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Tren Liviano Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement

HISTORIC RESOURCES RECONNAISSANCE AND INTENSIVE SURVEYS TREN LIVIANO PROJECT AREA

TECHNICAL REPORT submitted by The Municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico November 15, 2011

VOL. 1


TECHNICAL REPORT

TREN LIVIANO PROJECT HISTORIC RESOURCES RECONNAISSANCE AND INTENSIVE SURVEYS VOLUME I San Juan, Puerto Rico

Virginia H. Adams John J. Daly Laura Kline Jenny Fields Scofield Quinn Stuart Submitted to: Municipality of San Juan Casa Alcaldía, Viejo San Juan P.O. Box 9024100 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00902-4100 and Antonio Di Mambro, P.C. 75 Kneeland Street Boston, MA 02111 Submitted by: The Public Archaeology Laboratory, Inc. 210 Lonsdale Avenue Pawtucket, Rhode Island 02860

PAL Report No. 2581

November 2011


PAL Publications CARTOGRAPHERS

Dana M. Richardi/Jane Miller GIS SPECIALIST

Jane Miller GRAPHIC DESIGN/PAGE LAYOUT SPECIALISTS

Alytheia M. Laughlin/Gail M. Van Dyke


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico is proposing to build and operate the Tren Liviano project, a light rail passenger train that will extend approximately 5.3 miles between Pier 3 in Old San Juan and the terminus of the existing Tren Urbano Sagrado Coraz贸n Station, with a spur to the Convention Center area on Isla Grande. PAL (The Public Archaeology Laboratory, Inc.), as part of the Antonio Di Mambro P.C. project team, undertook historic resources reconnaissance and intensive surveys within the potential impact area of the Tren Liviano project Locally Preferred Alternative. The survey was undertaken to provide information to fulfill Commonwealth and Federal environmental and historic preservation review requirements. The survey and evaluation of historic properties within the Tren Liviano project potential impact area was completed in consultation with the Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Officer (PR SHPO). In conjunction with field investigations, the survey team undertook a thorough search of existing information on historic properties at the PR SHPO and the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture, as well as extensive archival research on the historical contexts of the project area and on historic properties. The potential impact area was determined to be properties on or directly adjacent to the Tren Liviano right-ofway, as well as properties within clear view of the right-of-way. The survey team identified historic properties listed in, previously evaluated as eligible for, or potentially eligible for the National Register of Historic Places within the potential impact area. PRSHPO Reconnaissance Inventory Forms were completed for all historic resources in the project potential impact area. The survey team also completed intensive survey and National Register recommendations for the potentially eligible properties. PRSHPO Intensive Survey Forms were prepared for potentially eligible properties documenting their historic and architectural significance, or lack thereof.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... i

1.

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 1  Project Description ................................................................................................................................. 1  Project Scope and Authority................................................................................................................... 2  Project Personnel .................................................................................................................................... 7  Project Information................................................................................................................................. 7 

2. METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................... 8 Project Goals and Strategies ................................................................................................................... 8  Potential Impact Area ............................................................................................................................. 8  Archival Research .................................................................................................................................. 9  Inventory and National Register Files ............................................................................................. 9  Cultural Resource Reports ............................................................................................................. 10  Histories, Maps, Images, and Archival Materials .......................................................................... 10  Mapping and Parcel Identification Data ........................................................................................ 10  Reconnaissance Fieldwork/Visual Inspection ...................................................................................... 11  Reconnaissance Inventory Forms ......................................................................................................... 11  Intensive Survey Selection Criteria ...................................................................................................... 11  Intensive Survey ................................................................................................................................... 12  Fieldwork ....................................................................................................................................... 12  Research and History ..................................................................................................................... 12  Inventory Forms and Description .................................................................................................. 12  National Register Evaluation Process and Criteria ........................................................................ 12  3. HISTORIC CONTEXTS ................................................................................................................... 13  Railroads............................................................................................................................................... 13  The Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico (CFPR)................................................................ 13  Tranvia de Ubarri ........................................................................................................................... 15  Neighborhoods ..................................................................................................................................... 20  La Isleta.......................................................................................................................................... 20  Isla Grande ..................................................................................................................................... 36  Santurce ......................................................................................................................................... 39  Architecture .......................................................................................................................................... 51  Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 51  Spanish Colonial Era, 18th and 19th Centuries................................................................................ 52  U.S. Acquisition and Development, 1898-1930s ........................................................................... 52  Mid-Twentieth-Century Modernization, 1925-1960s .................................................................... 54  Recent Developments, 1960s to 2011 ............................................................................................ 57  4. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................... 58  Reconnaissance Survey Results ........................................................................................................... 58  National Register-Listed and Determined Eligible Historic Properties ......................................... 59 

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Table of Contents Previously Evaluated as National Register-Eligible Historic Properties ....................................... 61 Potentially National Register Eligible Historic Properties Included in Intensive Survey.............. 70  Intensive Survey and National Register Eligibility Evaluation Results ............................................... 70  Properties Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing .................................................. 71  Properties Recommended Not Eligible for National Register Listing ........................................... 81  REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 89 

APPENDICES A TABLES 4-1 TO 4-5 (REFER TO LIST OF TABLES).................................................................. 99 B FIGURES 4-1A TO 4-1L (REFER TO LIST OF FIGURES) ...................................................... 135 C FIGURES 4-2A TO 4-2E (REFER TO LIST OF FIGURES) ...................................................... 161

VOLUME II D RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY INVENTORY FORMS ............................................................ 169

VOLUME III E INTENSIVE SURVEY INVENTORY FORMS ........................................................................... 415

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1.

Location of the Tren Liviano project on the San Juan, Puerto Rico, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5 minute series ......................................................................... 3

Figure 1-2.

Tren Liviano Project Locally Preferred Alternative ........................................................... 5

Figure 3-1.

Railroad map of Puerto Rico in 1924 showing San Juan’s links to railways following island’s coast .................................................................................................... 14

Figure 3-2.

Map of the proposed Tren Liviano route showing the historical routes of the Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico, the Tranvia de Ubarri, and successor lines................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 3-3.

1927 photographic view of San Juan harbor, looking south, with the San Juan Railroad terminal at center ................................................................................................ 19

Figure 3-4.

Early twentieth-century view of San Juan, looking west, with the original Tranvia de Ubarri station indicated................................................................................... 19

Figure 3-5.

Map of San Juan ca. 1625 ................................................................................................. 21

Figure 3-6.

Map of San Juan in 1762 ................................................................................................. 21

Figure 3-7.

Map of San Juan in 1878 ................................................................................................. 22

Figure 3-8.

View of Avenida Ponce de León, 1915, looking southeast from the city ........................ 23

Figure 3-9.

View looking east along Paseo de Covadonga toward Puerta de Tierra from Old San Juan in the Port and Capitolio area, 1914 .................................................................. 24

Figure 3-10.

Postcard aerial view looking southwest over Capitol building, undated [after 1929] ...................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 3-11.

A general plan of La Puntilla and the “Front Port” from 1835. G is the Harbormaster’s Building; H marks the Main Wharf, I is the Customs House ................. 26

Figure 3-12.

Circa 1933 aerial view looking west showing the Port of San Juan with Piers 8 (ship in foreground), 5-7 along wharf, and projecting piers 1-4 at rear. La Puntilla is in left background ................................................................................................................ 28

Figure 3-13.

Map showing land ceded by the military for the civil urbanization of Puerta de Tierra, 1867 ....................................................................................................................... 29

Figure 3-14.

Aerial view of Puerta de Tierra, ca. 1908 ......................................................................... 30

Figure 3-15.

Map of Puerta de Tierra, 1909 ......................................................................................... 30

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List of Figures Figure 3-16.

Map showing the extent of filled land in Puerta de Tierra ............................................... 31

Figure 3-17.

Aerial view of La Isleta, ca. 1938 ..................................................................................... 32

Figure 3-18.

“San Juan from Vireless [sic] Telegraph Tower,” view of San Agustín looking southwest ......................................................................................................................... 33

Figure 3-19.

Map of the First Line of Defense, 1901 ........................................................................... 35

Figure 3-20.

Aerial view of the Isla Grande airport, 1939 ................................................................... 37

Figure 3-21.

Map of Isleta de Miraflores, ca. 1777 ............................................................................... 38

Figure 3-22.

Map of Santurce, 1887 ...................................................................................................... 40

Figure 3-23.

Postcard view of Carretera de Santurce, ca. 1905, looking east along what is now Avenida Fernández Juncos ................................................................................... 40

Figure 3-24a.

Map of Santurce in 1918, west section ............................................................................. 43

Figure 3-24b.

Map of Santurce in 1918, central section.......................................................................... 45

Figure 3-24c.

Map of Santurce in 1918, east section .............................................................................. 47

Figure 3-25.

Aerial view of Miramar in 1929, looking north ................................................................ 49

Figure 3-26.

Postcard view of Miramar, 1910, across San Antonio Channel ...................................... 49

Figure 3-27.

Map of Santurce, 1928 ..................................................................................................... 50

Figures 4-1A-L.

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places ......... Appendix B

Figures 4-2A-E.

General Location of Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places ........................................................................................................... Appendix C

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 4-1. Tren Liviano, Reconnaissance Survey Results for All Historic Resources in Potential Impact Area. .............................................................................................................Appendix A Table 4-2. Tren Liviano, Historic Properties Listed in the National Register of Historic Places in Potential Impact Area. ..............................................................................................Appendix A Table 4-3. Tren Liviano, Historic Properties Previously Evaluated as Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places in Potential Impact Area. ..............................................Appendix A Table 4-4. Tren Liviano, Potentially Eligible Historic Resources Identified for Intensive Survey, with Intensive Survey Results and Recommendations, in Potential Impact Area. .........................................................................................................................Appendix A Table 4-5. Tren Liviano, All Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, and Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places in Potential Impact Area ..............................................................................................................Appendix A

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Overview The Municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico (Municipality) is proposing to build and operate the Tren Liviano project, a light rail passenger train that will extend between Pier 3 in Old San Juan and the terminus of the existing Tren Urbano Sagrado Corazón Station (Figure 1-1). This report presents the goals, methodology, and results of historic resources reconnaissance and intensive surveys for the Tren Liviano project Locally Preferred Alternative (LPA) conducted by The Public Archaeology Laboratory, Inc. (PAL) as part of the Antonio Di Mambro P.C. project team. Project Description The Tren Liviano Revised LPA (Antonio Di Mambro P.C. October 25, 2011) consists of approximately 5.3 miles between Old San Juan and Sagrado Corazón, including a spur at the Convention Center (Figure 1-2). The project includes two-way, double-track light rail along the main alignment and the Convention Center spur. The light rail will be powered by overhead catenary. The route is entirely at grade and mostly within existing roadways. There are a total of 12 stations, 11 of which are on the main alignment (west to east): Pier 3 terminus in Old San Juan, Capitolio, San Agustín West, San Agustín East, Mid-Park, Canal San Antonio, El Gandul, Parada 18, Santurce Centro, San Mateo, and the Sagrado Corazón terminus, which will be incorporated with the bus terminal at the eastern end of the existing Tren Urbano station. One station, Convention Center, is located on the Convention Center spur. The stations consist of centralized platform, side platforms, and terminus configurations. The project will include four park-and-ride facilities. Facility 1 at Intersection 5 includes a 6-story garage, the Canal San Antonio Station, bus stops at ground level, and a landscaped pedestrian connection to the Miramar neighborhood. Facility 2 located north of the Convention Center consists of a 3-story deck over the existing parking lot. Facility 3 is a 2-story parking structure located above a light-rail Maintenance Facility by the Convention Center. Facility 4, located west of the Sagrado Corazón terminus, includes a 4-story deck constructed over the existing Tren Urbano parking lot. One 276,000 square-foot light-rail Maintenance Facility is located to the southwest of the Convention Center. Roadway improvements are planned at Intersection 5 where the existing vehicular ramps will be removed, and land acquisition of portions of parcels will be necessary in certain locations. The presentation of Tren Liviano project information in this report is grouped into the three distinct geographic areas of San Juan, with sub-neighborhoods, traversed by the project route. The western section of the main alignment between Old San Juan and the San Antonio Channel is in the area of La Isleta. The eastern section of the main alignment between the San Antonio Channel and Sagrado Corazón crosses the area of Santurce. The Convention Center spur extends into the area of Isla Grande situated on the southwest edge of Santurce.

