On On the the Upbeat Upbeat
November 2013 • Volume 7, Edition 2 November 2013 • Volume 7, Edition 2
2013-2014 Subscription Series 2013-2014 Subscription Series
November 23 and 24, 2013 November 23 and 24, 2013
Nir Kabaretti: Nir Kabaretti:
A A few few words words
MATTHIAS BAMERT MATTHIAS BAMERT
Matthias Bamert, Guest Conductor Matthias Bamert, Guest Conductor MOZART Serenade No. 10 for Winds and Double Bass MOZART in Serenade No. 10K.for Winds and Double Bass B-flat major, 361, “Gran Partita” in B-flat major, K. 361, “Gran Partita”
Dear Music Lovers, Dear Music Lovers, to welcome you to our 61st season. It is my pleasure It is my pleasure to welcome you to our 61st unique season.and Each program this season will offer something Each program this season offer something unique and special which combines thewill greatest works of the symphonic special which combines greatest of are thedelighted symphonic repertoire together withthe some worksworks that we to repertoire together with some worksofthat we are delighted unveil for you. The seven programs the season will bringto unveil for you. Thecenturies seven programs the season will bring flavors from four of musicofhistory, and include flavors from four centuries music history, and includeJoin versatile styles and differentofemotions and experiences. versatile styles and different and experiences. Join us to rediscover some of youremotions favorite music, with interesting us to rediscover of your music,ofwith interesting connections thatsome you may notfavorite have thought before. connections that you may thought of before. Because education is at not the have core of our mission, we strive Because education at the of our mission, strive to make each season aisfeast of core learning and growth.weWhether to make each season a feast ofclassics learningorand growth. expert, Whether you’re new to the world of the a seasoned you’re new the world of the classics or a seasoned expert, our goal as to a symphony family is to explore, teach and learn our goal asDiscovering a symphony family is to explore, teach and learn together. something new and making classical together. something new and making classical music partDiscovering of our community is our vision and by joining us music part of our community vision and by joining us this season you can help makeisitour a reality. thisNo season you help make it aareality. season is can complete without celebration of some of season is complete a celebration of some of theNo very best this art formwithout has to offer — and this season theperform very bestworks this art hasBeethoven, to offer — and this season we by form Mozart, Brahms, Copland, we perform works Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Copland, Wagner, Verdi and by many others, from the exquisite talents Wagner, and many frompowerful the exquisite talents of HélèneVerdi Grimaud to theothers, undeniably compositions Hélène Shostakovich, Grimaud to theallundeniably compositions of Dmitri performedpowerful by the motivated and of Dmitri Shostakovich, all performed by the motivated and passionate musicians of the Santa Barbara Symphony. passionate musicians of the Santa Symphony. Joining us this season gives youBarbara the chance to rediscover us this you with the chance theJoining music you love.season Come gives celebrate us, andtoI rediscover look the musictoyou love.you Come celebrate with us, andTheatre! I look forward seeing at the fabulous Granada forward to seeing you at the fabulous Granada Theatre! Musically Yours, Musically Yours,
Nir Kabaretti Nir Kabaretti
— INTERMISSION — — INTERMISSION —
MOZART Eine kleine Nachtmusik MOZART Eine kleine No. Nachtmusik (Serenade 13 in G major), K. 525 (Serenade No. 13 in G major), K. 525 MOZART Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183 MOZART Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183 sponsored by sponsored by
John A. Rodriguez II SELECTION SPONSOR II John A. Rodriguez SELECTION SPONSOR
Join Ramón Araïza for “Behind the Music” Join Join Ramón Ramónone Araïza Araïza for for “Behind “Behind the the Music” Music” beginning hour before each concert! beginning beginning one one hour hour before before each each concert! concert! Sponsored by Marilynn L. Sullivan & Marlyn Bernard Bernstein. Sponsored Sponsoredby byMarilynn MarilynnL.L.Sullivan Sullivan&&Marlyn MarlynBernard BernardBernstein. Bernstein.
