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April 2018

Current Affairs World Events War, Conflict, Crisis and Politics Class, Race, Gender and Minorities Sustainability, Environment and Ecologism Development, Trade and Inequality


Table of contents War, Conflict, Crisis and Politics - Al – Daesh in Syria by Seikhou Konte - Vladimir Putin secures landslide victory in Russian election by Xavi Caminal - Dozens suffocate in Syria as government is accused of chemical attack by Aleix Ernesto - The life of Puigdemont and the councilors in Brussels by Marta Torrents - Demonstrations for political prisioners and freedom for Catalonia by Aleix Molina - Why are they in jail by Anna Simón - What is the Islamic State by Biel Arimon - The step of time in your widow’s pension by Ariadna Ballester - Florida shooting: how teenagers started a political campaign in 30 days by Natalia Ferret - The war in Syria by Jordi Puchol

Class, Race, Gender and Minorities - Black lives matters by Mama Konte


- The millennials by Noemí Rascón - We are not a piece of meat by Andrea Laiz - The Machismo by Adriana Martínez - Feminist strike in Spain by Paula Pérez - Minorities: LGTB by Judith Melián - Worker woman by Marina López - Gender Difference by Carla Serrano - Growing up too fast by Laia Robert - Bullying against LGTB children by Paula Bota - The global problem of gender inequality by Andrea Castaño - Gender wage gap in basketball by Laia Costa

Sustainability, Environment and Ecologism - The “sport” of Killing by Alex Baudach - 2017, The second worst year of forest fires in Spain by Alberto Vidal - Save the Whales by Pau Vílchez - Sea pollution by Aina Pérez


- Great Pacific garbage patch by David Ruiz - Do you really know what pollution is? by Júlia Reche - Spring is coming earlier in polar regions than across the rest of earth by Queralt Bastida - Human impact in climate change by Victor Gutiérrez

Economics, Development, Trade and Inequality - Are you going to believe false advertising by Gerard Gaya

- Social media is good or bad for you? by Aleix Peixoto - Education in diferent countries by Aroa Luque - Spain is preparin for a new addition by Gloria Moreno - Are the salaries of the footballplayers fair? by Pol Vallès - Inequality will kill 69 million of children in 15 years by Meritxell Farré - Bitcoin, the currency of the future by Carlos Gallego - Why some fashion brands don’t make puls size? by Judith Carbonell - Poverty in Europe by Gisela García


AL-DAESH IN SYRIA AL-Daesh, known popuparly by “Daesh” or “ISIS”. They are muslims terrorists and they do attacks against No-muslim persons. Practically all the persons are anti-yihadists included the muslims. The muslims say that they’re not muslims, because Islam means peace and they don’t do that. They are one branch of the islam named “Chiites”. All the muslims are “Sunnites, all the persons know that the last prophet is Mohammed and he is the most important in the Islam. The yihadists follow some Islam instructions, but they don’t do the instructed laws.

SEIKHOU KONTE The thing that I said before, they do attempts against no muslim people, they legacy is that they have to convert the no muslim persons into islamists. The muslims that not pray eventually, they kill them for being hypocrites. And one of the other things that they do is attempts in the cities

that were controlled by muslims. -The quran, the word of Allah said: If someone don’t want to convert someone in the islam leave him. -Kill someone is haram. Haram means sacred. Only you can kill someone in the extreme situation that you are in a war, but this situation was when the prophet gone to conquer cities, that’s

normal because his work was it, expand the word of Allah. But he was the last prophet and the most important. The yihadists want to expand the word of Allah by one manner that isn’t normal. The word yihad means: Do the right to the people, be correct, help each others and not find problems. For the ISIS, do the right is convert the people into the islam at the force, and not with the islam laws, with the DAESH laws. But if you question to the people what is yihad they will say that it is kill the people. A lot of people are converting into the islam, because they know that it’s true and the thing that people


say and the thing that is islam is different. Thanks to the immigration, many historiators said that in 50 years, â…“ of the people of Europe, they will be muslims, countries like France or Germany, they

assumme that in the future the nations will be Islamic. Some atheists convert into the islam, the people that leave are because the people do sins that islam does not approve.

Thats a ground that the ISIS don’t need to keep in fights. Allah said that the patience is one of the best things in this world, and fight against themselves, leave the things that word off of Allah.


VLADIMIR PUTIN SECURES LANDSLIDE VICTORY IN RUSSIAN ELECTION. President takes more than 75% of vote according to partial results, extending Putin’s time in office to nearly a quarter of a century Victory will extend Putin’s time in office to almost 25 years - a period only surpassed by Josef Stalin. GMT

XAVI CAMINAL Vladimir Putin got the victory

in

Sunday’s

presidential elections with a really good amount of votes. His

on

Sunday

“Everyone who voted

evening after a day of

today is part of our

voting. The Kremlin

big, national team.”

had hoped to match

a journalist Asked him

the 65% who cast

about

votes in 2012 and

would consider future

whether

he

runs for president, he responded:

“What

you’re saying is just silly … what, am I going to sit here for 100 years?” Also he was asked about the poisoning of fourth

term

as

Sergei

had sought 70%

president will extend until

2024,

making

him the first Kremlin leader to stay two

“Thank you for your

decades

support,”

in

power

since Josef Stalin.

Putin

told

crowds

on

Manezhnaya Square Measure Kremlin’s

of

the

legitimacy

just under the Kremlin walls,

wearing

a

in this uncompetitive

black down jacket

campaign, was close

with a fur hood.

to 60% as of 9pm

Skripal

in

Britain,

he

said

Russia

did

not

currently

have

chemical

weapons

and

it

would

be

“nonsense” to think Russia would launch such an attack during


the elections. Putin

“Right

said

numbers are higher

that

if

the

now

substance used in the

than

attack had really been

We need to thank

a military nerve agent,

Great Britain for that

then it would have

because once again

killed anyone targeted

they did not consider

on the spot.

the

Russians

had

choice

of

a eight

candidates, including the Communist Pavel Grudinin, whose title to a former state fruit farm has made him a millionaire,

and

Ksenia Sobchak, the daughter

of

Putin’s

political mentor, who presented

a

liberal

programme. Putin’s

campaign

chairman,

Andrei

Kondrashov, declared turnout to be high and needled London by suggesting that may be

a

really

bad

response by voters to the accusations of the Salisbury attack.

we

the

expected.

Russian

mentality,”

said

the

campaign

chairman.

“Once again we were subject to pressure at just the moment when we

needed

mobilise.”

to


DOZENS SUFFOCATE IN SYRIA AS GOVERNMENT IS ACCUSED OF CHEMICAL ATTACK On April 7, 2018, many Syrian persons was intoxicated, the Syrian Government are accused of Chemical Attack. The United States Government said it was working to verify it. ALEIX ERNESTO. Dozens of Syrians choked to death after a suspected chemical attack struck the rebel-held suburb of Douma, east of Damascus, and aid groups on Sunday blamed President Bashar al-Assad’s government for the assault. The attack after dusk on Saturday sent a stream of patients with burning eyes and breathing problems to clinics, medical and rescue groups said. Western governments expressed alarm at the attack, with the British Foreign Office calling

for an urgent investigation and saying that if the use of chemical weapons proved to be true, “it is further proof of Assad’s brutality.” The United States government said it was working to verify that chemical weapons had been used. A new, confirmed chemical attack in Syria would pose a dilemma for President Trump, who ordered after a chemical attack last year to punish Mr. Assad but has more recently said . In posts on Twitter on Sunday, Trump

condemned what he called a “mindless CHEMICAL attack” on women and children, blaming Iran and President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia for supporting the Syrian government. “Big Price,” Mr. Trump wrote, without expanding further. But the White House’s Homeland Security adviser, Thomas P. Bossert, said on program that nothing should be taken “off the table.”


After the latest attack, rescue workers in Syria reported finding at least 42 people dead in their homes from apparent suffocation. Antigovernment activists circulated videos of lifeless men, women and children sprawled out on floors and in stairwells, many with white foam coming from their mouths and nostrils. State news media in Syria denied that government forces had used chemical weapons and accused the Islamist rebel group that controls Douma, the

Army of Islam, of fabricating the videos to solicit international support as defeat loomed. The Russian Foreign and Defense Ministries also denied that chemical weapons had been used. It was not possible to independently verify the reports because Douma is surrounded by Syrian government forces, which prevent access by journalists, aid workers and investigators. The attack occurred near the end of a monthslong push by the Syrian government to retake

a group of towns east of Damascus known as Eastern Ghouta. The towns have been held by rebels seeking to topple Mr. Assad since the early years of the Syrian civil war, and the rebels have often shelled Damascus, killing civilians. The Syrian government and its allies — the Russian military and militias backed by Iran — have surrounded and bombarded the area, killing more than 1,600 people and forcing tens of thousands to flee, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which monitors the conflict from Britain through contacts in Syria. Douma is the last remaining town still controlled by rebels in the area, and the Syrian government has vowed to retake it.


The life of Puigdemont and the councilors in Brussels. Most people know that the Puigdemont and the six councilors was in Brussels from October 28, when they knew that 155 would apply in Catalonia. MARTA TORRENTS.

the

In the first moment,

days before the sight

official escort of the

nobody

they spend dedicated,

president so that he

Puigdemont and the

the

councilors that are in

calls

brussels. Belgium is

lawyers,

one

advantage

knows

of

the

that

The

having

meetings

and

could

with

their

Belgium.

to

mocked

leave

the

to

take the

The generalitat office

European states that

influence of Brussels

in Brussels is the only

does

reject

to speak with different

one

requests for asylum

mass media and with

headquarters of the

from citizens of other

european

politicians

Catalan

European

that

interested

abroad

not

few

PDECat.

Union

countries.

If

Catalan

politicians

ask

for

are

of

of

the

government that

the

finally asylum,

Belgium would have five days to respond. The

president

uploaded

had a

photograph

to

his

Instagram inside the Palau

de

la

Generalitat, but it had not been confirmed that he was there. Either has it come to the meeting of the national committee of

about

what's

Spanish Government

happening

in

has not ordered to

Catalonia.