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Chapter One Project Scope and Authority Identification of historic resources for the Tren Liviano project was undertaken as the first step in fulfilling compliance responsibilities for historic properties under Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Commonwealth) and relevant federal legislation and policies. The approach for identifying and assessing potential impacts to historic and archaeological resources was discussed in consultation with the Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office (PR SHPO) and Institute of Puerto Rican Culture (IPRC) in correspondence, meetings, and technical work sessions (Hernández Alvarado 2011, Rubio Cancela 2011). While this report is prepared in accordance with Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (EQB) requirements, for historic and archaeological resources, some federal requirements will also be addressed. These requirements are intended to protect resources that have been determined to have historic value, and are used by the Commonwealth to ensure that these protections are afforded. For example, historic properties are defined as those historic and archaeological resources (districts, buildings, structures, objects and sites) that are listed in or are eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (National Register). Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other Commonwealth and federal laws require consideration of cultural resources during project planning. The project may require a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which would coordinate all federal compliance requirements. The Municipality has initiated technical assistance coordination with the PR SHPO, and coordinated with the IPRC as an interested party, regarding the Tren Liviano project. The Tren Liviano project will comply with Commonwealth historic preservation laws and regulations pertaining to cultural resources in Puerto Rico, which include: Reglamento para la Designación, Registro, y Conservación de Sitios y Zonas Históricas de Puerto Rico (Reglamento de Planificación Numero 5, No. 6518), 2002. The Puerto Rico Planning Board regulations provide for the designation, registration, and conservation of historical sites and areas. The program is intended to protect, enhance and perpetuate those historic sites or areas that represent or reflect the history of Puerto Rico for cultural and tourism development, enjoyment and general welfare of the community, and for research and education. The regulations ensure that land uses are conducive to the preservation of historical contexts and facilitate the identification and designation of sites of historical or architectural value. The protection of properties within historic districts established by the Planning Board is overseen by the IPRC. Environmental Quality Board, Regulation 253. The EQB regulations define the process to be followed to identify important environment elements that may be directly or indirectly affected by a proposed project. Fulfillment of the regulations is coordinated with NEPA compliance, which requires consideration of historic and archaeological resources. Relevant federal legislation that provides guidance on best practice procedures for the documentation and evaluation of historic and archaeological resources and for the assessment of project effects on historic properties is as follows: The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 was enacted by Congress to preserve and protect the nation’s important historic resources. The NHPA established the National Register and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (Council). Section 106 requires federal agencies to take into account the effects of their actions on historic properties and afford the Council an opportunity to comment. Section 106 is implemented by the Council’s regulations, “Protection of Historic Properties” (36 CFR 800), which specify criteria for determining whether a project will either not

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Introduction

Figure 1-1. Location of the Tren Liviano project on the San Juan, Puerto Rico, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5 minute series. PAL Report No. 2581

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Introduction

Figure 1-2. Tren Liviano Project Locally Preferred Alternative. PAL Report No. 2581

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Introduction affect historic properties, have no adverse effect, or an adverse effect. If it is determined that the undertaking will have an adverse effect on historic properties, the federal agency consults with the PR SHPO and other interested parties to seek agreement on measures to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse effect. If agreement is reached, the measures are stipulated in a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). In order to satisfy Section 106, the federal agency either implements the MOA terms or considers the Council’s formal comments in making it final decision on whether and how to proceed with the action. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) gives agencies broad responsibilities to be concerned about the impacts of their activities on the environment, including historic properties. NEPA addresses some of the same concerns as NHPA; however, Section 106 is a totally separate authority from NEPA and is not satisfied simply by complying with NHPA. Studies and documents prepared under Section 106 can be coordinated with those done under NEPA. Procedures for Protection of Historic Properties (Appendix C) at 33 CFR Part 325 – Processing of Department of the Army Permits is administered by the Army Corps of Engineers as the lead federal agency. The procedures specify how the Corps will fulfill requirements under NHPA, other applicable historic preservation laws and Presidential directives as they relate to the Corps regulatory programs (33 CFR Parts 320-334). Project Personnel The PAL project team for the historic resources survey consisted of Deborah C. Cox, Project Manager; Virginia H. Adams, Senior Architectural Historian; Jenny F. Scofield, Quinn A. Stuart, and Laura Kline Architectural Historians; John Daly, Industrial Historian; Kirk Van Dyke, Photographer; Blake McDonald, Assistant Architectural Historian; and Amelia Bidwell, Researcher. Fabiola Cintrón and Aracely Ramírez, University of Puerto Rico architecture students, assisted with research. Project Information Background research, fieldwork, and report writing were conducted between March and June 2011. All field notes and background materials are on file at the PAL offices in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

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CHAPTER TWO METHODOLOGY

Chapter 2 presents the methodology used to complete the historic resources reconnaissance and intensive surveys for the Tren Liviano project. Project Goals and Strategies The purpose of the Tren Liviano project historic resources survey was to identify and evaluate all buildings, sites, structures, and objects 50 years old or older, and those less than 50 years old that may possess exceptional significance, within the potential impact area. The survey was also designed to provide recommendations regarding the potential sensitivity of historic resources identified during the reconnaissance survey that merit additional intensive survey and significance evaluation. The overall goal was to provide an inventory of historic properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places (National Register), previously determined eligible or evaluated as eligible for listing in the National Register, and historic properties recommended following intensive survey as eligible for inclusion in the National Register. Strategies employed to achieve this goal, which are outlined below, consisted of definition of the potential impact area, archival research, field survey, development of historic contexts, analyses, and evaluations of significance under the National Register Criteria for Eligibility. The identification and evaluation of historic resources within the Tren Liviano project corridor has been completed in consultation with the PR SHPO and the IPRC. All work conducted to characterize the cultural resources for the Tren Liviano project was undertaken in accordance with the standards and requirements of the PR SHPO and the Department of the Interior, Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines for Archaeology and Historic Preservation (48 FR 44716, September 29, 1983). Potential Impact Area The survey collected information within the Tren Liviano potential impact area, which was modeled after NHPA Section 106 Area of Potential Effects (APE), and defined in consultation with the PR SHPO. An APE, under 36 CFR 800.16(d), is the area or areas within which an undertaking may directly, indirectly, or cumulatively cause changes in the character or use of historic properties, if any such properties exist. Historic properties are defined as resources listed or eligible for listing in the National Register. The APE takes into account the scale and nature of the proposed project. Different project factors may produce more than one APE for a given undertaking. Under the definition of adverse effects (36 CFR 800.5(a)), an APE includes the actual site of the undertaking where direct effects may occur, and also other areas where the undertaking may cause indirect effects to historic properties. Direct impacts with potential to affect historic properties include construction that alters the character of a property through physical modifications or change of use of the property or features within its setting. Indirect effects may result from the introduction of visual (setting), noise, vibration, traffic, and air quality factors. Effects may be temporary for the duration of construction activities, or permanent. Effects may include reasonably foreseen effects that may occur later in time, be farther removed from the project location, or be cumulative.

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Methodology The Tren Liviano potential impact area for historic resources is defined as properties located on or directly adjacent to the proposed light rail alignment right-of-way corridor, stations, termini, parking lots, and maintenance and service facilities as well as any other ancillary work areas and land takings. The potential impact area is based primarily on immediate proximity to the project alignment and visual criteria for properties with a clear view of the project. The potential impact area follows property parcel boundaries except on expansive parcels in the airport and old Navy base areas of Isla Grande where there was no access. In this case, the potential impact area line was drawn at 400 feet from either side of the right-of-way. The potential impact area also extends out beyond one assessor’s lot adjacent to the rightof-way in the following circumstances: • • •

Where vacant or open lots create longer viewsheds between historic resources and the project corridor, the potential impact area extends out to capture the next closest historic resources with a clear view of the right-of-way; Where there is the possibility of a taking, the potential impact area extends out to capture the next closest historic resources to the location of any potential demolition or immediate setting alteration; Where an existing historic district listed in the National Register exists, or an area is identified and evaluated in the survey as an eligible historic district, the potential impact area extends out to nominally to follow the existing or potential boundary of the district. However, as no project effects are anticipated to individual resources beyond those adjacent to the project right-of-way corridor, recording is limited to properties within the core potential impact area.

This definition encompasses the direct potential impact area, defined as the construction limits of the project, as well as the indirect potential impact area. Any noise and vibration impacts are expected to be captured within this potential impact area. Archival Research In order to provide a context for the historic resources within the Tren Liviano potential impact area, a research study area was also delineated approximately 400 feet to either side of the project right-of-way corridor. Existing information was collected on historic properties listed in the National Register, previously determined eligible, or previously evaluated as eligible within the research study area. However, only historic resources actually within the potential impact area were subject to survey and are analyzed in this report. The research conducted was used to inform the development of historic contexts in Chapter 3 of this report, as well as to complete the reconnaissance and intensive surveys and the National Register eligibility evaluations presented in Chapter 4 of this report. Inventory and National Register Files Research included a review of the Inventory and National Register files maintained by the PR SHPO. These files contained information on historic properties within the Tren Liviano corridor potential impact area and in the research study area that are listed on, determined eligible, or considered eligible for the National Register. In addition, information from pre-existing historic resources surveys in the project vicinity was reviewed. Relevant surveys conducted in the past several decades include: San Juan Extramuros, La Puntilla-Marina and Puerta de Tierra survey (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987b); Tren Urbano survey (Adams and Vieth 1995); Navy Base survey (CSA Architects and Engineers 1998); Tren Urbano Minillas Extension Phase 1A survey (Adams and Harrington 1998); Minillas Extension Stage I Cultural Resources Determination (Pantel, del Cueto & Associates 2000); and reconnaissance and intensive surveys of the Miramar neighborhood of Santurce (Vivoni Farage 2005a, 2006). Copies of National Register nominations, inventory forms, and related reports were obtained.

