a product message image
{' '} {' '}
Limited time offer
SAVE % on your upgrade

Page 1

TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES IN METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT A study visit to Colombia - November 2016 Editors: Rudolf Giffinger, Andreas Hofer, Martha Ecker and Santiago Sรกnchez Guzmรกn


Medellín Coffee Region Salamina Santa Rosa de Cabal

Bogotá Bogotá


Figure 1.01 - Main cities and towns visited in Colombia. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 1

IMPRINT Editors: Rudolf Giffinger, Andreas Hofer, Martha Ecker and Santiago Sánchez Guzmán Guest authors: Fernando Montenegro Lizarralde and Jorge Pérez Jaramillo Co-authors: Hatun Atasayar, Florian Baier, Christine Dämon, Marianne Geissler, Anna Giffinger, Elena Heller, Katharina Höftberger, Stephanie Köck, Severin König, Hui Lyu, Isabella Noll, Mara Reinsperger, Karin Stiefelmeyer, Patricia Trauner. Graphic concept, design and layout: Coordinated by: Santiago Sanchez Guzman Team: Florian Baier, Anna Giffinger, Elena Heller, Katharina Höftberger, Mara Reinsperger, Karin Stieflmeyer. Lectorate: Martha Ecker Team assistance: Aurelia Kammerhofer This book is an academic project by students of TU Wien. It is not intended for sale. Printed by: Die Stadtdrucker. Ueberreuter Print & Packaging GmbH ISBN: 978-3-902707-39-0 Vienna, Austria 2017 TU Wien ©

Figure 1.02: Bogotá’s center from Monserrate. Source: Marianne Geißler, 2016 2


Editors: Rudolf Giffinger, Andreas Hofer, Martha Ecker and Santiago Sánchez Guzmán Guest authors: Fernando Montenegro Lizarralde, Bogotá Jorge Pérez Jaramillo, Medellín

TU Wien Faculty of Architecture and Planning Department of Spatial Planning Centre of Regional Science and Institute of Urban Design 3

0 table of content 07 1. Introduction

21 2. Bogotá: metropolitan densification processes and their regional impacts

08 1.0.1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 09 1.0.2 participants 10 1.0.3 FOREWORD

23 2.0 PREAMBLE: Bogotá’s geographical characteristics

15 1.1 pATTERNS OF URBAN GROWTH Text by Prof.Dr. Rudolf Giffinger

37 2.2 field trips: Visited areas, projects and institutions 38 2.2.1 Bogotá’s city center 42 2.2.2 Karl Heinrich Brunner 1887 - 1960 46 2.2.3 Rogelio Salmona 1929 - 2007 50 2.2.4 La Candelaria district 52 2.2.5 Suburbanization and conurbation trends: Zipaquirá and Usaquén 54 2.2.6 Public transport and informal settlements 58 2.2.7 Higher education institutions 62 2.2.8 TU Wien group visits in Bogotá

19 1.2 Emerging Bogotá-Medellín Text by Dr. Andreas Hofer

27 2.1 INTRODUCTION: Bogotá, the building of a metropolis Text by Arch. Fernando Montenegro Lizarralde

65 2.3 ACADEMIC PROGRAM: Workshop at the Universidad Javeriana - Lecturers 66 2.3.1 Colombian regions and their urban network hierarchies 68 2.3.2 Bogotá: Urban space for a new mobility 70 2.3.3 Landscape of a metropolization process 72 2.3.4 Internal displacement and impact on metropolitan growth in Bogotá 75 2.4 ACADEMIC PROGRAM: Workshop at the Universidad Javeriana - Master’s students 76 2.4.1 Guidelines developed for a territorial project: El Dorado airport II 78 2.4.2 Dynamics of occupancy for Bogotá’s growth 80 2.4.3 The great Bogotá: Phenomenon of metropolitan conurbation 83 2.5 BOGOTÁ: Impressions and glimpses


85 3. MEDELLÍN: social urbanism for a creative metropolis 87 3.0 PREAMBLE: Medellín’s geographical characteristics 91 3.1 INTRODUCTION: Medellín, a city for life without Parques del Río? A deferred city. Text by Arch. Jorge Pérez Jaramillo 105 3.2 field trips: Visited areas, projects and institutions 106 3.2.1 Medellín’s transport system 108 3.2.2 Eastern boroughs: Public transportation and strategic projects 120 3.2.3 Central boroughs: Public places and green infrastructure 128 3.2.4 Western boroughs: Neighborhood transformation 134 3.2.5 Northern boroughs: Infrastructure and neighborhood transformation 139 3.2.6 Sources 140 3.2.7 TU Wien group visits in Medellín 143 3.3 ACADEMIC PROGRAM: Organized by the Universidad Bolivariana 144 3.3.1 Medellín - Ciudad en Progreso 148 3.3.2 Transformaciones integrales e innovacion social - EDU Medellín 152 3.3.3 Distrito de la inclusion: Encendiendo luces en estación Villa 155 3.4 MEDELLÍN: Impressions and glimpses

157 4. PATTERNS OF URBAN GROWTH Seminar at TU Wien WS 2016-17 159 4.1 presentations about Vienna 159 4.1.1 Metropolitan Development of Vienna 163 4.1.2 Urban Interventions in Vienna 167 4.1.3 Aspern Seestadt 168 4.2 seminar presentations 168 4.2.1 Johannesburg 170 4.2.2 Mumbai 172 4.2.3 Shenzhen 174 4.2.4 Singapore 176 4.2.5 Manila 178 4.2.6 Rio de Janeiro 180 4.2.7 Curitiba 182 4.2.8 Buenos Aires 184 4.2.9 Miami

187 5. Emerging Bogotá-Medellín Design Studio at TU Wien WS 2016-17 188 5.1 Design Studio projects 188 5.1.1 Sidewalk - Medellín 190 5.1.2 Parkside living Ciudad Bolivar - Bogotá 192 5.1.3 Pillar 15 - Bogotá

195 6. excursus

A journey through the coffee region

202 7. list of figures 5

Figure 1.03 - MedellĂ­n escalators in Comuna 13. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 6





This booklet, as well as the study

ing force of this project; creat-

livariana: Arch. Giovanna Spera

visit to Colombia summarized

ing, supporting and advising the


here, would not have been pos-


Duque, Arch. Juan Manuel Pa-

sible without the support of TU

We also would like to especially

tiño, and especially arch. Jorge

Wien, especially its Faculty of

thank Dr. Andreas Hofer for all

Pérez Jaramillo, as well as to all

Architecture and Planning, De-

his experience and contributions

the presenters and students who

partment of Spatial Planning,

during all phases of the study visit.

contributed to the workshop and

Centre of Regional Science (SRF)

Our gratitude also goes to our

site visits in Medellín.

and the Institute of Urban Design



Finally, we would like to thank


Javeriana: Dr. Doris Tarchópulos,

all study visit participants of TU

We would particularly like to thank

Director of the Master program

Wien, who proactively and posi-

the following persons for their

in Urban and Regional Planning,

tively contributed both during the

support and interest in this aca-

Arch. Fernando Montenegro Liz-

excursion and the elaboration of

demic experience: Prof. Dr. Rudolf

arralde, arch. Gonzalo Navarro

this booklet.



Sandino, Prof. Humberto Moli-

Getzner and Prof.Dr. Christian

na, as well as all lecturers and

To all of you: Thank you, muchas


Master’s students who contributed

gracias and vielen Dank!

Special thanks go out to Prof.Dr.

to the workshop in Bogotá.

Rudolf Giffinger, who from the

The same gratitude goes to our

Martha Ecker & Santiago Sanchez G.

very beginning has been a driv-

colleagues from Universidad Bo-

Vienna, 17 Nov. 2017






1.0.2 Participants

Supervision and coordination Univ.Prof. Mag. Dr. Rudolf Giffinger Ass.Prof. Dr. Andreas Hofer Univ.Ass. Martha Ecker, MSc. Proj. Ass. Santiago Sanchez Guzman, MSc. Participants Hatun Atasayar Florian Baier Christine Daemon Marianne Geissler Anna Giffinger Elena Heller Katharina Hรถftberger Stephanie Kรถck Severin Kรถnig Hui Lyu Isabella Noll Mara Reinsperger Karin Stiefelmeyer Patricia Trauner

Figure 1.04 - The TU Wien group during a site visit in Medellin. Source: Andreas Hofer, 2016 9



Following the development ten-

access to social services such as

fragments” with an unbalanced

dency seen during the last 65

education, health, justice, secu-

distribution of social services and

years throughout Latin America,

rity and even trade for urban in-

discontinuous infrastructure net-

the Colombian population has be-


works. These have contributed

come increasingly concentrated in



to Latin American, and especial-

urban poles. While this exponen-

America’s population is living in

ly Colombian cities, becoming

tial growth of urban habitants has

urban agglomerations today (UN

some of the most unequal places

entailed at the same time positive

2014) and according to Bogo-

in the world.

economic effects and negative

ta’s statistics department (DANE)

Nevertheless, evidence from Co-

environmental impacts, it has not

11,6% of the city’s entire popula-

lombian institutional efforts to

been successful per se in reduc-

tion, almost 1 million inhabitants,

update, redistribute and articu-

ing social and spatial inequalities.

were living in poverty in 2016.

late different but complementa-

These facts question the effec-

Instead of “urbanized” environ-

ry infrastructure systems during

tiveness of policy-making institu-

ments these growth processes

the last 15 years in Bogotá and

tions, particularly in guaranteeing

have stimulated highly dense

Medellín show some innovative

equitable spatial distribution and

and segregated “agglomerated

mechanisms and policy tools.



Figure 1.05 - Colombian urban agglomerations. Source: Colombian National Planning Department, DNP. 11

9.661 KM

Figure 1.06: From Austria to Colombia. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 12

One example are Infrastructure

erations, a group of fourteen

ademic 15-day study visit to Co-

Master Plans, intended to achieve

students and four coordinators

lombia. Its aim was to explore

socio-spatial inclusion and pro-

affiliated to the TU Wien, Center

different patterns of urban and

mote more equitable built en-

of Regional Science and the Insti-

metropolitan growth, and the

vironments as well as territorial

tute of Urban Design, traveled to

booklet’s content reflects the va-

cohesion and respect to the en-

Colombia in November 2016. We

riety of insights gained during the

vironmental structures of the ter-

met with academics from the Uni-



versidad Javeriana’s Master program in Regional and Urban Plan-

The study visit to Colombia

ning in Bogotá, and scholars from

Aware of and interested in these

the Universidad Bolivariana’s Ur-

aspects of the development and

ban Design Lab in Medellín.

growth of metropolitan agglom-

This booklet summarizes the ac-

Martha Ecker & Santiago Sanchez G. Vienna, 17 Nov. 2017

DANE (2016). Pobreza Monetaria y Multidimensional en Colombia 2016. Available at: http://www.dane.gov.co/ files/investigaciones/condiciones_vida/pobreza/2016/Bogota_Pobreza_2016.pdf. Accessed 17 11 2017. United Nations (2014). World Urbanization Prospects. The 2014 Revision [highlights]. Page 10. Available at: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Report.pdf. Accessed 17 11 2017. 13


1.1 Patterns of Urban Growth: Seminar at TU Wien in WS 2016-17 by Univ.Prof. Mag. Dr. Rudolf Giffinger

Prof. Dr. Rudolf Giffinger is Head of the Centre of Urban and Regional Research in the Department of Spatial Planning at TU Wien. As a geographer and regional scientist, he is an expert in urban and regional development and corresponding strategic advice. His research activities concentrate on polycentric development and metropolisation, with a special focus on infrastructure and innovations (Smart Cities) and their implications for sustainable and resilient development.

The world’s urban population has

urban-metropolitan development

grown rapidly since the 1950s.

the seminar had

This urbanization process shows


a wide but divergent range of

the following

To understand trends of ur-

impacts across continents and

ban development as a result

cities, producing new problems

of different impacting factors,

and transforming urban neigh-

to identify the most relevant

borhoods in terms of socioeco-

factors and their changing

nomic, demographic and urban

importance across cities,

structures. Thus, cities and me-

to discuss (planning) strat-

tropolises are growing far be-

egies and urban projects on

yond their administrative borders.

urban growth critically from a

Complex challenges have to be

multiscalar perspective, con-

met by (strategic) urban planning

sidering the global trends of

and governance approaches in a

urbanization and econom-

cohesive and sustainable way.

ic re-structuring against the

In light of this complex issue of

backdrop of local conditions.


Based on readings and discus-

important challenges may be ad-


dressed from a multiscalar per-




students elaborated case stud-


ies focusing on non-European

Figure 1.07 describes the ap-

metropolises, discussed corre-

proach taken in the course: Mov-

sponding planning strategies and

ing from the global scale into spe-

elaborated recommendations for

cific challenges posed by urban

managing urban growth from a

growth in a city, students worked

global-local perspective.

on specific planning strategies.

After an initial investigation of

In a further step, these insights

their respective metropolis, stu-

were again connected to the

dents focused on its internation-

global scale. The chosen cities

al positioning, its corresponding

were Buenos Aires, Curitiba, Jo-

trends and most relevant prob-

hannesburg, Manila, Mumbai, Rio

lems as well as on its most im-

de Janeiro, Shenzhen and Singa-

portant strategies. In particular,

pore. Short summaries of the re-

they discussed how these most

sults can be found in chapter five.



Figure 1.07 - Multiscalar perspective. Source: Seminar Patterns of Urban Growth. 16

Based on a first literature review students worked on their respective cities with first evidence on local trends and challenges. Intermediate




presented in Bogotá during an international workshop with pro-

Literature •

ing Futures’. 2016. World Cities Report. UN Habitat. http://wcr.unhabitat.org/

fessors and students from Universidad Haveriana. Based on these recommendations of professors

Current urban trends and challenges: ’Urbanization and Development: Emergwp-content/uploads/sites/16/2016/05/WCR-%20Full-Report-2016.pdf.

Urban growth: McGrahanan, Gordon, and George Martine. 2014. ’Urbanisation and Development: Policy Lessons from the BRICS’ Experience’. In Urban

and taking into account the study

Growth in Emerging Economies. Lessons from the BRICS, edited by Gordon

visit to Bogotá and Medellín stu-

McGrahanan and George Martine, 1–14. Routledge Earthscan. London: Rout-

dents finally focused on a critical


discussion of strategies regard-

ing their respective metropolis and




Planning cultures: Friedmann, John. 2011. Insurgencies. Essays in Planning. RTPI Library Series. Abington: Routledge.

Herod, Andrew. 2011. Scale. Key Ideas in Geography. New York: Routledge


Figure 1.08 - Presentation of the design studio results to the guest critic from Colombia, arch. Jorge PĂŠrez Jaramillo. Source: Dr. Andreas Hofer, 2017 18

1.2 Emerging Bogotá-Medellín: Design Studio at TU Wien in WS 2016-17 by Ass.Prof. Dr. Andreas Hofer

Dr. Andreas Hofer is architect, Assistant Professor and Lecturer at the Institute of Urban Design, TU Wien. He works as an author and researcher, and participates in international cooperations and academic networks on the topic of Latin America, one of his focus regions.

The content of this design stu-

tions were of central importance.

dio in winter 2016/17 focused on

The design program was themat-

practical tools of urban renewal in

ically and organisationally related

the economically disadvantaged

to the excursion to Bogotá and

urban districts of Medellín and

Medellin from November 12th

Bogotá. The aim was to develop

to 26th 2016, organised by the

specific projects relating to public

Centre of Urban and Regional

space, mobility and urban hous-

Science (Stadt- und Regional-

ing in strategic locations, and to

forschung) and Institute of Urban

establish impulses for urban re-

Design (Städtebau).

generation processes. Throughout this working process discussions about the main characteristics of the Colombian city and its specific social, cultural, economic and ecological condi19

Figure 2.01 - Bogotá and the Virgilio Barco’s public library, by architect Rogelio Salmona, view from west to east Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved ® 20

2. Bogotรก: metropolitan densification processes and their regional impacts Visited from the 13 th to the 19 th of November 2016 21

Figure 2.02 - Bogotá’s urban center, seen from the top of the Monserrate hill. Source: Marianne Geißler, 2016 22

2.0 PREAMBLE: bogotá’s Geographical Characteristics

Bogotá, the capital city of Colombia, is located 2,640 meters above sea level in the highlands of the eastern Andes mountain range. With a population of almost 8 million inhabitants concentrated in an urban territory of 307 km², Bogotá is the biggest

Figure 2.03 - Left to right: Cundinamarca in Colombia, 29 municipalities in Cundinamarca, Bogotá in the 29 municipalities and Bogotá in the Plateau of the Eastern Andes mountain range. Source: All figures extracted from slides by MSc. Ana María Osorio, 2016 ® 23

Figure 2.04 - Bogotรก and its neighboring municipalities. Source: Students from Javeriana University based on data from IDECA. 24


5 Km

10 Km

urban agglomeration of the country and contributes approximately 25% of its nominal GDP. Bogotá is considered the capital district of the country by the Colombian constitution, as long as it is the country’s seat of government and central national institutions. The city is also the administrative capital of the department of Cundinamarca, the territory surrounding it. Bogotá’s region expands over its neighboring municipalities, but is not clearly defined politically. Several authors and administrative documents describe its regional impact and main spatial relationships with a surrounded area involving 29 municipalities and their suburban agglomeration settlements.

Figure 2.05 - Bogotá International Center, view from north to south. Source: Florian Baier, 2016 25

Figure 2.06 - Spatial allocation of settlements neighboring BogotĂĄ, including their population in 2015 and projection for 2020. Source: Fernando Montenegro Lizarralde, based on information by DANE. ÂŽ 26

2.1 INTRODUCTION: BogotĂĄ, the Building of a Metropolis by Arch. Fernando Montenegro Lizarralde


Fernando Montenegro Lizarralde is architect and University Professor, Lecturer at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and Associate Professor of the Institute of Urban Studies at Universidad Nacional de Colombia.



Colombia arises from a cluster

about Latin America is to swaddle

of pre-Columbian cultures, with

it into a cultural unit that tran-

very strong traditional differenc-

scends all other geographic, eco-

es, wide-ranging idiomatic diver-

nomic and social dimensions.

sity, and substantial variances in

The truth is that this unity rests

the geographical location of the

on language and certain aspects

population, especially in relation

of recent historical behavior. With

to climate and agricultural supply.

respect to the city, urban location

The Spanish conquest and col-

and growth, this condition is far

onization melded it into a single

from accurate; on the contrary,

imperial territory, which included

diversity is as profound as that

Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador,

on other continents. Colombia

“...when a minority, separate from

is a good example of this, with

the original settlers, brought an-

peculiarities and conditions very

other logic of spatial creation and

dissimilar to those in the rest of

imposed it� (Zambrano. 1993).

the continent.