The

technical

secretary

dissolve. President

In

fact,

Mariano

general of the Ministry

Rajoy explained it in

of the Interior opens a

his meeting, when he

sanctioning

announced measures

file

for


to intervene in the

Brussels

administration of the

calculate of, that there

Generalitat Artur Mas

Generalitat

was around 45,000

or the spokesman for

people

the ERC Congress,

in

application

of

155,

Police

participated

expresident

of

Gabriel among

the

Rufián, others.

expresident

The

of

the

Generalitat and the four exconsellers in Belgium, who have also taken part in a ceremony where the “Himne d’alegria” has and

when

the manifestation of

sounded, have been

the

independence

received among the

After

convened by the ANC

"No esteu sols" by the

eight in the afternoon,

and Òmnium Cultural.

participants,

Belgian lawyer Paul

Puigdemont, who has

used

Bekaert

the

closed the ceremony,

scarves And yellow

media in his country

has had to take an

caps,

that Puigdemont has

alternative route for

chosen

contacted

to

security and has only

independentists as a

"defend his interests

gone to the end of the

symbol of protest.

in

the

demonstration, which

future." On December

has also been other

7th,

Catalan

convened for

the

elections 21D.

told

him

Belgium it

in

was

manifestation

he

big in

such

politicians as

the

who

waterproof, the

color

by

the


DEMONSTRATIONS FOR POLITICAL PRISIONERS AND FREEDOM FOR CATALONIA 1 of October, it was a memorial day in Catalunya. People that want freedom, people that feel that they are Catalans or Spanish but they want it to vote. Why doesn’t the Spanish government want Catalonia to be an independent country? ALEIX MOLINA VALDEZATE This is a brief summary of the situation in Catalonia, but today we will focus on political prisoners. People go out into the street, indignant and hoping that the prisoners who are imprisoned and the two Jordis go out once and for all. Political prisoners are people, who should not be imprisoned unjustly. You can see at different points of view, there will be someone who says that they have to be in breach of a series of rules and others that it is an injustice and that there is no

absolute freedom. Because they are in prison. There are different points of view: 1. So they have betrayed the Spanish homeland. 2. To fulfill the mandate of the majority of the people of Catalonia 3. So that the Spanish state does not accept the results of the last votes nor those of October 1. The demonstrations in favor of political prisoners were made for the release of people who should not be in jail. - Either you do what I say or I put you in jail Because by putting politicians in jail the rules of democracy

are broken and it becomes a dictatorial state. On March 25, 2018 they took a Carles Puigdemont in BerlinGermany. This was the height for people to revolutionize and take to the streets of Germany to demonstrate. In Berlin the German and Catalan people who were there went out on the streets to demonstrate against all the events that are happening in Catalonia and one very important has been to catch Puigdemont the president of Catalunya in Germany On April 1, 2018, it


was 6 months, a half year that happened on October 1, that everyone was recorded that day, not only in Catalonia or Spain, but also to a large part of the world. The CDR that means (Referendum Defense) Committee" are a set of local, neighborhood, regional and national assemblies with the aim of defending the Referendum on

October 1 and the Catalan Republic after the strategy of nonviolence. They decided to speak anonymously and without anyone knowing, only the CDRs. They went to the highways where they removed all the barriers and the cars passed without paying as a symbol that they are already under the noses of everything

that happened in Catalonia. In conclusion, the Catalan people ask Spain to have more democracy and justice and all political prisoners as soon as possible to be out of prision better. But always in a peaceful way.


WHY ARE THEY IN JAIL? The recent days the International Amnesty demands immediate freedom and withdrawal of charges from both Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart.

ANNA SIMÓN. All this starts the 20 of September 2017 in Catalonia, when the Spanish national police entered to register the Economy department of the “Generalitat de Catalunya” because they want to take part from the Catalonia economy. People from Catalonia, in front of this situation, they went out massively to the streets to manifest what was happening. That demonstration was multitudinous and pacific, but the Spanish government

said that it was a violent compliment. Nowadays Jordi Sànchez, Jordi Cuixart are in a jail since the 16th of October. The jail it’s near Madrid called “Soto del Real”. Both of them are being investigated for sedition in the wake of these facts.

Jordi Cuixart is president from “Òmnium Cultural”

since 2005. This entity it was founded 60 years ago in the dictatorship to preserve the culture and Catalan language. Nowadays “Òmnium” have 107.381 partners. Jordi Cuixart is married with Txell Bonet and they have a six-months son. His wife Txell wake up on Saturdays to visit her husband in jail. She usually gets up at 4.30am to take her six-months son in to a train from Barcelona to Madrid, just to talk him through a glass.


Jordi Sànchez was the president from the “Assamblea Nacional Catalana (ANC)” from the 2015 to the 2017. Actually, is member of the Catalan parliament. Could have been the actual president from the parliament, but the judge didn’t let him go out from the

They, both of them, are allowed to receive daily visits from their lawyers, and also their families are allowed to have a 40minute visit every Saturday. Both, “ANC” and “Òmnium” they have become famous for their multitudinous peaceful demonstrations every 11 of September in Catalonia. The most known demonstrations were “La Via Catalana”. A human Chain from

jail to be invest. But “El comite de derechos humanos de las Naciones Unidas” or the Human Right from the United Nations oblige the Spanish state to guarantee the political rights of Jordi Sànchez. “ANC” is an association funded in 2011. Is a civil and the France border to Alcanar limiting with Valencia.

transversal movement. ANC” have around 80.000 partners. Jordi Sànchez is married with Susanna Barreda, and they have two children’s, Abril Sànchez his daughter and Oriol Sànchez his son.


WHAT IS THE “ISLAMIC STATE�? The jihadist group Islamic State emerged to the international scene in 2014 when it seized large amounts of territory in Syria and Iraq. It has become well-known for its brutality, including mass killings, abductions and beheadings. The group though has attracted support elsewhere in the Muslim world. BIEL ARIMON MONBLAN-What does IS want? In June 2014, the group declared the establishment of a "caliphate" - a state governed in accordance with Islamic law, or Sharia, by God's substitute on Earth, or caliph. It has demanded that

Muslims across the world swear allegiance to its leader ,Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri alSamarrai, better known as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and migrate to territory under its control. IS has also told other jihadist groups worldwide that they must accept its supreme authority. What are its origins? IS can trace its roots back to the late Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. In

2004, a year after the US-led the invasion of Iraq, Zarqawi pledged allegiance to Osama Bin Laden and formed al-Qaeda in Iraq. Baghdadi, a former US detainee, became leader in 2010 and began rebuilding IS's capabilities. By 2013, it was once again carrying out dozens of attacks a month in Iraq. It had also joined the rebellion against President Bashar al-Assad in Syria, setting up the al-Nusra Front. In April 2013, Baghdadi announced the union of his forces in Iraq and Syria and the creation of "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant" (Isis). The leaders of alNusra and al-Qaeda rejected the move, but fighters loyal to Baghdadi split from al-Nusra and helped Isis remain in Syria. At the end of December 2013, Isis turned its focus back to Iraq and exploited a political distance

between the Shia-led government and the minority Sunni Arab community. Helped by tribesmen and former Saddam Hussein loyalists, Isis took control of the central city of Falluja. In June 2014, Isis raided the northern city of Mosul, and then advanced southwards towards Baghdad, massacring its adversaries and threatening to eradicate the country's many ethnic and religious minorities. At the end of the month, after consolidating its hold over dozens of cities and towns, Isis declared the creation of a caliphate and changed its name to "Islamic State". What about its targets outside Iraq and Syria? In late 2015, IS began to claim to attacks outside its territory. IS said that it had downed a Russian passenger plane in the Sinai Peninsula, killing all 228 on board. It gave no


details, but the UN later said it was likely that a bomb caused the crash. And then on 13 November, at least 128 people were killed in a wave of attacks around Paris. IS said it was behind the violence - French President Francois Hollande described it as "an act of war". Finally, its last major blow was struck in Barcelona. During a late August afternoon, a man ran over and killed 13 people in the crowded site of “Las Ramblas�. Many hours later, 5 more terrorist spread terror and chaos in the seacoast town of Cambrils. One more person passed away before they were shot down. Where does IS get its money from? The militant group is believed to be the world's wealthiest. It

initially relied on wealthy private donors and Islamic charities in the Middle East keen to throw out Syria's President

Assad. Although such funding is still being used to finance the travel of foreign fighters to Syria and Iraq, the group earns its own money. It is estimated that in 2014 IS may had earned as much as several million dollars per week, or $100m in total, from the sale of oil and refined products to local middlemen, who smuggled them in Turkey and Iran, or sold them to the Syrian government.

But air strikes on oilrelated infrastructure are now believed to have diminished such business. Kidnapping also generated at least $20m in ransom payments in 2017, while IS raises several million dollars per month through extorting the millions of people living in areas under its control. IS has been believed to raise at least several million dollars per month by robbing, looting, and extortion. Payments are extracted from those who pass through people from Syria to Turkey or conduct businesses. Religious minorities are forced to pay a special tax. IS profits from raiding banks, selling antiquities, and stealing or controlling sales. Girls and women have meanwhile been sold as sex slaves.


THE STEP OF TIME IN WILLOW’S PENSIONS When your husband or couple dies, by law the polity must give you a pension. The allowance depends on the pay contributions of your husband or couple. It is hard being a widow, but it’s also hard don’t have enough money to live. This is what Nowadays happens, the widow’s pensions are a shame. ARIADNA BALLESTER You will hear about the movement the pensioners are doing, they are claiming decent pensions, also to equal the rise of the pensions to the rise of the cost of living. Probably you will ask yourself when all this started, I will answer your question. All this started in 2011 when Zapatero was the president of Spain, they won purchasing power, but when Zapatero suspends the pensions, in that moment the pensioners lost purchasing power. When Mariano Rajoy enters to the government, it doesn’t improve, it gets worst. The state doesn’t have enough money. But these pensions aren’t the one with risk, the pensions of the future are not

guarantee. But How this affects to the widow’s pensions? Nowadays the widow’s pensions depend on the pay contributions it has paid and the situation of your family, for example, if you have to help your family because your daughter or your granddaughter our your is ill, the

you the state will be biggest. The minimum pensions it’s in 484,1. That is a shame. You must take into account what the widows said about her or his pensions, in many articles they said that in some cases they don’t arrive to the minimum pensions

pensions that gives

Many times Rajoy has said that the pensions are going to improve, but this really never happens. In 2014, they promise that the revaluations of the pensions never be under 0,25%, since 2014 they’ve never overtake the minimum. Every time the government needs money they take it away from the


pensions, for example, the last time they took away money was to pay the IRPF (936 million of euros). The government decided to increase the willow’s pensions from 1 January of 2019. Increases a 60% for the people older than 60 years. In the reform of 2011, they were supposed to do it, but they postponed it until now. The conclusion is that finally the government promises to increase the willow’s pensions in 2019. But in this moment, it doesn’t seem they are going to improve or increase, the pensioners will continue with their misery pension. We must highlight that the government is allocating the money for pensions to their own interests.


FLORIDA SHOOTING: HOW TEENAGERS STARTED A POLITICAL CAMPAIGN IN 30 DAYS On February 14, 2018, a mass shooting occurred at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. Seventeen people were killed and seventeen more were wounded. It was a major disaster. 14 to 17 victims were minor, between 14 and 18 years old. NATALIA FERRET. "Someone's shooting up the school at Stoneman Douglas." This were the firsts words that one student was shouts. Since February 14, the lives of the people of the school and outside the school changed, all changed. In Sant Valentine, the live of more than 3.000 students was changed forever. They won't forget never. All the world was known about this disaster shooting and this has revolutionized a lot of people around the world. This was the sixth shooting of 2018 in the United States. HOW THE ATACT HAPPENS: One expelled student of 19 years old very armed killed 17 persons. I suppose that he was angry of the school and he decide to avenge in the worst way. The

attached starts 14.30 local time. Before finished the classes the students and the personal of Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School informed that something estrange was passing. The man entered at the school with a mask of gas, with a rifle and with a hand-grenade of fume too. He provoked one alarm because the students come out the classes. A lot of students they thought that was a simulation. They thank this because this same day there was a simulation. But this time the alarm was real. But after they saw that weren't a joke. WHO ARE THE VICTIMS? One football coach, one swimmer, one footballist very adored, one teacher of geography... they

were victims of the shooting. Also he killed at Aaron Feis, Jaime Guttenberg, Alyssa Alhadeff, Nicholas Dworet, Martin Duque, Chris Hixon, Scott Beigel, Pradera Pollastre, Cara Loughran, Gina Montalto, JoaquĂ­n Oliver, Alaina Petty, Alex Schachter, Carmen Schentrup, Luke Hoyer, Helena Ramsey and Peter Wang. I can't imagine how they feel their family and his friends, this are terrible. This people was innocent and they didn't deserve that one stupid man finished with their lives because yes, without one logical reason. He is a very bad person.