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Chapter Two The PR SHPO files also held information on properties recorded by the National Park Service (NPS) in the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), as well as useful general contextual information on Puerto Rican architecture, themes, and historical development patterns. An example of the latter is a study of multi-family housing, or casas de vecindad (Rigau and Penabad 1993). The online National Register (National Register Information System) and HABS/HAER databases maintained by the NPS were also consulted. Information on Puerto Rico landmarks designated under Puerto Rico Planning Board Regulation No. 5 provided by the IPRC was reviewed and cross checked with National Register status. Cultural Resource Reports The reports of previous research and surveys conducted in the project area were reviewed. These included the relevant survey reports referenced in the previous section and archaeological reports for the replacement of the San Antonio and Esteves Bridges over the San Antonio Channel (Vega 1997, 2002). Histories, Maps, Images, and Archival Materials Published municipal and neighborhood histories consulted included publications on the development of San Juan (Sepúlveda Rivera 1989, 2004), Santurce (Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987a), and the area of La Isleta outside the old city walls (Sepúlveda Rivera 1990). Many of these sources reproduce historic maps and aerial photographs that provide valuable information on the physical development of the project area, including landfilling, new construction, port development, and transportation routes. The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918 General Plan of Santurce was also consulted, which gives a snaphot of the area in the early twentieth century, and pertinent images and captions were retrieved from the magazine Puerto Rico Ilustrado between 1925 and 1940. A variety of materials were examined at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), Río Piedras Campus. The Archive of Architecture and Construction was an invaluable source of information concerning the architects whose work is represented within the project corridor, historical images, architectural plans, published architectural monographs, and books on social and urban development. Research was also conducted in the UPR main Lazaro Library, Humanities Library, and in the Puerto Rican Digital Library online. Materials included publications, historic maps, and historic photographs. Documentation was collected at UPR, through online sources, and at a variety of libraries on architects such as Pedro de Castro y Besosa, Henry Klumb, Antonín Nechodoma, and the firm Toro-Ferrer. Published scholarship regarding architectural styles, building types, and designers relevant to San Juan and the Caribbean region were also reviewed. Information on the history of the tramway and train that previously operated in and near the project corridor was undertaken in the archives noted above, including a thesis (Damiani 1997) at the UPR Center for Historical Investigations at the Humanities Faculty and historic images of the track corridor, and railyards. Several on-line sources were consulted for reports, images, and maps (Aponte 2009; Morrison 2008; Rodriguez Archives, LLC; Sociedad Ferroviaria Puertorrinqueña 2010; and United States Department of Commerce 1924). Mapping and Parcel Identification Data The assessor’s map and parcel (catastro) numbers and Geographic Information System data for land parcels from the Municipality of San Juan and the project alignment data from Antonio Di Mambro P.C. were used to generate field parcel maps and aerial photograph maps of the project area.

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Methodology Reconnaissance Fieldwork/Visual Inspection Fieldwork involved a driveover and walking visual inspection from public ways of the entire Tren Liviano alignment by the survey team in order to complete a reconnaissance field inventory of all historic resources in the potential impact area. The boundary of the potential impact area was adjusted based on actual field conditions along the project corridor, as discussed above in this chapter. Each historic resource and its general setting were photographed with a high resolution Nikon D40 digital camera. The location of all resources was noted on project field maps. Architectural characteristics, materials, and features, as well as estimated date of construction, condition, evident alterations, and other observations were recorded. Information was collected in such a way that PR SHPO reconnaissance survey forms could later be completed. Properties previously documented in National Register nominations or in the recent Miramar surveys of 2005 and 2006 were photographed and any significant changes were noted. In addition, observations were noted regarding spatial organization, landscaping elements, and street fixtures which establish setting characteristics along the project corridor. Any areas of resources with similar architecture or a shared historic theme that appeared to constitute a historic district were identified in the field notes. Buildings, sites, structures, and objects less than 50 years old were field verified based on visual assessment, and notations made for any potentially possessing potential extraordinary significance. In one instance where a building less than 50 years old may be directly impacted by alignment construction, the building remained in the reconnaissance survey for informational purposes. Each parcel in the potential impact area was accounted for in the survey including locations of demolished buildings, vacant lots, and open parking lots or similar land uses. The inspection technique was designed to provide data on the full spectrum of historic resources along the Tren Liviano project corridor, to document their historic and architectural significance, or lack thereof, and to permit assessment of historically and architecturally significant buildings, sites, structures, objects, and areas. Information on the historic resources identified in the Tren Liviano project corridor is presented in Chapter 4. Reconnaissance Inventory Forms PR SHPO reconnaissance inventory forms were completed, using the PR SHPO’s Microsoft Access Database, for all historic resources included in the reconnaissance survey within the potential impact area. These forms provide current photographs and location maps for all properties, as well as narrative description of properties without existing forms or with forms older than 2005, and updates consisting of narrative observations about any significant alterations to National Register-listed properties and to Miramar properties surveyed in 2005 and 2006. Intensive Survey Selection Criteria Historic resources recommended for intensive survey were those resources that appeared, based on the reconnaissance research and fieldwork conducted, to be potentially eligible for listing in the National Register. Specific criteria were followed in selecting each resource for intensive survey. The selection captured resources that had not been previously evaluated, and which, based on visual analysis, possessed architectural integrity and potential architectural significance. In addition, the property may also have known historical associations with a potentially important theme. Consideration was also given to whether the building is adjacent to or faces the project right-of-way or station, and whether there was a possibility for a taking. The selection criteria focused on collecting the

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Chapter Two appropriate level of information necessary for decision-making about properties in close proximity to the right-of-way and that are oriented with their primary facade facing towards the project area. Intensive Survey Fieldwork Properties selected for intensive survey were revisited in the field in order to take additional photographs and notes on building features and materials. Research and History Research on specific buildings was completed using both printed and online sources and analyzed within the property’s relevant historic context(s) (refer to Chapter 3). A narrative history of each property, based on the research conducted, appears in Chapter 4. Inventory Forms and Description Intensive inventory forms were completed using the PR SHPO Microsoft Access Database, for all properties in the intensive survey. These survey forms present detailed information on architectural features and materials. A narrative description of each property, based on the field survey observations, appears in Chapter 4. National Register Evaluation Process and Criteria The survey team consulted with the PR SHPO and the IPRC to evaluate the historic properties in the project area that were subject to intensive survey. The evaluation was completed using the NPS’s National Register Criteria for Evaluation. A narrative statement for each property appears in Chapter 4 stating the recommendations for the National Register eligibility criteria met and the level of significance, or providing an explanation of why a property does not meet the criteria. The National Register Criteria for Evaluation, established by 36 CFR 60, are the National Park Service, Department of the Interior standards for evaluating the significance of historic and archaeological resources. Eligible resources are more than 50 years old or possess exceptional significance. Properties may be eligible at the local, state, or national level. The criteria guide the evaluation of potential listings in the National Register and are stated as follows: The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association and that: A. are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or B. are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or C. embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose component may lack individual distinction; or D. have yielded, or may be likely to yield information important in prehistory or history.

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CHAPTER THREE HISTORIC CONTEXTS

Historic contexts provide a framework of themes and developmental chronologies as a basis for National Register evaluation decisions. Research and synthesis generated historic context narratives for architecture, railroads and trams, and neighborhoods within La Isleta, Isla Grande, and Santurce/Cangrejos along the Tren Liviano project corridor. Railroads The proposed Tren Liviano route alignment makes use of portions of two historical railroad routes that connected San Juan with both nearby urban areas around the Bay of San Juan and coastal and interior areas of Puerto Rico. Primarily, the proposed route follows the Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico (CFPR), organized in 1888, which was later the American Railroad Company (ARR). Two short sections of proposed rail service are on the same alignment as Puerto Rico’s oldest railroad, the Tranvia de Ubarri, opened in 1880, which later evolved into an important light rail (a/k/a tramway) system called the San Juan Light & Transit Company, locally known as the Trolley de San Juan. The following sections provide a history of these two railroads. Descriptions of the railroads’ historical routes between San Juan and Río Piedras, the same territory to be covered by the proposed Tren Liviano system, are also provided. The Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico (CFPR)

Corporate History The Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico (CFPR, also known as the American Railroad Company [ARR]) was established in 1888. The Spanish government had identified the need for a railroad system linking commercial and agricultural centers of production as early as 1864, encouraged by the island’s sugar plantation owners, who stood to benefit from improved access to coastal ports. However, serious planning for a railroad did not begin until the late nineteenth century because the rugged coastal terrain of the island dictated excessively high projected construction costs. It was not until 1880 that Spanish transportation planners completed a general plan for a railroad completely ringing the island that was thought to be technically and financially feasible (Marull 2009; O’Neill 1994). A Catalan businessman, Ibo Bosch y Puig, obtained the concession to construct the railroad at auction from the Spanish government in the spring of 1888 and then promptly transferred his franchise to the Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico (CFPR) in June of 1888. This Spanish-French consortium had headquarters in Madrid and was financed with French capital – primarily the Societé de Credit Mobilier of Paris and the Societé d’Entreprises des Constructions et des Colonies Espagnole. The Societé d’Entreprises des Constructions et des Colonies Espagnole was subsequently contracted by the CFPR to construct the railroad. Because the consortium lacked the necessary capital to complete the entire network of track around the island at once, the company first built the sections expected to have the highest demand. Construction began on the first route segment, from San Juan to points west, in October of 1888. Two engineers, Antonio Ruíz Quiñones and Tulio Larrinaga, were in charge of the works. Three years later, in 1891, almost 53 miles of rail line were in service between San Juan and Arecibo to the

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Chapter Three west. By 1893, the amount of rail line on the island had expanded more than threefold to 168 miles of discontinuous route segments. CFPR-operated lines connected San Juan to Camuy and Carolina (towns in the northern region), Aguadilla to Hormigueros (towns in the western region), and Yauco to Ponce (towns in the southern region). The railroad utilized French locomotives operating on meter-gauge track (Aponte 2009; Marull 2009; O’Neill 1994; Sociedad Ferroviaria Puertorriqueña 2010). Construction of the planned route network was impeded by constant problems with land acquisition, climate, disease epidemics, and changes in governmental administration. Shortages of qualified labor and materials also hindered construction. Additionally, the profitability of the CFPR’s completed segments was hindered by competition from a comprehensive coastal steamer service. Thus, construction of the rail network stalled after 1893. The CFPR’s original franchise was extended until 1900, but the SpanishAmerican War in 1898 brought all plans to a stand-still. Between 1898 and 1900, the railway system was administered by the United States military government. In 1900, the United States Congress’s passage of the Organic Act of 1900 (a/k/a the Foraker Act) established a civilian government and administrative bodies for Puerto Rico and, subsequently, communication and transportation franchises were reallocated. In 1901, a group of United States investors incorporated the American Railroad Company (ARR), which obtained a 25-year lease to operate the former CFPR system. ARR operations began in June 1902 and, in 1906, the franchise was extended until January 1, 1957, and expanded to include control of additional railroads in Puerto Rico. The ARR finally completed the route between San Juan and Ponce in 1908, after finishing a difficult mountainous stretch between San Germán and Lajas and several challenging bridges and tunnels. Extensions of rail service were achieved into the eastern and south central portions of the island via operating agreements with captive railways owned by sugar plantations in these regions (Figure 3-1). The company also purchased new American locomotives and rolling stock to support expanded operations. The construction of the railroad played a significant role in the development of the island’s economy, particularly the sugar industry, which could more readily move bulk cane from plantations to factories and finished sugar to ports for export (Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor 1906:32; Marull 2009; O’Neill 1994; Puerto Rico Illustrado 1940; Rivera 2011; Sociedad Ferroviaria Puertorriqueña 2010). In 1920, the ARR was reorganized when local investors formed a new company, the Compañia Ferroviaria del Circunvalación de Puerto Rico (CFCPR). The CFCPR formed a wholly owned

Figure 3-1. Railroad map of Puerto Rico in 1924 showing San Juan’s links to railways following island’s coast (source: Department of Commerce 1924).