This single political territory very 27


soon, during the early republic,

productive lands, and from a dra-

production. It was an instrument

fell apart, and it was fashioned

matic and almost absolute igno-

rationally conceived for this pur-

into a country very similar to 19th

rance of the sea. The Spaniards

pose, where location, layout and

century Italy or to the postwar

brought with them this dimension

uptake were the means to replace

Arab states: the union of a group

and other opportunities, like the

current reality and build an em-

of small regions that were unable

wheel, metal and gunpowder,

pire. The system of cities was a

to sustain themselves; regions

and naturally, the city and archi-

system of control, administration

that resorted to an assumed po-

tecture. By principle, they over-

and government, which gradual-

litical centralism that prevailed in

looked not only the difficulty of

ly imposed the new Renaissance

the first years of the 20th century

the regional space, but also great

order of space, and with it a new

and which, to be precise, is still in

marginalized extensions that, in

economy centered on the me-

progress. It is a long and diffuse

the 21st century remain as they

tropolis. Consequently, it also

territorial history, but a short and

were in the discovery: the Pacific,

conformed with the new Europe,

very dynamic urban history.

the Amazon and the Orinoco re-

a culture which included a reli-

The relatively small, isolated re-


gion and an architecture.

gional territories of the country,

As in the Spain of the 15th cen-

There began an urban history dif-

with modest economic capacity,

tury, the city was the means of

ferentiated from that of the rest

were formed trailing the geog-

conquest, the shaping of the

of the great landmass. While the

raphy, especially marked by the

territory and later, the means of

urban system in Mexico, Peru,

Andes and from the high and

colonization and organization of

Argentina and the others in Latin

America focused on the capital

was the unconscious amalgam

of the continent: it is third after

and which identified the state,

of diverse intentions, contradic-

Brazil and Mexico, which are

Colombia’s system was more

tions and uncontrolled events, a

much more extensive and bet-

extensive, broader and relatively

profound order that we cannot

ter-developed countries. This fact

autonomous. It was a country of

understand; it was the place of

has influenced the economic and

cities, dispersing local power, the

residence of the magic of pos-

political stability of the country

cultural characteristics of each

sible projects. Perhaps this may

with a market the sum of which

region and a certain capacity to

appear anecdotal, but it was the

is more than the populations of

grow in an isolated yet compet-

basis of a rather peculiar urban

Venezuela and Chile combined.

itive way. Surprisingly, its unique

phenomenon that created abys-

Secondly, it is a system of urban

and homogeneous morpholog-

mal differences in the continent,

regions that, although unstably


and which are worth analyzing.

modernized, overcomes difficul-

square blocks and public spaces,

In the first place, this territorial

ties with a regional and climatic

also accommodated a prevalent

configuration, clearly positioned

complement where productivity

center of power, commerce and

in the Andes and the Caribbean,

does not demand remarkable ef-

meaning. The city was not the

gave rise to one of the most im-

forts. Today there are around nine

product of a way of thinking, it

portant demographic magnitudes

large agglomerations, several of






them bearing over one million

the system, architectures and

to lower warm areas, which pro-

inhabitants and all regale a large

spaces with which contemporary

vided some food security. It grew

productive capacity.

society builds urban environ-

from the aggregation of blocks

Thirdly, it follows a high-density

ments. Today it guides the eco-

and their densification by sub-

urban model, possibly due to the

nomic connections and articula-

division, until the beginning of

economic limitations of its ori-

tions among the agglomerations,

the 20th century. The behavior

gins, consequently restricting the

and from them to the periphery.

was similar to that of other urban

infrastructure and encouraging

BogotĂĄ originated in the coun-

concentrations of the country, on

the rapid urban development that

try’s most important pre-Colum-

which it exerted certain political

has taken place since the 1970s.

bian settlement, formalized by

predominance by the eventual

BogotĂĄ DC, the national capital,

the Spanish Empire in the 16th

concentration of the dominant

is part of this history and to some

century, barely half a century af-

classes. It is a rather inconse-

extent, it synthesizes the urban

ter the discovery. Located on a

quential city, without large urban

history of the country, therefore

highland mountain range in one

expanses, where the architectural

serving as a reference to the pro-

of the prime agricultural areas, its

value is concentrated in religious

cesses of ordering and planning

cold dry climate easily connected

monuments and in the binding

unit of the unremarkable domes-

concentrating much of the econo-

and by the conscious, odd influ-

tic architecture.

my, production and political pow-

ences from northern Europe, par-

At this moment, its first great vir-

er, and adding to its expansion a

ticularly England and Austria. The

tue as a city is apparent: it has

large number of smaller cities and

avenue, park, public tree plant-

settled on the high part of a great

urban regions gravitating around

ing and non-checkerboard were

plateau, reclining against the hills

it. First, it arranged the hygienic

discovered, that is, the city as a

and far from a landmark that will

and functional support, built the

formal intention set in the public

only be reached by the end of the

water supply system, the hospi-

space, the perspective view and

20th century –the Bogotá river– ,

tal center, the barracks and State

the architectures. Planning is ori-

but close to immense natural pro-

headquarters. Later came the

ented toward the anticipation of

tection lands, the Sumapaz high-

socially differentiated residential

widening, the casual continuity

lands, the largest in the world and

environment, based on large ho-

of the urban fabric and the use of

the center of environmental sus-

mogeneous zones –the neighbor-

the landscape, in a complex mor-

tainability forever.

hood– ; and after, the discipline of

phology influenced by the out-

land use planning.

moded European “Beaux Arts”


The first half of the century be-

movement. It is a disciplinary be-

In the middle of the 20th century,

gan an intense search for forms

havior that, albeit clumsy in qual-

when the country reached politi-

of growth, forms fed by the con-

ity, gives rise to the permanence

cal stability, it began to behave as

scious cultural distancing from

of channels and runoff gullies that

a typical Latin American capital,


provide order to the geographic





space, and that feed an environ-

a relatively short time, a little over

the singular substitution of build-

mental consideration that only to-

ten years –which continues until

ings and the rational imposition of

day we have discovered as valu-

our days– , and it was projected,

the market economy.


with some technical imposition,

Following the chronicle of the co-

The second half of the 20th cen-

to the regional environment of the

lonial city, but in a metropolitan

tury ushers in the modern move-

Savannah, adding a new quality

dimension, its growth was as-



to the urban territories, the stan-

sociated with the aggregation of

zoning and functionalism, and

dardization of public space, ex-

new arteries, residential fabrics

certainly, the building as urban

tending from south to north and

modulated by them and the stan-

protagonist. Le Corbusier’s and

east to west, and incorporating

dardization of meanings: each

Wiener’s and Sert’s (Schnitter

popular settlements, middle class

avenue is an additional element

2003) propositions kick off a new

neighborhoods and redoubts of

of the system that delineates the

dimension of the capital: An ar-

the bourgeoisie. It was a gener-

building of territories, neighbor-

terial circulation grid alternating

al spatiality, based on a reticular

hoods and activities.

with the runoff gullies, rearrang-

conception, which indiscriminate-

ing and tying together all existing

ly incorporated the various archi-


residential fabric and proposing

tectures, the different morpholog-

The transition to the 21st centu-

a framework of connectivity and

ical zones, the urban center and

ry proposed a rupture with the

transport for the new urban lay-

the peripheries and allowed the

urban notion. Comparable to

out. This task was completed in

opportunity for reconstruction,

the great metropolises, Bogotá



had multiplied its population, en-

valleys and slopes and the pe-

one hand, the preservation of

croached upon the regional envi-

ripheries of the nearby municipal

agricultural and protective lands

ronment and is projected as one

centers. It is a diffuse city, a city

adjacent to the city; on the oth-

of the great urban regions of the

of residential polarizations and a

er, limiting the extension of public

continent, connecting, in its func-

dense and compact metropolis,

service networks, and, lastly, the

tionality, relatively more distant

the densest of the continent and

concentrated proximity of hous-

horizons, the high plains of the

one of the densest international-

ing and jobs.

east, the Magdalena valley to the

ly, exceeding 200 inhabitants per

High density comes from a his-

west and the Boyaca province



transept to the north, more than

This fact is an additional, tran-

MedellĂ­n, Cali, Barranquilla and

two million hectares of rich and

scendental and positive con-

the rest of urban centers multi-

productive land. They are and will

sideration in the shaping of the

ply the growth process belatedly,

be the food supports of the great

city and not less important in

in the last three decades of the

metropolis. The city is seamless

the country’s urban complex,

20th century, with modernizing of

as a built environment, it spreads

adhering to the model almost

housing construction technology,

onto the regional surroundings,

completely. Such density has

which permits high-rise building,

the neighboring plains, the nearby

important contributions: on the

the inclusion of a greater number




of inhabitants in the real estate

where the model is copied with-

In Bogotá, and for regulatory pur-

market, and patterns of density

out restraint.

poses, it has been called the ex-

that are very different from the

This consideration of density im-

tended center or the expanded

other cities in the continent. In

plies a different urban structure:

center; a connotation that now

Bogotá, such situation occurs in

a multi-active city, where hous-

refers to the entire urban territory.

the city’s pericenter, in the pe-

ing, employment and services are

The metropolis itself was never

riphery, and even, in neighboring

located according to market de-

conceived as such; today it is not

municipalities. It is a pattern that

mand and population needs; it is

acknowledged, not understood,

combines the urban layout of the

a model comparable to Manhat-

and as in the past, it is still being

arterial grid, the notion of the ex-

tan or New York, with no center

treated as a structure of the last

tensive neighborhood and archi-

proper, but an urban continuum

century. Planning and architec-

tecture height, both in formal set-


ture are still solving 20th century

tlements and in the informal city,

that are ever more inconspicuous.



space; citizens live in the 21st.

Schnitter, Patricia (2003). Sert y Wiener en Colombia, la vivienda social en la aplicación del urbanismo moderno. Scripta Nova. Universidad de Barcelona. Vol. VII, num. 146(035). Zambrano, Fabio and Bernard, Olivier (1973). Ciudad y Territorio. El proceso de poblamiento en Colombia. Academia de Historia de Bogotá y otros. 34

Figure 2.07 - Plan of Greater Bogotรก in 2030. Scenario and projection by students of the Master in Urban and Regional Planning at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotรก 2014 35


1 Universidad Nacional de Colombia


2 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana 3 Usaquén district


4 Zipaquirá town - salt mine and cathedral 5 Tunal district - cable car construction site


6 Bogotá city center 10 Bogotá CENTER 3 1

2 6

Parque Central Bavaria 7 International Center 8 Torres del Parque - Arch. R. Salmona 9 Bosque Izquierdo district - Karl H. Brunner 10 11

Gold Museum 11 5

Plaza del Chorro de Quevedo 12 La Candelaria district 13 Gabriel G. Márquez Cultural Center 14 Plaza de Bolivar 15 Monserrate hill - Church 16

Figure 2.08 - Bogotá and its region, satellite view. Source: Google maps, October 2017. 36





Figure 2.09 - Bogotá’s city center. Source: OpenStreetMap, 2017

2.2 field trips: visited areas, projects and institutions


The variety of sites, districts and

The second section explores the

projects included in the excur-

impact of Bogotá’s rapid growth

sion’s itinerary allowed us to ex-

on its suburbs and surrounding

perience different facets of the

towns experienced during our

city and several of its urban chal-

visit to the Zipaquirá town and its

lenges and transformations. The

salt cathedral. The third chapter

following sub-chapter consists

focuses on the informal settle-

of four sections covering all vis-

ments visited in the south of Bo-

its experienced during the days in

gotá and the first line of the cable


car currently under construction

The first section concerning the

in the Tunal district, as well as

transformation of the city center

its connection to the BRT Trans-

addresses the insights gained

Milenio public transportation sys-

during the exploration of the In-

tem. The last section describes the

ternational Center area, the foun-

visited campuses of the Pontificia

dational neighborhood of La Can-

Universidad Javeriana and the Uni-

delaria and the Monserrate hill.

versidad Nacional de Colombia.


2.2.1 BogotÁ’s City Center

The Carrera Séptima (7th street),

and bikers to meet and circulate

quality of the use of the streets,

probably the historically most rel-

along it. Additionally, various

taking place as soon as the sun

evant street of Bogotá, connects

events such as aerobics, yoga or

was gone, which made the public

the foundational center of the city

dance lessons take place in the

space less welcoming.

with its northern districts.

public space, open and accessi-

Bogotá developed in parallel to

Along this street a high number

ble for everyone. The Ciclovía was

a mountain range located to its

of cultural, governmental and his-

first implemented during the sev-

east. The Monserrate hill is part

torical buildings as well as rep-

enties and is massively attended

of it and probably the historically

resentative open public spaces

by citizens and even replicated in

most relevant one in everyday life.

have been allocated throughout

other cities.

It brands the city with a church lo-

the city’s history.

The public space in the city center

cated at its top, at 3,152 meters

During the already traditional Ci-

is the meeting point for multiple

above sea level. The hill system

clovía, taking place on Sundays

purposes, and even congested

is Bogotá´s primary ecological

and holidays, this traffic over-

streets are used for informal eco-

structure and creates a represen-

loaded street turns into a com-

nomic activities. However, during

tative spatial contention.

pletely car free corridor, allowing

our visit we noticed a transfor-

only pedestrians, runners, skaters

mation of the atmosphere and Figure 2.10 - Carrera Septima (7th street) at National museum with Ciclovía activities on Sunday morning. Source: Marianne Geißler, 2016



Different to most European cities, Bogotá’s city center is not where the most expensive properties are located. During the past years, however, several projects have been implemented to renovate public space and attract more residents. An example of this is the Parque Central Bavaria, a residential and office complex located at the old production site of a beer brewery. Beside the mixed-use strategy, it enriched Bogotá by creating 20,000 square meters of public space: partly green space, partly space used for cultural events such as the Ibero-American Theater Festival or different concerts.

Figure 2.11 - Parque Central Bavaria. Source: Anna Giffinger, 2016 40

Figure 2.12 - Other aspect of the Carrera Septima (7th street) with CiclovĂ­a and informal commercial activities on Sunday morning Source: Marianne GeiĂ&#x;ler, 2016 41

2.2.2 Karl heinrich brunner 1887 - 1960

Karl H. Brunner, an Austrian architect and urban planner, was the first director of the Departamento de Urbanismo de Bogotá (today Departamento Administra-

Figure 2.13 - New constructions at the Bosque Izquierdo. Source: Katharina Höftberger, 2016

tivo de Planeación) from 1933 to 1948. He taught at the Universidad Nacional Bogotá, and then moved back to Vienna in 1948 to become the city’s planning director of Vienna and professor at TU Wien. One of the districts he designed during his work in Bogotá was Bosque Izquierdo. It is a typical example of how his creations Figure 2.14 - TU Vienna group walking at the Bosque Izquierdo. Source: Severin König, 2016 42

Figure 2.15 - Plan of the Bosque Izquierdo settlement, Bogotรก 1936, Karl H. Brunner. Source: Archive Dr. Andreas Hofer. 43

follow the natural topography instead of the Spanish Colonial grid. He influenced BogotĂĄ particularly through the implementation of more organic urban fabric layouts enriched with green boulevards and gardens, with specific emphasis on the quality of the urban design at a neighborhood scale. Before moving to Colombia, Karl Brunner worked in Chile on different urban design and development projects and plans (1929 to 1934), and for the city of Panama (1940 to 1941). Figure 2.16 - Karl H. Brunner, 1955. Source: Ă–sterreichische Nationalbibliothek. 44

Figure 2.17 - Urban projects by Karl H. Brunner for Bogotรก between 1933 and 1942. Source: Archive Dr. Andreas Hofer. 45

2.2.3 Rogelio Salmona 1929 - 2007

Rogelio Salmona was one of the most influential architects in Latin America. He was born in Paris in 1929, but soon moved to Bogotá with his family. Salmona studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional in Bogotá, but before finishing his studies he left Colombia and moved to France to work at Le Corbusier’s office. In his work he typically made use of various elements to point out the spatial conditions and potentials of a site or place, such Figure 2.18 -Torres del Parque, site plan. Source: Online, see list of figures. 46

Figure 2.19 -Torres del Parque, aerial view. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 2.20 -Torres del Parque, faรงade and gardens. Source: Marianne GeiรŸler, 2016 47

as its vegetation, visual relation-

city are), its spatial conformation

Visited projects made by him:

ships and materials, for instance

complemented by trees, bushes

red brick. He had a strong com-

and gardens creates a private

mitment to improve public space

and secure atmosphere. Anoth-

through his architectural projects,

er example of his work is the so-

which explains his focus on land-

called „eje ambiental“ (environ-

scape and gardening.

mental axis) along the Avenida

man Sciences Postgraduate

Bogotá was heavily influenced

Jiménez or Calle 13. It is a 2.8

Centre, 1995-2000

by Rogelio Salmona. His curved

km long street, used partly as a

brick buildings can be found

pedestrian area and partly by the

in different sectors and are un-

city’s public BRT system Trans-

doubtedly a symbol of the city.

Milenio. The avenue runs along

One of his most relevant build-

the canalized river San Francisco

ings is the Las Torres del Parque

which used to divide the quarters

housing area in the eastern center

La Candelaria and Santa Fe. By

of Bogotá, next to a former bull-

using original vegetation and a

ring. Even though these residen-

water installation, Rogelio Salmo-

tial units are not gated (as many

na aimed reminding the popula-

other units located mostly in the

tion of Bogotá of its original land-

northern and wealthier part of the

scape and vegetation.




García Márquez, 2003 •

Conjunto Torres del Parque, 1964-1970

The National University Hu-

Figure 2.21 - Rogelio Salmona. Source: Online, see list of figures. 48

Figure 2.22 - Centro Cultural G. García Márquez. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 2.23 - Eje Ambiental Calle 13, public space rehabilitation. Source: Marianne Geißler, 2016 49

2.2.4 La candelaria district

La Candelaria, the historical and foundational center of Bogotá, can be recognized by its Spanish Colonial architectural style. Besides residential and academic uses, the locality (district) La Candelaria also accommodates cultural institutions, such as the Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango (public library) or the museum of the Banco de la República. In La Candelaria it is possible to feel a very vibrant, bohemian and youthful spirit, which manifests via street art forms such as graffiti.

Figure 2.24 - La Candelaria historical district. Source: Elena Heller, 2016 50

Figure 2.25 - Skyline of the city’s center. Source: Marianne Geißler, 2016

Figure 2.26 - Street art meets colonial architecture. Source: Stephanie Köck, 2016 51

2.2.5 suburbanization and conurbation trends: zipaquirá and usaquén

Although Bogotá’s rapid growth has led to the city’s urban densification, it also had a significant impact on its surroundings: The city border expanded and swallowed neighboring municipalities and towns such as Usaquén. This former suburban settlement was annexed by Bogotá not only through physical growth but also administratively, and transformed into an urban district in 1954. If this trend continues the town of Chía may soon face a similar future. Usaquén’s center is shaped by the Spanish Colonial architectural style, which is very similar to Figure 2.27 - Bogotá region: average rates of daily motorized mobility and road network. Source: Origin–destination survey for Bogotá DC (2011), taken from Oviedo and Davila (2016). 52

the spatiality and atmosphere of

between Zipaquirá and Bogotá,

La Candelaria in the foundational

the municipalities of Chía and

center of Bogotá. Many of Us-

Cajicá have continued experi-

aquén’s colonial buildings have

encing intensive suburbanization,

been conserved and with time the

transforming them from rural set-

district has become one of multi-

tlements into suburbs of the city.

ple centers and higher-end zones in Bogotá. The town of Zipaquirá, located about 22 km north of Bogotá, is particularly known for its underground salt mines, which were partly transformed into a large underground cathedral in 1991. The cathedral was designed by architect Roswell Garavito Pearl and is a large touristic attraction today. Along this north-south axis Figure 2.28 - Zipaquirá’s salt cathedral. Source: Florian Baier, 2016 53

2.2.6 public transport and informal settlements

Figure 2.29 - TransMilenio at 26th street. Source: Hui Lyu, 2016 54

Bogotå’s rapid growth can not

regular streets, main streets are

only be observed in the expan-

equipped with separate lanes for

sion of the city over its region, but

the TransMilenio buses, allowing

also in its overloaded transport

them to move independently from

system and traffic. Particularly

private vehicles.

during rush hours the streets be-

The system includes both ex-

come congested, which results in

press and trunk service buses

very long travel times.

(Servicios Troncales and Servi-

To tackle congestion, Mayor En-

cios Expresos) to make the con-

rique PeĂąalosa implemented a

cept more efficient. However, the

Bus Rapid Transport System

system has not managed to cope

(BRT) named TransMilenio in

with the high demand for pub-

2000. The plan included the in-

lic transportation of the city, and

stallation of an extensive public

during the last years has been

bus system, bike lanes and pe-

very close to collapse. This lack

destrian sidewalks. While con-

of capacity of the BRT system is

gestion still impedes the func-

due to various technical aspects,

tioning of the bus system on

but can largely be traced back to

the fact that only 30% of the orig-

One of them is the first cable car

construction of a cable car line in

inal plan has been implemented

line. TransMilenio is also support-

Ciudad Bolívar, Bogotá’s south-

so far. In addition, a lack of in-

ed by a feeder system made up

ern borough.

termodality, or use of different

of additional buses, which con-

Ciudad Bolívar is characterized

modes of transport, has moved

nect further parts of the city to the

by a high concentration of infor-

public debate towards the neces-

main stations and trunk corridors.

mal settlements, usually self-built

sity for integrated public trans-

However, several districts are still

by communities who have mi-

port solutions which include oth-

not well served by these buses,

grated to Bogotá. These commu-

er modes such as metro, trams

particularly in the south of the city

nities stem from rural areas and

and cable cars.

where topographical characteris-

fled from the conflicts motivated

Therefore, new complementary

tics make it hard to access them.

by drug organizations, left-wing

projects are on the way to improve

A recent attempt to tackle this

guerrillas and right-wing para-

the transport system of the city.

specific challenge is the ongoing

military groups during the last 60

Figure 2.30 - The foundation of the first cable car tower. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 55


years. Those poorer communi-

poor connectivity. All these con-

bus head terminal of El Tunal.

ties, which in many cases were

ditions make the aerial cable car

This project is conducted by the

forced to leave their home, land,

especially effective in achieving

Austrian cable car company Dop-

families and properties, have mi-

transport and mobility improve-

pelmayr. The company has also

grated to urban centers within the


carried out cable car projects in

last decades, escaping violence

The construction process of the

other Latin American cities such

and a lack of state presence, as

city’s first cable car line includes

as La Paz in Bolivia or Caracas in

well as looking for better oppor-

demolishing 176 houses to cre-

Venezuela. In contrast to La Paz,

tunities. Once in the cities, many

ate enough free space for the

the main task of the cable car in

of them live informally in subur-

stations and pillars. A special

Bogotá is to act as feeder for the

ban and vulnerable zones. These

loan program was established

TransMilenio system. The project

zones with time have been incor-

to enable the purchase of a new

is supposed to reduce the time

porated into the urban perimeter

home by affected households.

to connect with the BRT terminal

of the cities, which increasingly

One challenge is the legal status

from 45 minutes to 13-14 min-

try to regularize them using infra-

of many of those homes. Since

utes. This implies an increase in

structure projects.

many built their homes informally,

the number of passengers for the

The Ciudad Bolívar borough de-

the city pays them a maximum of

TransMilenio system, but how the

veloped mostly without effective

€ 10,000.

system will efficiently evolve to

and integral planning processes.