ALL WE KNOW ABOUT NIKOLAS CRUZ: DEPRESSED LONER 'CRAZY ABOUT GUNS': The murder says that a lot of students had joked at him. The murder says that a lot of students had jokes at him. This boy of 19 years old is the one that killed a lot of people in his antique school. The director expulsed that boy for disciplinary reasons. Nicolas Cruz recognised that he did the attack. The mathematic teacher says that the last year he had a lot of problems with him, he amenaced a students and is for this reason that the school decided to expulsed

him. The suspect was very obsessed with one girl and some

students thinks that he was behind this. The suspect said that he was a margin alized boy and he don't have a lot of friends. The police find in Instagram photos of weapon and knives. Also an image of one box ammunition and another rifles on a bed. In several images we can see a boy with a mask that

hold bigs knives. Mr Lewis said the suspect owned an AR-15 rifle, which the family insisted he keep locked in a cabinet. Pople described how the students hided in anywhere. The survivor Kyle Yeoward, 16, said that he and others 15 students and one teacher hided in a magazine storeroom for about two hours

until police arrived. Police said the gunman had been carrying an AR-15 rifle, which he had bought legally, and several magazines of ammunition.


THE WAR IN SIRIA Seven years of war in Siria JORDI PUCHOL The human bill of the Syrian war is already 511 thousand lives murdered just days before the end of the seventh year, according to the count made on Monday by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (an organization of the most reliable by its informants on the ground ). Some 353,935 people have been identified, of which 106,390 are civilians (19,811 minors and 12,513 women). The forces of El Asad and their allies are responsible for 85% of the civilian victims. The Observatory, located in London, counted at least another 155 thousand more deaths than the identity is unknown. On Monday, Unicef reported that the first two months of this year have been the deadliest for Syrian children, with more than a thousand dead and injured. The Syrian regular troops and the allied militias have registered according to the Syrian

Observatory the highest number of casualties with 34.5% of the total identified. Of these, 63,820 were military, 48,814 Syrian militiamen, 1,630 members of the Lebanese Hezbollah party-militia and 7,686 other Shiite foreigners. The jihadist groups linked to Al Qaeda and the Islamic State suffered 18% of the deaths identified, while 17.5% of the victims were from the ranks of the various insurgent groups that fight in the country. The source did not turbo account for the 45 thousand civilians killed by torture in government detention centers. For its part, the Syrian Network for Human Rights, brings to 212,786 the number of civilians who have lost their lives since the beginning of the conflict in March 2011, which almost all are from the Government of Damascus. According to UNICEF, he reported that 2017 was the year in which more children died in Syria, since the outbreak of the

conflict, with 50% more deaths than the previous year, although he did not detail the number of deaths. In Guya, less than 200 minors have died. Of the fronts currently active in the country, Guta Oriental, the largest rebel enclave located on the outskirts of Damascus, resists as the deadliest for civilians. It says what is there, between 165 thousand and 400 thousand people trapped there. Over the last seven years, 5.6 million Syrians have sought refuge outside the country, including 2.6 million children, mainly in neighboring countries. In addition, 6.1 million Syrians have been displaced within the country by the war, of which 2.8 million are children. Currently, in the country there are 13.2 million people in need of humanitarian aid, of which 5.3 million are children, 200 thousand of which are in besieged areas and another 1.2 million in areas of difficult access , according to Unicef.


Only two humanitarian convoys have managed to gain access to Guta. Despite the 30-day national truce announced by the UN and the five-hour humanitarian pause decreed by Russia in Guta Oriental, only two humanitarian convoys have managed to distribute food to 27,500. Civilians try to survive the bombing and the famine anywhere. Both the UN and the Syrian Red Cross and Red Crescent want a real truce to access the civilian population and evacuate the thousands of seriously injured. "We are waiting for the Syrian

government to authorize us and that the security conditions for various distributions of humanitarian aid and evacuation of the wounded from Guta and other priority points in the country be given," he said from Damascus and in a telephone conversation Linda Tom, spokesperson for

the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Syria. A part Russian troops stationed in Syria announced the evacuation of 52 civilians from the town of Misraba (in Guta), while the Syrian state television has disseminated the testimonies of several


BLACK LIVES MATTER In 2017, 987 people were killed by the police in the United States. Aren’t they human beings? We have to stop this racism in our hearts. MAMA KONTE SYLLA Black men are constantly harassed by the police and beaten even when they haven’t done anything. There are too many cases of shootings against these black men. Even the famous black people are afraid of this fact because the same thing could happen to them. Now, the police brutality it’s supposed to be part of the daily life of a black man in the United States. The death of Brown in Ferguson is a proof that this huge community are not safe from the police. In 2015, according to the Washington Post, 16 unarmed black men were killed by the police. The year before was 36. The percentage of black men in U.S. are the 7% of the population considering that there are cases where the shootings were

justified, even if the person killed was unarmed. As I said, violence has become a reality in public schools, most of them in America. Although, black men aren’t killed by the cops, they are constantly stopped and brutalized even if they don’t die from it.

Now talking from the side of black women, a new report from Comparably that made an experiment with 200.000 different works of diverse industries reveals that the 26% of women says that they’ve been sexually harassed at work,

most of black.

them

are

Also, there are now fewer black women in technology than there were 10 years ago. Talking in the side of education, in 2013, about 57% of black women in 25 years and older attended college but only a 31% have completed a degree comparing

to the 60% of all women who attended college which is a 39%. Only a 15% of black women over 25 years didn’t complete high school. In the employement side, the African American females from 16 to 64 years has done a higher


participation labor force.

in

the

have difficulty having money.

at

Black women have a higher unemployment and the most time is working on a part time job for economic

They just want to be recognized as equal to white people because this difficult topic it’s not from

reasons. The combination of all of these is that these women and their families probably

today, it has been for a very long time and things has to change. Only for being black you feel like you can’t

do the same things like a “normal” person. That’s why we have to stop this kind of racism in our hearts and treat people the way they have to be treated,

because black lives matter.


THE MILLENNIALS The millennials are the people that became teenagers in the 2000’s, between 15 and 29 years old. The generation of baby boom. NOEMÍ

RASCÓN

GÓMEZ. This

people

have

different characteristics

unemployment,

the

saving. And the last

5.778.100

one the major ones of

unemployed that are

25

970.200

already are conscious

to

young

years,

these

than

women below the 25

of

what

they

buy,

the people that were

years. They want to

because

only

they

born in 2000’s, with

have the total control

buy what they see as

the

of

of this experience of

an investment. The

century, more things

purchase, they need

millennials are people

have changed for the

to feel the control. Are

who

millennials,

the

the ideal population

degrees of education.

technology,

the

for the brands and

Spain has 54 % of

personality.

These

sellers, but they are

people

people are going to

divided

university

be 70% more strongly

subgroups

in the workforce in the

divided

developed

attitudes opposite to

in the labor world, for

the expense and the

example, they have

saving. From 15 to 17

more aptitude to do

years they buy to be

different things, their

known, spend what

capacity multitask this

they

have,

one developed to a

have

the

change

world

in

2050’s.

The

generation

of

millennials in Spain is more than 8 million, but most of them are affected

by

with that

in

are

different

do

not

concept

have

with

good

top

level

The following group

They

goes of 18 to the 24,

prepared,

these

has

conscious

now

of

degree.

characteristics

previous

more

a

The millennials have

conscious of saving.

are

good

that

the

generation. are this been

better one a


generation with major

rate of top studies.

Since already 54 % of

that a showy salary,

opened of ' the life

the

to gain money is one

living through it ' and

been said they have a

of

lower

not so aggressive as

university degree, are

aspirations,

the

that of his parents

more specialized and

family, the friends, the

who

simultaneously

they

quality of the work or

only to gain money

are more flexible to

the studies are over

and to obtain a good

the

the money. They are

position

are fewer conformists,

a

company. His choice

the development of

desired

his

companies and the

defined by the salary

career is one of the

banks,

group

but by the way of life.

most important. The

interconnected

and

The current sites of

Spanish

millennials

very acquainted with

work

want a work, but they

the technology that

changes caused by

have less hurry to find

interacts

the generation and be

it and put ahead the

means.

quality

mentality

millennials

changes.

has

They

professional

and

a

schedule that allows them

to

harmonize

the labor thing and the

personal

thing

and to enjoy the life,

his

generation

very

for

in It

the

social has

a

more

of

were

working

in

career

was

stink,

a not

the

the better thing for the whole world.


WE ARE NOT A PIECE OF MEAT You go to your friend’s House and see three boys looking at you, yo go to buy the bread and a boy tells how beautiful you are with bad words. ¿That’s nice? ¿Do girls like this comments? The street sexual harassment can go from a look with sexual thinking to an abuse or a violation in public. ANDREA LAIZ DÍAZ. For many woman, going out implies enduring with a lot of “cute things” that boys says to us. It affects to men, women, children and young people. But this harassment is more directly to girls. A lot of girls are discriminated by boys or include girls. Not by her boyfriends or friends, they are discriminated by people they don’t know. Boys shout at them or say things that girls don’t want to listen. They often laugh by the form they go dressed, or comments of her bodies. I can’t understand what they are trying to get. ¿They really think that with this comments they can flirt? There are more types they can do it. Obviously we like when boys tell us sweet things, and

makes us laugh and give us love, but not that way. Girls can think too that a boy is sexy or handsome, but we don’t pursue him. We like when they think that we go dressed well, or we are beautiful. But if one day we want to go with a skirt, or with a top, we don’t have to know your opinion about if you like my clothes or if the skirt is so little. If we wear that skirt is because we want, if we wear a chaotic trouser is because we like this trousers. We dress as we like to. Searching information, I entered in a page called “velvet”. And there, I could find information about what street sexual harassment is. But there’s a thing that impacted me. “According to a study of INJUV, realised in

2016, an 87% of girls, said that they lived an experience of street sexual harassment during their young age.” That’s a high number of victims that suffer street sexual harassment. We have to stop it. Chile is one of the countries where most aggression are in a public space. There say comments like “you are beautiful, baby”, “with one like you I wouldn’t sleep”, In theory we have to like that kind of words We don’t dress for boys.


and an elder person Sometimes when I told me “If I had your wait for the bus in the age, oh my god what I bus station, some would do to you”, later cars that pass in front I was near my home whistle at me. and 2 cars whistled to As we can find in LA me. Another day I NACION magazine, OWN EXPERIENCE was in front of my this are the different One day I arrived door and a group of types of harassment crying at home for this boys told me “sweet and how many type of boys that think things” and my father, women suffer each that we like this kind that was in the one in Argentina. of comments. I was parking heard it and walking in the street he acted. TYPES AFFECTED WOMAN Some man follow her in the street 45% Men touches at her and show them his genitals 36% Men has masturbated in front of her 17% And how do we feel? insecure because we We all think that’s We are scared when can’t be relaxed disgusting and we all we see a man looking thinking of what this are anger. at us, we feel too man will do. That are the number of complaints in the lasts years


GENDER: THE MACHISMO Machismo is usually voiced unconsciously in most of society. Sometimes it is reflected directly and sometimes in a subtle way. patriarchy.

ADRIANA

The

130,000

Spanish

patriarchy is a form of

women were victims

machismo is the set

social

of sexist violence in

of attitude and ideas

where the authority is

based on superiority

exercised by a male,

MARTÍNEZ.-

The

of man, as a male, about

women,

I

mean, they are facts that

are

against

offensive

the

female

gender. It’s a type of violence

that

discriminates against women

or

even

homosexual Many

men.

of

the

organization

2016. Sexist ads would be a

the patriarch.

clear The

“opposite”

example

of

of

machismo, in some

the

ads, they encourage

misandry. Misandry is

the sale of products

the

hatred

with a woman with

men

or

machismo

is

towards the

bad

little clothes.

opinion about them, considered as unfair and

oppressive

In

machismo very

towards women.

some

cases can

be

extreme,

for

example, sometimes

machismo facts are

Machismo is related

it has been the case

created

with

gender

that the couple of a

women are still seen

violence, that it can

woman tell her that

as property of men.

be of different types,

she has to go out to

physical,

the street covered up

psychological, sexual

so that other men

and economic, among

don’t see her, I mean,

others.