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Historic Contexts subsidiary, the American Railroad Company of Puerto Rico (ARCPR) to operate the railroad. Unfortunately for the CFCPR, profitable operation of railroad companies became increasingly difficult. There was rapid growth in the automobile industry and corresponding improvement and extension of the island’s highway network, which was also prompted by the success of the sugar and coffee plantations in Puerto Rico. As was the case for railroads in the United States, increased competition from automobiles, combined with rising labor and maintenance costs, eventually forced the closure of the company. By 1944, the company’s value had depreciated to $10 million. That year, gross income was $1.4 million, but expenses were $1.1 million and profits were on the decline. Cutbacks in service and territory ensued, until by 1953 most freight and passenger service had ceased. The ARCPR declared bankruptcy and was dissolved as a corporation in 1957. The railroad’s portable assets were auctioned to clear its remaining debts. Metal infrastructure was sold for scrap, and property assets were transferred to the Government of Puerto Rico (Marull 2009; O’Neill 1994).

Route of the Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico between San Juan and Río Piedras The CFPR’s right-of-way began at a stub terminal located to the southeast of the Calle Commercio-Calle Harding intersection (Figure 3-2). At this location was the San Juan Railroad Terminal, a three-story Beaux Arts style passenger station built of stuccoed concrete and completed in 1913 (Figure 3-3) (demolished circa 2000) (McDonald 1983). Passenger platforms and a freight yard extended to the east of the terminal to the approximate location of Calle Pershing. Much of the freight yard was located on made land that was filled with dredged harbor material in 1920-1921 to provide improved port facilities, which included rail-served freight warehouses along the harbor wharves for improved intermodal freight transfer (Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:56; US Army, Corps of Engineers 1927). After leaving the terminal area, the railroad travelled east along what is now Calle del Tren and Tren Liviano’s proposed route, skirting the former shoreline of San Antonio Channel, to Calle del Tren’s intersection with present-day Avenida Manuel Fernández Juncos, east of Calle 5. Here, the railroad curved to the south across undeveloped tidal flats, crossing the San Antonio Bridge into Miramar. The CFPR completed its first bridge across the San Antonio Channel, a double-intersection Pratt pony truss, in 1891. This was replaced in sections between 1923 and 1932 by the Puente Ferroviario San Antonio, a multi-span, reinforced concrete, segmental arch bridge listed in the National Register in 2009 (now demolished). These bridges were located just to the west of the proposed Tren Liviano right-of-way (Marull 2009; Rivera 1989). In Miramar, the railroad travelled almost due south approximately 0.5 miles along present-day Expreso Luis Muñoz Rivera (PR Route 1, formerly Avenida del Oeste), before curving to the southeast along the Expreso and Calle Las Palmas (formerly Avenida del Sud) and exiting the project area. The railway continued southeast approximately 1.5 miles along a dedicated right-of-way along present-day Calle Progreso and Expreso Luis Muñoz Rivera in Miramar and Santurce. At the intersection of Calle Progreso and Calle Labra, the railroad was elevated about the surrounding grade, and a reinforced concrete deck bridge from the railroad still survives outside the current project area. Just northwest of the current location of the Tren Urbano terminus of Sagrado Corazón Station, the railroad right-of-way recrossed the proposed Tren Liviano right-of-way near its proposed terminus, then curved to the south and crossed the Martin Peña Channel across a second steel Pratt truss (listed in the National Register) (Marull 2009; Porto Rico Board of Fire Underwriters 1917; Rivera 1989:238-239). Tranvia de Ubarri The first intercity railroad in Puerto Rico was the 7-mile-long (12 kilometer [km]) Tranvia (tramway) de Ubarri, which linked San Juan and Río Piedras via Miramar and Santurce. This short line, owned by Count Pablo Ubarri, opened in 1880. By the late nineteenth century, Río Piedras had evolved into a

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Chapter Three significant inland city and regional transportation hub, and the railroad provided a more efficient means to connect the inland transportation routes running through Río Piedras with the port at San Juan. Count Ubarri was the local office manager of a horse-drawn coach service between San Juan, Caguas, and Carolina that had begun in 1867. In 1878, a Royal Order approved a contract for Count Ubarri to construct his tram system (Adams and Vieth 1995:11; Morrison 2008). Like typical tram systems elsewhere, the Tranvia was a light rail passenger system that served an urban/suburban clientele and used existing streets in lieu of a dedicated right-of-way. Steam locomotives running on 750 mm (29.5 inches) narrow-gauge track provided motive power for trains. The line followed the Carretera Central’s alignment from its beginning point on the south edge of Old San Juan all the way to Río Piedras (now Paseo Covadonga, Avenida de la Constitucion, and Avenida Ponce de León) (Morrison 2008; O’Neill 1994; Rivera 1989). In 1900, following passage of the Organic Act of that year, the Canadian corporation San Juan Light & Transit Company (SJL&T Co.) purchased the Tranvia. The SJL&T Co. upgraded the line from narrowgauge steam to American standard-gauge (4 ft, 8.5 inches) electric motive power and began operating American-made, self-propelled streetcars on the route. The company also added a new loop of track in Old San Juan. The expanded electrified line opened in January of 1901. A branch line extending north to Borinquen Park in Condado was added about 1903 (Morrison 2008). In 1906, a new Canadian company, Porto Rico Railways Co., formed a subsidiary called Porto Rico Railways, Light & Power Company to operate the tramway. In 1907, the company opened a new 17-mile tram extension to Caguas, the Caguas Tramway. This was operated as a steam railway with meter-gauge track to provide interchangeability with the intercity railway already established at Caguas (Morrison 2008). In 1911, Porto Rico Railways, Light & Power Company built a new line through Condado connecting with the main line in San Juan and the Borinquen Park line to form a large loop, bringing the tram system to its greatest geographic extent. As of 1924, 35 electric passenger streetcars operated on 14.5 miles of track in San Juan. In 1928, Hurricane Okeechobee (a/k/a Hurracan San Felipe), a Category 5 storm, hit the island. The streetcar line between San Juan and Río Piedras and the depot at Río Piedras were severely damaged and abandoned. Borinquen Park became the new terminus for streetcars operating out of Old San Juan. Buses carried passengers along the remainder of the route between the park and Río Piedras. As a result of this route reduction, the streetcar fleet had been downgraded to 11 trams as of 1933 (Morrison 2008). In 1942, the tramway company was nationalized and became a subsidiary of the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority (Autoridad de Fuentes Fluviales). The Water Resources Authority ran the last tram of the system in September 1946 (Morrison 2008).

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Historic Context

Figure 3-2. Map of the proposed Tren Liviano route showing the historical routes of the Compaùía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico, the Tranvia de Ubarri, and successor lines. PAL Report No. 2581

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Historic Context

Figure 3-3. 1927 photographic view of San Juan harbor, looking south, with the San Juan Railroad terminal at center (source: United States Army, Corps of Engineers 1927).

Route of the Tranvia de Ubarri The Tranvia de Ubarri’s original route in 1880 began in a small Italianate style, wood-frame station with two covered platforms at the intersection of Calle del Recinto Sur and Calle de la Tanca, presently the site of the Felisa Rincon de Gautier Parking Garage (Figure 3-4, see Figure 3-2). From this terminal, the tracks ran east along present day Calle del Recinto Sur and Paseo Covadonga (formerly Avenida Ponce de León), just north of the Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico (CFPR, see above) terminal. Between Calle Harding and Calle Pershing, the proposed Tren Liviano route follows this historical right-of-way. East of Calle Pershing, the old route then continued east along Avenida de la Constitucion, while the Tren Liviano route bends to the south to join the former CFPR route, as discussed above. Continuing east on Avenida de la Constitucion and then merging onto Avenida Manuel Fernández Juncos, the old route curved south to cross the San Antonio Channel on approximately the same alignment as the proposed Tren Liviano route (The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918; Rivera 1989:210-211, 238).

Figure 3-4. Early twentieth-century view of San Juan, looking west, with the original Tranvia de Ubarri station indicated (source: Rodriguez Archives, LLC 2009). PAL Report No. 2581

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Chapter Three Upon entering Miramar, the Tranvia de Ubarri swung to the east from the Tren Liviano route and travelled southeast along Avenida Ponce de León (about 100 meters north of and parallel to Tren Liviano) into Santurce. It continued to follow the avenue as it curved to the south again in Santurce, across the Martin Peña Channel and into Río Piedras, leaving the current project area. When the route was founded in 1880, the train station and yards at Río Piedras were located west of the Calle del Commercio (Adams and Vieth 1995:11; The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918). The paradas (stops) of the SJL&T Co. along Avenida Ponce de León were numbered from 1 in Old San Juan to 40 in Río Piedras. Intermediate half-stops were later added that repeated the preceding number and added a ½ fraction (i.e.: 1 ½, 2 ½, etc.). Over time, these stops took on significance in the larger cultural geography of greater San Juan and came to designate not only the stops themselves but also the surrounding neighborhoods. The precise locations of the paradas could not be identified. However, paradas 10-27 were described in a university thesis by Julio Damiani Cósimi. Approximate locations of paradas 1-27 are shown on Figure 3-2 (Damiani Cósimi 2007; Morrison 2008). Neighborhoods La Isleta

San Juan/Capitolio San Juan/Capitolio marks the western end of the Tren Liviano project area. The project alignment begins just southeast of the Zona Histórica de San Juan (San Juan Historic Zone) National Register Historic District boundary and extends to the northeast along Paseo de Covadonga before jogging south onto Avenida Fernández Juncos/Calle del Tren. In this area, the surrounding architectural environment transitions in scale and form from the compact colonial city of Old San Juan to the majestic early twentieth-century institutional buildings lining the northern section of Avenida Juan Ponce de León (Highway 25). Spanish settlers founded Old San Juan at the northwest tip of La Isleta de San Juan (La Isleta) between 1519 and 1521 as the seat of government for the Spanish colony. The city is significant as the first municipal government established in the New World outside Santo Domingo, as well as the first military presidio in Spanish America. Casa Blanca (1521), the first defensive building constructed in the settlement, stored weapons and government funds and served for over 250 years as a residence for descendants of the first Spanish governor, Ponce de León. San Juan’s first true fortification, La Fortalesa (1533-1540, reconstructed early seventeenth century, renovated 1939), continues to serve as the executive mansion for the governor. The San Cristobal and El Morro fortresses bookend the historic district at the northeast and northwest boundaries of Old San Juan. Begun in 1539, the fortresses were expanded and added to over four centuries. They primarily exhibit features of the most advanced eighteenth-century defense techniques, but traces of their earlier origin as well as military developments of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are present. San Juan was also the see of the first Bishopric in Puerto Rico, and several sixteenth-century ecclesiastical buildings remain inside the historic district, including the Dominican Convent (1523), San José Church (1532), and San Juan Cathedral (1540) (Gjessing and Schmidt 1973; Morales 1971; NPS 2011). A residential, military, and commercial district developed within the original fortification walls. Wharf facilities were constructed on the Bay of San Juan to the south. The street grids and architecture are based on Spanish models and characteristic of urban development in many areas of Puerto Rico (Figures 3-5 and 3-6). Notable buildings that remain from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries include Casa Suazo (seventeenth century); the Cristo Chapel (1753); City Hall (1796-99); and Casa de los dos Zaguanes, La Casa del Callejon, and Polvorín de Santa Elena (all eighteenth century). The well-fortified

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Historic Contexts

Figure 3-5. Map of San Juan ca. 1625 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:81).