The planned cable car line would

serve to this future additional de-

Due to its complex topography

bridge difficulties given by the

mand remains unclear.

and very fast informal develop-

mountainous topography of the

ment processes, it is character-

area and connect the neighbor-

ized by very low accessibility and

hood Illimaní to the TransMilenio

Figure 2.31 - Rendering of a future cable car station in Ciudad Bolivar, Bogotá. Source: Doppelmayr © 2016 57

2.2.7 Higher education institutions

Bogotá is the academic center of the country and home to some of the most prestigious and topranked universities in Latin America. The Universidad Nacional de Colombia, University de los Andes and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana are among the most important academic and research institutions. There are two types of universities in Colombia: public universities charge fees calculated according to the income of the students’ Figure 2.32 - New nursing faculty, by Leonardo Álvarez Yepes. Source: Christine Dämon, 2016 58

parents, and private universities

Nacional is a city by itself. It is

require rather high study fees.

physically separated from the

This division into public and pri-

surrounding area and offers suf-

vate, however, has nothing to say

ficient academic facilities and lei-

about the quality of teaching and

sure spaces for students, as well

academic level.

as open public spaces and cul-

Undergraduate degrees usually

tural amenities.

take at least five years and Mas-

Thus, the so called “Ciudad Uni-

ter’s degrees an extra two.

versitaria” (university city) and

Unlike in Vienna, the universities

several of its numerous buildings

in Bogotá are concentrated on

have been declared National Cul-

campuses and are mainly sep-

tural Heritage. Works of renowned

arated from the rest of the city

architects, including Leopoldo

fabric. The most relevant exam-

Rother, Eric Lange, Ernst Blu-

ple of this is the main campus of

menthal, Bruno Violi, Fernando

the National University, located in


Teusaquillo, northwest of the his-

Bermudez and Rogelio Salmona

torical city center.

enrich the academic spaces. The

With an area of 1.2 km² (300 acres),

most recent and renowned build-

the campus of the Universidad

ing is the new faculty of nursing. It



Figure 2.33 - Campus Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Source: Online, see list of figures. 59

was designed by architect Leonardo Álvarez Yepes, winner of the Bienal de Arquitectura de Colombia in 2016. The campus owes its existence to the government of Liberal President Alfonso López Pumarejo, who reformed Colombia’s schools and universities between 1934 and 1938. His most important project was the reorganization and construction of the university town in Bogotá. López wanted an open university for students from all over Colombia. The German reform teacher, Fritz Karsen, was the first to conceive a comprehensive reorganization in pedagogical, scientific and economic Figure 2.34 - Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Source: Severin König, 2016 60

terms. Leopold Rother, an architect who emigrated from Germany in 1936, was commissioned to plan the campus. He envisioned the entire campus as a garden. The city within the city was designed as a southeast-northeast orientated oval with internal development roads. The university Pontificia Javieriana is located in the eastern part of the city in the district of Chapinero, at the foot of the eastern hills. Although the campus is adequately equipped with sporting, cultural and social facilities, it still remains open to the city, which is not very common for private institutions. Figure 2.35- Campus Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Source: Online, see list of figures. 61

2.2.8 TU WIEN GROUP visits IN bOGOTÁ

Figure 2.36 - Bosque Izquierdo. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 62

Figure 2.37 - Monserrate hill. Source: Christine Dämon, 2016

Figure 2.38 - With Prof. Fernando Cortez, Universidad Nacional. Source: Hui Lyu, 2016

Figure 2.39 - Visit to the cable car construction site - Doppelmayr. Source: Andreas Hofer, 2016 63


Day 03 MONDAY 14






1st day introductory visits in Bogotá Walking through carrera 7a to Torre Colpatria, Plaza de Bolivar, Centro Cultural Gabriel Garcia Marquez and La Candelaria




Lunch in La Candelaria

2nd day introductory visits in Bogotá Zipaquira salt church.


PROGRAM 06 – 16/11/15

Visit to the national park (alternative visit Visit to Usaquen to Monserrate or Usaquen).

Day 06 THURSDAY 17

Session: Trends and challenges

Session: Strategic planning

Session: Projects



8:30 Leaving by Van to univ.

8:30 Leaving by Van to univ.

9:00 - 9:30 Kickoff Presentation, Objectives

9:00-9:45 1st. Presentation: Urban Growth strategy in Bogota HUMBERTO MOLINA

15 min. coffee pause 10:30 - 11:15 2nd presentation: Urban Growth trends in Bogotá. Prof.FERNANDO MONTENEGRO

17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00

Group landing at Bogotá's airport

Van to hotel check-in

10:45 - 11:15 3rd presentation Understanding Aspern, Vienna KATHARINA HOEFTBERGER

12:00 - 13:00 Lunch at the university

13:00 - 13:30 Bogota and the region: 13:00 - 13:30 Challenges for urban growth 13:00 - 13:30 Bogota borders. New growth Regional Scale opportunity. in Bogotá. Urban Scale GROUP OF STUDENTS MPUR GROUP OF STUDENTS MPUR PROGRAM GROUP OF STUDENTS MPUR PROGRAM PROGRAM 13:30 - 13:50 Students TU Wien: 13:30 - 13:50 Students TU Wien: 13:30 - 13:50 Students TU Wien: BUENOS AIRES MUMBAI CURITIBA CHRISTINE D. & SEVERIN K. ELENA H. & KATHARINA H. HUI L. 13:50 - 14:10 Students TU Wien: 14:10 - 14:30 Students TU Wien: 13:50 - 14:10 Students TU Wien: JOHANNESBURG SINGAPORE MIAMI PATRICIA T. & MARIANNE G. STEPHANIE K. & MARA R. HATUN A. 14:10 - 14:30 Students TU Wien: 14:10 - 14:30 Students TU Wien: 14:10 - 14:30 Students TU Wien: RIO DE JANEIRO MANILA SHENZHEN ANNA G. & KARIN S. ISABELLA N. FLORIAN B.



Back to hotel and dinner Independent activity

Dinner with group Univ. Nacional


Excursion - visits

Group meetings

Breakfast, lunch, dinner, Coffee

Figure 2.40 - Original program of the workshop TU Wien - Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá.

9:00 - 16:00 Meetings Visit to Doppelmayr's office and construction site

Figure 2.41 - Dr. Doris Tarchópulos. Source: Online, see list of figures.

30 min. coffee pause 15:00 - 17:00 Students' workshop: Groups Session 03: Recomendations 17:00 - 20:00 Students' workshop: Groups Session 04: Final Presentations Clossing Dinner

Welcome dinner close to the hotel

Seminar presentations


15 min. coffee pause

12:00 - 13:00 Lunch at the university

15:00 - (15:30) - 19:00 Meetings Visit Universidad Nacional Prof. Fernando Cortez

8:30 Bus

10:30 - 11:15 2nd presentation New key projects in Vienna Ass.Prof. Dr. ANDREAS HOFER

12:00 - 13:00 Lunch at the university

17:00 - 19:00 Students' workshop: Groups Session 02: Challenges


9:30-10:15 1st. Presentation: Urban Renewal in Bogota FRANCISCO JÁCOME

11:15 - 12:00 3rd. Presentation: Landscape of a metropolization process. Urban grow and aggregates extraction in Bogota - Sabana. Mag. ANA MARÍA OSORIO

14:30 - 15:00 Van to Univ. Nacional

Day 07 FRIDAY 18

9:00 Leaving by Van to university

11:15 - 12:00 4rd. Presentation: Forced displacement in Colombia and impact on the metropolitan growth of Bogotá Dr. DAVID BURBANO

15:00 - 17:00 Students' workshop: Groups Session 01: Trends


15 min. coffee pause 10:00 - 10:45 2nd presentation Metropolitan Development of Vienna. Trends/ Challenges / Strategic efforts Prof.Dr. RUDOLF GIFFINGER


11:15 - 12:00 3rd. Presentation: Bogotá Urban Interaction and Future Mobility Dr. DORIS TARCHÓPULOS

30 min. coffee pause 15:00

NOVEMBER 12-18 2016


9:30-10:15 1st. Presentation: Urban Growth in Colombia HUMBERTO MOLINA






Day 01 SATURDAY 12

Free activities

Free time

Farewell party


Figure 2.42 - Arch. Fernando Montenegro L. Source: Online, see list of figures.


After two days of site visits in Bo-

we include summaries, written by

gotá, the academic groups from

some of the students of TU Wien

the Pontificia Universidad Jave-

who attended the worshop, on

riana and TU Wien met with the

four of the presentations carried

Regional and Urban Planning

out by lecturers from the Universi-

Master’s program scholars at the

dad Javeriana. The presentations

Faculty of Architecture and De-

centered on different dimensions

sign of the Universidad Javeriana.

of the metropolitan development

The aim was to discuss different

process of Bogotá.

patterns of urban and metropoli-

We would like to thank the organiz-

tan growth in a three days’ work-

ing team of the Master’s program

shop. Scholars from both univer-

from the Universidad Javeriana for

sities carried out presentations

hosting this event, and especial-

about topics dealing with some

ly to Dr. Doris Tarchópulos, arch.

Arq. Fernando Montenegro L.

of the trends and challenges

Fernando Montenegro, arch. Gon-

MSc. Ana Maria Osorio Guzmán

metropolitan agglomerations are

zalo Navarro and Prof. Humberto

Dr. David Burbano González

facing nowadays.In this chapter

Molina for they support.

Supervision and presentations Dr. Doris Tarchópulos Prof. Humberto Molina Arq. Gonzalo Navarro S.


2.3.1 COLOMBIAN Regions AND THEir urban network hierarchies Presented by Prof. Humberto Molina

Colombia is a country with high

making it introverted and isolated.

diversity of nature and geograph-

Due to its complex geography

ical regions dominated by the

and territorial extension, Colom-

Andes Mountains, the Amazonas

bia is even today not functional-

as well as the coast lines of the

ly integrated, but a fragmented

Caribbean Sea and the Pacific

country. Only 60% of its territory

Ocean, with a strongly differen-

is declared as integrated. There-

tiated provision and concentra-

fore the Colombian population

tion of infrastructure throughout

has varying access to central

its territory. A nation engraved

markets, social and public ser-

from its history with conflicts of

vices, communication infrastruc-

guerrilla groups, drug trafficking

ture, technology, businesses as

and cultural diversity, Colombia is

well as to cultural activities, de-

also the home of native commu-

pending on where they live.

nities in the Amazonas rain forest.

Urban centers and their hinter-

The country has weak infrastruc-

land are highly dependent on

ture connection to its neighbors,

each other due to strong migration Figure 2.43 - Colombia’s integrated areas. Source: Ministry of Economic Development.


processes from rural areas to cities. This leads to high density agglomerations, which continue growing up to this day. Bogotรก is a city with high urban density (195 inhab./hectare) and almost no space inside its urban limits with potential for further urban growth. Its metropolitan area thus keeps on growing, leading us to question how to connect or develop such an agglomeration, as surrounding



with each other and the city itself. This growing pattern needs a broader understanding and vision beyond the borders of the city, which is able to include the hierarchical structure of the region. Figure 2.44 - Isochrone map of Bogotรก. Source: Ministry of Economic Development. 67

2.3.2 BOGOTÁ: URBAN SPACE FOR A NEW MOBILITY Presented by Dr. Doris Tarchópulos, Director of the Master program in Urban and Regional Planning at Universidad Javeriana

Dr. Doris Tarchópulos’ presen-

and other transport systems have

tation dealt with the topic of the

changed the city of Bogotá since

upcoming vision of future cities

the late nineteenth century.

regarding urban mobility and the

developed from a rather isolated

improvement of the quality of ur-

city with a population of about

ban life.

236,000 people in 1930 into a

She introduced the project “Ur-

metropolis that keeps on grow-

ban Interactions and Future Mo-

ing: In 2014, Bogotá’s population

bility”, which took place in co-

reached 7,780,000 inhabitants,

operation with AUDI (Audi Urban

with a metropolitan population

Future Initiative Research). The

of about 9 million. The city has to

presentation focused on Bogotá’s

deal with high population density

historical development, its densi-

in the periphery, where the poor

fication, ecological structure and

and the working class live, often in

informality. She highlights how

informal settlements. Workplaces

technological innovations such

and services are still concentrat-

as the automobile, the airplane

ed in the city center and along the

It Figure 2.45 - Bogotá’s urban density. Source: Dr. Doris Tarchópulos ©

Figure 2.46 - Bogotá’s environmental system. Source: Dr. Doris Tarchópulos © 68

main roads, which leads to daily

collective buses, which are used

movements of people between

by 32%. The city has no further

home and work, collapses of the

transportation alternatives such

road network and unreasonable

as light rail, subway or tram.

journey times. Despite this fact,

Challenges for future urban de-

64% of citizens travel by pub-

velopment include the comple-

lic transportation for their daily

tion of the TransMilenio system,

journeys and the car ownership

providing alternative forms of

rate (daily journey share: 12%) is

public transport and implement-

among the lowest in Latin Ameri-

ing new mobility systems like car

can capitals. 7% take the motor-

sharing or city bikes. The Austri-

cycle and 5% a bicycle (~500,000

an Doppelmayr group is currently

bicycle trips/day), using the near-

building Bogotá’s first cable liner,

ly 400 kilometers of cycle paths

called TransMiCable, in Ciudad

available. 12% of the population

Bolivar, a poor informal district lo-

commute on foot.

cated in the south of Bogotá. An-

The TransMilenio system, pre-

other urban development oppor-

ferred by 32%, transports about

tunity will be the integration of the

1.8 million people per day. In ad-

old abandoned railway system.

Figure 2.47 - Bogotá’s travel origins. Source: Dr. Doris Tarchópulos ©

dition, there are non-integrated Figure 2.48 - Bogotá’s travel destinations. Source: Dr. Doris Tarchópulos © 69

2.3.3 Landscape of a metropolization process Presented by MSc. Ana Maria Osorio Guzmán


The rural landscape of the 29 mu-

impact on the environment and

systems and the landscape on a

nicipalities around Bogotá, which


more socio-cultural perspective



Her goal was to determine the ef-

as proposed by Bertrand (2006).

quarries, water bodies and nat-

fects and impacts of accelerated


ural environment, is very much

growth in the metropolitan area in

models to integrate geophysical

affected by the mining industry.

relation to demand and sustain-

information, and thematic car-

To counteract the impact of min-

able use of primary resources that

tography and 2D analysis models

ing the researcher dealt with this

supply the construction industry.

that related aggregates demand

topic in her Master’s thesis. She

First she did an integrated geo-

and supply, based on mining and

analyzed the urban growth of Bo-

graphical analysis including bio-

building statistical reports. She

gotá’s metropolitan area between

physical, socioeconomic and cul-

also took a closer look at the lo-

1999 and 2009 and documented

tural dimensions. She structured

cal regulations of mining, building

the change in the spatial dynam-

her theoretical framework by fo-

and sustainability, documenting

ics of the supply of aggregates,

cusing on the geosystemic spatial

the damaged areas and land use

involving new socio-territorial re-

dimensions of the natural systems,

change due to existing mining.

lations as well as an irreversible

the territory as a resource of social






Figure 2.49 - Bogotá’s regional road network. Source: Ana María Osorio ©

Figure 2.50 - Bogotá’s regional aggregates extraction areas. Source: Ana María Osorio © 71

2.3.4 Internal displacement and impact on metropolitan growth in Bogotá Presented by Dr. David Burbano González

Colombia is strongly influenced

municipalities have been experi-

by displacement and migration

encing a decline in population in

due to its politically unstable sit-

recent history. As a consequence


of these migrations, the levels of

Most of the migrants are trying

urbanization, expansion and den-

to escape from armed conflicts

sification within the metropolitan

in the rural areas of the country,

agglomerations have risen.

and search for better life condi-

The ongoing process of urban-

tions in urban centers. Once in

ization in Bogotá leads to chal-

the cities, the majority of migrants

lenges which need clear planning

settle down in their peripheral ar-

approaches to generate econom-

eas inside or beyond the urban

ic opportunities and employment

borders, most of them in informal

within segregated areas and for

self-built settlements.

its inhabitants.

According to Dr. Burbano, 23 big

Dr. Burbano finally recommends

departmental capitals have been

building scenarios leading to

receiving migrants while at the

more interconnected centralities

same time more than 1,000 rural

and less macro centralities. Figure 2.51 - Displaced communities’ origins. Source: Dr. Daniel Burbano ©


Figure 2.52 - Displaced persons. Source: Dr. Daniel Burbano ©

Figure 2.53 - Bogotá’s urban growth process (left) and its regional agglomeration. Source: Dr. Daniel Burbano © 73

Figure 2.54 - Students presenting during the workshop. Source: Severin Kรถnig, 2016 74


During the workshop we had the

Colombian students dealt with

opportunity of combining pre-

different aspects, challenges and

sentations from lecturers and

opportunities of Bogotá’s metro-

students from both universities.

politan transformation in future

While the lecturers presented


their research, students present-

Although they analyzed and tried

ed parts of their academic proj-

to understand the nature and his-

ects carried out during the se-

tory of development patterns in

mester.In this chapter we include

Bogotá and its region, they also

Nelson Muñoz

a summary, written by students of

elaborated specific projects or

Laura Inés Oliveros

TU Wien, of the three presenta-

planning recommendations to as-

Erika Tocarruncho

tions carried out by the students

sess empirically realities, chanc-

of the Regional and Urban Plan-

es and problematics of the city.

Paola Cáceres

ning Master’s program from the

Thus, they aimed at not only crit-

Viviana Ramírez

Universidad Javeriana during the

ically approaching development

Cristina Rodríguez

workshop sessions.

processes, but also at interven-

Javier Rodríguez

The projects presented by the

tions and proposing alternatives.

Participants Martha Liliana Rico Cuenca Nazly Alejandra Trujillo Agudelo Yeison Enrique Rozo González Niyereth Vélez Medrano Ángela María Caicedo Giovanni González German Montenegro

David Alonzo


2.4.1 Guidelines developed for a Territorial Project: El dorado airport II Master’s students: Martha Liliana Rico Cuenca Nazly Alejandra Trujillo Agudelo Yeison Enrique Rozo González Niyereth Vélez Medrano

Advisor: Dr. Arch. Julio Gómez

It is estimated that the metropol-

to cope with the foreseen de-

itan population growth of Bogotá

mand for travelers and goods

will add some 4.2 million inhabi-

exchange. The construction of

tants during next years, and that

the new El Dorado II Airport is the

the agglomeration will reach 12.6

current leading project in the civ-

million inhabitants in 2050. This

il aeronautics field in Colombia.

trend has several implications

The purpose of the project is to

regarding the future demand for

function as a complement to the

housing, public services and in-

existing airport and is aimed to be

frastructure, as well as concerns

in operation by 2022. As the new

about the environmental impacts.

airport will cause important trans-

Within the context of these fu-


ture scenarios, the past exten-

are discussed for sectors such

sions and renovations carried

as housing, agroindustry, and lo-

out during recent years to the

gistics, regarding their long-term

existing airport will not be able

development until 2050.



Figure 2.55 - Bogotá’s regional occupation. Source: Mauricio Romero Mejía © 76

El Dorado Airport Today

El Dorado Airport II

Figure 2.56 - Metropolitan proposal. Source: Group of students ©


Figure 2.57 - Aerial view of the region. Source: Group of students © 77

2.4.2 DYNAMICS OF OCCUPANCY FOR BOGOTÁ’S GROWTH Master’s students: Ángela María Caicedo / Giovanni González German Montenegro / Nelson Muñoz Laura Inés Oliveros / Erika Tocarruncho


Advisors: Humberto Molina and Gonzalo Navarro

Bogotá has been growing rapid-

a high density of 226 inhabitants/

in this area. There is a need to es-

ly for decades. In a period of 65

hectare. Through the analysis, it

tablish conservation and resto-

years the city grew from 751,250

is suggested that the area should

ration controls to ensure ecosys-

inhabitants in 1951 to 8,100,000

take advantage of its sub-central

tem preservation and biological

in 2016. It is estimated that the

location and its network of mobil-


city gains approximately 100,000

ity and infrastructure by promot-

Zona Norte is the new urban

inhabitants per year. While its

ing real estate investment and

growth pole, most of it is agri-

population density has drastical-

business consolidation in the city

cultural land. Hence, density is

ly increased to 195 inhabitants/

block. Unlocking the potential

relatively low and the physical

hectare, its open public space

value of land could help to revital-

environment is good. Different

has decreased, to only 3.9 m²/

ize the city area.

scenarios are elaborated to set

inhabitant. Three different urban

Calle 80 is an urban area located in

the strategy for the next stage of

blocks with specific problems

the west of the city, characterized

urban growth. Environment, mo-

were chosen for analysis and stra-

by the conurbation of several small

bility and construction areas are

tegic planning: Santa Isabel, one

towns. Two rivers and their wetland

strategic elements that should be

small block in the city center, has

are fundamental ecological elements

controlled and promoted.