Mattias Bamert guest conductor
Matthias Bamert’s distinguished career started at the Cleveland Orchestra where he was Resident Conductor along side the then Music Director Lorin Maazel. Since then he has held Music Director positions with the Swiss Radio Orchestra, London Mozart Players, Principal Guest Conductor of the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, the New Zealand Symphony Orchetra and Associate Guest Conductor of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London. He has recently finished a highly successful period as Music Director of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra. Music Director of the London Mozart Players for seven years, he has masterminded a hugely successful series of recordings of works by “Contemporaries of Mozart” which has already exceeded 75 symphonies. In 1999, the orchestra’s 50th anniversary year, he conducted them at the BBC Proms, in Vienna and at the Lucerne Festival and returned with them to Japan in January 2000. MATTIAS BAMERT He has worked frequently in the concert hall and studio with such orchestras as the Philharmonia, the London Philharmonic and the BBC Symphony Orchestra, has appeared regularly at the London Proms, and often appears with orchestras outside London such as the BBC Philharmonic and the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra. Outside of the UK he has regularly appeared with the great orchestras of the world including the Cleveland Orchestra, the Pittsburgh Symphony, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Orchestre symphonique de Montreal, the Leningrad Philharmonic, the Sydney Symphony, and the NHK Symphony Orchestra Tokyo among many others. Principal Guest Conductor of the Royal Scottish National Orchestra and Director of the Glasgow contemporary music festival Musica Nova from 1985-90, Bamert became known for his innovative programming and has conducted the world premieres of works by many composers such as Takemitsu, Casken, Macmillan and Rihm. His gift for imaginative programming came to the fore during his tenure as Director of the Lucerne Festival (1992-98), when he was also responsible for the opening of a new concert hall, instituted a new Easter Festival, a piano festival, expanded the programme and increased the festival’s activities several times over. A prolific recording artist, Bamert has made over 80 discs, many of which have won international prizes. His recordings include 24 discs of Mozart’s contemporaries with the London Mozart Players, Sir Hubert Parry (the complete Symphonies) and Frank Martin (5 discs) with the London Philharmonic, the symphonies of Roberto Gerhard with the BBC Symphony, Dutch composers with the Residentie Orchestra, and the Stokowski transcriptions, Korngold and Dohnanyi with the BBC Philharmonic.
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Program Notes by Dr. Richard E. Rodda Serenade No. 10 for Winds and Double Bass in B-flat major, K. 361, “Gran Partita” (1781 or 1783-1784)
during Mozart’s lifetime, playwright Johann Friedrich Schink wrote, “I have heard a piece for wind instruments by Herr Mozart today. Magnificent! It employed thirteen instruments and at every instrument a master. The effect was grand and magnificent beyond description.” Listeners’ response, unaffected by the scholarly sparring over the work’s date, has not varied since. The Serenade opens with a stately slow introduction that prefaces a full sonata-form movement. The second and fourth movements are minuets, the first city-graceful, the second country-rustic. As befits the expansive nature of the work (the longest chamber composition in Mozart’s output, rivaled only by the Clarinet Quintet, K. 581), both minuets are supplied with not one but two trios. Enfolded between these movements is the haunting Adagio, which drew from Alfred Einstein some of the most rapturous words in his classic 1945 study of Mozart: “a Notturno ... a scene from Romeo and Juliet, under starry skies, a scene in which longing, grief and love are wrung like a distillation from the beating hearts of the lovers.” The fifth movement is a Romanze with a center section of quick motion and unsettled mood. The Theme and Variations is a reworking of the finale of the C major Flute Quartet (K. 285b) of 1778. A sparkling Rondo—what the Germans would call a Kehraus, literally a “sweeping out” at the end of a social evening—concludes this wonderful and richly varied masterwork.