Figure 3-6. Map of San Juan in 1762 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:136). PAL Report No. 2581

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Chapter Three city survived the Dutch attack of 1625, Sir Francis Drake’s attack of 1595, the Earl of Cumberland’s attack of 1597, and Ralph Abercromby’s attack of 1797. During the years of peace between the failed English invasion of 1797 and the Spanish-American War of 1898, many buildings unrelated to military pursuits were constructed. The Academy in Spain, which preferred the Neoclassical style, directed all public architecture during this period. Its influence is evident in many of the public buildings constructed within the historic district throughout the 1800s, including the Teatro Tapia (1832), Santa Ana Church (1848), La Intendencia (1851), the Ballaja Barracks (1857), and La Casa del Libro (19th century) (Morales 1971; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998). By the nineteenth century, the old city was substantially built up, while the eastern portion of La Isleta, outside the city walls, remained primarily undeveloped (Figure 3-7). As the land bridge that connected the fortified city with the main island of Puerto Rico, Puerta de Tierra was extremely important for defensive purposes. For most of the nineteenth century, the area was entirely under military control. However, growing population outside the city walls caused new civic, commercial, and residential development in this area along the Central Road (also called the Carretera Central, now Avenida Juan Ponce de León/Highway 25) that led from the eastern entrance of the city wall to the San Antonio Bridge. On March 3, 1865, the municipal government approved a resolution promoting the expansion of the city that included a plan for demolishing the eastern city walls, although the demolition of the walls did not begin until 1897. The 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War and transferred Puerto Rico to the United States also established the San Juan Military Reservation inside the old city walls. American military authorities retained control of the northern section of Puerta de Tierra, until they transferred a portion of it to the civil government in the early twentieth century. See the separate section on Puerta de Tierra below for further discussion.

Figure 3-7. Map of San Juan in 1878 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:193). A vast construction plan accompanied the start of American governance in Puerto Rico. The government also passed several ordinances in 1917 that regulated the use of space along the Central Road, allowing tenement houses only on the land south of the road and creating an “official facade” along the avenue. These measures dramatically defined the city’s civic space and created a monumental urban environment that physically divided the landscape along class lines. Construction generally proceeded from west to east along Avenida Ponce de León and roads laid out parallel to it. Paseo de Covadonga was originally conceived in the early nineteenth century as a recreational boulevard that would provide an aesthetic

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Historic Contexts contrast to the grid inside the city walls. The road also soon became a major axial element in the urban expansion of Puerta de Tierra, but the linear strip of land between Paseo de Covadonga and Avenida Ponce de León has been maintained as a landscaped park to the present day (Figure 3-8). In 1913, a train station was constructed at the intersection of Paseo de Covadonga and Calle Harding (Figure 3-9; Marull 1997; Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:53; Vivoni et al. 2011; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998).

Figure 3-8. View of Avenida Ponce de León, 1915, looking southeast from the city walls (source: Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:31). The massive United States development effort in Puerto Rico emphasized the construction of schools, libraries, and other educational facilities intended to spread North American cultural and intellectual ideals. Much of this architecture favored Neoclassicism, a style that provided continuity with the official buildings of the nineteenth century and expressed discipline and order. Neoclassical style institutional buildings along Avenida Ponce de León, such as the Y.M.C.A/Casa Olimpica (1912-1913), the Biblioteca Carnegie (1915), and the Escuela Graduada José Celso Barbosa (1924), exemplify the influence of North American classical tastes on Puerto Rican designs as well as the physical expressions of American patrimony. Rafael Carmoega Morales (1894-1968), a native Puerto Rican architect educated at Cornell, was designated in 1921 as the first Puerto Rican to occupy the position of State Architect and was responsible for the Neoclassical/Beaux Arts-style El Capitolio de Puerto Rico (1925-1929) (Figure 3-10). Government architects also designed schools, hospitals, and other buildings in the California Mission style, which was considered “Spanish architecture.” The José Julián Acosta High School (1907-1908) in Capitolio was the first North American public school built using modern construction techniques and materials and the first large-scale civil engineering project in the area (Morales Parés 1983; Vivoni et al. 2011; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998). Other buildings along Avenida Ponce de León reflect the tension between the various groups that composed Puerto Rican society in the early twentieth century, a period of great cultural activity and renaissance in the region. Architectural statements like the Beaux Arts-style Antiguo Casino de Puerto

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Chapter Three

Figure 3-9. View looking east along Paseo de Covadonga toward Puerta de Tierra from Old San Juan in the Port and Capitolio area, 1914 (source: SepĂşlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:21).

Figure 3-10. Postcard aerial view looking southwest over Capitol building, undated [after 1929] (source: San Juan: Waldrop Photographic Co., Puerto Rican Digital Library Online, University of Puerto Rico). 24 PAL Report No. 2581


Historic Contexts Rico (1913-1917) signified a renewed participation in European affairs and reaffirmed the presence of “civilization” in a tropical environment. The Spanish Revival-style Ateneo Puertorriqueño (1923) was built 25 years after the United States acquisition to house Puerto Rico’s first cultural institution, founded in San Juan in 1876. The organization continues to celebrate important Puerto Rican cultural and political figures with the goal of protecting and defending Puerto Rican identity, and the building clearly represents a country in transition that was searching for an identity. At the same time, Spanish citizens living on the island created a private civic and cultural organization in 1914 as a way of re-establishing their own claims to prominence despite their defeat in 1898. They hired Pedro de Castro, a Puerto Rican architect trained at Syracuse, to design the club’s Casa de España (1932) in the Spanish Moorish style. The 1926 School of Tropical Medicine on Avenida Ponce de León, designed by Carmoega in an eclectic style, is the largest of a small group of medical-related buildings that includes the 1940 Spanish Revival style Medical Arts Building and the Instituto Oftálmico along Calle San Agustín (Morales Parés 1983; Vivoni et al. 2011; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998). In the late 1940s, the government considered several development proposals for renovating the old city. In the end, the local zoning laws were changed to favor the remodeling of colonial buildings and Colonial Revival designs for new construction. In 1949, the fortifications and most of the city wall were designated as the San Juan National Historic Site, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. The San Juan/Capitolio area remains the seat of government in Puerto Rico as well as an important commercial and tourist neighborhood. The old city is characterized by numerous public plazas, narrow blue cobblestoned streets, and a mix of well-preserved public, civil, and religious buildings from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. Outside the city walls, notable examples of the Modern Movement in architecture—such as the office buildings for the legislators (1956-1958) adjacent to the Capitolio and the Edificio de Hacienda Intendente Ramírez (1969), both designed by the Puerto Rican firm of Toro Ferrer Arquitectos—are interspersed between the early twentieth-century buildings (Gala Aguilera et al. 2009; Gjessing and Schmidt 1973; Vivoni et al. 2011).

Port of San Juan The Port of San Juan, otherwise known as San Juan Harbor, has been Puerto Rico’s hub for maritime trade and regional transportation since the late seventeenth century. Sheltered by Punta Palo Seco, Isla de Cabras, and La Isleta (west to east), the Bay of San Juan is the only Puerto Rican moorage that affords protection to vessels in any weather. The Tren Liviano project west terminus is located near Pier 3 and parallels the port area along the south side of La Isleta. The first docking facilities in the Port of San Juan were established at a promontory called La Puntilla (or small point) on the south side of La Isleta at the west end below the fortified city. At this time, much of the Bay of San Juan, including the San Antonio Channel, was ringed with mangrove swamps, and extensive sand bars and coral shoals beneath the waters of the bay endangered ships and limited navigation. Until the end of the seventeenth century, La Puntilla was largely unoccupied, but as of 1792 the promontory hosted two public docks, the Royal Aduana (customs) building, and warehouses. A small breakwater extended off the south point to protect ships tied up at the piers (Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:194). Early nineteenth-century development at La Puntilla occurred in a series of unplanned construction programs. Merchants established four private docks with freight warehouses and sheds adjacent to the two public docks. A Port Captaincy (i.e., Harbormaster) building was built very close to the Mercantile Depot (Figure 3-11). In 1845, engineer Santiago Cortijo prepared the first formal plan for La Puntilla and the port facilities at San Juan. Cortijo’s plan included a special berth for boats (possibly intended for repairs) and was eventually constructed in a modified version. Additional development of the port facilities came in 1847, when 10 prominent merchants petitioned to and received permission from the Queen to construct stone warehouses in La Puntilla (Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:194, 198).

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Figure 3-11. A general plan of La Puntilla and the “Front Port” from 1835. G is the Harbormaster’s Building; H marks the Main Wharf, I is the Customs House. Labels for four piers marked K are illegible, but indicate warehouses attached to the piers (source: Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:195). As might be expected, during Spanish rule export goods from the port at San Juan were largely destined for Spain and greater Europe and originated in Puerto Rico’s agricultural industries. For example, cargo leaving San Juan Harbor between 1866 and 1867 included 16.7 million pounds of sugar, 266 thousand gallons of molasses, over 3.7 million pounds of coffee, 895 thousand pounds of tobacco, 597 thousand pounds of hides, 237 thousand pounds of cotton, and over 8,000 quarts of rum (Seward 1868:382). As the French government finalized plans for a canal across Panama in the 1880s, Puerto Rican officials and entrepreneurs realized that the San Juan port occupied a strategic position within the international trade routes that would be opened up by such a waterway. To capitalize on this geographic advantage and turn San Juan into a trading hub, the city needed modernized port facilities that could accommodate steam-powered, deep draft transatlantic vessels. A Spanish royal proclamation on October 26, 1882, set the stage for a modernization program by defining which territorial waters were in the public domain and providing a regulatory framework for their protection and administration. The decree established la Junta de Obras del Puerto (Board of Harbor Works) for the management of the Port of San Juan and other harbors. This new entity was provided an annual budget and authorized to set and collect customs fees from ships entering the port. Additionally, the board had charge of harbor works and could sell any reclaimed lands it created as a result of dredging and filling activities. Board of Harbor Works engineer Melquíades Cueto prepared plans for a modernized port facility at San Juan. Between 1889 and 1898, Spanish authorities carried out plans for the harbor improvements. The entrance channel to the west of La Isleta was widened from 300 to 400 ft, and swamp areas within the bay south of La Puntilla and in San Antonio Channel (sometimes called the inner harbor) were dredged. Spoil from dredging was deposited 26 PAL Report No. 2581