Gender

that the woman can’t

violence is a violence

even get to choose

affect to the women

the clothes to wear.

because

Nowadays, one way or another, but we all sometimes

have

a

macho attitude, even without realizing it. Machismo

is

a

consequence of the

the

for the simple fact of being.

More

than

In are

machismo

there also


micromachismos.

A

machismo victim. One

convince you not to

micromachismo is a

of them are if a you

do something that you

subtle form of gender

are with a man and

want to do. As well, if

violence that includes

he thinks that you

he

strategies,

only need him, and

attitudes if you have

of

then he will realize

some

everyday life that are

that you can also be

and it creates distrust

subtle,

almost

happy

with

your

and jealousy.

imperceptibles

but

friends

and

your

that

and

family

gestures,

things,

acts

last

transmitted

from

generation

to

generation. There different see

if

are signals

you

are

to a

and

he

will

understand

that

he

shows

macho

male

friends

And finally, is a male

isn’t as powerful as

chauvinist

if

he

he thought. Also it’s a

disagrees

with

all

macho attitude if he

your

doesn’t like you to go

demands

that

you

out to a party, in this

have

make

his

case, he is trying to

plans.

plans to

and


FEMINIST STRIKE IN SPAIN On the last day of March 8, all the women of Spain took to the streets to demonstrate, as their slogan says, that "if we stop, the world stops". In this strike they claim the need to promote changes to achieve real equality for women. PAULA PÉREZ. All the

woman

feminist

organizations

women with work in the

do

of Spain called, last

history of Spain, also

threatened to fire them

March 8, to all the

admitted the existence

if they stopped those

women to a general

of

the

wage

gap

two Stop hours.

strike,

they

between

men

and

We could see how in

wanted to fight against

women.

Because

of

the television channels

the sexual harassment

this they decided to

they

against

make all women stop

strike, or rather they

women. The Minister of

working, both in their

decided to accept it so

Employment and Social

jobs

their

as not to look bad

Security,

Fátima

homes, to demonstrate

before the viewer, in

Báñez, said that this

that "if we stop, the

channels

March 8 has been the

world stops" even so

Telecinco,

of

where

men

women,

with

more

many women could not it

because

supported

they

that

towards and

that

althought it has not finished it has made the women join together to fight against this, they also wanted to fight against machismo, so that there would be fairer wages and that there

would

discrimination

day

of

the

be

no

working

and

in

like Antena3,


divinity or Cuatro, they

programs we could see

"I decide the when,

had

to

modify

the

a recorded video where

where and with whom"

of

TV

the

and

are some who They

programs they normally

collaborators left of the

saw each other on all

did,

program

the streets of Spain.

schedule

the

since

people,

several

both

presenters saying

that

the

that day they were not

Finally we can say that

technical team and the

going to work and the

the feminist strike of

team that we see on

reasons. Posters like

March 8 has been the

our

are

"are free and flying",

largest feminist strike in

women and that day

"I'm not a dog not

Spain and women hope

they made the break to

whistle me", "We are

that things change now.

support

feminist

the voices of those who

strike, in many of the

can no longer shout" or

screens,

the


MINORITIES: LGBT LGBT joins up people with sexual orientations and gender identities related to those four words. JUDITH MELIÁN: The

6

LGBT

orange, yellow, green,

and purple).

blue and purple). It

Nowadays the LGBT

girl who is in love with

was

term

another girl) Gay (a

Gilbert

terminology

means

“Lesbian

(a

colours

(red,

designed Baker.

by The

light blue, dark blue

is

more

extensive, it includes

boy who is in love

also

with

boy)

communities

person

that are not

another

Bisexual

(a

the

who is in love with the

included

two

these

genders)

and

Transsexual

(a

person that was born with one gender and he/she changes to the other)”,

it

is

a

community that little by little is growing thanks to the support. They are a minority due to all the people that doesn’t “accepts them”. LGBT people are

usually

treated

worst,

insulted

public

places

in and

some of them have suffered bullying. This community has a flag also, is formed by

in four

letters, first LGBT flag had 8 colours

(pink-that

means sexuality-, redthat

means

orange-that health-, means

life-, means

yellow-that sun

green-that

light-, means

nature-, light blue-that means magic and art,

dark

blue-that

means serenity- and purple-that

means

spirit-)

but

following

year

the was

changed again and it had 7 colours (red, orange, yellow, green,

emphasizing sexual diversity and gender

identities,

including people who have a sex, a sexual orientation

or

a

gender not accepted by

traditional

heteronormalization and

binarism.

The

LGBT community is also called LGBT+, to involve

all

these

communities too. There LGBT

is

also

the

Movement,

which consist on fight against discrimination


and homophobia and

pride all the continent

Barcelona,

for the equal rights for

together,

Valencia, Bilbao, The

all the lesbians, gays,

called Europride. One

CoruĂąa,

bisexuals,

of the most important

Cartagena, Valladolid

transsexuals,

prides is Madrid’s one

or Palma de Mallorca

intersexuals, queers,

with

2.000.000

there are also big

asexuals,

attendees. Also Paris

festivities with up to

and

250.000 attendees.

BDSM,

bears, fetishists,

polyamorous, etc.

which

London

500.000

is

with

attendees

each one. This

community

More

Seville, Murcia,

big

prides

around the world are

it

in Sao Paulo (with

also has its own day,

As we said before,

circa

it is the June 28th. It is

the

attendees),

commemorated

the

pride is the one of

San

unrest of Stonewall

Madrid (MADO). And

Mexico City, Sydney,

(New York, USA) of

the pride festivities of

Johannesburg,

1969

Namibia and Uganda.

that

beginning

most

important

set

the

Madrid have become

of

the

one

of

the

most

homosexual

liberty

popular festivities in

movement.

Every

Spain.

year, in Europe, every

shows,

LGBT community of

conferences,

each country chooses

expositions,

etc.

a city to celebrate the

Great

Canary,

There

are

concerts, artistic In

3.000.000 Toronto, Francisco,


WORKER WOMAN Equality it’s still being an unfulfilled dream. A lot of people think that in nowadays the equality between man and woman is not a problem, but that’s not true. The percentage of men in important carriages continues to be double that of women according to the INE (National Institute of Statistics) and 68% of Spanish women in vulnerable situations are unemployed. MARINA SÁNCHEZ

LÓPEZ

For many years now woman is fighting to the equality between genders. It’s true that the rights of the woman they advanced a lot in recent years, but this fight it’s not over yet. Some people think that the feminism is not necessary. That feminism promotes that the woman is better than man, but that’s not true! Feminism promotes the equality between genders. The group “feminazi” is the group that promotes the superiority of the woman’s, but that thought is it's just as bad as male chauvinism. To be feminist you do not have to be a woman. As Emma Watson (goodwill

ambassador of the ONU) said in one of his speeches “Men, I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue too”. So if you are a person that believes in gender equality, congratulations! You are a feminist. Although feminism began to be noticed in the French Revolution, there have been many women before that time who have fought for equality. One of the best examples is the French heroin

Joan of Arc. Another important feminist character is: Marie Curie (the first woman winning the Nobel Price) but she is from 20th century. In the 20th century the woman had begun to enter in working market and develop his studies, demonstrating to the people of that time that women are equally capable of doing a man's job. The next step? Have the same salary and the same opportunities. European

women


receive 36% less pension than men. According to the National Institute of Statistics or INE; the percentage of men in important jobs is the double that the women and women occupy only 10% of top management positions in companies; for example, in Catalonia there is a total of 6.000 mayors but only

homes there are woman who usually does all the household chores (independently if she works or not). The worst is not that the woman can receive a lower salary than a man for doing the same job.

Resulting that in the average the woman wins a 15% less that the man only in our country.

The worst is that in some business

In the past centuries it was believed that the woman should be athome taking care of the children and this thought it has not changed as much as we think, a clear example is that women are the ones who tend to stay at home while studying the new-born baby. Or the belief that the women drive worse than men.

How many men do you know who are house masters? Or how many women’s do you know who dedicate themselves to the world of sports?

But the stereotypes affect to the men too, a clear example is that only 5% of the men works at child education.

27 are woman. The difference pay between sexes it is 23% in the world and 18.8% in Spain, that means that the woman win the 77% of the salary that win the men in nowadays. And still in many

prefers hire a man because the woman have more possibilities to take after the maternity and the 18% have been pressured by the company to become pregnant.

It doesn’t matters your religion, where country do you come from, your sexual orientation, your skin colour or if you are a man or a woman. You are human and you deserve to be treated like an equal.


GENDER DIFFERENCES Introduction: The differences between the things that men and women have in sports. Carla Serrano Méndez Do you want to dedicate yourself to sports? Wait, you are a man or a woman, because if you are a you woman you won’t have to much success in it, trust me. Now, in TV, when they are showing the sports, you might see a man doing basketball, football or tennis among many others, but, why you never asked yourself why they are very few women who play these sports? Well, now we are going to know it Men and women compete separately in almost all sports. It must be like this, experts say, because of the different physical capacities, which even determines their training. Why are there differences between men and women in sports? In general terms, men have a greater capacity and muscle tone, that means that in many

strength sports or contact, always have better results explains the physical trainer Claudio Basualdo, head of Sports Medicine at Las Condes Clinic. “And the women are of

Now we are going to know why they have differences in sports.

technical specificity, they have a fineness component of exercises. For example, they do well in skiing or motor sports. And that's why they do sports like the beam in gymnastics, because they have characteristics like fixators of the spine that favor them. It would be impossible for men to do these exercises, because they are clumsier” said Basualto.

weight and 15 percent of an ordinary man's weight is fat. Men, therefore, are 30 percent stronger.

Strength: According with the book "An Invitation to Health," 27 percent of a woman's average

Velocity: Men tend to run faster than women because of several athletic differences. Their lungs are bigger that means that they can breathe an average of 25 to 30 percent higher than woman’s. Besides, their legs are longer which leads that does a longer stride.


Resistance: Women burn more fat and less carbohydrates, which are important for energy. This helps women get ahead of men in ultraendurance tests and also explains why there are more women swimming the English channel event every year. So women have more resistance than men.

Men have an advantage over women in sports because they are more aggressive and have higher selfesteem. In the textbook I mentioned earlier, he reports that men are more aggressive than women from 2 years of age until death. On the other hand, the muscles of women are more flexible than those of men, due to hormonal and anatomical differences. This better flexibility helps female gymnasts, divers and artistic skaters to compete better than men.


