall is located in Brooklyn, NY and designed my Steven Holl. The building was built in 2005 and it is 22,500 ft st. The concept of the design is creating a â€œurban interventionâ€? project which serves as the building for the School of Architecture at Pratt Institute. Higgins Hall was original built in 1868 by Mundell and Tecritz Ebenezer L. Roberts, Charles C. Haight, and Williams B Tubby which served as Adelphi Academy. In 1996, the original Higgins Hall was destroyed in a fire. Higgins Hall has masonry buildings on either side of the new glass section of the building. Most of the brick was destroyed in the fire was salvaged and reused to create the connection with the glass portion of the building and the original structures on either side. The facade uses a semi-transparent glass as the center portion of the building and is supported by six precast concreate columns. The interior spaces contain of a lobby, galleries, studios, auditorium, digital resource center, review room, gallery terrace, and workshop area. Higgins Halls incorporates plenty of lighting into the interior spaces using semitransparent structural glass and doublethroated skylight.
The plan is in the shape of an “H” with the two existing buildings on both side and the new glass structure connecting them both. There are four stories with an open plan in the studios areas. In the design of the project, the floors are misaligned from the North and South wing. The new glass section creates a “dissonant zone” which is new entrance of the school of architecture in the center of the building.
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | slavor library The Solver Library serves as a part of Norfolk, Virginia’s downtown revitilization project. Prior to being the city’s storehouse of artifacts, digital access, and community gathering the NeoPalladian Revival style building was called the Seaboard Building. As seen in image 5, the three story building opened in Decemeber 1900 as the United States Post office and Federal Court Building.1 In 1934 it was converted to City Hall and in the 1970s to the Norfolk Social Services building. In addition, the structure was added to the National Register in 1981. In 2007 the town bought the site to be changed to serve as Norfolk’s Main Library. The project was finally finished in 2014. The 138,000 square footage renovation and addition was designed by Newman Architects. The firm foused on the relationship between old and new, which is seen through placement of program. In image 7, is it clear the central atrium or forum displays all activities while creating link between spaces. 2
The contrast between the existing conditions and the addition also is seen in the restored masonry and a new transparent or welcoming glass facade, best seen in image 8. Furthermore, Kent Bloomer’s aluminum stems and leaves create an organic system which gives life to the facade. The new addition space, seen in images 1, reflects Seaboard Building’s cortile, which is a central court surrounded by arcade and enclosed rooms seen in image 2. The design of the new addition enhances the constrast between old and new by creating a gap, as seen in image 3.
The natural light peers through Bloomer’s metal ornamental elements lining the glass roof over the forum, effectively dispersing the light through out the forum or cental circulation. This is properly shown in image 4. In addition, the design creates connection between the forum and the exterior. 3 Newman’s design is clear and
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | nembro library expansion The Library in Nembro Bergamo received an addition in 2007 designed by Archea. The area of the building is 1,875 m2 or 20,182 ft2.. The addition, consisting of three floors and a basement connection level, was made possible by the structural engineers of Favero & Milan Ingegneria. The way that the buildings line up is interesting seeing that there are different levels in the two buildings. In the existing building, there are only two levels plus the basement and in the addition there are three levels plus a basement. This shows the relationship of old vs. new and how historical buildings like this had some larger ceiling heights and that newer buildings, use atriums for more light. This reuse project combines a late Nineteenth century building and a new addition that is of completely different style. The existing building was once a primary school and was changed into a municipal library. The idea was to make the building accessible for the citizens of the town and to create a new cultural center. The library features a C-shape floor plan with the addition blocking in the open side to create an interior court. Additionally, Archea made a point to create similar volumes of program in the new building to relate to the existing library. As you can see in the floor plans, the width of the addition is very similar to the rooms of the existing building. While both buildings do emulate different architectural styles, the size of the interiors donâ€™t make the users feel like they are in a different building.
The new structures relates back to the idea of the municipal library with the form of a large bookcase enclosed by glass and then shaded by â€œterracotta bookâ€? screens. There is a steel structural system with these terracotta pieces which filter the sunlight through into the building. These freely rotating shading devices give a character to the building and give significance to the library overall.