Historic Contexts behind bulkhead walls constructed east of La Puntilla, and the resulting reclaimed lands were sold (Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army 1915:2007; Miller 1906:10-11; Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:217). The Spanish-American War disrupted trade with Europe and ended the Board of Harbor Works’ efforts at modernization. For the next decade, port infrastructure remained essentially the same as it had been in 1898, as paths of trade slowly reoriented themselves to serve the United States export market. Reviews of the shipping infrastructure by American authorities generally decried the antiquated and undersized state of the port and made various proposals for the accommodation of larger vessels and their cargo. For instance, a 1905 assessment described the facilities as “notoriously inadequate,” and, a year later, the port was said to offer only “meager accommodation” for vessels (Grahame 1905:325; Miller 1906:7). Congressional legislation passed on July 1, 1902 established a Bureau of Docks and Harbors to oversee all ports on the island. This new administrative body had the power to establish and enforce rules and regulations for ports under their control, dictate fees for pilotage, and inspect port infrastructure. The Chief of the new bureau quickly proposed to establish piers at right angles to the bulkhead as a means to improve capacity, but no work immediately followed this suggestion (Cooke 1902:12, 93-96; Miller 1906:7-10). Port infrastructure during this period consisted of a few piers and warehouses, the customs house, naval station, and a 2,000-ft-long bulkhead (presumably from the 1889-1898 construction period) offering accommodations for only three schooners. Two steamship lines, the Red D Line and the Insular Line, offered passenger service to the United States. These companies made use of the so-called Quartermaster Dock/wharf situated at the eastern end of the waterfront near the terminus of the American Railroad Company (probably near present-day Pier No. 4). The insufficient wharf capacity required extensive use of lighters to load and unload cargo and passengers from vessels at anchor in the harbor. The only significant work to be accomplished between 1898 and 1910 was the construction of two new piers – the New York & Porto Rico Steamship Company pier (Pier No. 1) and the Insular Dock Company pier (Pier No. 2). The current pier and wharf numbering system appears to have originated at this time, although its exact origins and a comprehensive listing of all the piers and their historical origins could not be determined. Between 1902 and 1903, the harbor hosted 510 overseas vessels (approximately 900,000 tons, exclusive of coastal shipping). In addition to these vessels, 3 small steamers and 42 sailing vessels docked in the port as part of the coastal trade (Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army 1915:2007; Cooke 1902:9396; Grahame 1905:326; Miller 1906:7). After a decade of inaction, the American administration of Puerto Rico, encouraged by the imminent completion of the Panama Canal, began pursuing improvements to the Port of San Juan in earnest. A San Juan Harbor Commission was appointed in 1911 to study and make improvements for the waterfront at San Juan. Between 1911 and 1916, shipping channels at the entrance to the harbor and in the outer harbor were widened and deepened. The existing bulkhead was lengthened by 900 feet and new cargo sheds were erected. The Porto Rico Coal Company (later Berwind White Coal Company) added a new modern coal dock with up-to-date loading equipment for fueling ships. The new infrastructure resulted in a dramatic increase in steamship traffic at the port. In 1916, 520 steamships carrying 1.4 million tons of cargo were counted in the port (Colton 1911:18, 44; Yager 1916:36, 319-324). The port continued to expand in the years leading up to World War II, during which time at least five large piers were fitted with modern concrete or steel warehouses and, in some instances, travelling cranes (Figure 3-12). Many of the wharves, piers, and accompanying warehouses were also rail-served by sidings from the nearby American Railroad Company. Established piers at this time included (west to east) the so-called lighthouse wharf, the New York and Porto Rico Steamship Company pier (Pier No. 1), and the Red D and Bull Insular Lines pier (Pier No. 2). East of these were the American Railroad pier, the San Antonio Dock, and the Porto Rico Coal Company pier at the mouth of the San Antonio Channel (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 1921:38).

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Figure 3-12. Circa 1933 aerial view looking west showing the Port of San Juan with Piers 8 (ship in foreground), 5-7 along wharf, and projecting piers 1-4 at rear. La Puntilla is in left background (source: Rodriguez Archives, LLC 2009). In the post-World War II period, the administrative organization and physical infrastructure of the Port of San Juan evolved and expanded to accommodate changing types of cargo, new methods of freight handling, and the tourist trade. The Ley de Muelles y Puertos de Puerto Rico, Núm. 151 (Law of Docks and Ports of Puerto Rico, No. 121) was enacted June 28, 1968 and established the Autoridad de los Puertos (PRPA, Port Authority). This legislation was succeeded by new legislation in 1989 that placed the PRPA under a new Departamento de Transportación y Obras Públicas (DTOP, Department of Public Works). The Port of San Juan now includes facilities in old San Juan, Puerta de Tierra, Isla Grande, and Puerto Nuevo with a total of 31 piers and wharves. Puerta de Tierra and Isla Grande host Piers 1-14, as well as docks 15 and 16. Piers 1, 3, and 4 are used for cruise ships. Former freight wharves on the south side of the San Antonio Channel at Isla Grande have been converted to the Panamerican Pier for additional cruise ship berths. The southeast part of San Juan Bay has been dredged and filled to create Puerto Nuevo, which has a large container facility. The construction of Puerto Nuevo added 15 piers, labeled A-N, to the Port of San Juan. In 2007-2008, the port served 580 vessels, hosted 1.5 million cruise ship passengers, and handled 9.4 million tons of cargo (Autoridad de los Puertos 2010; World Port Source 2011).

Puerta de Tierra The project alignment runs along Calle del Tren, an historic rail alignment and now an exclusive busway that extends between the Capitolio/Port area at Calle Valdes to the eastern end of Puerta de Tierra. East of the San Agustín neighborhood, it continues to parallel Avenida Ponce de León/Highway 25, which forms the southern border of the Luis Muñoz Rivera Park in this area. The park comprises a 27-acre

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Historic Contexts parcel of green space between the mid-18th-century First and Second Lines of Defense that ran north to south across Puerta de Tierra and includes the Polvorín San Gerónimo (1769-1772, restored 1992). A small above-ground section of the Second Line of Defense, dating from 1777 to 1783, remains between the project alignment and the southwest corner of the park (Manuncy and Torres-Reyes 1982:77). In 1838, the entire Puerta de Tierra area outside the old city walls had a population of only 168 residents. An 1846 census lists 223 inhabitants and 58 houses. As the population of San Juan overflowed the city walls, the military relinquished a portion of the land south of a line parallel to the Central Road (Figure 313). City officials subdivided this land in the late nineteenth century, and many laborers settled there along the mangrove swamps. By 1899, the population of Puerta de Tierra was 5,453, while roughly 18,103 civilians lived inside the old walled city (Marull 1997). The number of residents expanded greatly, increasing to 10,936 by 1910 (Figure 3-14). The barrio obrero (workers’ ward) south of the Central Road integrated a large number of laborers that arrived to work in newly established American factories nearby.

Figure 3-13. Map showing land ceded by the military for the civil urbanization of Puerta de Tierra, 1867 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:228). A 1914 study of the area outside the city walls described the division created by the railway line that cut across Puerta de Tierra (Figure 3-15). Larger casas-cuarteles and mercantile and industrial establishments were located primarily to the north of the tracks, along Calle San Agustín and Avenida Ponce de León. The swampy area to the south of the tracks, prone to frequent flooding, contained numerous speculative developments of rental housing for workers employed at the nearby port facilities. Living conditions in these developments were poor, and concern over the growth of such slums increased. In 1920 and 1921, the Bay of San Juan and the San Antonio Channel were dredged to fill the mangrove swamps for additional waterfront acreage for the ports. This effort also provided the city with an opportunity to clear the unhealthy slums from the area and relocate the residents in new public housing projects (Figure 3-16). Funding for the development work came largely from the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Association (PRRA), established by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1935 to address the island’s needs following the Depression. Puerto Rican civic leader Luis Muñoz Marín conceived of such an organization to buy large privately owned agricultural ventures and operate them as collectives, which the PRRA did. In San Juan, PRRA funds went primarily toward slum clearance and public housing construction. The first of these was the Art Deco style El Falansterio de Puerta de Tierra, built in 1937. The complex of three-story buildings around a central courtyard covered an entire block between the railroad tracks and the newly created Avenida Fernández Juncos (ca. 1926) and housed 216 families. Much larger urban renewal projects followed in the 1940s. PRRA-funded projects also included the San

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Chapter Three

Figure 3-14. Aerial view of Puerta de Tierra, ca. 1908 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:245).

Figure 3-15. Map of Puerta de Tierra, 1909 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:47).

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Figure 3-16. Map showing the extent of filled land in Puerta de Tierra (source: Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:67). Juan healthcare system, factory buildings, roadways, and parks (Morales Parés 1984b; New Deal Network 1938; New York Times 1935; Rodríguez 2000; Rodríguez 2010:129; Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987b:53,56; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998). The construction of the Hospital Municipal (now the Archivo y Biblioteca General de Puerto Rico) in 1876 opposite the future west edge of the Luis Muñoz Rivera Park marked the first step in a decades-long attempt to impose a formal plan on the region’s sprawl. The government established the Park Commission in 1918 and selected the site as a grand entrance to the line of institutional buildings developing along Avenida Ponce de León. At that time, nearby working-class residents were already using portions of the open land previously owned by the military for recreational purposes, including an improvised baseball field. The Chicago architectural firm of Bennett, Parsons and Frost designed the Luis Muñoz Rivera Park according to the ideals of the City Beautiful movement in 1924, and it was constructed between 1926 and 1932. Significant elements were added to it through the mid-1940s. The park became a popular setting for concerts, carnivals, political rallies, official ceremonies, and promenades. In 1955, the Supreme Court Building added a focal point at the east end of the park (Llanes Santos and Sueiro 2007; Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987b). The completion of Luis Muñoz Rivera Park stimulated development of the opposite stretch of Avenida Ponce de León. Several ambitious institutional and commercial buildings were constructed adjacent to the Hospital Municipal in the 1930s, including the Porto-Rican-American Tobacco Co., the Asociación de Maestros de Puerto Rico, and the Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Tribunal General de Justicia. The area to the south of the railroad line continued to develop with port-related industrial facilities, an Army Corps of Engineers complex, and large housing projects through the 1930s and 1940s (Figure 3-17; Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987b). The eastern section of La Isleta, between the Second Line of Defense and the San Antonio Bridge remained under military control for much of the twentieth century. Later development consisted

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Chapter Three

Figure 3-17. Aerial view of La Isleta, ca. 1938 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:37). primarily of suburban subdivisions and institutional uses requiring extensive space, such as an airport and a ballpark. A recreational/tourist area consolidated around several grand hotels directly northeast of the Luis Muñoz Rivera Park, well outside the project area (Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987b). The population of Puerta de Tierra reached a maximum of 15,716 persons in 1920, stabilized in the 1930s and 1940s, then rapidly declined as the sprawling slum areas were replaced by less dense housing projects. The area’s population in 1980 was almost the same as in 1899. Residential uses continue to dominate this area of the central section of La Isleta (Morales Parés 1984b; Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987b:53,56; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998).