GROWING UP TOO FAST Nowadays there are many issues around the world and in our own societies. In my opinion I would say the biggest issue in our society is the speed that children are growing up these days. Kids had always wanted and played to be older, but now, this game has become real. Kids are forgetting to be kids and they want to grow up too much faster. Laia Robert. There was a time where kids enjoyed being kids. Years ago, kids used to play in the street, help their mothers with the house tasks, etc. They used to have fun just with a rock from the street, they used to make a castle with a piece of box,...when they were bored, they had the ability to find anything to play with. Now, they only play with their phones or their computers and they don’t even talk with their families. Additionally, they have too much responsibility these days. They worry too much about having fancy cars, cell phones and video games. Technology has made them lazy. They have to go outside and just play. The social media is one of the guilty of this big problem. At 10, they start to ask for a cell phone. Why would they want a phone at this age? And the worst is that parents give them

what they ask for. Kids have phones from very young ages and there, they see things that they shouldn’t see. Actually, you go down the street, in the bus, wherever, and you only see kids playing with the phones. What do they do with them? They usually use them to chat, play games, etc. They also use Instagram and other socials apps. There, they see their idols doing adult things and that makes them want to be older. Kids act like if they were older just to imitate people in Instagram. Look where they look, they are telling them how they should act, what they should buy, as their idol does. Since a child gets up, they do not spend almost a moment without being

attacked with information. And I do not mean just ads. Children have become a very important segment of the market and everyone wants to get them. It is clear that this change that we are living, is due to the new society that we live every day. This evolution has been growing at the same time as new technologies and the new more aggressive means of advertising. In school is very usual to see kids in primary talking about girlfriends and boyfriends, in a conscious way and already with some objectives and a lot of desire of growing. As a junior high student says: “I'm a kid in Junior High. I, for one, enjoy being a kid. I don't want to grow up too quickly because let’s face it, once you grow up, there's no going back. But I' ve noticed that many of the kids at my public school, girls especially, don't


share my opinion. They date at 12, wear makeup even though the rules clearly state you can't and, talk about things that generations before us didn't learn about until they were much older. It's like the kids at my school think it's "Cool" to act like you're 16 when you're actually 13, and, according to the majority of students at my school, it is cool. I don't get why they want to grow up. Adulthood means paying bills, taking care of yourself and getting an actual job. I mean, I guess some people like the fact that you get to move away from your family, but that seems like the only upside.� Computer games are guilty of this issue too. Nowadays most of the computer games are all aggressive and violent and they use an abusive language. So, children playing these games are only learning to behave badly and talk with a derogatory language like if they were older. They only want to behave like if they were tough and mature. And what about parents? Parents are pushing their kids toward adulthood. They send

7-year-olds to technique-intense sports camps, hire academic tutors for their kindergartners, sign 4-year-olds up for violin lessons and contract with writing coaches to help compose their kids. They treat their kids like if they were adults and this shouldn’t be like that. They should have the opportunity of choosing what they want to do, the sport they want to play, etc. In conclusion, we should control this issue, if not, in a few years we will be treating with kids of 10 years smoking. I also advise to teach them values like autonomy, humility and respect.


BULLYING AGAINST LGTB CHILDREN 85% of homosexuals suffer every day all type of discriminations. Not only in the social field but also in the school. How do we’re educating our children if this type of abuses till happening? PAULA BOTA. We

because

call

LGTB

movement,

to

the

of

sexual The

their

how some people feel

orientation.

when they’re around

people

who

them.

movement both social

abuse of them are in

Homophobia

and politic that fights

one

behavioural:

against discrimination

LGTB phobic.

one

and homophobia, and

The LGTB phobia can

behaviours in font of

that support the equal

be present in all the

LGTB people. In this

rights

the

fields of the society

group

the

and can have several

include the violation

appearances,

from

of the human rights

jokes, mockery and

that still happening in

insults

some parts of the

and

knowledge

of

collective;

lesbians,

gays,

bisexuals,

transgender

and

transsexuals,

even

though

in

recent

group

to

called,

assaults.

determined

we

There are a lot of

world,

different

homosexual,

types

of

take

could

where

being for

years this movement

LGTB phobia, these

example, is punished

had also include other

are:

with prison.

groups related with

Homophobia

45% of the population

sexuality; intersexual,

cognitive: considerer

has felt discriminated

asexual,

the sexual orientation

in

of the LGTB persons

establishment

as

public space. 65.8%

polyamory

and fetishist. Due

to

or

the

poor

all

this

unnatural

groups have among

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increase from a 4,4% The situation would have become more complex when, on some occasions, they tried to put on makeup and he was totally bullied, some other times they didn’t lend him notebooks because of his sexual orientations.


THE GLOBAL PROBLEM OF GENDER INEQUALITY The differences between women and men lives in society it’s a relevant issue. It’s important to understand all aspects related to the inequality of resources, opportunities, status and roles and how do we deal with these issues nowadays. ANDREA CASTAÑO. Women have got many obstacles when they search for a job because of the gender inequality. From long time ago it is believed that women work it’s to stay at home taking care of the children and to do the household chores instead of being working as their husbands. “Work” was a word only used for the workmen that were working out of home. The labor of the woman was not recognized as a job even being just the same or harder than man work. According to the “Women Policy Research Institute” it will take until the 2058 to stop this thinking. It is said that women are more qualified than men in academic degrees, even so, they continue earning less salary. According to the stereotypical gender roles, there

are jobs where women must work in, these are the ones that include a gentle touch, like a personal assistant. In the other way men are supposed to manage jobs that are stereotypically more demanding and women are less likely than men to work in. The treatment of women in the workplace are very different depending on the nation. Washington, D.C., Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Connecticut are the five states that offer more job opportunities for women. Unlike the women who live in West Virginia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas that are submitted to a hard work and less opportunities. Giving an example the women that are working in one of

these states with less employing opportunities earn the half part of the salary than the richer countries even working in a job with the same characteristics. Women spend less time working in their formal jobs but they continue exercising more work when they arrive at home. Performing tasks that are supposed that must be done by a woman, chores where they spend many hours despite not being paid. Being like these, women do many work hours than men. There is a thing called “bias” these happen when two groups of people act identically but are treated differently, these is what occurs with men and women that acting in the same way as men they do not receive the same treatment. Another important fact is that most of the


women that are pregnant leave their job when they give birth while only the 7,4% of men do the same. According to the “INE” the 15% of women receive the minimum salary and only the 5% of men are in the same situation. Women are considered weak people and that is why they are offered low-level work positions. An example of that could be the parliamentary occupations that in that in the whole world only 22% of women represent it. That is why women leads the unemployment and not men.

makes companies to reconsider if they want these women in the workplace and in most cases, they are not admitted. The amount of time that women can give to their formal job it’s not considered enough and that’s why they prefer men.

It is believed that one of the facts of gender inequality in the workplace happens because there are some jobs where employees should demonstrate how committed they are. In some jobs employees should travel and go outside of their countries for a long time and these can suppose a big problem for most women specifically if they have families which they need to take care of. These

To stop this hard reality all women must cooperate as a time and continue fighting against gender inequality in the workplace. A serious fact that is happening since many years ago and it must to end as soon as possible. If we stay together we can achieve a fair society both men and women with gender equality.


GENDER WAGE GAP IN BASKETBALL LAIA COSTA In some basketball clubs, there’re male teams which are considered more important than some female teams. It doesn’t matter the league in which these teams are, “a male team will be always greater than a female team”. In NBA, male players are paid about 50 percent of the league revenue. On the other hand, in WNBA (Woman’s Nacional Basketball Association), female players are paid about 33 percent of their league revenue, less than male players. Diana Taurasi made the All-Women's National Basketball Association First Team in 2014 and helped the Phoenix Mercury win the league's championship. That season, she was paid the maximum salary of $107,500. In 201314, the Phoenix Suns employed Dionte Christmas (a male Player) for 198 minutes. For those minutes –the only minutes Christmas has ever played in the National Basketball Association– he was

paid the league minimum salary of $490,180, more than the maximum salary that a female player can be paid. Dionte Christmas, male player

NBA

The difference between what men and women are paid

for essentially the same job is referred to as the gender wage gap. In basketball there’s this gender wage gap too. That happens around the world, not only in USA. For example, in Catalonia, there are basketball clubs that are more focused on male teams rather than female teams and vice versa. When they are focused on a male team, they do what is possible for this team to have all they want if this makes this team a better team. “And what happens to the other male teams of the club?” you could ask yourself. The other teams of the club have the

worst track for their trainings, the worst schedule for training and the simplest trainer of the club. Why? Because the best track, the best schedule and the best trainer is gave to the best male team of the club.

Lauren Jackson, WNBA female player

“And the female teams of the club?”, another question you could ask yourself. Worse than the rest of the male teams of the club. If the male teams have more priority than the female teams, this teams will have to “survive” in those conditions that the club has put. To conclude this article, I want to say that in all the clubs there are good and bad teams, but all of them have to be considered in a same way, not one of them more than the others.


The "sport" of killing “We have lost the ancient wisdom that considers each decision on how it will affect future generations. We have to get back to thinking in a different way, beyond the easy political wins.” -Jane Goodall Alex Baudach Campóo. Poaching is the act of killing animals and save them as a trophy or sell their attributes. This type of action is the main cause of the endangerment of some animal species. Only in 2013, 12.000 elephants were killed in Africa due to the illegal hunting making the African elephant one of the most threatened animals in the planet. The main reason why hunters kill them it’s because of its tusks, which are valued between 30.000 and 100.000 euros. At the beginning of the twentieth century

there were about 10 millions of African elephants of which now only remain 500.000. Another species of animals who are victim of poaching and whose population is decreasing every day are the big cats. All type of felines such as tigers, lions, leopards, cheetahs, lynxes, caracals and pumas are hunted to death because of its skin, bones, heads or claws. In some underdeveloped countries of the Southeast Asian continent there are beliefs that say that tiger or leopard body parts have healing

qualities, an important reason of the indiscriminate hunting of this animals. Over the years, the population of some species have descended notably due to the safari poaching. An activity that can cost between 1.000 and 70.000 and that only rich people can afford. Wellknown people like Juan Carlos I, the king emeritus of Spain, Jaycee Carroll, a famous basketball player and Francisco Franco were some of the most famous persons involved in this called “


2017, THE SECOND WORST YEAR OF FOREST FIRES IN SPAIN The last year in Spain it has been one of the worst years in terms of fire. The number of forest fires have increased in 2017, this is due to the high pollution and also for leaving so many remains lying on the ground in mountains, forests, etc ... ALBERTO VIDAL Forest fires are mainly produced by humans, specially 78% of fires. While of 16% its cause is unknown and 4% have their origin in rays. The investigation of the causes of the fires by geographic areas shows off that there are two very different situations in the Spanish State, since while in the northwest of Spain there is a high number of fires, mostly intentionally, in the rest of the country most fires are caused by mistakes. As there are causes, there are as well consequences. In this part, there are positive and negative consequences.

The positive consequences are that they clean the dead matter, which allows to grow new plants. It is like a process of regeneration.

Another positive consequence is maintaining the balance of the ecosystem by

eliminating harmful insects and diseased plants. By destroying trees that help you can also increase the light that reaches the ground. When many of the forest fires occurs in a region, the impact can be devastating. The natural cycles of forests are stopped and native species disappear.


Forest fires increase the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect and climate change. There are different ways to prevent a forest fire. There are measures that are necessary to prevent fires from spreading: clearing the forest, also creating firebreaks (removing part of their roads to create firebreaks) and pruning (cutting or removing trees) to makes the fire doesn’t arrives to other side of the forest A forest fire can devastate everything in its path, spreading great distances, overpassing rivers, roads and firebreaks. The last years in Spain had been different forest fire, like‌ In 2012 was a bad year, with a hot and

dry summer, the forest fires were devastating. It will go down in history as one of the worst. 2013 and 2014 were years of calm, a mirage due to the favorable weather conditions 2015 was a year of several fires: that of Jaen, Zaragoza were disasters that we can not forget, all of them, large forest fires. In 2016, there were large fires: in August, the fire devoured 7% of La Palma, taking the life of a forest agent. The fire was triggered by the Valencian Community (with 4 large fires)

and Galicia (with 9 large fires) As you can see in this image, the most affected areas are Asturias and Galicia. This two areas where the risk of a fire happening is greater than in other ones, it is by a simple reason. These two zones are full of vegetation, which means that there is mainly more risk of a forest fire happening. Another reason is that these areas are very dry so the minimum fire can ignite .