6 1. Exterior perspective 2. Ground floor perspective 3. Approach from street 4. First floor perspective 5. Basement Floor Plan 6. Section 7. Entrance to addition on ground floor 8. Circulation 9. Facade Perspective 10. Northwest Elevation 11. Facade Plan Detail 12. Ground Floor Plan
ADAPTATION PRECEDENTS | caixaforum The CaixaForum Madrid, designed by Herzog and de Meuron in 2001-2003, is located in the heart of Madrid, Spain’s cultural district. The building faces the Paseo del Prado, the oldest historic boulevard in Madrid, and is in close proximity to the Prado, the Reina Sofia and the Thyssen-Bornemisza museums. The CaixaForum includes an entrance lobby and galleries, a restaurant and administrative offices. There flexible and loft-like character of the exhibition spaces contrasts the spatial complexity of the top floor restaurant, bar, and office spaces. The museum is housed in a converted 1899 power station, one of the city’s few remaining examples of historically significant industrial architecture, that was acquired by the Caixa Foundation in 2001. The original foundation walls were demolished while the original exterior walls were preserved and even restored. The original roof was demolished and replaced by the floors of the new construction above. A nearby gas station was also demolished to create a small plaza between the Paseo del Prado and the new CaixaForum. The architects chose to preserve the exterior classified brick walls of the former power station which are reminiscent of the early industrial age in Madrid. Herzog and de Meuron states: “The only material of the old power station that we could use was the classified brick shell. In order to conceive and insert the new architectural components of the CaixaForum Project, we began with a surgical operation, separating and removing the base and the parts of the building no longer needed. This opened a completely novel and spectacular perspective that simultaneously solved a number of problems posed by the site.” Conceived as an urban magnet, not only for art-lovers but also for the building itself, the architects lifted the building off the ground, in apparent defiance of the laws of gravity, to draw visitors inside. The removal of the base of the building left a covered plaza under the brick
shell, which now appears to float above the street level. This sheltered space under the CaixaForum offers shade to visitors who want to spend time or meet outside and serves as the entrance to the Forum itself. Problems such as the narrowness of the surrounding streets, the placement of the main entrance, and the architectural identity of this contemporary art institution were addressed and solved in this single urbanistic and sculptural gesture. The building implements three concrete structural and circulation cores that connect the basement level to the highest level. The separation of the structure from the ground level created two worlds; one below and the
URBAN POTENTIALS | zones and circuits Santo Domingo is a diverse city that has many different sectors, even in the smalled sector, Zona Colonial. There is a clear division of districts between the commercial, residential, and waterfront areas. The commercial district stradles the major pedestrian walkway, Calle el Conde. However, beyond this major shopping road, there really isnâ€™t another place for pedestrians to stroll around and shop. There are many potentials however. For example, one road that is lined by shops and runs perpendicular to Calle el Conde is Calle Arz. Merino. This has connections between the waterfront and the northern sector of the Colonial Zone. Another area that we thought had potential were the areas of plazas and ruins. As weâ€™ve studied the San Francisco Ruins, we can see that there is potential with re-use projects. There is also an interesting correlation between plazas and parks and ruins. Lastly, there is additional opportunities where the coast intersects the highway. These are very public areas where tourists arrive either by the sea or by the highway and have potential to become new architectural sites.
Major City Zones
Intersection of City and Coastline/Highway
Green Space in Relation to Grid
Repurposing of Historic Ruins
URBAN POTENTIALS | zones and circuits Residential: Is spread all throughout Ciudad Colonial. Commercial: Is located mainly street level to be utilized by passing residents Recreational: Are near larger opens areas often on street corners. Monumental: usually take up large amounts of space with a much larger scale.
Art Pieces or Murals
Incorporation of Nature
URBAN POTENTIALS | zones and circuits After examining the combined uses map, we defined the general boundary lines of the commercial zone (in blue) and the residential (in purple). This showed us the commercial area is located along Calle el Conde, and the residential zone wraps around the outskirts. We couldnâ€™t create definite boundaries for the landmarks, parks/plazas, or religious buildings, instead we noticed these sites are scattered throughout the city (individual lots show within the black circles). Following these investigations of the zones, we mapped three potentail circuits tourists may take through the city (arriving by ferry) to visit either landmarks, parks and plazas, or religious buildings. After overlaying the three circuits we discovered there is a concentration of a variety of uses towards the east end of Calle el Conde., near the Don Diego ferry terminal.
ROUTE TO PARKS AND PLAZAS
ROUTE TO Mar Caribe POPULAR SITES
ROUTE Mar TO Caribe LANDMARKS
AREA OF DEVELOPMENT
ROUTE Mar TO Caribe FIRST WORLD SITES
ROUTE Mar TO Caribe RELIGIOUS SITES AND PARKS
URBAN POTENTIALS | zones and circuits We conclude that this would be a good location of a new mixed-use public building. As it is near the ferry terminal and the major highway Avenue Francisco Alberto Caamano Deno, it is easily accessible, and would act as a welcoming entrance to the historical city and nearby sights. As it is located at one end of the pedestrian street, it would help guide visitors through the commercial corridor, and to other sights throughout the city.
ROUTE TO PARKS AND PLAZAS
A Vibrant Rejuvenation of the Decrepit and Abandoned Waterfront of Santo Domingo's Historical Zone.