Figure 2.58 - 3 different case studies. Source: Group of students Š 79

2.4.3 The great bogotá: Phenomenon of Metropolitan Conurbation Master’s students: David Alonzo / Paola Cáceres Viviana Ramírez / Cristina Rodríguez Javier Rodríguez

Advisor: Arch. Fernando Montenegro

This study’s aim is to determine

Bogotá has sprawled to the bor-

an urban expansion plan that

der of neighboring towns, such

properly guides the conurbation

as Funza and Madrid in the west,

process between Bogotá and

and Chía and Cajica in the north.

the municipalities located on the

Based on an analysis of the sta-

east-west axis.

tus quo, particularly available

Conurbation is a term used to

land area, it is suggested that

describe a region that compris-

west would be the growing direc-

es a number of connected cities,

tion. In order to control the con-

large towns, and other urban ar-

urbation growth, an experimen-

eas. Through population growth

tal metropolitan model (LOOPS)

and physical expansion, the re-

is built to set the metropolitan

gion has merged to form one

structure of urban growth.

continuous urban or industrially

The study area has a range of 18

developed area. After decades of

km² (6x3 km) for further detailed

urban growth, the urban area of

urban planning and design. Figure 2.59 - Bogotá’s regional dimension. Source: Group of students ©, based on IDECA.


Figure 2.60 - Hypothetical picture of future scenario. Source: Group of students ©

Figure 2.61 - Metropolitan model LOOPS. Source: Group of students ©

Figure 2.62 - Urban sequence Source: Group of students © 81

Figure 2.63 - Ajiaco.

Figure 2.64 - Cable car construction site.

Figure 2.65- Gold museum.

Figure 2.66 - Visiting Universidad Nacional.

Figure 2.67 - Zipaquira’s salt mine. 82

Figure 2.68 - CiclovĂ­a.

2.5 BOGOTÁ: impressions and glimpses

Figure 2.69 - Street art.

Figure 2.70- Ciclovía.

Figure 2.71 - Gold museum. * Sources: All figures by the TU Wien group, 2017 ©

Figure 2.72 - Flea market. 83

Figure 3.01 - Medellín from west to east. Left UVA de la Imaginación and right public library Leon de Greiff - La Ladera. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved ® 84

3. MEDELLĂ?N: social urbanism for a creative metropolis Visited from the 22 nd to the 25 th of November 2016 85

Figure 3.02 - MedellĂ­n, view from Metrocable line J, west part of the city. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 86

3.0 PREAMBLE: Medellín’s Geographical Characteristics

Medellín is the capital city of the department of Antioquia. In 2014, it had an estimated 2,311,092 urban habitants concentrated in 16 boroughs (called Comunas). Including its 5 rural municipalities, it was estimated that in 2017 its population is around 2,508,452 inhabitants (DANE). Medellín is the second largest city in Colombia with an urban area of 124.94 km², and including its rural areas (5 rural municipalities) a total of 382 km². The city’s average elevation is 1,500 meters above sea Figure 3.03 - From left to right, Colombia in the world, Department of Antioquia in Colombia, municipalities of the Valle de Aburrá metropolitan region (in red) in Antioquia, and Valle de Aburrá topographic visualization. Source: Produced with information extracted from the presentation by arch. John Octavio Ortiz (EDU Medellín), 2016 ®

level, measured at its lowest urban areas close to the Medellín River. 87

Figure 3.04 - MedellĂ­n,existing settlements in 1928. Source: Online, see list of figures. 88

Figure 3.05 - MedellĂ­n boroughs or Comunas. Source: Online, see list of figures.

The river runs through the Aburrá valley, which is part of the central region of the Andes mountain range. Therefore, the city is also called ’la capital de la montaña’ (the capital of the mountain), due to its topography and hilly landscape. Because of its humid subtropical climate and its altitude, the mild and humid climate favors plant and flowers’ growth. Therefore, Medellín is also known as ’la ciudad de la eterna primavera’, the city of eternal spring, as well as ’la ciudad de las flores’, the city of flowers. Figure 3.06 - View of the city from the Comuna 13. Source: Marianne Geißler, 2016 89

Figure 3.07 - MedellĂ­n panoramic view. Source: Online, see list of figures. 90

3.1 INTRODUCTION: Medellín, a city for life without Parques del Río? A deferred city. by Arch. Jorge Pérez Jaramillo

Architect, Consultant, Visiting Fellow King’s College Cambridge, Lent and Easter Terms 2017. Currently staff Director for the Strategic Metropolitan Plan, Medellín and the Aburrá valley Instituto de Estudios Urbanos Universidad Nacioonal. Former Director, Medellín Administrative Planning Department 20122015, Dean of the Faculty of Architecture of the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana 1993-2001.

The process of urbanizing Me-

and territorial planning and man-

dellín and of developing the sur-

agement that have evolved as

rounding region over the last cen-

instruments for building a long-

tury, and specially during recent

term civic project which, on the

decades, shows how it has been

basis of social and civic agree-

possible to confront the high-

ments, has permitted a shared

ly-complex and conflictive con-

vision with continuity in policies

ditions of urbanization, based on

and processes, and thus, the

collective ways of planning and

achievement of transformational

intervention for the city, forward-

results for public life in the con-

ing in a consistent way the build-

text of municipal democracy.

ing of a society that promotes an


inclusive urbanization with coex-

the city’s experience, expressed

istence as essential for life.

by means of prizes, research,

The case of Medellín exemplifies

and diverse assessments, among

experiences with urban, social

which may be noted the recent





Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize

its essence a laboratory for po-

problems. Medellín has developed

2015-2016, is justified, given the

litical development and com-

within a permanent tension, from

magnitude of the challenge fac-

munity building, including broad

trying to offer immediate answers

ing the world today. If we want to

dialogue and participation, new

and solutions to critical adverse

build a more viable planet for the

social organizations, a concen-


future, we must confront urban

tration on education, culture and

sprawl, global warming and ur-


ban conflicts, as well as the very

strengthening within a framework

difficult questions arising from

of co-responsibility, including an

growing poverty and inequality.


The reception of the prize was an

dedicate tax revenues.

namiento Territorial POT (City

opportunity for Mayor’s Federico

The urban process described

Land-use Plan CLP) recently ad-

Gutiérrez, to strengthen his com-

herein permits us to refer to Me-

opted has as one of its most tran-

promise with continuity for the

dellín as a city laboratory, in which

scendental parts the diagnosis

city projects (www.leekuanyew-

for several decades urban prob-

and synthesis of urban evolution


lems have grown faster than the

since 1999 and evidence about

The background of the Medellín

solutions offered by the estab-

the reality of the region, with an-

success story has, among many

lishment, but in which we began

alytical elements to evaluate the

others, the following clear ex-

to learn to diagnose, plan and act

achievements realized and the

planation. Medellín has been in

simultaneously, in reaction to these

problems that persist.





Planning and urbanism as instruments of social inclusion The Medellín Plan de Orde-

The POT in place since 1999, with

Social Urbanism between 2004 and

land-management tools, to foster

its complements and revisions

2008, it is necessary to recognize

an urban platform that attracts in-

of 2000 and 2006, in a way that

that, in spite of all the progress

vestment, strengthens the econ-

contradicts its focus on growing

and urban achievements of Me-

omy and stimulates sources of

within and building a compact

dellĂ­n, we still have profound con-

public financing. This new vision

city associated with the banks of

tradictions and inconsistencies,

will call for greater institutional

the river, meant instead a great

a basis for judgment that leaves

capabilities and for the articula-

expansion of the city towards its

many important learnings in the

tion of the different parts of the

natural borders and peripheries,

face of future initiatives with the

municipal planning system with

which generated a “deferred city�,

new POT (CLP).

respect to the regional model of

a model of regional development

The city of specific urban proj-

the POT (CLP) and its manage-

that was merely theoretical, if we

ects, proposed as solutions to ur-

ment tools, which include the Lo-

keep to the reality of the licenses

ban fragments, should now give

cal and Municipal Development

and projects built during almost

way to more complex process-

Plans and the coordination of in-

fifteen years. After a political period

es, urban operations on another

vestments and public policies in

of much progress with the so-called

scale, with full utilization of the

the region. 93


The new stage for the Plan de

that would permit achieving the

is to honor the agreed territorial

Ordenamiento Territorial POT

goals and objectives of the plan.

model, for a city more equitable

(City Land-use Plan CLP) 2014

Until now, a good share of urban

and inclusive, more sustainable,

projects, both public and private,

more competitive and rational

The POT (CLP), which completed

have gone beyond the capability

and more intelligent in the way it

its term of validity, was recent-

of the Plan and the Mayor’s Office


ly revised and was approved for

as instruments to direct the evo-

a new term of 2014-2027. This

lution of the city based on a re-

A land-use model for strategic

meant capitalizing on diverse ex-

gional model, since the interests


periences and learnings and has

of these concentrated principally

been an opportunity to harmonize

in setting norms.

The development of the Medellín

a set of political and administra-

Therefore, the revision of the plan

region requires the definition of a

tive actions, both of physical and

itself, and of the objectives real-

land-use model composed of the

strategic planning of urban proj-

ized with the projects that were

structure and distribution of ac-

ects that have been formulated

executed, undertaken, or waiting

tivities, with the transformational

and implemented in the city, at

to begin, was a priority need of

intention of bettering the future

times outside the scope of the

this planning exercise. Medellín

conditions of life of its inhabitants,

POT (CLP), as well as to con-

and its POT (CLP), should be an

in terms of equity, efficiency, sus-

solidate an institutional system

integrated whole, together with

tainability and competitively.

of management and an internal

the rest of public management

To define the Land-use Mod-

structure in the Mayor’s office

tools. The challenge from now on

el of Medellín, having revised

the prior POT (CLP) based on

the rural lands with their ecolog-

These are areas that can be as-

the diagnosis of the 1999-2014

ical structures, hadn´t really been

sisted by tools of the Law 388 of

process, a set of prior studies

achieved. Nevertheless, the same

1997 and in the management al-

was examined, along with the

diagnosis demonstrated that the

ternatives developed by the City

identification of the regional el-

regional model continued to be

of MedellĂ­n, such as the Urban

ements with greatest potential

valid, and buttressed it as the

Macro-projects, Partial Plans, In-

for transformation. The accumu-

way to go in the new era.

tegral Urban Projects (PUI), and

lated learnings derived from the

In the context of strengthening

Master Plans, among others.

incoherent expansive growth of

the objective of renewing the in-

The projects of the Plan de Or-

MedellĂ­n towards it borders and

ner city in a denser and more

denamiento Teritorial POT (City

peripheries throughout the years

compact manner was a key to

Land-use Planning Model CLP)

1999-2014 led to the conclusion

defining the structural urban in-

look for concrete actions for re-

that the prior model of a compact

terventions capable of develop-

gional transformation, and the

city, with greater internal growth,

ing potential areas of opportuni-

point of departure for their formu-

in the area of the river, and lim-

ty for overcoming problems and

lation is recognizing the diversity

iting the expansion towards the

shortcomings based on urban

of the urban areas where actions

higher mountainous limits so as

imbalances identified, areas we

are to be taken. This presuppos-

to preserve the biodiversity and

call Strategic Intervention Areas.

es distinct ways to approximate 95


and develop, taking into account

context of the POT (CLP), which,

The river as a structuring ele-

complex factors like the condi-

synthetizing past regional, met-

ment of the metropolitan region

tions of places, the differences

ropolitan and municipal planning

between different parts and com-

for more than twenty years, has

The transformation of the Aburrá

ponents of the city, the relation of

fostered the dream of having an

Valley has long been a topic of

urban systems with other project

integrated urban system along

work and controversies. For de-

components, the knowledge of

the full length of our river as a

cades, Medellín defined its urban

their possibilities in the context

compact city, more inclusive and

form using the Medellín River as

of a City Land-use Planning Mod-

that better takes advantage of its

a functional element, both as an

el, and above all, the resolution

opportunities, based on the as-

open sewer and as a corridor for

of problems, deficiencies, and

sumption that the valley and the

the mobility of motor vehicles.

shortcomings, in order to define

river basin with its rich biodiversi-

This made of the river a fracture

the programmatic content of the

ty, will be the firm base on which

in the urban fabric, an element

River Parks.

a new city, more balanced, more

that divided the city all along

The River Parks are no doubt the

sustainable and with a better

the valley and a barrier to civ-

most strategic project that is be-

ecological footprint will be devel-

ic integration. From 2001-2003,

ing developed by the city in the


the government of Luis Pérez G.

promoted a controversial project

have meant that “Medellín did-

However, at the beginning of

of intervention to the river chan-

n´t have a mobility plan, rather it

Sergio Fajardo´s government in

nel, a possible modification to

would itself be a mobility plan”,

2004, the project was discarded

make the river navigable, a proj-

alternative ideas always existed

for practical reasons and it was

ect that was dropped after vari-

that were humanistically inspired

decided instead to dedicate the

ous technical and legal analyses

and of a greater social and envi-

resources to the construction of

by the environmental authorities.

ronmental integrity, that promot-

ten quality schools. However, the

By the same token, he proposed

ed the idea of integrating the river

studies regarding the park contin-

building a viaduct as an elevated

and the city, as in a lineal park.

ued and in 2008, the government

highway above the river, in order

This proposal, initially set forth in

of Alonso Salazar, who had prom-

to engineer multimodal transpor-

1942 by the artist Pedro Nel Gó-

ised in his campaign to explore

tation for the full length of the

mez, as well as by the architect

the possibility of constructing the

city, which would have definitely

Jean Wolff, was discarded right

project in the Metropolitan Center,

converted the river into the great

away by the powers that ran the

where today it is being built. As

urban fracture of Medellín.

city, and after the proposals to

Mayor-elect, after a trip to Chile,

In contrast with this functionalist

channel the river and convert it

he agreed to a pact as an urban

notion and that of the traffic en-

into a multimodal corridor of mo-

concession with the Colombian

gineering adopted historically as

torized traffic, the segregation of

Chamber of Infrastructure CCI,

a model for the development of

the river from civic life was carved

using as a model a system built in

Medellín, which as the urban ex-

in stone with the adoption of the

Santiago de Chile for the border

pert Carlos Julio Calle said would

1950 Master Plan for Medellín.

of the Mapocho river. Although 97


widely debated, the project was

the then-called Parque Vial del Río

the compact city model that grows

cancelled due to the concession

(River Transportation Park) was

within sets forth the Parques del

structure that was proposed.

defined as a binding general met-

Río (River Parks) scenario as the

In this context, as a result of the

ropolitan agreement for regional

fundamental urban renewal strat-

studies and planning of those

development, which meant it be-

egy of the city.

years, Mayor Salazar led jointly

came the direct origin of the River

The city has embarked on a long-

with the Metropolitan Area of the

Parks, now under construction.

term path that is tremendously

Aburrá Valley the formulation of

It is noteworthy that during the

exciting in search of a new en-

a Master Plan BIO2030, which

electoral campaign of 2011, the

vironmental quality and a trans-



river and its park became an ob-

formation in civic culture. This

tan Directives of Regional Land-

ject of civic debate, and some of

will mean having the River Parks

use Planning adopted in 2006,

the then candidates, especially

and along the river a re-densified

which in a way consistent with

Federico Gutiérrez and Aníbal

urban system. In addition, it will

the POT(CLP) studies, the Metro-

Gaviria, explicitly promoted its

create functional, economic and

politan Directives and other plans,

construction, in stark contrast

social opportunities that come

strengthened the scenario of the

with the proposed viaduct over

with any urban renewal opera-

river as the most strategic area

the river, again endorsed by the

tion, as well as a recuperated

for the growth of the city. By de-

candidate Luis Pérez G. As might

natural element due to the very

fining it as a Metropolitan Agree-

be noted, from the accumulated

advanced PEM program of clean-

ment, a strategic structural project

metropolitan and municipal plan-

ing up the river. Since 1981 EPM

for the city and the Aburrá Valley,

ning during this century, advancing

(PEM) started designing a saniti-


zation program that was started

ronmental contingencies and crit-

and greater public transportation.

more than twenty years ago and

ical problems of public health. It is

A compact and accessible city,

is now in the final phase of con-

urgent to move from the tradition-

more integrated and articulated,

struction, with the entry into op-

al mobility model to that proposed

both on the scale of Medellín and

eration of the Aguasclaras treat-

by the Plan de Ordenamiento Ter-

on the overall metropolitan scale

ment plant in Bello, to the north

ritorial POT (City Land-use Plan

of the Aburrá Valley, is a high pri-

of Medellín, with an investment

CLP) which reverses priorities to-


of more than 1.7 billion dollars.

wards a non-motorized mobility

The expectation over the coming years is to have a river that is 93% oxygenated. Another environmental dimension that is very important is the critical situation of air quality in the region. In the face of its general geographic conditions, the city bounded by a narrow valley suffers from serious contamination, which, due to the predominant motorized mobility fed by fossil fuels, is generating severe envi-

Figure 3.08 - Master Plan Parques del Río (River Parks and the city model), project in progress. Source: Rendering and project by LATITUD Taller de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, 2013 99


In the basin of the Medellín River

pressures the systems of mobility

and transformative regional chal-

with the confluence of projects

is a no-exit situation.

lenge that our society has as-

in process like the Metropolitan

In a planet that intensely debates

sumed, making it possible to live

Green Belt and the Outer Gar-

how to confront our accumulated

in a City for Life.

dens of Medellín, proposed for

problems and what change is re-

Based on the POT (CLP), the

the border between urban and

quired in the face of global warm-

coming years will be a privileged

rural, the actions being taken in

ing, in an institutional framework

scenario for urban management

the system of streams and green

of a country that has signed glob-

and a great leap forward for Me-

public spaces, as well as the Riv-

al commitments for a New Urban

dellín. With the development of

er Parks as a structural element

Agenda and the COP21, among

the urban Macro-projects and the

of urban renewal of the city, will

others, the change proposed in

projects derived from them like

generate an Aburrá Valley much

Medellín, with our POT (RLP), is

the River Parks and the associ-

more integrated and articulated

an immense opportunity, not only

ated Strategic Intervention Areas:

for the future of all. Reversing the

because it is the result of a broad

expansionist tendency towards

collective consensus regarding a



long-term city project, but also

which multiplies demands and

because it is the most ambitious



ÂżHow much of our thinking and civic commitment of the past and of the long-term vision that has inspired change still prevails? The discontinuity of urban processes, the changes in the central objectives of the city, the political fragmentation and the vision of one group that is imposed, on the whole, make one think that not much does. So that it seems as if we, as a society are entering into a kind of limbo, in which at the best moment of the city, the absence of clarity and the prevalence of fragmentation and egotism show Figure 3.09 - Strategic Intervention Areas, macroprojects POT (CLP POT Macroproyectos POT MedellĂ­n Acuerdo 048 de 2014). Source: Departamento Administrativo de PlaneaciĂłn, 2015

themselves yet again, and we are 101


in danger of unlearning many of

problems to be solved, and high

sustainable society. The best of

the lessons of the past.

levels of resillience, has distin-

what we have achieved over the

In spite of the evident progress of

guished the city process until now.

last twenty-five years, as set forth

Medellín, the city is still very far

The definitive progress of Me-

in this text, has been to honor the

from representing a unanimous

dellín will depend in large part on

civic project without messiahs,

political vision. The recent local

our joint clarity to value achieve-

as the cultural and political mon-

elections are strongly disputed

ments and understand challeng-

ument built by all of us. The way

and the debate is intense in the

es and out of our depth and hon-

of equity, sustainability and the

face of the enormous political

esty to manage the problems of

other challenges we face com-

power of the traditional political

renewing our leadership.

mits us all to persist and capital-

class, which continues to prevail

In contradiction to the citizen and

ize on the lessons learned, and as

and makes complex the conti-

institutional processes developed

before, everything will depend on

nuity of the civic project that has

along the last governments, the

our clarity and our generosity with

characterized the last three gov-

Mayor of Medellín has suspended

the community.


the Parques del Río Master Plan

Medellín is living in a moment of

development (River Parks). This

truth for all, the result of sharing re-

means abandoning all the agree-

sponsibility to move along a path

ments from the POT and cancels

chosen years ago. Continuity, co-

opportunities for urban renewal

herence, appropiate priorization of

towards a more fair, equitable and

Figure 3.10 - A city and a river renewed for public life. Evolution towards a compact city, integrated with natural spaces, with multimodal mobility and sustainable public spaces. View of the metropolitan center of Medellín, looking north, River Parks. Source: Juan Manuel Uribe, 2017



1 Tram T-A head end El Oriente 2 Jardín Circunvalar 3 UVA de la Armonía 4 UVA Sol de Oriente


5 Plaza Botero and Museum of Antioquia 6 Parque de los Deseos, Parque Explora and Medellín’s city center

Botanical Garden 7 Parques del Rio 8 Comuna 13 - Escalators 9 Public library Presbitero

Visited areas, figure 3.12

10 Metrocable line J head end La Aurora 11 Moravia 12 Biblioteca España and Metrocable line K 13 Stadium 14 Universidad Bolivariana 15 Ciudad del Rio and Museum of Modern art

Itagüi Envigado Figure 3.11 - Medellín and its region, satellite view. Source: Google maps, October 2017. 104



3.2 field trips: visited areas, projects and institutions


11 6


13 5 2 14



1 15

Figure 3.12 - Detailed visits in Medellín. Source: OpenStreetMap, 2017

During our study visit to Medellín

The following contributions writ-

we had the opportunity of having

ten by the TU Wien participants



are divided into four sub-chapters

discussions with academics and

which reflect the geographical ur-

professionals from the city about

ban zones visited, starting from

different dimensions of its urban

the eastern boroughs („El Ori-

and metropolitan development.

ente“), moving across the centre

This theoretical background was

(„El Centro“) towards the western

strongly complemented by em-

(„El Occidente“) and the northern

pirical evidence gained during

parts („El Norte“) of the city.

on-site visits to several of the in-

On top of these, a brief descrip-

frastructure projects the city ad-

tion and commentary on the

ministration has built during the

metro system as a backbone for

last 15 years.

development and the transport

The visits revealed deeper in-

system is included. We would like

sights into the processes and

to thank our colleagues from the

structures behind urban planning

Universidad Bolivariana for orga-

in Medellín.

nizing these visits!