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Approximately 45 minutes The date of composition of the B-flat Serenade (K. 361) is the subject of on-going debate. Ludwig Köchel, in his pioneering chronological catalog of Mozart’s works published in 1862, assigned the Serenade to 1780 according to a date on the manuscript that has since been shown to have been altered by an unknown hand. (Nor was the familiar sobriquet “Gran Partita” at the head of the manuscript written by Mozart.) In his 1937 revision of Köchel’s catalog, Alfred Einstein changed the date to 1781 because he read the final, smudged character on the manuscript as a “1.” That speculation seemed to be substantiated by Alan Tyson’s exhaustive study in the 1980s of the watermarks of Mozart’s manuscript paper. (Hermann Abert’s 1924 biography of Mozart suggested, apparently incorrectly, that the composer used the Serenade as the entertainment music for his own wedding reception, on August 4, 1782.) However, extensive subsequent research by Daniel N. Leeson (including a 168-page monograph on K. 361 published in 2009) has led to late 1783 and/or early 1784 now being widely accepted as the time of the work’s origin. On the basis of stylistic, biographical and historical evidence, Leeson argued that the Serenade was commissioned by Anton Stadler, clarinetist in the court orchestra and a fellow Freemason for whom Mozart later wrote the “Kegelstatt” Trio (K. 498), Clarinet Quintet (K. 581) and Clarinet Concerto (K. 622), for his concert at Vienna’s Burgtheater on March 23, 1784. (Leeson countered Tyson’s finding by contending that Mozart used some left-over pages from 1781.) Of that event, the only time this magnificent music was known to have been performed
Eine kleine Nachtmusik (Serenade No. 13 in G major), K. 525 (1787) Approximately 16 minutes Eine kleine Nachtmusik is at once one of the most familiar yet one of the most mysterious of Mozart’s works. He dated the completed manuscript on August 10, 1787, the day on which he entered it into his catalog of compositions as “Eine kleine Continues 3
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to their music—the so-called Sturm und Drang (“Storm and Stress”). Such works were characterized by minor keys, expressive harmonies and rhythmic agitation. By 1773, Haydn had composed some fifty symphonies of which at least six were in minor keys. During his Viennese visit, Mozart heard one of Haydn’s minorkey symphonies, No. 39 in G minor, and it spurred his interest in exploring the expressive possibilities of this new musical language. On his return to Salzburg in September, Mozart wrote his own Sturm und Drang symphony—No. 25, K. 183. He cast it in G minor, his first orchestral piece in the somber key except for the overture to the early oratorio La Betulia liberata, K. 118 (1771). He was to write only one other minor-key symphony: the sublime No. 40, K. 550 of 1788, also in G minor. The individual tonalities in 18th-century music were felt to convey certain emotional characteristics well beyond the simple happy/sad, major/minor dichotomy. The key of G minor for Mozart was one of utmost despair and intensity of feeling: Pamina sings in G minor in The Magic Flute (Ach, ich fühl’s) of her hopelessness and wish to die. In addition to the later G minor Symphony, Mozart also used this key in his Piano Quartet, K. 478 and String Quintet, K. 516, all works of the most agitated emotion. The Symphony No. 25 opens with a pulsing motive, more rhythmic than melodic, that looks forward in style and spirit to the D minor Piano Concerto, K. 466 and the Overture to Don Giovanni. The movement follows sonata form. After a simple, pathetic phrase in the oboe and a pregnant silence, the stormy transition from G minor to the contrasting key begins. Another, briefer pause denotes the second theme, a step-wise motive presented by the violins in B-flat major. (Mozart time and again used such silences to clarify a movement’s structure. Silence in music is, most definitely, not nothing.) A compact development section leads to a recapitulation of the earlier themes, with the second theme heard in the dark coloring of the principal tonality. A short coda returns the opening pulsing motive to close the movement. The second movement is filled with the marvelous synthesis of Italian charm and Germanic emotion that characterizes Mozart’s best works. The touching lyrical style and languorous orchestral sound are wedded to a melody that comprises almost exclusively falling steps—the “musical teardrop” that was inextricably linked with the expression of wistful sadness in 18th-century German music. The Minuet, with its bare octaves, returns the Symphony to the stark mood of the opening movement. The contrasting central trio for wind choir without strings provides the only emotionally untroubled portion of the work. The finale, another sonata structure, maintains the mood of restless agitation to the end of this haunting Symphony. ©2013 Dr. Richard E. Rodda