SAVE THE WHALES! Nowadays whales are in danger of extinction living in their own habitat due to overfishing pollution, constructions, private/commercial boating and commercial whaling. Ecologists warn that a species with millions of years can disappear if we do not try to take care of them and the environment. PAU VILCHEZ Since centuries the whales have been a powerful and admired animal. But as we know, this species with millions of years of existence is in danger of extinction. According to data from the “Red List of threatened species”, created by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), which allows us to know the status of the threat of the species of animals and plants in the world. Eight of the thirteen large species of whale are still endangered, or are vulnerable, after years and years of protection. In the past, one wellknown and used method for the whale captivity was to go around a whale with several small boats provoking scares. The whale frightened arrived to the seashore where it would land on the sand to be killed.

On the other hand, in the present, due to the advancements in technology and industries, raw materials coming from these animals are becoming very requested for some countries factories. Hunting whales it became a very lucrative job, ultimately increasing the rate that whales being killed every single year.

(Rise in scientific whaling from WWF) Some examples of raw materials coming from whales are: Oil for the lamp oil, perfumes, cosmetics and candles. The meat from these animals it is food (whale meat and

cooking oil…), with the skin industries make clothing such as corsets and umbrellas. The only known natural predators to whales (besides humans) are attacks from a pack of hungry killer whales. THE CLIMATE CHANGE: Warmer ocean temperatures and melting sea ice in the polar regions can endanger the Arctic and Antarctic feeding areas of many whale. The increase in radiation can cause a decrease in the population of krill, a primary source of food for many marine species. OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT WHALE CONDITIONS: Pollution: Actually in our era we have lots of issues with chemical pollution in the ocean


combined with oil and garbage continues to have an effect on whale populations, however dolphins that live close to the coast line or in rivers may face even more ecological threats. In addition, noise pollution from manmade equipment such as engines, sonar, explosives and other types of equipment damage to the mammals hearing. Overfishing: Fishing industries can cause the disappearance of the whales due to overfishing. These companies fish more animals than necessary and create an ecological impact on the sustainability. In some places, overfishing is making difficult for whales and other marine mammals to find food. Aquatic construction: Humans need to construct bridges,

waterways, dams and other constructions may affect whales: In the travel, separating groups of mammals‌ This type of constructions affects more to dolphin populations, especially river and coastal dolphins as Marine Mammals Facts & Information explains, dolphins that are segregated or hamed by the creation of dams and bridges, and in some moments these constructions may even affect their food.

(Gray whale, California) Private and commercial boating: As whales facts oficial web saiss: Whales and dolphins are known to be occasionally struck by passing boats. As the rivers and ocean become more congested with boats and ships the likelihood of whales being seriously injured or killed also increases. For this information and to save an ancient and espectacular species: Whales, we need all human collaboration and respect. For a future in which humans live in harmony with nature!


GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH The plastic island or Great Pacific garbage patch is an environmental problem. It was found by the Solar Plane, whale it was trying to cross with an ecological plane without combustible. During the path of 62 hours of trip the pilot flew over a “plastic continent”. David Ruiz Garcia. Now a days this big island is known as “the seventh continent”, “Plastic Island”, “toxic island”, “plastifere” or “Great Pacific Garbage Patch”. These pilot called Bertrand Piccard said that people should support projects like Ocean Cleanup to prevent of these disasters and environmental problems. That problem is managed by Boyan Slat, a Dutch of 21 years old that wants to clean all the plastics of all the oceans. That ocean has 100 million of rubbish tones that joined forms the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” and it has a size of 700.000 km2, it’s bigger than Spain that has 500.000 km2. It’s composed of high quantities of suspended plastic and other wastes.

That island is the result of a circular current that accumulates rubbish in his centre, all the rubbish get joined in the middle of 4 currents of Washington, Mexico and Japan that create a whirlpool that blocks the wastes travel to the coasts, it’s characterized for an exceptional high concentration of floating plastics and other rubbish types. That major part of these materials don’t float, they suspend in form of particles in the water column, so we cannot see them, that’s the reason why it’s also called “waste

soap”. It has been developed since 1988 because of the maritime currents that collect rubbish from the USA and Japan, both produce a high quantity of wastes. According to the estimations of the investigator Charles Moore, who studied that waste concentrations, he said that there is a 80% of waste came from the earth and the other 20% came from the ships. The plastic is not biodegradable, so it get disintegrated only with the pass of the time because of the natural erosion. In these case the sun is in charge of disintegrating the plastic, but only to transform it into smaller particles that suspend in the water.


That disintegrated particles finish at the maritime living organisms and maritime ecosystems.

because of the plastics they eat, or the turtles that get deformed by fault of the Coca-Cola packs.

They provoke the death of a lot of animals and algae (they produce the 50% oxygen of the planet). There are also birds, or terrestrial animals that get affected, for example, there are a lot of birds that die

These island in the Pacific Ocean continues growing and expanding along the sea, actually it is a very big problem to solve it in a short time. It would suppose a very big spend of money to clean all the dirty part,

it’s needed to contract too many picking up services. It’s only the worst example of contamination of the oceans, rivers and seas of The Earth, but there are a lot of other important focus of contamination. In the last years, another big rubbish island is making sense, it is situated in the Atlantic Ocean, near the USA coast and next to the Pacific Ocean. That’s one of the worst environmental problems at the moment and it only can be solved with the contribution of all the humans in the world.


DO YOU REALLY KNOW WHAT POLLUTION IS? It has passed 66 million years since the creation of our planet. The Earth. But what would you think, if now I tell you that over this years, we’re killing it? At first it seems that I’m cheating you, right? Well, if you want to know why we are killing it, I invite you to read and enjoy this article. JÚLIA RECHE SINGLA Before I start talking about the pollution in our planet I’m going to introduce a little bit more the concept of pollution: As a general definition of pollution, we can say that pollution is the presence or accumulation of several substances that affect negatively and directly to the environment and living conditions, as the health or hygiene of all living beings. Moreover the word pollution comes from the word in Latin “contaminatîo”, which it is derived from the verb “contaminare”, which means corrupt, dirty or alter something by contact. So now that you know the signification and definition of pollution, I’m going to explain the different types that are. There are several types of pollution.

They come from different sources and have different consequences. Understanding the basics of pollution can help to make conscious people minimize their contribution to these risk. These sources of pollution not only have a

negative impact on the natural world, it can also have a seriously effect on the health of the human beings. The first type that I’m going to talk about is the air pollution. Air pollution is defined as any pollution of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural and chemical

composition of the air. This can be in the form of particulate matter such as dust or gases like carbon dioxide or other vapours that cannot be remove through natural cycles, such as the carbon cycle or the nitrogen cycle. Air pollution comes from a wide variety of sources. Some of the most excessive sources are: Vehicle or manufacturing exhaust - Natural sources like: forest fires, volcanic eruptions, dry soil erosion… - Building construction or demolition Depending on the concentration of air pollutants, some effects can be noticed and they can involve consequences like: The Smog (smoky fog) increases, higher rain acidity… Many scientists think that global warming is also related to the


increment of air pollution. The second type is about water pollution. This issue involves any contaminated water. Water pollution can occur in oceans, rivers, lakes… All this water, flow together through the water cycle and this means that the pollution can expand. The humanity is the main responsible of the water pollution, especially through the discharge of wastewater, which have not been treated and that come from activities such as industry, agriculture… The fourth point to talk about is called noise pollution. It refers to it when the undesirable levels of different noises caused by human activity are disrupt on an affected area. Noise pollution can come from: - Traffic

The effects of water pollution include a huge decreasing of the quantity of drinkable water available, a lower level of water for the agriculture… The third point is the light pollution. This issue is the over illumination of an area that is considered obtrusive (striking). Sources include: - Large cities Billboards and advertising Night-time entertainment Light pollution makes it impossible to see stars, therefore interfere with - Airports - Railroads Construction or demolition of buildings - Concerts Some noise pollution is temporary while other sources are more permanent. Effects may include hearing loss, wildlife

astronomical observation or just with the people who enjoy watching at the stars. If it is near residential areas, it can also be annoying for the quality of life of the residents.

disturbances, and a general degradation of humanity. To conclude, I would like to say that our lives are in our hands, if we decide not to change and stay the same, there will be serious consequences.


SPRING IS COMING EARLIER IN POLAR REGIONS THAN ACROSS THE REST OF EARTH High latitudes have been experiencing the spring earlier so much and so fast than some other areas. But, how earlier? It depends on the zone. Nevertheless, affects in the polar regions according to investigations. Therefore, the period can come on many weeks earlier depending of the place. QUERALT BASTIDA COMAS. The magazine “Nature Reports” have discovered that the more degrees recorded in the equator, the more earlier will arrive the spring. Therefore, if the registration record 10 degrees at the equator, the spring will arrive 4 days before that a decade ago. Due to the climate change this problem is increasing. According to a lot of investigations around the world, the average of the velocity that the climate change improve is 27 kilometers per decade. So, the spring is progressing two days every ten years. The improvement of the spring can modify or

change the environment and the variation of the daily animals. The changing of temperatures of the superficial and the currents affect to the population of a lot of species like: polar bears, seals, walruses or maritime birds… Spring is arriving in different days depending on the place. In the south like the Angels, New Orleans or Dallas is arriving one day before, instead, in the north in Seattle, Chicago or Washington is arriving four years before. In the artic is worst, there the spring is appearing sixteen days before. Climate change not also is causing more heat in winter, as well

is moderating the temperatures of autumn and winter. Some researchers are announcing that the new season that is beginning now is especially soft and wet. Consequently, that the trees being late on losing their leafs. The seasons are starting before, the different of temperature between winter and summer each time are more similar.

But now sometimes snow melts in midApril and by June there are a lot of plants with flowers and buds, and some of those are frostsensitive. Most or all of the frost-sensitive flowers don’t bloom in years like that. And if the flowers are killed


by frost, there is then no nectar or pollen for

pollinators, and no seeds for animals that eat them.

What is the importance of spring? Historically, prior to agricultural improvement, stock that could not be fed were slaughtered before winter. People and animals often survived in close proximity through the winter, until spring brought the first fresh food for humans and fodder for animals.

Spring does not have the same significance

today but we still seem surprised and delighted by its

annual return grateful for

and

relief from the depression of winter.

Some changing days in our seasons it can’t seem a lot, but the temperatures that predict the climate change it can be very dramatic. A lot of studies said that the red leaves of the Arce tree, will appears 16 years before in 2100. In the whole, often when people talk about climate change, they talk about how they would will change in the future. But an earlier spring

is happening now, and we would have to take care of our plant to make a change of this problem, because eventually, it can end very badly.


HUMAN IMPACT IN CLIMATE CHANGE Climate change is a problem that affect us directly. It is very important we all fight together against that issue. However, what is climate change? Can we help? Victor Gutiérrez What is climate change? It is a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels How does it affect us? We can divide the affectation into different points: Forests: Impacts vary in different kinds of forests. Sub-Arctic boreal forests are likely to be particularly badly affected, with tree lines gradually retreating north as temperatures rise. In tropical forests such as the Amazon, where there’s abundant biodiversity, even modest levels of climate change can cause high levels of extinction. Deforestation is a fact that can also affect negatively to that effect. Oceans are in danger too, they absorb huge amounts of carbon

dioxide, preventing it from reaching the upper atmosphere. Increased water temperatures make oceans more acidic are damaging our planet. Coral reefs are particularly at risk. Sensitive coral and algae that live on it are starved of oxygen, causing dramatic bleaching and possibly the eventual death of the coral.