3.2.1 Medellín’s transport system


“Metro de Medellín” is a compa-

In 1979, Metro de Medellín com-

the center to the western part of

ny founded in 1979 in coopera-

missioned research on the eco-

the city, was inaugurated a few

tion with the government of the

nomic and technical possibilities

years later. The Metrocable (cable

department of Antioquia and the

of building an above-ground met-

car) line K, which was regarded

city council of Medellín. The firm

ro line along the Medellín River,

very critically by politicians and

is primarily responsible for the

from the north to the south end

citizens, became operational in

construction, administration and

of the city. On the 30th of Novem-

2004, and now connects the very

operation of the public transport

ber 1995 the city started the op-

remote neighborhoods around

system in the metropolitan area of

eration of the metro line A, from

Santo Domingo to the metro sys-

Medellín. Besides, the enterprise

Niquía to Poblado. From this day

tem. After realizing the positive

has investments in various projects

forward, it was possible to trav-

effects that the newly built infra-

of public interest and is consid-

el more easily from the mostly

structure brought for the com-

ered one of the biggest investors in

poor northern neighborhoods to

munities and the city itself, the

public infrastructure projects in the

the city center. Metro de Medellín

project gained broad acceptance

city, along with “EPM” (Empresas

soon became a symbol of the

among the inhabitants and city

Publica de Medellín) and “INDER”

political and economic recovery

administrators. Nowadays there

(Instituto de Deportes y Recreación

of the city. It is no surprise that

are four active lines, as well as one

de Medellín).

another train line (B), leading from

tram line, and BRT bus systems to

Figure 3.13 - Metro line A in Medellín. Source: Online, see list of figures.

complement the metro. In the last few years, the public transport system of Medellín has been expanded step by step: The Metrocable line J was built as an extension of the metro line B in the western neighborhoods of San Javier in 2008, and the BRT (bus rapid transit) system lines 1 and 2 in the more or less flat areas of the Aburrá valley, at the center of Medellín.

Figure 3.14 - Medellín’s public transport map, including metro, cable car, tram and BRT. Source: Online, see list of figures. 107

3.2.2 Eastern boroughs: Public transportation and strategic projects Comunas 3, 8 & 9: El Oriente - Tram Line T-A


In 2015, the newly built tramline

turning radius of the coaches to a

which did not work out in all cas-

was inaugurated, complement-

minimum, which makes it easier

es. This measure thus led to some

ing the system’s east-west axis:

to cope with the specific condi-

resistance among the inhabitants

It starts at San Antonio, where

tions found at this site, such as

of these areas. Due to integrative

the metro lines A and B intersect,

narrow and steep roads.

planning processes including the

runs up the steep hills and nar-

Despite an optimization process

inhabitants directly affected by

row streets to the remote neigh-

during the planning period, some

the construction of the new tram-

borhoods of Comuna 9, Buenos

houses and residents in those in-

line, the Tranvía T-A could finally

Aires. The tram T-A is operated

formally emerged neighborhoods

be built. At workshops (“Talleres

by use of the French “Translohr”

had to be resettled due to con-


system, consisting of a centered

struction work, especially in the

place their wishes and desires

monorail-conducted tram pow-

areas of tram stations and turning

for their newly built surroundings,

ered by broad rubber tires on

points. The city council and the

and design the newly created

each side of the vehicle. This con-

investor “Metro de Medellín” were

public spaces along the route of

cept enables the coaches to move

very eager to relocate the involved

the tram. These methodologies

along steep hills, and reduces the

residents to a nearby location,

and participatory processes led



Figure 3.15 - New tram line T-A. Source: Marianne GeiĂ&#x;ler, 2016 109

Figure 3.16 - Infographic on the tram T-A from „El Colombiano“ newspaper. Source: Online, see list of figures. 110

to an enormous increase of ac-

were in construction along the

ceptance among inhabitants, al-

tram, connecting the isolated parts

ready during the planning phase,

of Comuna 8 (neighborhoods 13 de

as people began to identify with

Noviembre and Villa Sierra), which

the new projects.

mainly emerged informally due to

At the time of the excursion, two

migration from the countryside.

more Metrocables, lines H and M,

Figure 3.17 - Tram line T-A, panoramic of the public space and its street art. Source: Florian Baier, 2016 111 Jardín Circunvalar

In the second half of the 20th

Municipio de San Jerónimo







century the city spread, due to

1.195.000 Fris


Corregimiento San Sebastián de Palmitas


Sistema de centralidades

Transversalidades naturale occidente que conecta el v



Eje natural del Río Aburrá y

Q. La Madera Q. La

Corregimiento San Cristóbal


Un área rural integrada al e funciones de protección ec bienes y servicios ambienta rural tradicional

Municipio de Guarne


Un borde rural diverso que urbano-rurales, protege su limita el crecimiento urbano barrios consolidados con a reduciendo las condiciones

rita Lau


Ma lpa so


Ca ña ve ral



o El

Zonas de media ladera het







la eja rm Be



El ao


Un corredor del río Aburrá urbana, epicentro del espa que concentra las mayores diversidad de usos en las á mejor capacidad de soporte


Q. La Honda

ná ua Ig




a Dia z

Q. La

Un borde urbano - rural diverso

5-6 Za nc ud


Municipio de Ebéjico



along the hills of the enclosing

Un área rural integrada al entorno regional

Municipio de Bello

Q. La Quintana

but also in its spatial dimensions

Convenciones T

Consolidación de un territor conectado en su movil conservación de su bas estratégicos como princip con los demás mu Sistema de conexión vial u

cia Su

only grow in terms of inhabitants,


ana Volc


countryside to the city, it did not

Q. La Q. La


migration of people from the

Un municipio que aporte a la consolidación del territorio metropolitano y regional


the Aburrá Valley along its northwest axis. But with large-scale




the topographical situation in


ac Pic La Q.



Q. Altavista

Municipio de Heliconia

Corregimiento San Antonio de Prado

ments along the slopes of the

Q. La

Q. La

Presid enta

Convenciones Perímetro Urbano


Límite Suelo de Expansión





Límite de Corregimiento


Ag ua






Límite Municipal Río Medellín METRO, Línea A , Niquía-La Estrella METRO, Línea B, San Antonio-San Javier


METROCABLE, Línea J, San Javier-La Aurora

Sistema de C

Municipio de Rionegro Q. Zuñig

Un corredor del Rio aburrá que ofrece gran vitalidad urbana : Oferta de espacio público,diversiad de usos y mayor concentración de densidades habitacionales



a Mar Q. Doñ





Coordenadas Proyectadas: PCS MAG Ant Mede Proyección: Transversa de Mercator Falso Este: 835.378 Falso Norte: 1.180.816 Meridiano Central: -75,5649

Fuente de información: Actualización catastr Planos del POT Acdo Cartografía SIGAME

by the massive urban expansion, they also threaten to harm the


Q. La Guayabala

Aburrá Valley do not only lead to infrastructural problems caused

Zonas de media ladera heterogéneas


Corregimiento Santa Elena

Corregimiento Altavista

ed to outgrow its natural borders. The emerging informal settle-

Q. San ta Elen a


mountain ranges: The city start-

Municipio de Angelópolis 820.000


Elaboró: Departamento Administrativo

Municipio de Envigado

Municipio de Itaguí Municipio de 825.000 La Estrella


Procesó: Departamento Administrativo 840.000


Figure 3.18 - Modelo de ocupación, POT Medellín. Land use or occupancy model. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Escala de impresión: 1:100.000

Fecha de

ecological balance of the surrounding ecosystems, which are essential to the city. Additionally, houses and shelters in those informal settlements are mostly built on unsuitable and unsafe sites (for instance along rivers and steep slopes). Inhabitants are thus endangered by several types of natural catastrophes, but especially landslides in times of heavy rain. The city council of Medellín started to react to this problem in cooperation with the affected Comunas and the city-administered planning office “EDU” (Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano), by implementing the concept of an urban green belt (Jardín Circunvalar – el cinturón verde de Medellín), surrounding the city on the slopes of

Figure 3.19 - New public sport facilities at Jardin Circunvalar. Source: Florian Baier, 2016 113

Figure 3.20 - The Jardín Circunvalar as a perimetral border to control informal expansion. Source: Online, see list of figures.

the hills, preventing Medellín from

Today, several parts of the proj-

growing further in spatial terms.

ect, such as the “Eco-Parque 13

Inhabitants living in high-risk ar-

de Noviembre” or “Eco-Parque

eas are relocated to nearby and

Las Tinajas” are completed. Lo-

newly-created homes, and simul-

cal residents were included in the

taneously a local recreation area

planning process, and a major-

for remote parts of the city is pro-

ity of the construction work was

vided. This is naturally important

done by inhabitants of the nearby

for the city, as Medellín had only


5m² of green space per resident

After finalization, the parks and

in 2007, whereas the United Na-

the facilities (such as urban farm-

tions suggest that a city of good

ing, sports grounds and multipur-

living quality should have at least

pose rooms) are even maintained

9 m² of green space per capita.

and supervised by locals.

Another objective is the improve-

This inclusive process creates a

ment of connectivity: If the city

strong bond between the neigh-

ceases to grow in its spatial di-

bors and the newly created plac-

mension, it will more likely be able

es – they are taking ownership,

to sustainably plan infrastructure

which creates awareness of tak-

like public transport systems for

ing care of their infrastructure.

the outlying regions. Figure 3.21 - Aerial view of the Ecoparque Las Tinajas, located at the Jardin Circunvalar. Source: Online, see list of figures. 114

115 UVA de la Armonía & UVA Sol de Oriente: presented by Carlos Pardo & Camilo Restrepo

By contrast, the architects of EPM had a rather dissident approach and realized an extraordinary project: During the elaboration of an illumination master plan for the whole city, Carlos Pardo and Camilo Restrepo (on behalf of the whole EPM team) discovered that around 94% of Medellín is publicly illuminated. When investigating the parts of the city not lighted at night they came to realize that it wasn’t only small spots that were affected, but also large-scale areas. These areas were situated nearby water tanks, of which they found 144, Figure 3.22 - The UVAs’ locations in Medellín. Source: Extracted from the presentation by Carlos Pardo & Camilo Restrepo (EPM), 2016 ® 116

mainly on the hillsides of the city.

mainly on opening these zoned

As the surrounding area of the

places for the public and creat-

water tanks was investigated, the

ing attractive and secure public

reason for its darkness by night

spaces. Topics such as sanitary

became obvious: The areas were

issues and groundwater had to

surrounded by walls and formed

be considered to make the proj-

a dark, zoned and insecure envi-

ect eco-friendly, and an addition-


al aim was the reduction of daily

Therefore, the EPM team creat-

distances for the inhabitants.

ed a concept, which set its focus

Figure 3.23 - Historical view of one water tank, closed off by fences. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 3.24 -View of the tank transformed into the UVA de la Libertad. Source: Online, see list of figures. 117

By integrating the dwellers and considering their ideas and requests




phase, a better communication process was implemented not only between the communities and the experts but also within the communities itself. The project enabled identification with the developed area and created open space for everyone. During workshops with the locals, needs and ideas were produced to refine the concept. As existing and uninhabited space was used, no one was forced to resettle. The project was financed by EPM (including public fees for gas and water connection) as a so-called social investment. Figure 3.25 - UVA Sol de Oriente surroundings, as seen from the Jardin Circunvalar. Source: Katharina Hรถftberger, 2016. 118

Figure 3.26 - UVA Sol de Oriente, sports facility. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 3.28 - UVA de la ArmonĂ­a, water tank and public space. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016

Figure 3.27 - UVA Sol de Oriente, 3D longitudinal section. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 3.29 - Sunset at the UVA de la ArmonĂ­a. Source: Florian Baier, 2016 119

3.2.3 Central boroughs: public places and green infrastructure comunas 10 & 11: El Centro - Plaza Botero & Museum of Antioquia

La Candelaria – La Comuna 10 is

74,800 inhabitants. But its func-

located in the eastern center of

tion as city center La Candelaria

the city. It is the foundation, his-

explains the prevailing low pop-

toric and patrimonial center of the

ulation density, as well as the

city. It was originally Medellín’s

large share of floating population

economic and business epicen-

and commuters. At daytime the

ter, and the area around Parque

streets around the Plaza Botero,

Bolivar was the cultural hub of

between the metro Stations San

the city. While La Candelaria is no

Antonio and Parque Berrio, are

longer the only sector of econom-

busy, occupied by traders and in-

ic importance it is still the heart

formal commerce. The metro sta-

of Medellín, and also called “El

tion San Antonio in La Candelaria


serves as an interface between

La Candelaria has in comparison

the east, north, west and south in

to other boroughs the lowest total

Medellín, connecting line A with

population, with approximately

the terminal stop of line B, as well Figure 3.30 - Plaza Botero. Source: Hui Lyu, 2016


as the new tram line A-T with the

Botero are exhibited in the park,

and Library Zea. It had to be closed

terminal stop Estación Oriente.

donated by the artist himself. The

several times due to funding issues

The Comuna 11 Laureles - Es-

Plaza Botero is framed by the

(1906, 1918, 1932, ...) until it was fi-

tadio is located at the other side

Museum de Antioquia as well as

nally administered by the Society of

of the Medellín River. The river

the Uribe Palace of Culture and

Public Improvements in 1934. For

presents a nearly insuperable

the metro line A, which is running

the reopening a fundraising cam-

obstacle. Due to its enormous

above the Carrera 51.

paign was launched, and 114 works

pollution, it is hardly perceived as

In the plaza, numerous cafes and

were donated. The museum then re-

enrichment to the city. The river


opened in 1946.

is walled, barely accessible and

food invite you to linger.


below the level of the neighboring

The Museo de Antioquia was the

housed in different quarters until its

settlements, inhabitants of these

first museum established in the

placement next to the Plaza Botero.

settlements hardly notice it. Only

department and the second in

In 1998 the former Municipal Palace

a few bridges connect the city’s

Colombia. It houses a large col-

Medellín was elected as the new

quarters, otherwise the river is in-

lection of art created by Fernan-

headquarter for the museum. Land


do Botero and Pedro Nel Gomez.

use plans today define the museum

The Plaza Botero is, since its new

The museum was founded on

as a strategic element in relation to

structuring in 2002, an urban park

November 29, 1881 by the gov-

the city’s core and its cultural activ-

full of life. 23 bronze sculptures

ernment of the former Antioquia


by the Colombian artist Fernando

State, under the name of Museum







121 Parque de los Deseos, Parque Explora and Botanical Garden


The cultural and academic en-

located north of it. Here, the pres-

red cubes connected by bridges,

semble composed by the Parque

ence of cultural and academic ac-

in which the various scientific and

Explora, the botanical garden the

tivities, an inclusive open public

technical labs and exhibitions are

Parque de los Deseos and the

space as well as the connection

located. Half of the building is on

Universidad de Antioquia has

with the public transport system,

stilts, creating areas for public ex-

consolidated during the last 10

has stimulated the integration of

hibitions and public space on the

years as a sub centrality of the

this former disarticulated urban

ground floor.

city. These four facilities articulate


The Botanical Garden was cre-

each other through well sized, il-

The Parque Explora is an inter-

ated in 1968 when Medellín was

luminated and comfortable public

active science museum opened

to host the VII World Conference

spaces and are connected to the

in December 2007. With an area

on Orchidology. The newly creat-

city by the metro station Univer-

of 22,000 m² and 15,000 m² of

ed organization “Joaquín Antonio


exhibition space it is the largest

Uribe Botanical Garden” inaugu-

The positive impacts that the in-

museum in the city. It was de-

rated the garden in 1972. Since

vestments carried out in this cen-

signed by the Colombian archi-

then, the purpose of the organi-

trality has been very positive for

tect Alejandro Echeverri, in its

zation was to promote and devel-

its immediate context, especially

interior and exterior surfaces. The

op natural sciences and research,

for the neighborhood of Moravia

exterior of the building consists of

and the flora in Colombia.

A big milestone in the park’s history was in 1985 when the botanical garden was declared cultural heritage. From 2005 to 2007 a renovation project was implemented in the whole area of the park. In addition to improvements in the garden and its flora and fauna, smaller projects on buildings were carried out. One of them was the renovation of the Patio de las Azaleas complex and the construction of the scientific building, the Orquideorama, the main access, the South American Theater, the House of the Butterflies, a small parking lot and the public space surrounding the garden (https:// www.botanicoMedellín.org/). Figure 2.31 - Aerial view of the Botanical Garden and the Parque Explora (Red Building) Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved © 123

Figure 3.32 - Parque Explora, seen from the metro station Universidad. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2014 124

The Orquideorama was designed

implemented by ex-major Sergio

by the architectural teams Plan B

Farjardo in the period 2005-2008.

Architects and JPRCR Architects.

The orientation of its buildings,

The project was started in 2006

the Casa de la Musica and the

with the aim of showing the rela-

Planetario de Medellín, creates a

tion between architecture and the

generous space between them,

living organisms that surround

which is used daily by different

the building.

social and age groups. Weekly

Besides its scientific relevance,

events, including cultural dis-

the garden is an important green

plays, film projections, concerts,

urban ecosystem for the inhabi-

plays, lectures and others, take

tants of Medellín and the metro-

place at the open plaza between

politan area. It also symbolizes

both buildings. For the architect

the renewal of the garden and the

it was important to create a link

city itself.

between science and technology,

The Parque de los Deseos was

therefore a number of interactive

designed by the architect Fe-

science pieces were positioned in

lipe Uribe de Bedout. It is locat-

the public spaces.

ed adjacent to the metro station

The plaza itself was built by EPM

Universidad and was part of a

in 2003 and comprises more than

large-scale renovation program

12,000 m².

Figure 3.34 - Orquideorama, Botanical Garden. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2014

Figure 3.33 - Parque de los Deseos. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2014 125 Parques del Rio: presented by Arch. Sebastián Monsalve

Figure 3.35 - Parques del Rio (first phase), aerial view. th Source: Extracted from the presentation arch. Figure 2.29 - TransMilenio at 26by street. John Octavio Ortiz (EDU Medellín), ® 2016 Source:2016 Hui Lyu, 126

Another relevant infrastructure

ist and because of its bad image

project for the city is Parques del

has turned into a social barrier.