Nachtmusik, bestehend in einem [consisting of an] Allegro, Menuett und Trio—Romance, Menuett und Trio, Finale. 2 Violini, Viola e Bassi.” (The first Menuett is lost.) There is no other contemporary record of the work’s provenance, composition or performance. It was the first piece of the serenade type he had written since the magnificent C minor Wind Octet (K. 388) of 1782, and it seems unlikely that, at a time when he was increasingly mired in debt, he would have returned to the genre without some promise of payment. Indeed, he had to set aside his furious preparations for the October premiere of Don Giovanni in Prague to compose the piece. The simple, transparent style of Eine kleine Nachtmusik, reminiscent of the music of Mozart’s Salzburg years and so different from the rich expression of all his later music except for the dances he wrote for the Habsburg court balls, suggests that it was designed for amateur performance, perhaps at the request of some aristocratic Viennese player of limited musical ability. Eine kleine Nachtmusik is an enigma, a wonderful, isolated chronological and stylistic aberration of Mozart’s mature years that raises to perfection the simple musical gestures of his boyhood. Though sunny and cheerful throughout, when seen in the light of its immediate musical companions of 1787—Don Giovanni, the A major Violin Sonata (K. 526) and the C major and G minor String Quintets (K. 515 and 516)—Eine kleine Nachtmusik takes on an added depth of expression as much for what it eschews as for what it contains.
Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183 (1773) Approximately 25 minutes Word reached Salzburg in early summer 1773 that Florian Gassmann, court music director in Vienna, had fallen seriously ill. Leopold Mozart thought that his son, Wolfgang, would make a splendid replacement for the ailing musician, and the two went to Vienna in July to carry that suggestion to Empress Maria Theresa. Maria, who had bounced little Wolfgang on her knee when he visited Schönbrunn Palace a decade earlier to play for her, did not find the no-longer-boyish Mozart suitable for the position, however, and the disappointed father and son left Vienna several weeks later. Even if it failed to produce a new job, however, the trip proved to be an important milestone in the artistic development of the young composer. Vienna was the home of some of the most outstanding musicians of the late 18th century, when Hasse, Gluck, Gassmann, Wagenseil, Salieri, Haydn, Dittersdorf, Vanhal and many others made Vienna the greatest city of music of the day. Several of these composers, most notably Haydn, were experimenting in the 1770s with a style that brought a new, passionately romantic sensibility 4
New Year’s Eve POPS CONCERT
Tuesday, December 31, 2013 8:30 p.m. - 10:30 p.m. at the Granada Theater
Bob Bernhardt Guest Conductor
Fast becoming a Santa Barbara favorite, Bob Bernhardt returns with a Pops feast of the tunes you and your family will love, as well as a few surprises! Ring in the new year at the best party in town, but get your tickets early—this concert is always a sell-out!
Celebrate with the Whole Family! PRINCIPAL CONCERT SPONSOR
The Santa Barbara Center for the Performing Arts ARTIST SPONSOR
Purchase Tickets online at www.thesymphony.org or call the Granada Theater at 805-899-2222 Programming to be announced. Not part of season subscription series. 5
Behind the Music Ramón Araïza’s pre-concert talks are a hit with concert goers. Get more out of your concert, come early for “Behind the Music.”
Now in his seventh season with the Symphony, we are thrilled to bring you concert pianist, composer/arranger and music scholar Ramón Araïza and his lively, interactive pre-concert talks. These dynamic 30 minute discussions take you on an insightful and humorous tour of the music you’re about to hear. With Ramón’s extensive musical background, presentation style and passion for the subject, he breathes life into each composer and their works. Don’t miss these great talks!
Saturday Evening: 7:00-7:30pm Sunday Matinee: 2:00-2:30pm Behind the Music at the Granada Theatre is generously sponsored by Marilynn L. Sullivan and Marlyn Bernard Bernstein.
Our outstanding season continues... JANUARY – Verdi’s Greatest Opera Hits FEBRUARY – Valentine’s with Hélène Grimaud MARCH – Classical Knockouts APRIL – Beethoven Seven MAY – Dvoˇrák with Sara Sant’Ambrogio
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