Arctic: average air temperatures in the arctic have increased by about 5°C over the last 100 years. There’ll be almost no

summer sea ice cover left in the Arctic in the next few decades. The effects won't just be felt by the habitats and species that live into this area, they'll be dramatic in the entire northern hemisphere. How can we help? We can help in many ways, here there are some examples. Reduce emissions

Use your car less, whenever possible, instead use sustainable transportation, such as bicycling, or use public transportation more often. In the case of long-distance travel, trains are more sustainable than airplanes, which cause a great deal of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. If you're into cars, remember that every kilometer that you


increase your speed will considerably increase CO2 emissions and expenses. Each liter of fuel that your car uses, equals 2.5 kilos of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Save energy. Always adjust the thermostat for heating and air conditioning at a temperature between 18 and 21 degrees. Being careful how we use home appliances, we can save energy and, of course, money at the end of the month. Put the 3 R’s into practice - Reduce: consume less, more efficiently. Reuse: take advantage of secondhand markets, to give new life to items that you don't use anymore or find something that someone else has gotten off that you need. You will be saving money and reducing your consumption. - Recycle: packaging, waste from electronics, etc. You can save over 730 kilos of CO2 each year just by recycling half of the garbage produced at home. To conclude, climate change is a global issue that affect all of us and will affect our

sons if we don’t stop it. Every ecosystem and the way we live now will be seriously affected if we don’t change our habits.


ARE YOU GOING TO BELIEVE FALSE ADVERTISING? False adverts are nowadays, a dangerous thing for buyers. Because advertising, cheats these buyers. Making them believe that the product is better than it is. GERARD GAYA. What is false advertising? Misleading advertising is one that, in any way, can confuse buyers or affect their economic behaviour. Advertising is also understood as misleading and silenced information about goods, activities or other services, provided that such omission misleads the recipients. How they start to exist? Since advertising existed, companies already thought how to make customers realize that their product could be useful in any way. Due to this, false adverts began to exist. Why does

false advertising affect companies? When businessmen, marketing executives and advertisers intend to develop an advertising campaign that is shocking and original to increase their sales volumes or obtain a certain result, they must be very careful not to use messages to attract the attention of the public or to persuade them more effectively, they induce the recipient to error by affecting a certain behaviour, such as the economic one, because this is known as "false advertising"; which, in addition to being very controlled and regulated in many countries, affects the image of the

company and society in general.In this graph, we can see clearly, that producers, processors and marketers have increased a lot, since 1991 with only 376 workers, until 2017 with more than 30,000 workers.


SOCIAL MEDIA IS GOOD OR BAD FOR YOU? What the science suggests so far about the impact of platforms such as Facebook, Twitter or Instagram on your mental well-being. ALEIX PEIXOTO Three billion people, around 40% of the world’s population, use online social media and an average of two hours every days, liking, tweeting and updating on these platforms, according to some reports. That breaks down to around half a million tweets and Snapchat photos shared every minute. With social media playing such a big part in our lives, could we be sacrificing our

mental

health

and

well-being as well as our time? What does the evidence actually suggest? New to us, conclusive findings are limited. The research that does exist mainly relies on self reporting, which can often be flawed, and the majority of studies focus on Facebook. That said, this is a fast-growing area of research, and clues are beginning to emerge. BBC Future reviewed the findings of some of the science so far

STRESS People use social media to vent about everything from customer service to politics, but the downside to this is that our feeds often resemble an endless stream of stress. In 2015, researchers at the Pew Research Center based in Washington DC sought to find out if social media induces more stress than it relieves.


In the survey of 1,800 people, women reported being more stressed than men. Twitter was found to be a “significant contributor” because it increased their awareness of other people’s stress. But Twitter also acted as a oping mechanism and the more women used it, the less stressed they were. ANXIETY Researchers have looked at general anxiety provoked by social media, characterised by feelings of restlessness and worry, and trouble sleeping and concentrating.

DEPRESSION While some studies have found a link between depression and social media use, there is emerging research into how social media can actually be a force for good. SLEEP Humans used to spend their evenings in darkness, but now we’re surrounded by artificial lighting all day and night. Research has found that this can inhibit the body’s production of the hormone melatonin, which facilitates sleep and blue light, which is emitted by

smartphone and laptop screens, is said to be the worst culprit. In other words, if you lie on the pillow at night checking Facebook and Twitter. ADDICTION Despite the argument from a few researchers that tweeting may be harder to resist than cigarettes and alcohol, social media addiction isn’t included in the latest diagnostic manual for mental health disorders aded for restless slumber.


THE EDUCATION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES We know that education in other countries is different than in Spain, but, do we know what is the best education system among the countries, and do we know how is education in other countries? AROA LUQUE ENRIQUE

Darmstadt.

A week ago I went to

I pay a lot of attention

In Germany, education

Darmstadt, a city in

to the way they teach

is harder, stricter than

Germany. I went to the

classes, because in

in Spain. Apart from

house of a German

Spain the education is

that the horary is

family, I had to

very different. All these

different, that is, they

accustom oneself to

observations made me

only do classes until

their customs,

think about what would

afternoon, they have

traditions, and live her

change education in

more breaks... Apart

day to day ... My

different countries, and

from that, the students

exchange mate went to

I will research

in the classes are

school with me, in the

information about these

attentive and focused,

week that I stay in

theme.

there are no scream or fights. We have no idea what education

is

like

in

different countries, and I did not know it until I went

to

Germany.

I search which were the countries

with

better

education, or with better academic results and I found this information.


In 2017 the country that have

the

education

best

and

bests

academic results was united

Kingdom,

followed by the United States, but in 2018 the results will be change a lot, in 2018 the best results

was

in

Switzerland

and

Canada. This

grafic

system

shows the UKis one of the

world's

best

"stagnant

at

best".

countries for education,

"Many other countries

but is at risk, and has

have

tumbled several places

significant

since 2006.

improvement,"

The UK is ranked 25th

added.

for reading, 28th for maths

and

16th

for

science. It was placed 17th, 24th and 14th respectively.

Poland

has stretched ahead of the UK in maths, while Norway is now ranked higher in reading and maths. Andreas

Shleicher,

head

the

of

Pisa

programme, said the picture for the UK was

seen

quite he


SPAIN IS PREPARING FOR A NEW ADDICTION Governments and entities create programs to address the growing number of cases of abuse of new technologies, especially among young people. GLORIA

MORENO

healthy,"

explains

and

PORTILLO

Garcia,

of

young people are the

A mother climbs the

SPOTT, the center for

main risk group, and

subway in Barcelona

attention

that inappropriate use

with a stroller in which

addiction for young

should

her 3-year-old son is

people

the

confused

riding. The baby cries

Deputation

de

addiction. 18% of the

desperately, screams

Barcelona.

that

he

to

drug

of

not

be

with

population

an

between

the

14

child

an

does not stop until the

d

mother gives him the

18

phone. Peace returns

ye

phone.

wants

head

adolescents

The

immediately

the

ars

wagon, but Gemma

ma

Garcia, who has been

ke

watching the scene,

s

assures

to

there

an

may be the root of a

abusive use of new

bigger

that

problem,

a

young man engaged, the

abuse

of

new

technologies. "I see it often,

parents

who

give the phone to the child to calm down, and

that

is

not

The Ministry of Health has included for the first

time

in

2018

addictions

to

new

technologies National Plan.

in

the

Addiction

The

Ministry

emphasizes

that

technologies, according

to

government data. The World

Health

Organization does not recognize addiction to new

technologies

although from 2018 it


will admit that there is

addictions

addiction

video

Information

Vega

Communication

to

games.

to

sessions about ICT

and

abuse.

(ICT).

MORE

Gonzรกlez, director of

Technologies

the

for

In 2013, they served

INFORMATION

and

3 people and in 2016

The compulsive use

of

they were 51, and

of

Socioaddictions

none of them were

added to the National

(AIS),

adults, according to

Addiction Strategy

that "there is still a lot

Luis

Who

of

be

president of Proyecto

video game disorder

the

Hombre. In SPOTT

as a mental problem

considers

they have attended

Experts warn that it is

recognizing

twenty cases in two

necessary

to

addictions to social

years

distinguish

between

networks or similar,

specialization: at first,

an irresponsible use

but that they accept

young

and

the

between 18 and 19

addiction".

videogames is a sign

years

responds to the same

of

addicted

Center

Attention Research

corroborates

research

done

so

WHO

to

that

addiction where

going,

are

they

to we

Bononato,

of people old

were

to

online

the

Internet

is

recognizes

a

"behavioral This

parameters

as to

have

betting, but age has

addictions

opened the melon. "

been decreasing and

substances:

need

Gonzรกlez

the

more

more

estimates

problem

and

that only 1.4% of the

diversifying,

consumption to obtain

population using new

according to Garcia.

satisfaction,

technologies can be

Bononato

aggressiveness

addicted, and that the

that this year, for the

abstinence, alteration

risk age is between

first

the

of sleep and eating

11 and 25 years. The

schools

that

habits, isolation and

organization

collaborate

with

loss

drug

against addiction

Proyecto

Hombre

started four years ago its

program

for

explains

time,

Proyecto have organize

all

Hombre asked

to

informative

of

in

family,

professional

and

educational

life.


ARE THE SALARIES OF THE FOOTBALLPLAYERS FAIR? Everybody think that the salaries of the footballers are unfair, also the prices of the transfers are too much. But I think that the prices and salaries are fair, and I’m gone to explain it in this article. Pol Valles. The

budget of every club.

economy

regulated

by

is the

In

2016,

Ronaldo

Cristiano earn

32

But, let’s think like the

scarce of a product,

millions of euros and

clubs

everyone can carry

Messi in the same

footballers, you pay to

boxes to a lorry but

year earn 40 millions

Messi 40 millions a

anyone in the world

of

year, and Messi play

can play football like

Platini

Cristiano Ronaldo or

the

Messi

does.

that the clubs restrict

80.000

Normally, the scarcer

to the 50% of the

100

a resource is, the

better

remunerated it will be. Also

this

clubs

owe

752

millions

euros to the Hacienda Spain 10,6 of the

of and

millions

euros

to

Social

Security.

euros.

Michael

president

UEFA

of

suggest

50

of

this

matches

every

year. people

euros

to

pay see


Messi,

and

your

of euros monthly ...

plays 50 matches, but

position every week

something equivalent

only play 25 in home,

and what brings the

to your importance in

the

consequences

it you should receive.

result

Messi

is

that

career

and

of

Messi contribute (with

success and failure

They have to live away

the help of the others

over they, if you win

from their families and

you are God, if you

friends in most cases.

lose you are useless,

To

endure insults‌

professionals,

The economic system

have to suffer, see the

is set up so that you

miseries of football

players) 200 millions of

euros.

This, without counting, merchandisi ng, sponsors and the matches away. Also, if the clubs win a title, the tournament pay to the club a lot of millions. They under

have

to

live

pressure

24

hours a day, they and their families, where they have to carry the psychological

slab

that is playing your

become you

first hand and be very can earn according to

lucky, because even

the amount of money

with talent and hard

you produce, if you

work you can stay on

are one of the main

the road.

players in an industry that generates billions


INEQUALITY WILL KILL 69 MILLION OF CHILDREN IN 15 YEARS 167 million of children will live in poverty. Lots of them will have to leave school. Spain is the third country with most child poverty in the EU. The anti-poverty programs are doing everything possible, but, it’s not enough. Many people leave this problem aside and do not pay attention to it.