Río. As indicated by its name, it

The city thus organized an inter-

focuses on the renovation of the

national architecture competition

riverside of the Medellín River.

to renovate the whole ecologi-

The river was canalized during

cal structure. It was won by the

the middle 1940’s to improve

young team of LATITUD Taller de

the trace of the parallel avenues

Ciudad y Arquitectura. Their pro-

which connect the city with the

posal developed a strategy with

national transport network of the

long-term objectives and specific

country. Due to a lack of environ-

measures including architectural

mental regulation and effective

concepts and designs. The aim of

actions the river has being pol-

the strategy is to bring the people

luted during the last years, and

back to the river, to appreciate

its isolation and inaccessibility

the river and in the end to benefit

transformed it into a non-place.

from it. For the team of LATITUD

For the majority of the inhabitants

it was very important to work

of Medellín the river does not ex-

with the community and to make

a statement, calling attention to the river’s presence. They want to point out possibilities and to create awareness, which is also reflected in the concept of the architects as there is still space for future adjustments to take the ideas of the community into account. But one central idea is to reconstruct all streets and infrastructure systems below ground for better accessibility and per-

Figure 3.36 - Walking along the already built Parques del Rio (first phase). Source: Marianne GeiĂ&#x;ler, 2016

ception. For political reasons the project is currently on hold, as the current major rejects the strategy to renew the riverside and is in negotiations. However, the last administration was able to implement part of the superstructure at a strategically important place, which we also visited during our stay in the city. Figure 3.37 - Sports and recreation facilities at the park. Source: Marianne GeiĂ&#x;ler, 2016 127

3.2.4 Western boroughs: neighborhood transformation Comuna 13: San Javier

The Comuna 13 in San Javier

president Alvaro Uribe started the

has existed for 60 years and was

controversial “Operation Orion”,

once one of the most dangerous

a military intervention in the heart

neighborhoods in Medellín. The

of the Comuna 13, with the aim of

borough is mostly residential and

getting rid of armed groups and

occupies a hilly area at the west-

guerrillas. After this operation, the

ern edge of the city, with an enor-

city started vitalizing and recover-

mous population density. The Co-

ing the neighborhood.

muna 13 has long been an area

Through investments in public

of strategic importance to urban

projects as schools, sport fields,

guerrilla and paramilitary groups,

public areas and transportation

as well as gangs, also because of

the city council of Medellín sta-

its proximity to the highway San

bilized the area. Step by step,

Juan. Due to this, many residents

kindergartens and schools, com-

were displaced from their homes

parable in infrastructure quality to

unwillingly; violence and criminal-

private and traditional ones, were

ity were out of control. In 2002

built in the poorest districts.

Figure 3.38 - The group walking through the Comuna 13. Source: Florian Baier, 2016 128

But not only the city council took action, the residents of the Comuna 13 have reinvented their neighborhood as well: Urban gardening projects, language cours-

Figure 3.39 - Street art seen in San Javier, Comuna 13. Source: Florian Baier, 2016

es, meeting points for teenagers and many more projects were initiated by the inhabitants. Graffiti in the streets of the Comuna still tell stories about the bloody disputes and Pablo Escobar’s drug imperium, but slowly they are replaced by new topics not reminiscent of the bloody times, but focusing on their own changes as a community and their not yet written futures. Figure 3.40 - Street art seen in San Javier, Comuna 13. Source: Marianne GeiĂ&#x;ler, 2016 129 Public library Presbitero & Comuna 13 escalators

The Bibliotheca San Javier is one example of the investments made by the city administration concerning public space and infrastructure in the Comuna 13. It was started in 2003 by Major Sergio Fajardo with the idea of fighting poverty with architecture. 40% of Medellín’s annual budget, approximately 900 million US-Dollars, is used for the education program “Medellín la Más Educada” that he established. Connected to the metro stop San Javier and the Metrocable line J, the library is one of five large library projects that were built in Figure 3.41 - The group during the visit to the Public library Presbitero. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 130

the poorest neighborhoods of

the city of Medellín has improved

Medellín. The library has open

its accessibility, and the escala-

public spaces and is integrated

tors of the Comuna 13 opened

into the surrounding park, which

in December 2011 are one of the

is home to an urban gardening

city’s flagships. The complex,

project run by the community.

with a total length of 348 me-

Today, the library is a venue used

ters, is divided into six sections,

by the whole Comuna, whether

overcoming a height difference

for school events, adult educa-

of about 28 floors. With the con-

tion, or meetings. However, the

struction of the escalators, public

library is not only intended to

space in the form of small squares

serve as a meeting place, but as a

and streets has also been built,

starting point for the revitalization

establishing a net of mobility and

of the entire district.

meeting points.

In former days the Comuna 13

As a result, the accessibility of the

was hardly accessible. Only nar-

neighborhood has been improved

row steps and paths winded up

radically, and public space of-

along informal housing. It was

fered, in addition to the increased

a perfect playground for illegal

quality of residence, social con-

businesses and drug traffic. But

trol and a weakening of crime.

Figure 3.42 - Escalators, Comuna 13. Source: Florian Baier, 2016

Figure 3.43 - Escalators, Comuna 13. Source: Patricia Trauner, 2016 131 Metrocable line J


During the massive expansion of

It was not only in terms of re-

station of the metroline B San

the city, inhabitants settled on the

ducing transport problems, but

Javier over the sprawling hill-top

hillsides on hard-to-reach places

also by diminishing the gap be-

barrios of Juan XXIII and Vallejue-

in informal settlements. These

tween the poorer inhabitants of

los to The Aurora (http://gondol-

places lacked mobility infrastruc-

peripheral neighborhoods (which


ture, reachability was at its worst.

commonly needed to travel large

In comparison to other Metroca-

The local government of Medellín

distances before being able to

ble lines the stations of line J are

therefore presented an integral

access the metro system or ur-

sparsely populated. While other

approach, introducing an aerial

ban bus network) and the wealth-

lines were built mainly to provide

massive transport system called

ier inhabitants in the city’s central

transport solution to existing in-


and better-connected areas.

formal settlements, the line J was

The construction of the Metroca-

The line J was opened in 2008

designed and planned also to

ble line J in one of the formerly

and is an urban commuter line

cover future planned districts in

most dangerous and poor dis-

linking directly to the city’s metro

Vallejuelos and la Aurora.

tricts, which was at that time


Therefore this line is an example

also undergoing massive growth,

With its length of 2,7 km this line

of transit-oriented development

transformed the whole borough

serves several smaller neighbor-

(TOD), supporting more sustain-

physically and socially.

hoods, starting from the terminal

able urban growth.

Figure 3.44 - Informal settlements as seen along the Metrocable line J ride. District Juan XXIII. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved Š 133

3.2.5 Northern boroughs: infrastructure and neighborhood transformation Comunas 4 & 1: Moravia


The conflict between drug car-

Health and sanitation conditions

a public space. Although many

tels, paramilitary and guerrilla

were extreme, 30% of the build-

families were relocated to safer

groups all over Colombia led to

ing structures were deemed dan-

areas close to the neighborhood,

the displacement of a large num-

gerous and the site became the

many other were not and thus dis-

ber of people. Many of them had

most densely populated area in

placed to very far districts such

previously lived in rural areas of

all of Colombia in the 1970s. The

as Pajarito. The hill of waste was

the country and then moved to

surrounding neighborhoods had

decontaminated and finally con-

Medellín, looking for a better life.

to deal with strong smells and

verted into a public garden, which

These migrants did not only oc-

several diseases as a byproduct

today is traversed by the “Ruta de

cupy land on the outer borders

of the landfill.

la Esperanza”, a trail crossing the

of the city, they also started to



gardens reminding of the behind

settle on free land near the city

Moravia” was declared a “public

old times, giving hope for a better

center, such as the Moravia gar-

disaster” in 2006 by Mayor Ser-

future. This project was, similar to

bage dump. They started to build

gio Fajardo. He initiated a gov-

the “Jardín Circunvalar”, mainly

informal housing upon the hills of

ernment project to improve the

constructed with the participation

the waste materials and survived

situation, mainly by transforming

of local residents.

through recycling those materials.

the community of Moravia into




Figure 3.45 - Two views of Moravia as a Landfill, 1982. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 3.46 - Moravia today, aerial view. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved Š 135

Figure 3.47 - Center for Cultural Development in Moravia, aerial view. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved Š

Figure 3.48 - Center for Cultural Development in Moravia, main courtyard. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved Š 136

Figure 3.49 - Center for Cultural Development in Moravia, ground floor plan. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Today, a series of urban garden-

the “Center for Cultural Devel-

The design of the project follows a

ing sites run by single mothers

opment in Moravia” in 2006. The

clear and simple geometry and is

from the community also of-

architecture of the project refers

defined by prisms complement-

fer new business opportunities.

to typical elements of Colombi-

ing each other. Geometry, as the

They call their initiative “Moravia

an houses from Colonial times,

basis and reference of the pro-

florece para la vida”, which can

providing a wide area for con-

ject, is verified not only through

be translated into “Moravia is

gregation and social/intellectual

spatial composition, but also in

flourishing for life”.

exchange in the form of a cen-

its construction techniques.

Complementary to the upgrading

tral courtyard. This courtyard

The use of the brick, an iconic el-

of the Moravia site, a locality for

now serves as an internal meet-

ement of the Colombian architec-

cultural and social communica-

ing space and opens towards

ture and in particular of Rogelio

tion, exchange and activities was

the outside via various bridges,

Salmona’s work, demonstrates its

built, with the aim of strengthen-

ramps and galleries, leading to

multiplicity of functions through

ing the local community.

a large auditorium at its back

the facade of the building, while

Arch. Rogelio Salmona (1929-

and to a series of multi-purpose

at the same time referencing the

2007), one of the most influential

classrooms and places for differ-

historic and cultural heritage of

architects in Colombia, designed

ent workshops and activities.

the country.

137 Comunas 4 & 1: Metrocable line K & Biblioteca España

The Metrocable line K was the

borders to the center. Addition-

first cable car system dedicated

ally, several new public facilities

to public transportation purpos-

and more importantly, a variety of

es in the city. The cable car line

public spaces, have been built as

has a total length of 2.07 km. The

complementary infrastructures.

total integrated system of cable

The public library España, at the

cars in Medellín, including the

end of line K, is renowned for its

lines J, L and the recently inau-

architecture: Three black blocks

gurated line M, carries more than

rise from the ground, resembling

30,000 people per day. It is op-

black rocks which are illuminat-

erationally integrated into the rest

ed at night. Although the library,

of Medellín’s mass transit system,

design by Colombian architect

including the metro, Tranvía and

Giancarlo Mazzanti, won vari-

BRT system.

ous design awards, unfortunate-

This integration is very import-

ly is facing many problems in its

ant for reaching the city’s main

façade and basements which

goal - to connect a wide range

keep it close for the public now-

of remote districts at the city’s


Figure 3.50 - Biblioteca España after inauguration. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 3.51 - Biblioteca España in reconstruction. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 138


Metro de Medellín, 2017. Quiénes Somos - Historia. Hompeage. Available at: https://www.metrodeMedellín.gov.co/quiénessomos/ historia [Accessed June 6, 2017].

Global Rail News, 2015. Colombia’s president opens Ayacucho tramway. Available at: http://www.globalrailnews.com/2015/10/27/ colombias-president-opens-ayacucho-tramway/ [Accessed June 6, 2017].

Ospina Zapata, G., 2015. Con tranvía, Medellín consolida su sistema de transporte. El Colombiano. Available at: http://www.elcolombiano.com/antioquia/movilidad/tranvia-otro-avance-en-sistema-masivo-de-transporte-EX2880574 [Accessed June 6, 2017].

Economist Intelligence Unit, 2010. Latin American Green City Index J. Sumner & V. Barchfield, eds., Munich: Siemens AG Munich. Available at: https://www.siemens.com/entry/cc/features/greencityindex_international/all/en/pdf/report_latam_en.pdf.

UN-HABITAT, 2015. Habitat III Issue Papers - Public Space. United Nation Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development., 2015, pp.1–8. Available at: http://habitat3.org/wp-content/uploads/Habitat-III-Issue-Paper-11_Public-Space-2.0.compressed. pdf.

Arqa, 2013. Centro de Desarrollo Cultural Moravia. Arqa. Available at: http://arqa.com/editorial/Medellín-r/centro-de-desarrollo-cultural-moravia.

Metro de Medellín, 2017. Sistema Integrado - Línea K. Homepage. Available at: https://www.metrodeMedellín.gov.co/viajeconnosotros/sistemaintegrado/líneak [Accessed June 6, 2017].

Mazzanti, G., 2008. España Library. ArchDaily. Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/2565/espana-library-giancarlo-mazzanti [Accessed June 6, 2017].


3.2.7 TU WIEN GROUP visits IN MedellĂ­n

Figure 3.52 - During the visit at the UVA Sol de Oriente. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 140

Figure 3.53 - Jardin Circunvalar. Source: Andreas Hofer, 2016

Figure 3.54 - Walk along the tram line T-A. Source: Andreas Hofer, 2016

Figure 3.55 - Comuna 13. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016 141

Figure 3.56 - Presentations at the Museum of Antioquia. Presenter: Arch. John Octavio Ortiz, EDU, MedellĂ­n. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016


Figure 3.57 - Presentations at the Universidad Bolivariana. Presenter: Arch. SebastiĂĄn Monsalve. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016

3.3 ACADEMIC PROGRAM: Organized by the Universidad Bolivariana

From the 22nd to the 25th of No-

with their reality. This methodol-

vember, the group of participants

ogy gave us a relatively compre-

of the TU Wien met in Medellín

hensive perspective on the topics

with a group of academics from

discussed, including their differ-

the faculty of architecture at Uni-

ent dimensions.

versidad Bolivariana, headed by

Two presentations have already

architects Giovanna Spera and

been included in the previous

Clara Inés Duque.

chapter connected to the vis-

Guided by them we had an agen-

its (UVAs’ and Parques del Rio),

da of complementary site vis-

therefore the following part only

its and presentations on trends,


challenges and projects of the

tached to the development of

urban and metropolitan develop-

the city: urban and metropolitan

Supervised by

ment of Medellín.

planning, project implementation

Arch. Jorge Pérez Jaramillo

Visits and presentations alter-

and finally academic exercises.

Arch. Giovanna Spera

nated during the course of the

As in the previous chapter, all

Arch. Clara Inés Duque.

days, so we heard about topics

contributions were written by the

Arch. Juan Manuel Patiño.

and were then directly confronted

participants from TU Wien.

Figure 3.58 - Arch. Giovanna Spera. Source: Online, see list of figures.





3.3.1 Medellín - Ciudad en Progreso Presented by Arch. Giovanna Spera Velásquez


The architect Giovanna Spera

Between 1970 and 1990, the city

development process from 1988

Velásquez gave first insights into

and its Comunas were mainly

to 2015 was, on the one hand, to

Medellìn’s impressive transfor-

characterized by informal eco-

understand planning as a long-

mation during her introductory

nomic activities and drug traffic.

term strategy. On the other hand,

presentation. By articulating the

These factors led to massive con-

urban planners simultaneously

development processes together

flicts and segregation processes.

attempted to implement projects

with the historical background,

In fact, the crisis triggered the

articulated with this plan in a fast

both at the urban and metropoli-

development of the first Strategic

way, to cope with the real prob-

tan scale, Arch. Spera introduced

Plan in 1985, on which today’s

lems faced by inhabitants in a

the trends and challenges the

POT (Plan de Ordenamiento Ter-

timely manner.

municipality of Medellín has had

ritorial) is based. The POT is sim-

Moreover, Arch. Spera presented

to cope with during the last 20

ilar to the Austrian Area Zoning

interesting insights into today’s

years. This broadened our under-

Plan and aims at improving public

planning tools on different levels,

standing of how the city and the

space, infrastructure and institu-

including financial aspects. Apart

metropolitan region have trans-

tions, as well as determining and

from implementing infrastructure

formed rapidly, both socially and

protecting the ecological struc-

projects to connect the urban sys-


tures of the city. The focus on the

tem and enhance the accessibility









Municipio de San Jerónimo


Municipio de Copacabana

Corregimiento San Sebastián de Palmitas



Municipio de Bello

Municipio de Ebéjico


Municipio de Guarne

Figure 3.59 - Political division of the Aburra Valley, including in grey color its main urban settlements. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Corregimiento San Antonio de Prado

Corregimiento Altavista


Corregimiento San Cristóbal

Corregimiento Santa Elena

Municipio de Rionegro

Municipio de Envigado

Municipio de Angelópolis



Municipio de Itaguí


Figure 3.60 - Municipality of Medellín. POT’s Land classification plan: urban/rural. Source: Online, see list of figures.



Municipio de Heliconia

Municipio de La Estrella








of informal settlements, city planBarbosa

ning also focused on reshaping and recreating urban space. Every planning process is supported by several implementation


plans on different scales to define aims and areas with high poten-


tial for urban development. Plans


focus on areas inside the metropolitan region and do not support the development of new neighModelo de ordenamiento borhoods to gain territorial control Componente de borde



La Estrella





Figure 3.61 - Metropolitan region of the Aburrá valley, its main rivers and urban settlements. Source: Online, see list of figures. Río Medellín Quebradas Área Metropolitana Valle Aburrá Asentamientos Urbanos

of the

outward spread of the city. In




taught us to think of urban planning from a different and more dynamic



long-term strategies, short-term implementations or interventions, which are highly participation-focused, it is crucial to enhance social transformation that supports urban development for Medellín’s

Figure 3.62 - POT Revision document: Metropolitan component. Modelo de ordenamiento territorial Source: Medellín, territorial Online, see list of figures. Modelo dePOT ordenamiento Síntesis del marco estratégico Componente corredor del Río

future. Modelo de ordenamiento territorial Componente de ladera




Figure 3.63 - POT Municipal component: from left to right, ecological boundary, intermediate zones for densification, river corridor and final integral strategic framework. Source: POT Medellín, Online, see list of figures. 147

3.3.2 Transformaciones integrales e innovacion social - EDU Medellín Presented by Arq. John Octavio Ortiz Lopera

The subsequent chapter examines the implementation of planning strategies that led to such successful recent urban development in the city of Medellín. In this context, the EDU - Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano - of Medellín has played an essential role. EDU can be defined as a “company for urban development”. The main task of EDU is to enhance the interaction between urban planning strategies of the public sector and the ideas of the citizens as well as the implementation of inFigure 3.64 - Before and after views of the 107Th Street. Transfomation processes of the public spaces below the Metrocable line K. Source: Extracted from the presentation by arch. John Octavio Ortiz (EDU Medellín), 2016 ®


frastructure projects. Even though it is a public institution it manages

its own budget independently from

this time Medellín was dominated

the municipal administration. Con-

by drug trafficking and influenced

cerning urban planning, EDU takes

by the Medellín cartel and Pablo

part in macro projects as well as


micro projects of the city govern-

Afterwards, in the course of a

ment. As was already mentioned

social transformation process,

previously, the combination of

there was increased confidence

both approaches has influenced

in the public administration. This

urban development in a positive

helped to implement urban plan-


ning projects with public accep-

According to Arch. John Octavio


Ortiz, architect and design direc-

In general, the requirements for

tor of urban projects at EDU, the

planning are not just to readjust

history of urban development in

already existing spatial problems,

Medellín can be categorized into

but also to develop guidelines

different periods, all of them es-

and strategies for the future. The

sential for the urban transforma-

city government and EDU share

tion process.

the commitment that the public

First, the “time of fear” in the 80s

space is indispensable and has

and 90s has to be mentioned. At

to be developed for the future.

Figure 3.65 - Drawing result of the participatory workshops with the communities. Source: idem.

Figure 3.66 - Implemented project, UVA el Paraiso. Source: idem. 149

EDU’s planning focus is thus the

They listened to the ideas, wishes

for the social transformation and

public space, especially in the

and problems of the inhabitants,

the improvement of the quality

surrounding area of infrastructure

a methodological approach dif-

of life. Some selected examples

systems and public buildings.

ferent to classical top-down ap-

are: “recover trust in the public”,

The aim of EDU is to create a so-

proaches. The task of EDU is to

“the city makes its people”, “we

ciety characterized by diversity

start an open dialogue between

are not implementing projects,

and peaceful coexistence. There-

the city government, architects

we are implementing transforma-

fore, the first and most important

and inhabitants. The result of

tions”, “the public values quality

step is participation and active in-

this special project was a sports

in architecture”, and “improve

volvement of the inhabitants from

ground on the top of a center for

synergies between the public,

the neighborhood, for example

culture and recreation.

private and academic sector”.

by organizing workshops and lis-

Further projects that were men-

Since 2003, EDU has implement-

tening to their ideas. According

tioned are the Proyectos Urbanos

ed around 300 projects. It has to

to the presenter, the city transfor-

Integrales (PUI) and the Unidades

be mentioned that especially the

mation is therefore successful if

de Vida Articulada (UVA). Both of

implementation of infrastructure

the inhabitants are willing to take

them will be addressed in follow-

systems and educational institu-

over tasks in the neighborhood.

ing chapters.

tions were and are driving forces

As an example for participation,

As conclusion, Arch. John Octa-

to transform poor neighborhoods.

EDU organized a process to re-

via Ortiz pointed out 15 lessons

new a sports ground in a district.

learned, which were important Figure 3.67 - Escalators in Comuna 13. Source: idem.


Figure 2.62 - Urban sequence Source: Group of students © 151

3.3.3 distrito de la inclusion: Encendiendo luces en estación Villa Universidad Bolivariana students of architecture: María M. Alviar / Diana M. Ávila / Valeria Bernal Mariana Carvajal / Luisa Gutiérrez / Juan S. Lanau Maria A. Orrego / Alejandra Patiño / David Sáenz Diana Sáenz / Paula A. Sarrazola Luis F. Trujillo / Gerard Trias


Advisors: Clara Inés Duque, Giovanna Spera Juliana Bodhert and Juan Manuel Patiño

Architecture students from the

are of the opinion that they are



central to urban development. By

iana in Medellín presented an

solving their problems, the whole

interesting project to develop a

neighborhood gets a positive im-

downgraded area in cooperation


with the University of Barcelona.