San Agustín The project alignment runs directly through the San Agustín neighborhood, located between Avenida Juan Ponce de León and Avenida Fernández Juncos, near the center of Puerta de Tierra. The neighborhood developed in the late nineteenth century, when private development began outside the walls of Old San Juan on the limited available land between the military-controlled northern section of the land strip and the mangrove swamps to the south. Clusters of barracks-type housing for laborers, known as casas-cuarteles or ranchones, were built south of the Central Road (now Avenida Juan Ponce de León. These dwellings accommodated large numbers of families in small apartments. Most fronted on an old road that paralleled the Central Road, named Calle San Agustín in 1888 after the neighborhood’s patron saint. Several perpendicular streets arose amid the concentration of residences, and the railroad tracks formed a southern boundary to the neighborhood (Figure 3-18) (Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987b:46). In the first decades of the twentieth century, after a portion of the land north of the Central Road was opened up for non-military development, several institutional buildings appeared at the northern edge of the San Agustín neighborhood. In 1915, the Catholic order of Padres Redentoristas, who had established the parish of San Agustín, built an extensive church complex that included a school and a convent/parish house along Avenida Ponce de León. The centrally located church building is a prominent feature on the San Juan skyline. Several blocks to the east, the city constructed the Escuela Brumbaugh in 1912. It was

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Figure 3-18. “San Juan from Vireless [sic] Telegraph Tower,” view of San Agustín looking southwest (source: A. Mosconi Collection, Puerto Rican Digital Library Online, University of Puerto Rico; accessed from Rodriguez Archives, LLC, 2009). the first public school to serve the generally low-income area and the only one until 1923 (Gómez and Cardona 1984; Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1989). Increased demands for housing in Puerta de Tierra resulted in the construction of new types of residential buildings in the early twentieth century. San Agustín has several apartment blocks built to fit on the parcels of land created by the street grid. The east-west blocks are long and shallow, and the individual rectangular lots run north to south between the main roads. Thus, multi-unit buildings like that at 260 Calle San Agustín and the Edificio Morejon at 354 Avenida Ponce de León are tall and narrow and face both streets. The latter has an internal courtyard that forms a “pocket” inside the lot (Rigau and Penabad 1993).

San Antonio Channel At the east end of Puerta de Tierra, the project alignment turns south to cross the San Antonio Channel, the narrow body of water between La Isleta and the main island. Three north-south bridges cross the Channel at this location: from west to east, the San Antonio Bridge that carries Avenida Fernández Juncos (2000-2002), the San Antonio Railroad Bridge (1923-1932), and the Esteves Bridge that carries Avenida Juan Ponce de León (2002-2003). The area has provided terrestrial access to La Isleta since the beginning of the Spanish settlement and has played a significant role in the military and transportation history of Puerto Rico. The island’s first highway, built between 1520 and 1521, linked the original Spanish capital at Caparra to the new capital of San Juan on La Isleta. The first permanent bridge, known as the San Antonio Bridge, comprised two stone causeways connected by a central wooden section, located in the vicinity of the current Esteves Bridge. In 1558, the inhabitants built an aqueduct over the causeway to transport water from a spring on the main island. The wooden section was reconstructed in 1568, at which time a gate with an adjoining

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Chapter Three guard house stood at its north end and a permanently stationed garrison defended the crossing. As early as 1586, a triangular fort also existed at the site. Foreign attacks on San Juan necessitated the bridge’s reconstruction in the early 1600s, and the northern abutments were integrated into Fort San Antonio. Additional bridge repairs and reconstructions occurred throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Pumarada O’Neill 1994; Vega 2002). Fort San Antonio served as a key element in the First Line of Defense, the easternmost segment of the Spanish San Juan Defense System (also known as the Linea Avanzada), one of the largest military architectural complexes in early modern history (Figure 3-19). Military engineers in the service of the Spanish Empire built the First, Second, and Third Lines of Defense between 1780 and 1798, beginning on the east coast of La Isleta and progressing west toward the city. These fortifications incorporated the last generation of Fort San Antonio constructed in 1776. The fort also played a peacetime role as a tax station and urban border control, where cattle brought by ranchers from the largely unsettled main island to markets in the city were inspected and taxed. The British invasion of 1797 largely destroyed Fort San Antonio, but the Spanish successfully defended the bridge and prevented the occupation of the island. What remained of the fort’s superstructure was demolished during bridge reconstructions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (Marull 1997; Pumarada O’Neill 1994; Vega 1997; Vega 2002). Economic and population growth in Puerto Rico during the latter half of the eighteenth century required more and better transportation facilities. By the 1820s, the colonial government had begun to improve the links between San Juan and the hinterland. About 1846, it started construction of a paved highway between San Juan and Caguas, and by 1853, the San Juan-Río Piedras stretch that included the San Antonio Bridge was finished. In the second half of the nineteenth century, this highway became the first official stretch of a first-order highway extending 134 km from San Juan to Ponce across the island’s central mountain range, named the Carretera Central. Beginning in 1880, steam-powered passenger trains between San Juan and Río Piedras crossed the San Antonio Channel over the highway bridge until the railroad company built a separate steel truss bridge in 1891. About 1885, the San Juan commuter train erected another steel truss structure over steel trestles across the channel (see the railroad context for more information). In 1894, a wrought-iron structure replaced the stone vault highway bridge built in 1776, and pedestrian catwalks were later added to both sides. These three bridges provided rail and road access across the channel in 1898, when the United States acquired control of Puerto Rico (Pumarada O’Neill 1994). Highway construction in Puerto Rico peaked in the 1920s. At that time, the government undertook plans to build a new highway connecting Miramar with the port of San Juan (now Avenida Fernández Juncos) and to widen Avenida Ponce de León to 20 meters within San Juan and Santurce. In conjunction with the first project, a concrete highway bridge was built across the channel in 1925 to the west of the railroad bridges, along the alignment of the current San Antonio Bridge. Two years later, the 1894 wrought-iron highway bridge carrying Avenida Ponce de León was replaced with a concrete structure, named the Esteves Bridge after the Commissioner of Public Works. Rafael Nones, a prolific and successful Puerto Rican bridge engineer, designed both bridges; and the well-known architect Rafael Carmoega assisted with the design of the Esteves Bridge. At the same time, a similar concrete bridge replaced the 1891 steel railroad bridge, creating a row of stylistically coherent and monumental structures adorned with balustrades, cast iron lamp posts, and pilasters. All three bridges were listed in the National Register; only the railroad bridge is still extant. The fourth bridge in the row, the 1885 commuter train bridge (no longer extant), was widened in 1912 to serve a double rail for trolley cars (Pumarada O’Neill 1994).

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Figure 3-19. Map of the First Line of Defense, 1901 (source: SepĂşlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1990:64).

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Chapter Three In 1933, at the same time that the western access ramp to the Esteves Bridge was repaired and widened, the government planted grass and trees and installed two fountains in the area north of the bridge between the access curves, called the Jardines del Puente Esteves. Beginning in the 1930s, a local fishing cooperative occupied the north shore of the channel between the San Antonio Bridge and the railroad bridge for over 70 years. Its facilities included concrete structures on shore and under the bridges, floating structures in the channel, mooring facilities, and small boats. The fishing cooperative relocated in the late 1990s, and the rustic structures associated with it were demolished. The superstructure of the trolley bridge was dismantled after the trolley company folded in the early 1950s, but the trestle bases remain underwater. The railroad bridge has been used for pedestrian traffic since 1953, when the American Railroad Company stopped passenger and cargo service to the city of San Juan. Between 1955 and 1960, Luis Muñoz Rivera Expressway was completed along with the ramps at Intersection 5 and widening of Fernández Juncos Avenue. In recent years, landfills and road construction have altered the areas to the north and south of the highway bridges. A larger structure replaced the 1925 San Antonio Bridge in 2000-2002, and the 1927 Esteves Bridge was replaced in 2002-2003 (Marull 2009; Pumarada O’Neill 1994; Santiago Cazull 1999; Vega 2002). Isla Grande After crossing the San Antonio Channel from La Isleta to Santurce, the Tren Liviano project alignment splits into two paths: one route continues as a spur that provides access to the Convention Center area on Isla Grande to the west, and the second continues southeast across Santurce to the eastern terminus. Isla Grande is the largest sector within Santurce, comprising approximately 546 acres of primarily flat land surrounded on the north by the San Antonio Channel, on the west and south by San Juan Bay, and on the east by the Expreso Muñoz Rivera. Until the late 1930s, all but the small islet of Miraflores and a small air strip was covered with mangrove swamps and tidal mud flats. The United States government developed the area from 1938 to 1942 as a defensive naval base, which remained in operation until 1971. In recent years, the Puerto Rican government has developed much of the land for tourism purposes, with a large Convention Center constructed on the former naval installation and hotels, museums, and other commercial and residential buildings around the Isla Grande airport (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:59).

Old Navy Base In 1939, the Hepburn Board appointed by the Secretary of the Navy to review the United States defense capabilities recommended the development of Isla Grande as a secondary air base within the Caribbean naval shore establishment, which at that time consisted of only Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, the Panama Canal Zone, a small area on the island of Saint Thomas, and a radio station at San Juan. Congress approved the board’s base program in May 1939 and appropriated partial financing in 1940. On-going review of naval requirements subsequently prompted expansions to the original program even after construction commenced. In 1941, the Greenslade Board submitted recommendations that divided the Caribbean into three major areas of focus—Puerto Rico, Guantanamo, and Trinidad. The San Juan facilities would include a thoroughly protected anchorage, a major air station, and an industrial establishment capable of supporting a large portion of the fleet under war conditions—essentially, the “Pearl Harbor of the Caribbean.” The site was also designated as the administrative headquarters for the 10th Naval District in 1939 (CSA Architects and Engineers 1998; Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks 2011).

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Historic Contexts The Navy selected Isla Grande as the site for the base because of the contiguous waters ideal for seaplanes, the unrestricted air approaches, and the nuclear value of the existing airfield (Figure 3-20). The mangrove swamps that covered the area were filled with material taken from the bottom of San Juan Bay using a system of “staked trench-building.” Approximately 70% of the installation was built on dredged fill. By early 1943, the major features of the base were complete and in full use. The layout utilized the existing runway as the base of the design for the air station, with a seaplane area on the waterfront and industrial and personnel buildings between the two. Buildings associated with the 10th Naval District headquarters were located directly opposite the air station on a tract of land bordering the Channel. Major facilities comprised two Navy standard steel hangars, an engine-overhaul shop, four seaplane ramps, parking areas, and a 450-ft concrete tender pier. Most of the buildings were steel and masonry or reinforced concrete on pile foundations, designed to withstand the high-velocity winds present in the area. They had flat roofs and cubical forms that blended with local civilian design practice (CSA Architects and Engineers 1998; Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks 2011).

Figure 3-20. Aerial view of the Isla Grande airport, 1939 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987a:32). After 1943, the focus of World War II activities shifted to the European and Pacific theaters, and the Isla Grande base began to lose military/strategic importance. However, it provided aerial facilities and emergency assistance to damaged planes and ships until the end of the war. Many local Puerto Ricans found employment on the base, both in mechanical trades and clerical work, during a time of transition from a primarily agricultural economy. In 1947, the Puerto Rican government and the US Marines signed an accord to transfer the airport facilities to the Puerto Rico Transportation Authority, returning them to commercial use. The airport was known as the Ellis Island of Puerto Rico in reverse, since millions of Puerto Ricans left the island for the United States from here in the 1940s. It served as Puerto Rico’s main international airport through 1954 and continues to handle general aviation within the island and to other PAL Report No. 2581

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Chapter Three Caribbean islands. The remaining military facilities were transferred to the Puerto Rican government after the closure of the naval base in 1971 (CSA Architects and Engineers 1998; Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks 2011; Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:59).