MERITXELL FARRÉ GRAU. Nowadays, there is a lot of inequality between rich and poor people. This is affecting millions of children that live in poverty. The inequalities aren’t only defined between those who have more money and those who have less. In some countries, it’s also evident in access to drinking water, electricity, sanitation, education, health and other basic services. Latin America is the region that suffers most from these inequalities. Although child poverty isn’t usual in Europe, Spain is the third country in the EU with the highest rates of child poverty. Unicef, had published a study

about how the economic crisis has influenced the child population. They denounce the "little social protection for children" in Spain and the cutback of more than 11,500 euros to help between 2009 and 2015. Unicef also confirms that the children, numerous families and teenagers have suffered more poverty than the others.

or they have to work. Some children go to class with her little brother or sister. But, the others that have to work or do things at home have to leave the studies and they will not have any type

In Africa, one of the issues that most affects children who suffer from child poverty are the studies. Most of them can’t study because they have to work for their family and they don’t have enough money to pay the school. Children don’t want to leave school, but they also have to take care of their sisters and brothers

of education for their future. There are also children who cannot continue studying even with a scholarship. If the situation doesn’t improve, in 2030 will be more than 60 million of children that will not have studied. An option for changing this future is helping these children with transfers of


effective. These will help children to stay more time at school and reach a good level of education. Most of the children that suffer child poverty are fighting another problem that is the malnutrition. The countries that suffer most malnutrition in children are Afganistan, Burundi and India. These are countries where all the people live in extreme poverty. Also, there are lots of conflicts and crisis. All over the world there are countries where all the habitants suffer malnutrition and poverty. Scientists and representatives of international organizations have said that the first 1000 days of life are a unique opportunity to reverse the effects generated by situations of lack of material, nutritional and social on the growth, emotional and educational development of childhood. An

important warning, although, insufficient

suffers only for being girls. The number of

to guide the actions and political interventions that can contribute to reverse the effects of poverty in the first years of life.

marriages premature are alerting the experts that are trying to decrease the number of cases. This is also affecting the child mortality. CHILD POVERTY IN A MAP:

Although all these information and datum, the global rate of mortality in children that are minor of five years had been reduced since 1990. Children assist at main school in 129 countries and the number of people that live in extreme poverty have been reduced a lot. But, this progress was not fair. The people that are in a most dangerous situation of poverty have the double of probability than the richest people to die before being five years old. Unicef hadn’t forget the risk that girls

In

conclusion,

children

and

teenagers

are

suffering with more intensity

the

consequences of the poverty and the social injustice.

Most

of

them can’t have a good education and there are lots of cases of malnutrition. Child poverty is frequently in places that aren’t in the UE, but, Spain is the third country of the

UE

cases poverty.

with

more

of

child


BITCOIN, THE CURRENCY OF THE FUTURE The bitcoin could be described in 3 words: Currency, Digital, Decentralized. Currency because as the dollars or euros do, you can buy thing with bitcoins. Digital because there is no paper bitcoin, it only exist in the digital world and decentralized because it does not depend

on

the

government

or

transference,

The idea of bitcoin is

they are also the ones

accounts.

to find a way to take

that validate that you

On the other hand

the sums, but with the

can

bitcoin,

difference

you

transference. But with

will not have to trust

bitcoin it is not like

anyone, except the

this,

bitcoin community. As

community does no

we

depends

all

know,

current depends

our

money of

factors:

two

make

the

a

in

have

banks.

explained

you

this,

governments are the

you

wondering

ones that make the

how they do it.

money, and if they do

In

it properly, it should

transference, if Abel

cause any problem,

wants to give money

but they don’t, a clear

to Marie, he has to go

example

is

to the bank, tell them

Venezuela. And the

and they will validate

other

the

the transference, the

banks, they are the

money will arrive to

ones that move all the

Marie and the bank

make

is

decentralized, there is

these

I

that

it

don’t use them! Now

money,

as

the

factors, actually, they

governments and the

factor,

update

bitcoin

The The

will

banks.

CARLOS GALLEGO.

that

and

the

that are a

nowadays

no

authority

that

monitors payment,

the since

we

are all connected. That makes a system for the transference of bitcoins. Abel announces to all the community that he wants to give 1 bitcoin to

Marie,

community

this usually

consists of 8 or 6 members.

Having

enough to pay, the


entire

community

support

points out that Abel

transactions

of

activity?

past.

winning

will have one bitcoin

For controlling this,

pattern is chosen in a

less, and Marie one

the

raffle,

more.

was invented. Bitcoin

decision is random.

method the accounts

does

an

When the community

are in hands of the

administrator

that

has the winner, they

community. You also

causes disorder. That

all

have

disorder is captured in

information, so that

differents

they don’t lose it, as

With

to

this

say

everything

that is

anonymous,

nobody

all

of

this

BLOCKCHAIN not

have

transferences,

if

since

register

the

the

in a primer.

knows who is who, so

persons

the payment is not

the accounts, they will

To sum up this article,

validated by knowing

have a different order

the bitcoin and more

who the person is, it

of transferences. So

digital

is by your password.

everybody

have

For Abel, sending a

have the same order

lives, is a revolution

bitcoin would be like

to

since there is no need

sending an email, but

transferences

for the computer that

acceptable.

processes everything

BLOCKCHAIN

it is a very laborious

join

job because in the

transactions

bitcoin community are

block

the

the

pattern, and only one

ones that interact with

pattern will be chosen

each other, not the

to match it with the

computers

persons,

who

are

anonymous. But,

if

all

the

community wants to make a transference, how will the system

are

4

The

the

taking

has

make

to the

reached

our

for intermediaries in In

the

our

you

transferences.

several to

currencies

in

a

have

a

payments

or


WHY SOME FASHION BRANDS DON’T MAKE PULS SIZE CLOTHING? There are so much brands that don’t make a plus size clothing. The average American women is around 16-18 size. However, there is so much brands that continue reducing their size to 14. And many ones that do don’t above a 22 or sometimes a 20.

JUDITH CARBONELL. The majority of specialist find it frustrating that people don’t realize that ‘you can’t just make bigger versions of smaller sizes’, and it’s not as easy as just making the pattern larger, due to different weight distribution which is more apparent in larger sizes. Rob Williams is from Hawthorn, a clothing manufacturer based in London, and he confirmed that the process of designing plus size clothing is more difficult than with smaller clothing, ‘It take more time to develop a shape which is an average of the plus size population, so as to not have something which only fits very specific body shapes.’ Lucy Arnold is a fitness wear designer and

owner of Locket Loves, who makes plus size activewear, and spends a lot of time doing market research and getting customer feedback, to ensure she’s producing the right product for a group that is often overlooked when it comes to fitness clothing. She said that ‘There’s a lot more time that goes into plus size clothing, as you need to make sure the product does exactly what you want it to do for the consumer,’ she tells Metro.co.uk. ‘For instance, with fit and sizing charts I’ve been wanting to go up to size 26 but I haven’t been happy with the prototypes put forward. ‘I need to make sure the fit is right and fits comfortably, and this does need editing and

changes way.’

along

the

In conclusion, make a plus size implicate more money and more time to make bigger clothes. So this is another nightmare for the plus size consumers, who have complained before that their clothes often cost more money than the smaller ones.

For example, there’s clothes in ASOS (shop really famous online) that have the same dress in smaller and in plus size. That’s really cool because having the size that you have you can buy the same dress. But the thing is that the people that need bigger sizes have to pay ten dollars more than the smaller ones.


That’s the dress. So you can see that they have the same structure and they looks the same. The only difference is the size, the dress from the right is a 6-16 and the left one is an 18-24. Imagine that you have a 16-18 but most of your dresses are an 18 and you're scared to buy a 16 and then the dress will look smaller for you, finally think it’s better to take an 18 size, and then it will

look okay or a little bit big. You click on the picture to see better the dress and see the price. And you first chased a 16 size, and you look at the price and it’s okay. So finally you choose an 18 size, and you click on the bottom pay. You take your card to pay the dress and all these things, and you see that the dress cost ten dollars more than when you see it in the picture. So you enter another time to the web

ASOS and you go to see the same dress and you can observe that when you want a 16 size cost ten dollars minus than when you want to buy an 18 size. And right now is when you feel confused because it’s the same dress. And for the reasons that you really don’t know it cost ten dollars more.


POVERTY IN EUROPE SPAIN IS THE SECOND COUNTRY WITH THE MOST CHILD POVERTY IN EUROPE

Spain is the second country with the most poverty in children after Romania, according to Caritas Europa’s report. The entity requires governments to prefer social criteria to economic interests and to devote more investment to job creation. This European entity defines the Spanish population as one of the most affected by the crisis, I the rate of risk of poverty. Gisela García Moreno More than 122 million people in the European Union, almost 25 percent of citizens are at risk of poverty and the majority are children. On January 15, 2016, Europe proposed that by 2020 the number of people living in poverty or social exclusion be reduced by 20 million per year by 2020. The European Union has budgeted one billion euros to support growth and employment, which will help reduce poverty and social exclusion. This will be successful depending on whether the political development works effectively. The levels of life can also vary in the poverty of the European country, there is a variety within the states. Each member country agreed at the meetings of the Council of Lisbon and Nice in 2000 to create a National Plan of Action against Poverty and Social

Exclusion in order to reduce poverty in 2010. The recent expansion of the European Union from 15 to 25 countries has led to the need for the European Union to reassess its policies and practices regarding poverty and social exclusion. The children in this case are the ones who suffer most because of poverty. Between 2008 and 2012, the number of children at risk of poverty and social exclusion in Europe increased by almost one million, of which 500,000 in just one year from 2011 to 2012. Europe is far from achieving its poverty reduction goals for 2020. Spain is one of the affected but the first Greece, in the capacity to reduce child poverty with social assistance. The percentage of children living below the

poverty line is 36.8%, after benefits, of 29.9%. Social aid reduces child poverty by 6.9%. If we compare ourselves with Ireland, a country that has suffered economically similar to Spain, its social benefits have reduced child poverty by 32 points, from 49.1% of children at risk of poverty to 17, 1%. With that 29.9%, Spain ranks second on the list of European countries with the highest rate of children below the poverty line, only above Romania. If, in addition to taking into account the income of the parents,

we consider the level of employment of the


household and the level of deprivation children at risk of poverty and social exclusion is even higher, in 33.8%, that is, more than 2,800,000 children. Family income is one of the determining factors of child poverty, but poverty is not just the lack of money. Poverty is also one of the main causes of violations of children's rights in Europe. People who suffer from this poverty are excluded from access to services, jobs and children cannot relate to other children their age. Inequality is one of the causes of poverty, but also one of its consequences. Spain is the OECD country where social inequalities have increased the most. In Spain and Greece is where he takes most of the money in homes. Oh, children who live in households that spend more than 40% of the family income. Save the Children is an association, which prevents children from dying from causes such as poverty, and can have a

school life, work in 120 different countries protecting millions of children in Spain, are located in the community of Madrid, Catalonia, Andalusia, Valencian Community and the Basque Country. They help 7,000 children in situations of poverty or social exclusion and struggle to improve their childhood. It is a committed team that works every day with the conviction that it is possible to overcome the barriers that prevent millions of children from enjoying their rights. They also help millions of children to enter school for the first time, to improve the education they receive in schools, to maintain that quality

because there are countries that suffer from emergencies or conflicts, and help schools to always be a space in the school that all children feel safe and included. They also help the diseases suffered by children due to their malnutrition, with the aim that no child die for circumstances that can be prevented and treated, since these children have suffered a lot because of poverty, malnutrition, many of them live in centers, but most of the children are alone. Children suffer the most from the consequences of poverty. Help them save millions of children, collaborate with Save the Children.

Sant Gervasi Coop News  

Current Affairs magazine written by 4th ESO students of social and humanistic branch from Escola Sant Gervasi.

Sant Gervasi Coop News  

Current Affairs magazine written by 4th ESO students of social and humanistic branch from Escola Sant Gervasi.

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