The methodology of the project

The project, called ”Distrito de la

follows the so-called tactical ur-

Inclusión” (District of Inclusion),

banism: By providing local and

aims at bringing back light and

punctual interventions (usually

improvements to the endangered

at a low cost) to the built envi-

city center.

ronment, they aim at stimulating

Therefore, the focus of the project

larger scale local improvements

lies on the “street inhabitants” or


homeless, because the students





Figure 3.68 - Site plan of the area of interest, referenced in the district and the city. Source: Group of students ©


Espacios los habitantes Figure para 3.69la- permanencia First phase: de a place for agreements. Source: Group of students ©

Figure 3.71 - Second phase: facing the city Source: Group of students ©

Figure 3.70 - Services for homeless inhabitants offered in the area of interest. Source: Group of students © 153

Figure 3.73 - A short refreshment.

Figure 3.74 - Informal landscape.

Figure 3.72 - Bike ride.

Figure 3.75 - Dinner with Dr. Roberto Rothstein, Austrian Honorary Consul in MedellĂ­n. 154

Figure 3.77 - Salon Malaga. Figure 3.76 - Bike test in Moravia.

3.4 MedellĂ­n: impressions and glimpses

Figure 3.79 - Stadium. Figure 3.80- Bus ride.

Figure 3.78 - PerroGraff, Street artist.

Figure 3.81 - Rapza.

Figure 3.82 - Salon Malaga

* Sources: All figures by the TU Wien group, 2017 Š

Figure 3.83 - Street art at Comuna 13 155

This chapter includes reports about the territories presented by the scholars of the TU Wien during the workshop in Bogotá. All reports were written by the TU Wien students who participated on the study visit, and are divid-

Los Angeles Miami

ed into two parts including: first, three presentations dealing with relevant development issues and

Ciudad de México

projects of Vienna, and second, nine of the twelve metropolises studied during the seminar Patterns of Urban Growth in Vienna during the winter semester 201617, and presented in Bogotá. The nine metropolises have been organized by continent: Africa, Asia, Latin America and North America. 156

Colombia Metropoles studied in Vienna and presented in Bogotá Metropoles studied in Vienna and not presented in Bogotá Countries of interest, studied and presented during the visit

Rio de Janeiro Curitiba Buenos Aires


Shenzen Mumbai Manila Lagos

4. patterns of urban growth Seminar at TU Wien Winter Semester 2016-17


Supervised by: Univ.Prof. Mag. Dr. Rudolf Giffinger Univ.Ass. Martha Ecker, MSc.


Proj.Ass. Santiago Sanchez G, MSc.

Figure 4.01 - Territories studied during the seminar in Vienna and presented in Bogotå’s workshop. Source: Seminar Patterns of Urban Growth. 157

Figure 4.02 - Metropolitan Vienna, recent patterns of spatial processes. Source: Rudolf Giffinger, 2016 158

4.1.1 Metropolitan Development of Vienna Presented by Univ.Prof. Mag. Dr. Rudolf Giffinger

Two main driving forces, global-

city covers an area of 415 square

patterns of spatial processes are

ization on the one hand, and the

kilometers and is divided into 23

characterized by different types

European integration process on

districts. About 50 percent of the

of developments: economic re-

the other, are changing the con-

administrative area is covered

structuring of the historic cen-

ditions of urban development in

by green, forest and agricultur-

ter, densification within the aged

Central Europe. These changing

al land. Migration from rural ar-

housing segment and in former

geopolitical conditions along with

eas as well as from abroad has

brownfields as well as the poly-

increased pressure of competi-

caused rising population growth

centric approach of developing a

tiveness among European cities

within the past decades and the

new center in the far east of the

drive the transition to urban-re-

two million mark will most likely

city (Aspern).

gional processes of metropolisa-

be reached in 2029.

Traditional planning tools like the

tion and lead to new challenges

In this framework, Rudolf Giffin-

land use regulations are support-

of governance and planning in

ger gave insights into the cur-

ed by the two most recent Urban


rent structural development of

Development Plans (STEP 05 and

Vienna has a population of about

the metropolis and the planning

STEP 25) which demonstrate a

1.8 million inhabitants. The whole

documents supporting it. Recent

shift from urban consolidation to 159

a spatial management of growth. The recent Urban Development Plan is supported by several professional concepts (green space, mobility, etc.). But the urban restructuring shows that the city is still lacking an integrated urban and metropolitan model. Instead, the most powerful stakeholders often seem to Figure 4.03 - Smart City Wien, Framework Strategy. Source: Tina Vienna.

prevail. As a consequence, we can observe urban restructuring processes like the replacement of traditional urban functions in the center in favor of touristic activity, gentrification in the most attractive parts of the city, the establishment of international headquarters and emergence of high rise buildings as new landmarks.

Figure 4.04 - Smart City Wien. Source: Tina Vienna. 160

Many of these developments are

planning document. Instead, the

and promotion of eco-friendly

driven by investors, regulated by

CENTROPE region in which both


few and weak criteria, and imple-

cities are located is overlaid by

Although the strategy defines

mented without consideration of

different international and nation-


urban structures. All this seems

al levels of planning, all of which

social goals, the implementation

to reflect a general trend from

play a role in this complex attempt

of projects and fostering of ade-

planning towards management.

to integrated regional planning.

quate activities, which are neces-

Zooming out the focus was then

The most recent Viennese plan-

sary for materializing the objec-

laid on the regional and integrat-

ning tool discussed is the Smart

tives, are weak and show deficits.

ed development of the Twin Cities

City Wien Initiative. It is a general

Hence, Vienna’s smart planning

Vienna and Bratislava, which fac-

strategy with clear objectives in

strategies are challenged to dis-

es several challenges.

the long run and with three main

tinguish between short and long

The two cities are well connect-

topics: resources, innovation and

termed activities; to consider ex-

ed (highway, railway and river)

quality of life.

plicitly strategic considerations

and many people commute from

From the city point of view the

on circular and sustainable eco-

city to city or from the fast-grow-

most important activities in this

nomic activities; and to integrate

ing suburban hinterland between

context are the increase of re-

and accelarate in a more compre-

them. Integrated planning across

newable energy resources, con-

hensive way housing construc-

city and country borders is diffi-

struction of new (social) and effi-

tion and transport infrastructure

cult as the political commitment

cient housing as well as thermal


is not supported by any common

sanitation of the housing stock




Figure 4.05 - „Sonnwendviertel“ district, site plan. Source: Online, see list of figures. 162

Figure 4.06 - „Sonnwendviertel“ district, rendering of the project. Source: Online, see list of figures.

4.1.2 Urban Interventions in Vienna: Challenges, Practices, Management Presented by Ass.Prof. Dr. Andreas Hofer

“Which are the tools needed to

units is 7,000 to 7,500 per year,

the same time maintain or even

create contemporary accessible

out of which 80 - 85 per cent are

reduce the consumption of re-

and qualitative habitats? And

co-financed through subsidies by

sources like land and energy? In

how can we manage the scarcity

the City of Vienna. At the same

what relation is the construction

of space and resources?�

time, the municipality is the ma-

of housing to the creation of the

These questions were posed as

jor owner of apartments, being

city and the formation of our soci-

a framework for the following ex-

in possession of 220,000 (out

ety? How do individual buildings

ploration of recent urban devel-

of 900,000) units. In addition to

and their ground floor users influ-

opment trends and interventions

that non-profit cooperatives own

ence the whole neighborhood?

in Vienna.

another 180,000 apartments, so

Can city planning create a fertile


that in total almost half of Vien-

soil for the development of neigh-

marked by the continuous lead-

na’s households live in some kind

borhood communities?

ership of the social-democratic

of subsidized residential units.

Another challenge for the current

party which has a long tradition

The city is mainly growing at the

urban development is the han-

of offering social housing to the

peripheries where space is abun-

dling of architectural patrimo-

lower and middle classes in Vien-

dant and new neighborhoods

ny. In many central areas of the

na. With the growing population,

are constructed from scratch.

city with a building stock from

the actual production of housing

But how can a city grow and at

the middle of the 19th century






until the First World War need improvements, renovations and consolidation. The quality varies and the prices for rent often rise sharply after such interventions. A general trend of fast rent increase has kicked in about ten years ago Figure 4.07 - „Sonnwendviertel“ district, view of a courtyard. Source: Andreas Hofer, 2016

and gentrification processes endanger the mixed social structure of the city. So,




shows two trends: urban expansion by the construction of new neighborhoods, and urban renewal and densification by renovation and revitalization. The “Sonnwendviertel” is an example for the first trend: The area of a forFigure 4.08 - Bar at the „Gürtel“ area. Source: Andreas Hofer, 2016


mer railway station is currently undergoing an urban transformation

process and being turned into a new

densely populated area around

neighborhood with 5,000 housing

the historic railway arcs (designed

units, 500,000 square meters for of-

in the 19th century by Otto Wag-

fices and corresponding infrastruc-

ner) which are now supporting a

ture. The area of 109 hectares is

metro line.

located within the densely popu-

Small-scale interventions had a

lated urban structure. A well-bal-

big impact on overcoming the

anced mixture of apartments for

physical and mental barrier that

rent and property shall establish

this construction constituted in

the typical Viennese social mix-

the city and thereby improving

ture in the new neighborhood.

living quality.

The so far realized buildings in

The upgrade and revitalization of

the first stage of the project show

the neighborhood was achieved

a new plurality of typologies and

by a mixture of urban design in-

special sensitivity for the creation


of public and semi-public spaces.

public space, cultural and art ini-

The initiative “Urban Vienna Gür-

tiatives, PR and communication

tel Plus” is an example for the

under the umbrella of solid proj-

second trend. Since 1995 this

ect management.



project has aimed to revitalize the Figure 4.09 - Poster of cultural events at the Gürtel. Source: Posterdesign by 3007. 165

Figure 4.10 - Rendering of the Sea Side Quarter at Aspern Seestad district. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.11 - View from the lake side. Source: Online, see list of figures. 166

Figure 4.12 - Masterplan - mixed use. Source: Online, see list of figures.

4.1.3 aspern Seestadt Presented by Stud. Ass. Katharina Höftberger Aspern Seestadt (Vienna’s ur-

people live there already. The

eco-friendly mobility, energy ef-

ban lakeside) is the city’s largest

implementation follows a stage

ficiency, high quality of public

development project located in

by stage strategy so that one

spaces, mixed use and the lake

the east of Vienna. The project

neighborhood is created after

as an open center for everyone.

area of 240 hectares on a for-

the other. At the same time the

Eco-friendly mobility for example

mer airfield shall offer housing for

close collaboration between the

shall be guaranteed by provid-

20,000 people as well as 20,000

development agency, the city

ing high public transport con-

workplaces by the year 2028. The

administration, the local popula-

nectivity (metro, trams, busses),

development was initiated by an

tion and economic stakeholders

a bike rental system, attractive

international competition for the

guarantee an integrated devel-

walkways and car sharing while

elaboration of a master plan in

opment that offers all the needed

at the same time offering limited

2005, won by the Swedish archi-

infrastructures right from the be-

car parking in public spaces and

tect Johannes Tovatt. The mas-

ginning. Public transport, schools

neighborhood garages. The high

ter plan is complemented by a

and kindergartens, various shops

standards set for the develop-

detailed concept for lively public

and restaurants as well as parks

ment are constantly being mon-

spaces developed by Jan Gehl

and other spaces for sports and

itored and revised. Yet how the


recreation are available.

integration of a whole “new city” at

The first inhabitants moved in in

The master plan follows the

the outskirts of Vienna is going to

2014 and currently about 6,500


be established remains to be open.





4.2 seminar presentations 4.2.1 Johannesburg Master’s students: Marianne Geißler and Patricia Trauner


Johannesburg is South Africa’s

suburbanization continue while

households can afford a car. Es-

largest city with approximate-

the historical inner city becomes

pecially for Johannesburg, it will

ly 4.4 Mio inhabitants. Under

destitute. Public space is highly

be important to consider broad-

Apartheid, the city was segregat-

needed but existing public spac-

er development goals in its plans

ed along racial and ethnic lines,

es are only reserved for special

that not only regulate spatial infra-

which molded urban growth.

groups, mostly positioned inside

structure development, but also

In the 1970s these policies broke

buildings like shopping malls.

combine this with housing, public

down leaving a divided city be-

The lack of public transportation

space, and transport develop-

hind, lacking safety, challenged

systems and the car-orientat-

ments. All in all, Johannesburg is

by an enormous unemployment

ed system of mobility generate

right in the middle of a transfor-

rate, and a huge gap between the

enormous travelling times (ap-

mation period and already tries

rich and the poor.

proximately 70 minutes per way),

to enhance the situation to make

These factors still rule and trans-

which is alarming, remembering

the city more resilient for future

form the city. Urban sprawl and

that not even 40% of the cities’


Rich Poor CBD Mix zone

Figure 4.15 - Apartheid campaign at Whitworth. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.14 - Sectoral classification during apartheid. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.16 - World map of inequality. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.13 - Urban growth from 1990 to 2013. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.17 - Buffer zone, inequality patterns. Source: Online, see list of figures. 169

4.2.2 Governing Mumbai – Dealing with the challenges of a growing city Master’s students: Elena Heller and Katharina Höftberger


Mumbai, with a population of

The expanding urban area’s gov-

inadequate living conditions and

about 12.44 million in 2011 the

ernance structure is changing

in many cases under the season-

biggest city of India, is described

due to global trends of decentral-

al danger of floodings threatening

as the “economic engine of the

ization and liberalization on one

their economic well-being and

nation”. It looks back at a history

hand, and due to the increasingly

their health. It becomes evident

of rapid growth that is current-

needed regional as well as local

that none of these challenges

ly slowing down as the city ap-

coordination with private actors

can be addressed on their own.

proaches its point of saturation.

demanding participation in the

All of them stand in constant con-

The population is shifting to sur-

development process on the oth-

nection with each other and can

rounding areas, where affordable

er. Inequalities, which result from

enhance or worsen the current

housing and rail connectivity to

the growing gap between the rich

situation. A reformation of the

Mumbai is available. This leads to

and the poor, manifest not only

governance system is therefore

continuing growth of the Mumbai

in participation opportunities but

needed – not only to overcome

Metropolitan Region, a dense-

also severely in the housing op-


ly-populated agglomeration. As

tions available to different groups.

structures but also to enable the

any growing metropolis, Mumbai

The unaffordable housing market

possibility for the participation of

must face the challenges its con-

drives 41 percent of the city’s

the entire population, regardless

tinuing growth poses.

population to live in slums under

of their financial or social capital.




Figure 4.18 - A street in Mumbai. Source: Katharina Hรถftberger 171

4.2.3 Shenzhen - Top-Down Planning as a Chance and Challenge Master’s students: Florian Baier and Estela Roca Rom


Shenzhen is one of the fastest

planning and further regulations

addressing problems with a strict

growing cities in the world. Once

are done by a top-down approach

policy framework, trying to en-

a small fisher village of 30,000 in-

while the social and ecological

force changes by law, is working

habitants in 1970, it has become

reality of the city is not regarded

quite well due to the established

one of the most important eco-

as a priority, as exemplified in the

centralized administrative form.

nomic hotspots not only in China

four master plans which shaped

Prospective enforcement on in-

but in the whole world. Following

the city over the past 35 years.

clusive planning will help to cre-

the nomination of Shenzhen as

This is why along with rapid urban

ate awareness by the people and

China’s first special economic

growth came its consequences

will lead to further land preserva-

zone (SEZ) in 1980, Shenzhen

and many challenges for Shen-

tion done by the population itself.

became one of the Chinese top

zhen’s development trajectory,

Additionally, inclusive planning

economies, counting 11.38 mil-

such as the emerging of urban vil-

will definitely lower the need for

lion inhabitants today and hosting

lages, the rapid spatial expansion

new construction and further ur-

some of the most important high-

and the future development of the

ban sprawl because developers

tech enterprises of the world. Due

city’s economy. Shenzhen’s way

can focus on social aspects and

to the central administrative sys-

of dealing with those challenges


tem in China and Shenzhen, all

through a top down-approach,

Figure 4.19 - Urban redevelopment areas. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.22 - Skyline of the city. Source: Online, see list of figures. Figure 4.20 - Urban growth boundary. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.21 - 4th Master plan. Source: Online, see list of figures. Figure 4.23 - Urban village in Shenzhen. Source: Online, see list of figures. 173

4.2.4 Singapore - Challenges of an Island City State Master’s students: Mara Reinsperger and Stephanie Köck


During the last 50 years, Sin-

are focus points. Singapore has

sees itself as a garden city. By fol-

gapore made the step from one

built a decentralized system of

lowing a greening policy, it aims

of the poorest urban centers in

new hubs: After transforming the

to enhance the quality of living,

South-East-Asia to a global fi-

city center into a financial district

de-level stress and tension which

nance hub. Singapore is an Is-

and shifting housing mostly to the

are often side effects of urban

land City State with a total area

outside in form of satellite towns


of 697 km² and an urbanization

along the subway, there now is

Singapore also is an important

rate of 100 %, as well as an an-

a trend to connect the living and

turning wheel regarding air pas-

nual population growth of 1.86 %

the working areas, to reduce the

senger travel and shipping. It has

(CIA Factbook, 2016). Therefore

need to travel to the city center.

the second busiest port world-

it has limited space available and

Thus, in order to manage growth,

wide. Hence the lack of natural

must manage available land with

Singapore plans on building three

resources 90 % of Singapore’s

caution. The questions of hous-

new city centers on the island

food must be imported which

ing, as well as the development

where each will be a combination

also leads to a water dependency

of a well-functioning transporta-

of working, shopping, culture,

on Malaysia.

tion system, have been and still

parks and housing. Singapore

Figure 4.25 - Skyline of the city. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.24 - Connections map of Singapore. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.26 - Skyline of the city. Source: Mara Reinsperger. 175

4.2.5 Manila - Governmental planning and strategies addressing environmental risks Master’s student: Isabella Noll


Urbanization is a global process.

Metro Manila is one of the most

coped with by the local transpor-

Therefore, it is of high impor-

vulnerable cities in the world to-

tation system and produces air

tance to study and understands

day. In addition to political crisis

pollution. High vulnerabilities and

megacities. Most of all the Latin

and corruption, the foundation

environmental risks define the ev-

American and the Asian continent

for poverty and marginalization

eryday life for many inhabitants.

(more precisely South-East Asia)

expressed in informal settlements

Although planning documents,

have experienced strong urban-

was laid. These settlements are

especially the Metro Manila Flood

ization and developed megaci-

characterized by a lack of public

Management Project and The

ties. Metro Manila, with its prime

services as water supply, sewage

Metro Manila Greenprint 2030, try

position in the Philippines, is one

system and waste disposal, at-

to address solutions and mitiga-

of the most worth mentioning

tached to major problematics due

tion of vulnerabilities, there is still

examples of these phenome-

to its floods, which are increased

a big gap for citizen participation

na. Rural de-population, inter-

during rainy season and its imme-

in the elaboration and implemen-

nal migration and natural growth

diate proximity to the sea and its

tation of policies.

of population have led to an in-

seasonal high tides. Furthermore,

creasing population in the city.

the high traffic volume cannot be

Figure 4.27 - Mega Manila region population growth between 1980 and 2007. Source: Online, see list of figures. 177

4.2.6 Rio de Janeiro Master’s students: Anna Giffinger and Karin Stiefelmeyer


Rio de Janeiro as a metropolitan

disputes with authorities are a

ing international events like the

area has more than 12.7 million

reality in these so-called favelas.

Olympic Games and the Football

inhabitants. With over 6 million

Investors are putting pressure on

Championship in the last couple

people living in the city itself, it is

the real estate market, leading to

of years. Subway lines were built,

facing various challenges nowa-

conflicts with the inhabitants of

and a new BRT network was de-

days that are connected to pop-

those informal ways of living and

veloped. Nonetheless, high dis-

ulation growth. Due to its specific

to gentrification. Therefore, one

crepancies appeared during the

geographical situation between

challenge is to find a way to avoid

construction of the new mobility

the Atlantic Ocean and the moun-

the paradox of slum upgrading

infrastructure, as large benefits

tains, urban growth can be seen

projects driving their inhabitants

for private investors appeared by

in various dimensions. A quarter

out of their homes. Mobility in and

outsourcing infrastructure proj-

of the inhabitants live in informal

between those segregated areas

ects to privates. Furthermore,



is enabled by infrastructures like

the sustainability of the network

conditions next to rich coastal

tunnels, busses, elevators, stair-

alignment must be questioned

areas occupied by gated com-

cases and cable liners. Those

after the event took place to ex-

munities, causing a different and

were implemented since Rio de

amine if it serves the daily flows

highly fragmented urban form. A

Janeiro invested in its transpor-

within the city and exchanges be-

lack of basic infrastructure and

tation systems because of host-

tween the segregated areas.


Figure 4.28 - Patterns of inequality in Rio de Janeiro. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.29 - Cable car line AlemĂŁo. Source: Online, see list of figures.


4.2.7 Curitiba in growth - is the city as good as its reputation? Doctorate student: Hui Lyu


Curitiba is an international mod-

after the master plan, Curitiba

PUC) was created for the pur-

el of sustainable urban develop-

built an example city of transit

pose of implementing the master

ment. The city earned its repu-



plan. This turned out to be very

tation for many reasons, among

Since the 1970s, there have been

effective but public participation

which urban planning and transit

bus corridors along axes. Along

in the urban planning process

system are the most well-known

the corridors, high-density, high-

was criticized to be minimal. Re-



rise buildings complete the bus-

cently, with the continuing growth

launched a number of planning

based TOD scheme. The produc-

of urban population and the rise

efforts and projects, for example

tion and implementation of such

of civil society, the city is facing

initiatives in the fields of waste

master plans mean a lot of public

new challenges in several fields:

management, flood management

power. Although there were ob-

urban mobility, housing and fave-

and bicycle transportation. Cu-

stacles during early acquisition,

las, social participation and inclu-

ritiba’s 1966 master plan was a

the plan was achieved during the

sive practices. Behind all these

great success and it was the only

Brazilian military regime (1964-

challenges, lack of innovation

master plan that was actually im-

1985). The Urban Research and

and institutional capacity are the

plemented. During the decades

Planning Institute of Curitiba (IP-

obstructers. It is suggested that




the empowerment of citizens to participate in policy-making and urban planning would be a key approach to emancipate the urban capacity of Curitiba. Besides,

Figure 4.31 - Curitiba’s urban growth structure since 1966 master plan. Source: Online, see list of figures.

more partners and stakeholders should be involved in the cooperation on urban development.

Figure 4.30 - Population growth rate of Curitiba. Source: Hui Lyu with data by IBGE.

Figure 4.32 - Bicyclists protesting. Source: Online, see list of figures. 181

4.2.8 Buenos Aires Master’s students: Christine Dämon and Severin König


Buenos Aires is a city character-

also the financial and economic

ized by enormous urban sprawl,

center and the fourth-most pop-

rapidly growing suburban areas,

ulous metropolitan area of North

and increasing social inequality.

and South America (Urban Age

The metropolitan area, Greater


Buenos Aires, is home to a third

The challenges of segregation

of Argentina’s population. The

and fragmentation of the city are

size and growth of Buenos Aires

linked to the poverty situation and

make both, the administration

their spatial concentration.

system and the population, face

To face the humanitarian chal-

various challenging issues.

lenges combined with a neoliber-

Buenos Aires is of significant im-

al global finance system it does

portance for Argentina. It’s not

need a strong and at the same

only the capital of the country, but

level transparent opposition.

Figure 4.33 - Characterization of the neighborhoods. Source: The authors, with information from Google Earth, 2016

Figure 4.34 - Puerto Madero. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.35 - Socio-economical distribution of the city in 2006. Source: Online, see list of figures. 183

4.2.9 Patterns of growth in Miami-Dade County Master’s students: Hatun Atasayar and Alexander Hauff


Located in the south-eastern

Latin American population, and

goals for local and regional plan-

coast of the U.S., Miami is the

this cultural duality is in itself a

ning. The fragmentation of plan-

largest city in the state of Flor-

challenge for the city, especially

ning levels and the fact that this

ida. The city itself has rough-

regarding the question of integra-

different levels don’t coordinate

ly 400,000 residents, but Mi-

tion and the preservation of this

with each other can only lead to

ami-Dade County is home to 2.6

multicultural identity.

working against each other. Each

million people. Miami has gone

Therefore we focused on three

level should have clear tasks and

from being a mere swamp out-

challenges Miami is facing: mul-

responsibilities, and especially re-

post about a hundred years ago

ticulturalism, inequality, and low

gional planning should be recog-

to a bustling globally recognized

urban density.

nized among municipalities and

city. This rapid growth, however,

Miami-Dade seems to have a

cities. This should be obtained

entails its own sets of challenges

clear strategy towards future de-

in the planning process both by

for the city.

velopment, what is lacking is an

top-down and by participation

Miami is a city with a substantial

active statewide planning to set


Figure 4.36 - Horizontal and vertical growth. Source: Online, see list of figures.

Figure 4.37 - View of city and its skyline. Source: Online, see list of figures. 185

Figure 5.01 to 5.05 - Different moments during the final presentations of the design studio. Source: Andreas Hofer, 2017 186

Supervisor: Ass.Prof. Dr. Andreas Hofer 13 students participated in this design studio: Florian Baier, Mateo Ciljak, Anna Enzersdorfer,

5. Emerging Bogotá-Medellín Design Studio at TU Wien Winter Semester 2016-17

Florian Fenz, Anna Giffinger, Stephanie Köck, Bastian Nenning, Isabella Noll, Mara Reinsperger, Karina Ruseva, Michael Rylko, Marie-Kristin Schamböck and Philipp Westermaier.

This chapter includes a brief summary of the results produced by

Guest critics: Johannes Fiedler, Jorge Perez Ja-

three groups of TU Wien students

ramillo, Kerstin Pluch, Santiago Sanchez and

during the design studio.

Laura Scharf. 187

5.1.1 Medellín: SIDEWALK Medellín - Upgrading Carrera 51 Master’s students: Florian Baier and Mateo Culjak

Figure 5.06 - Challenges and potentials under and besides the metro line.

The project “Sidewalk Medellín”,

public spaces, the “Avenida San

situated next to the historic up-

Vicente”, interconnects the exist-

per-class residential area “Prado”

ing spaces beneath the elevated

and to the city’s social conflict

structures of the metro with the

hotspot “Estación Villa” aims to

adjacent neighborhood and the

achieve social inclusion, com-

metro stations Prado and Hospi-

munity strengthening and the im-

tal, while a semi-public, elevated

provement of public space while

connection between the single

using the potential of the Metro

housing units promotes a new

de Medellín as a connecting ele-

way of co-living while still keep-

ment of the city. A continuum of

ing privacy in the urban context.

* All figures produced by the group of students, 2017 © 188

Figure 5.08 - Urban strategy.

Figure 5.07 - Site analysis.

Figure 5.10 - View from the proposed public spaces.

Figure 5.09 - Master plan.

Figure 5.11- Urban section. 189

5.1.2 bogotá: PARKSIDE LIVING CIUDAD BOLIVAR Master’s students: Anna Enzersdorfer and Mara Reinsperger

For our project “Parkside Living

cable car as an anchor point to

Ciudad Bolivar” we started out

form new public spaces. Aiming

with an analysis of the current

to introduce a mixed usage area

challenges in our selected area:

to enhance communication and

mostly single family homes with

interaction between inhabitants,



we structured the quarter into a

the houses and people, a barri-

(non-)traffic, semi-private, private

er between the quarters built up

and public area as well as open-

by traffic and walls as well as the

ing up parts of the ground level

lack of public space and green

for shops, restaurants, work and

areas. An interesting aspect of


this particular site was a new ca-

We focused on the human scale

ble car pillar as well as the possi-


bility of opening up a nearby area

and pedestrian zones which are

for green space. We used the

drawn through all levels.



* All figures produced by the group of students, 2017 © 190


Figure 5.12 - Site analysis.


Figure 5.13 - Comparison of scenarios.

Figure 5.17 - View of the proposed public space.

Figure 5.14 - 3D view of the proposal.

Figure 5.15 - Functions of the proposal.

Figure 5.16 - Roof top views.

Figure 5.18 - View of the proposed public space. 191

5.1.3 Bogotá: PILLAR 15 - The Urban Square in ciudad bolivar Master’s students: Isabella Noll, Karina Ruseva and Marie Schamböck

Figure 5.19 - Site location.

Considering the high density

tures, like schools, library and

of buildings and lack of public

markets. Through creating an

space, the new cable car line in

indoor and outdoor program on

Ciudad Bolivar offers a possible

the square, the designers want

intervention for the creation of

to generate a symbiosis between

qualitative public space around

the new and the old structures.

the new installed pillars of the

Some possible interventions at


the square of the 15th pillar in-

Focusing on the needs of the

clude a community center with a

children of the neighborhood, the

study area, a soccer stadium with

project Pillar 15 includes the ex-

bleachers, a modern playground

isting social and economic struc-

and urban gardening.

* All figures produced by the group of students, 2017 © 192

Figure 5.20 - Façades defining the plaza.

Figure 5.22 - Public space section.

Figure 5.23 - Section of the proposed building.

Figure 5.21 - Site analysis.

Figure 5.24 - Urban section and ground floor of the proposal. 193

Figure 6.01 - Landscape of the coffee region as seen during the journey to Salamina, a town located in between mountains. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved ÂŽ 194

6. excursus: a journey through the coffee region Visited from the 19 th to the 21 st of November 2016 195

6.1 From Bogotá to Medellín: route and main visited sites First day: From Bogotá to Santa Rosa de Cabal

Our excursion took us from Bogotá through the so-called “Coffee Triangle”


(see Figure 6.02) to Medellín. With an estimated travel time of 15 hours, it finally took us 50% more time to traverse the distance of 617 km: On Saturday, we had


lunch at a fish farm close to Ibagué, and due to a traffic accident close to La Línea


we arrived late at night at Santa Rosa de

Santa Rosa de Cabal

Cabal, where we spent two nights. On Ibagué

Sunday, we had the opportunity to visit a coffee farm and enjoy the local hot springs. Monday led us past Manizales and a first stop at ZERI pavilion (made out of Guadua, a type of bamboo with great potential as a sustainable and enduring building material) to Salamina, a Colonial town and national monument founded in 1825, and, finally, Medellín. 196

Cali (not visited) Figure 6.02 - Scheme of the so called “Coffee Triangle” region and in blue the route we followed during the 3 days journey. Source: Group of students with map from google maps, 2017


Figure 6.03 - Impressions during the journey. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016

Figure 6.04 - Fish farm visited close to the city of Ibagué. Source: Christine Dämon, 2016

Figure 6.05 - Town of Santa Rosa de Cabal. Source: Marianne Geißler, 2016

Figure 6.06 - Landscape of the region around Santa Rosa de Cabal. Source: Christine Dämon, 2016 197

Second day: Visit to a coffee farm

Figure 6.11 - coffee beans. Source: Katharina Hรถftberger, 2016

Figure 6.08 - Learning at the farm. Source: Severin Kรถnig, 2016

Figure 6.09 - Collecting coffee beans. Source: Katharina Hรถftberger, 2016


Figure 6.07 - Collecting coffee beans. Source: Hui Lyu, 2016

Figure 6.10 - The plantation. Source: Katharina Hรถftberger, 2016

Third day: From Santa Rosa de Cabal to Medellín Pavilion Zeri and Salamina

Figure 6.14 - The Pavilion Zeri, by arch. Simón Vélez. Source: Katharina Höftberger, 2016

Figure 6.12 - Main church in Salamina town. Source: Rudolf Giffinger, 2016

Figure 6.13 - Interior of the Guadua Pavilion . Source: Andreas Hofer, 2016 199

Figure 6.15 - The „Bus in Colombia song“ - with lyrics by Mara Reinsperger and contributions from other participants. Source: Hui Lyu, 2016 200


7. List of figures’ online sources Chapter 2 Fig 2.18 - www.plataformaarquitectura.cl/cl/02-118644/clasicos-de-arquitectura-torres-del-parque-rogelio-salmona/plano-1-2 , 2017-12-05 Fig 2.19 - http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/10675950.jpg, 2017-12-05 Fig 2.21 - https://laguiadelarchivista.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/salmona1.jpg, 2017-12-05 Fig 2.22 - www.plataformaarquitectura.cl/cl/774695/rogelio-salmona-un-aprendiz-en-la-rue-de-sevres/560e9a45e58ece71dd0000cd-rogelio-salmona-un-aprendiz-en-la-ruede-sevres-foto, 2017-12-05 Fig 2.33 - https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Unal-CU-Bogota.png, 2017-12-08 Fig 2.35 - www.javeriana.edu.co/documents/15832/304345/Campus+Alta+2015+f.jpg/b898a1f5-3e5f-44bb-a20c-9cd3e4a64aed?t=1461617752840, 2017-12-08 Fig 2.41 - http://arquidiseno.javeriana.edu.co/image/journal/article?img_id=3789110&t=1417551302224, 2017-12-08 Fig 2.42 - https://i.ytimg.com/vi/ICDo0DXmbUM/maxresdefault.jpg, 2017-12-08


Chapter 3 Fig 3.04 - https://de.slideshare.net/EDUMedellin/modelo-de-transformacin-urbana-proyecto-urbano-integral-pui-zona-nororiental, 2017-12-04 Fig 3.05 - https://de.slideshare.net/EDUMedellin/modelo-de-transformacin-urbana-proyecto-urbano-integral-pui-zona-nororiental, 2017-12-04 Fig 3.13 - https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Metro_de_Medell%C3%ADn-_Medellin_metro.jpg, 2017-12-04 Fig 3.14 - https://www.metrodemedellin.gov.co/Portals/1/pdf/g-mapa-esquematico.PDF.pdf?ver=2017-03-02-075732-720, 2017-12-04 Fig 3.16 - www.elcolombiano.com/documents/10157/0/2000x1399/0c0/0d0/none/11101/YSUI/image_content_24499771_20151014232814.jpg, 2017-12-04 Fig 3.18 - https://www.medellin.gov.co/irj/go/km/docs/pccdesign/SubportaldelCiudadano_2/PlandeDesarrollo_0_17/ProgramasyProyectos/Shared%20Content/Documentos/2014/POT/2014/1_Modelo%20de%20Ocupacion.pdf, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.20 - https://de.slideshare.net/EDUMedellin/jardn-circunvalar-de-medelln, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.21 - http://www.mglingenieros.com/slider/small/41.jpg, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.23 - https://vimeo.com/206454762, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.24 - www.plataformaarquitectura.cl/cl/787787/la-historia-de-como-medellin-convirtio-sus-tanques-de-agua-en-verdaderos-parques-publicos, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.26 - https://www.archdaily.com/792402/uva-sol-de-oriente-edu/579eac6ce58ecec0790000ad-uva-sol-de-oriente-edu-photo, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.27 - https://www.archdaily.com/792402/uva-sol-de-oriente-edu/579eaea1e58ece52e7000188-uva-sol-de-oriente-edu-section, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.45 - https://blogs.iadb.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/55/files/2014/09/Moravia-1.png, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.49 - http://arqa.com/gallery-page?id=369518, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.50 - http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/500e/d65e/28ba/0d0c/c700/0877/large_jpg/stringio.jpg?1414326554, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.58 - www.urbanomedellin.org/urbano/expertos/item/52-giovanna-vittoria-spera-velasquez.html, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.59 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aburr%C3%A1_Valley#/media/File:Mapa-Valle_de_Aburra-Antioquia.png, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.60 - https://www.medellin.gov.co/irj/go/km/docs/pccdesign/SubportaldelCiudadano_2/PlandeDesarrollo_0_17/ProgramasyProyectos/Shared%20Content/Documentos/2014/POT/2014/2_Clasificacion%20del%20Suelo.pdf, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.61 - http://www.edu.gov.co/site/documentos/Modelo_PUI_zona_nororiental.pdf, 2017-12-05 Fig 3.62 - https://es.slideshare.net/JuanDapena1/plan-de-ordenamiento-territorial-revisin-y-ajuste, 17-12-05 Fig 3.63 - https://es.slideshare.net/JuanDapena1/plan-de-ordenamiento-territorial-revisin-y-ajuste, 17-12-05


Chapter 4 Fig 4.05 - http://www.gbstern.at/projekte-und-aktivitaeten/stadtteilmanagement-sonnwendviertel/das-sonnwendviertel-waechst/, 2017-11-08 Fig 4.06 - https://www.wien.gv.at/english/transportation-urbanplanning/images/sonnwendviertel-gr.png, 2017-11-08 Fig 4.09 - www.enemy.at/2013/upcoming-guertel-nightwalk-xvi/?shared=email&msg=fail, 2017-11-08 Fig 4.10 - www.immoredaktion.at/archiv/archiveintrag/wien-3420-aspern-development-ag-kooperiert-mit-az-w.html, 2016-11-08 Fig 4.11 - www.aspern-seestadt.at/infocenter/downloads/, 2016-11-10 Fig 4.12 - www.aspern-seestadt.at/infocenter/downloads/planmaterial/, 2016-11-10 Fig 4.13 - www.atlasofurbanexpansion.org/cities/view/Johannesburg, 2017-01-31. Fig 4.14 - Lindner, A., Zerlauth, K. (2010): City Catalyst. Punktuelle Regenerationsprozesse im urbanen Kontext Johannesburgs. Diplomarbeit der Technischen Universität Wien. Fig 4.15 - http://whitworth125.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/2W.1-Apartheid-simulation.jpg?x77646, 2017-12-05 Fig 4.16 - adapted from: Bremner, L. (2006): Johannesburg: Public Life and Urban Space, LSE Cities, lsecities.net/media/objects/articles/johannesburg-public-life-and-urban-space/en-gb/, 2017-01-15. Fig 4.17 - Google Earth, 2016-11-02 Fig 4.19 - Qian, J. et al., 2016. Urban Land Expansion and Sustainable Land Use Policy in Shenzhen: A Case Study of China’ s Rapid Urbanization. Sustainability, 8, pp.1–16. Fig 4.20 - Qian, J. et al., 2016. Urban Land Expansion and Sustainable Land Use Policy in Shenzhen: A Case Study of China’ s Rapid Urbanization. Sustainability, 8, pp.1–16. Fig 4.21 - https://shenzhennoted.com/2012/04/20/borders-and-corridors-one-interpretation-of-the-2010-2020-shenzhen-comprehensive-plan/, 2016-11-08 Fig 4.22 - https://lonelyplanetimages.imgix.net/mastheads/465135294_super.jpg?sharp=10&vib=20&w=1200, 2016-11-08 Fig 4.23 - http://www.amusingplanet.com/2016/02/the-urban-villages-of-china.html, 2016-11-10 Fig 4.24 - Erik G., 2013: 5 Different km² of Singapore. Urban Solutions Issue 2:2013. Fig 4.25 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bukit_Batok#/media/File:BukitBatok.JPG, 2016-11-08 Fig 4.27 - Corpuz Athuro (2010): Metro Manila Urban/Regional Development Context. Publisher/Institution: N.s.. Online. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan039002.pdf, 2016-10-17 Fig 4.28 - http://i2.wp.com/1mundoreal.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Contrast-Rocinha-Gavea.jpg, 2016-11-07 Fig 4.29 - ttp://metro.co.uk/2013/05/30/taking-to-the-skies-over-rios-favelas-before-the-forthcoming-world-cup-and-olympic-games-3814352/, 2016-11-07 Fig 4.31 - IPPUC. 2008 Curitiba: Integrated Urban Planning. http://www.ecovillagefindhorn.com/presentations/docs/CuritibaIntegratedPlanning_.pdf, online: 2016-10-17 Fig 4.32 - Duarte, F. et al. 2014.‘No bicycle lanes!’ Shouted the cyclists. A controversial bicycle project in Curitiba, Brazil Transport Policy 32:180–185. March 2014 Fig 4.34 - https://www.expedia.com/pictures/pampas/buenos-aires/puerto-madero.d6140917/, 2016-11-07 Fig 4.35 - Thuillier, Guy. 2006: Gated Communities in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina: A challenge for Town Planning. In Housing Studies Vol 20-2 2006. online: 2016-10-17 Fig 4.36 - Google Earth, 2016-11-10 204

Fig 4.37 - https://miamitouristguide.com/wp-content/uploads/miami-miami.jpg, 2016-11-7


This booklet summarizes an academic 15-day study visit to Colombia carried out in November 2016 by Master’s students and scholars from TU Wien, Faculty of Architecture and Planning. The aim of the visit was to explore different patterns of urban and metropolitan growth in Colombia, and the content of this booklet reflects the variety of insights gained during the excursion: From the academic program carried out in Bogotá with the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana’s Master program in Regional and Urban Planning and in Medellín organized by the Universidad Bolivariana’s Urban Design Lab, to complementary site visits. Urban growth and the role of planning are discussed, covering trends, challenges and how they may be addressed.

ISBN: 978-3-902707-39-0 Cover Figure- Bogotá and the Virgilio Barco‘s public library, aerial view from west to east. Source: Santiago Sanchez Guzman, 2016. All rights reserved ®

Profile for Santiago Sanchez Guzman

Transformation Processes in Metropolitan Development  

A study visit to Colombia - November 2016 - Editors: Rudolf Giffinger, Andreas Hofer, Martha Ecker and Santiago Sanchez Guzman

Transformation Processes in Metropolitan Development  

A study visit to Colombia - November 2016 - Editors: Rudolf Giffinger, Andreas Hofer, Martha Ecker and Santiago Sanchez Guzman