Miraflores In 1776, the Spanish colonial government built the Polvorín de Miraflores on the small islet of Miraflores at the west end of Isla Grande (Figure 3-21). The structure was one of five eighteenth-century powder magazines within the San Juan defensive system and supplied military posts outside the city walls with gunpowder and other munitions. A small garrison of soldiers guarded the magazine, but it was captured briefly by the English in 1789. The United States acquired the land in 1898, along with the rest of Puerto Rico, and the existing facilities were transferred to the United States Marines for military purposes. From 1899 to the 1930s, the United States Public Health Service operated a quarantine center in the building, where ship passengers were examined for medical issues and kept isolated if necessary. In 1911, the Marines constructed several other buildings in the area for use as quarantine barracks (CSA Architects and Engineers 1998; Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks 2011; Grupo Editorial EPRL 2010; Morales Parés 1983b).

Figure 3-21. Map of Isleta de Miraflores, ca. 1777 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera 1989:118). The magazine was included within the perimeter of the large naval base built on Isla Grande from 1938 to 1942. The Navy converted it into a chapel, took down the other buildings associated with the quarantine station to accommodate seaplane parking, and built a new quarantine station and hospital on an adjacent piece of land. Following the closure of the naval base in 1971, the Polvorín de Miraflores was placed

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Historic Contexts under license to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, which under the auspices of the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture used it as a venue for the San Juan Children’s Choir and the headquarters for the San Juan Ballet. The Department of Transportation and Public Works subsequently controlled the building, and it is now abandoned. The grounds are used for government vehicle storage (Grupo Editorial EPRL 2010; Morales Parés 1983b). Santurce The project alignment extends southeast across Santurce along Avenida Fernández Juncos from the San Antonio Channel to the junction with Avenida Ponce de León, where it veers to the southwest and terminates near the Sagrado Corazon Tren Urbano Station. Half of the Tren Liviano project area is located in Santurce. Following an overview section, the narrative is organized by neighborhoods (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:55). Santurce is surrounded on all sides by water and is connected to the southeast corner of Puerta de Tierra by the San Antonio Bridge and to the north end of Hato Rey by the Martín Peña Canal Bridge. The topography varies, with five hills oriented east-west across the peninsula and lowlands on the edges of the lagoons and canals. Marshes and dense mangrove forests covered over half the land until the early twentieth century. The first inhabitants, liberated and escaped slaves from the Lesser Antilles, settled in the region in the seventeenth century. They lived in traditional, thatched shacks and called the land “Cangrejos” because of the profusion of crabs in the area’s rivers. A hermitage was built on the highest knoll in the area by 1729. In 1760, the hermitage and surrounding houses became a village. The settlers primarily made their living from subsistence agriculture, charcoal production, and fishing. A new church replaced the hermitage in 1832. By the middle of the nineteenth century, transportation had improved substantially, with regular carriage service and public roads. Sugar cane and livestock dominated the local economy, as evidenced by the development of large farms (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a). In 1862, Cangrejos was accepted as a district of San Juan. This territory reconfiguration split Cangrejos between San Juan, Río Piedras, and Carolina. The northwestern portion was made part of San Juan; the southern end, known as Hato Rey, was given to Río Piedras, which later became part of San Juan as well; and the Frailes Farm was given to Carolina (Castro 1980:195-197). In 1880, Pablo Ubarri established a trolley system through the area that greatly improved transportation and sparked new growth, primarily overflow from within Old San Juan (Figures 3-22 and 3-23). Consequently, the area was renamed Santurce in honor of Ubarri, whose title was Count of Santurce (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987:17). An 1899 promotional pamphlet described the region as a “suburban hamlet” where “wealthy merchants and foreign consuls” lived (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:28). During the first half of the twentieth century, Puerto Rico’s economy as a whole expanded as big business invested in agriculture, particularly sugar cultivation. Unprecedented growth in San Juan’s service and manufacturing sectors combined with concerted development efforts undertaken by the United States government to transform the dispersed rural suburbs of Santurce into a densely populated central area of the city. The region’s population increased from 5,840 in 1899 to 81,960 in 1930. After 1930, the population continued to increase rapidly, resulting in an immense system of suburbs sprawled over the southern and eastern portions of the peninsula, many built on filled mangrove swamps (Marvel 1994:6465; Rigau 1992:56; Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:28).

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Figure 3-22. Map of Santurce, 1887 (source: SepĂşlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987a:21).

Figure 3-23. Postcard view of Carretera de Santurce, ca. 1905, looking east along what is now Avenida FernĂĄndez Juncos (source: Rodriguez Archives, LLC 2009).

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Historic Contexts Early twentieth-century development in Santurce largely followed the existing topography and road networks. Presently two main thoroughfares run parallel through Santurce, Avenida Ponce de León and Avenida Fernández Juncos (Avenida Luis Muñoz Rivera in Hato Rey). The area surrounding these two avenues contains dense high- and low-rise commercial and residential development. Avenida Ponce de León follows the colonial route through the region called the Carretera Central. Wealthier and middleclass neighborhoods were historically concentrated north and east of this road, with working-class residents tending to settle to the south. Avenida Fernández Juncos (the route of the Tren Liviano project alignment) was built in the early twentieth century to accommodate increasing traffic across the peninsula and connected the disparate neighborhoods that developed from west to east between Avenida Ponce de León and the mangrove swamps. A 1918 map of Santurce clearly shows the development patterns underway in this area prior to the construction of the road (Figures 3-24a, 3-24b, and 3-24c). Several acres of undeveloped subdivided land separated the larger lots of the Miramar neighborhood at the west end, closest to La Isleta, from the denser Gandul neighborhood. Less dense clusters of buildings were located to the east of a large swath of open land at the center of the region (The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918). The Tren Liviano project alignment crosses through five distinct neighborhoods of Santurce. Each is described below, in order from west to east.

Miramar The Miramar neighborhood at the west end of Santurce extends from the Condado Lagoon on the north to the Expreso Muñoz Rivera on the south, and from the Expreso on the west to Calles Cerra and Hoare on the east. It comprises approximately 155 acres and includes one of the five major east-west hills that cross the peninsula. From the colonial period to the late nineteenth century, a large hacienda occupied the hillside, enjoying magnificent views. After the region was incorporated into the city of San Juan in 1862, the government began sponsoring construction in Santurce. The Colegio de las Madres del Sagrado Corazón on Avenida Ponce de León in Miramar was built between 1880 and 1882 as part of this urban expansion and is one of the few examples of Spanish Colonial architecture remaining in Santurce. It was originally used as a private exclusive girls’ school under the tutelage of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart. After 1898, it became an asylum for orphan girls and subsequently functioned as a rehabilitation center for delinquent girls, a drug rehabilitation center, and municipal offices (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:62; Soto Mejel et al. 1985). Late nineteenth-century improvements in transportation and overcrowding within the original city limits motivated many wealthy San Juan residents to relocate to the less dense rural suburbs. Large landholders within Miramar divided their properties into smaller but still sizable lots, with access to the main road, and financed speculative developments. Numerous recreational estates and ambitious single-family houses were built, and many of the streets in the neighborhood retain the names of the original landowners (Figures 3-25 and 3-26). Development in the early twentieth century tended to follow the model of the Condado district to the north, where two North American entrepreneurs created a typical “streetcar suburb” in 1908 from a large farmstead. Detached houses in garden suburbs like Miramar epitomized the atmosphere of progress and improved quality of life prevalent in the 1920s and 1930s. The neighborhood retains an abundance of architecturally distinctive resources from the period 1900 to 1940, primarily Spanish Revival-style single-family residences. Neighborhoods like Miramar served as incubators for innovative architects like Antonín Nechodoma and Pedro de Castro. Notable buildings within the project area include the 1935 house at 659 Concordia designed by Joseph O’Kelly and the houses at 659 and 663 La Paz (1928 and 1935, respectively), both designed by Pedro de Castro (Marvel 1994:64-65; Ramirez and Marull 1991a, 1991b, 1991c; Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:62).

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Chapter Three The Expreso Muñoz Rivera at the southern edge of the Miramar neighborhood follows the former American Railroad Company (ARR) right-of-way. By 1917, several large manufacturing complexes, including the Puerto Rico American Tobacco Company and the Puerto Rico Gas Company, occupied a stretch along the south side of the railroad line, just outside the project area. Most of these industrial buildings are no longer standing, but a portion of the former Abarca complex is still located at the southeast corner of the present-day intersection of Calle Central and Calle Marginal. A Spanish blacksmith named Isodoro Abarca founded the Fundición Abarca in San Juan in 1850 in the district of La Puntilla, just outside the city walls. The foundry produced metal and machinery products for Puerto Rico’s prospering sugar industry, shipping industries, and other small factories. In 1924, the company, then known as Sucesores de Abarca Inc., built a new and larger complex on the Santurce site. The foundry also repaired ships in a dry dock constructed by the local government behind the complex. Abarca remained in operation at this location through 1980, and Hurricane Hugo destroyed many of the former Abarca buildings in 1989. Five buildings remain on the site, all constructed between 1924 and 1980 (Bird-Ortiz 2005; O’Neill 1994).

Gandul/Hipodrómo The Gandul/Hipodrómo neighborhood extends 162 acres from Avenida Ponce de León on the north to the former freight train alignment along Calle Palmas on the south and from Calles Cerra and Hoare (Miramar) on the west to the Expreso Diego on the east. A large institutional section divides the neighborhood into west and east halves. The Spanish government constructed the Colegio de Segunda Enseñanza in this location south of the main road in 1877, as part of its attempts to stimulate development in the area as well as decentralize municipal functions by moving them outside the city walls. During the rapid growth of Santurce that occurred between 1898 and 1930, as more people settled in the suburbs of San Juan, middle-class residential neighborhoods developed on either side of the school. Antonín Nechodoma designed the Georgetti Mansion in 1917, and it was built from 1922-1923 on a large lot just north of the project alignment, at the corner of Calle Georgetti and Calle Hipodrómo. The impressive residence was demolished in the 1960s and replaced with several commercial and residential buildings (Pantel, del Cueto & Associates 2000; Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:68). Residential development in the early twentieth century also resulted in the construction of several public schools in the neighborhood, including the Rafael M. Labra High School on Avenida Ponce de León (1916). The Art Deco style Department of Agriculture and Department of Health buildings replaced the Colegio de Segunda Enseñanza in the 1930s, around the same time that the large hippodrome east of the school was demolished and replaced with residential construction. The neighborhood remains densely developed and populated (Pantel, del Cueto & Associates 2000; Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:68).

Minillas/San Mateo The Minillas/San Mateo neighborhood is the oldest area of Santurce. It encompasses 104 acres between the Expreso Baldorioty on the north and Avenida Ponce de León on the south and the Campo Alegre neighborhood on the west and Calle San Jorge on the east. Settlers arrived in the region in the eighteenth century and built a small hermitage with a cluster of houses around it. The current chapel of San Mateo de Cangrejos was built in 1832 and reconstructed in 1896. Calle San Jorge, on axis with the church, is one of the oldest north-south roads in Santurce (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a).

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Figure 3-24a. Map of Santurce in 1918, west section (source: The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918). PAL Report No. 2581

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Figure 3-24b. Map of Santurce in 1918, central section (source: The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918). PAL Report No. 2581

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Figure 3-24c. Map of Santurce in 1918, east section (source: The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918). PAL Report No. 2581

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Figure 3-25. Aerial view of Miramar in 1929, looking north (source: SepĂşlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987a:62).

Figure 3-26. Postcard view of Miramar, 1910, across San Antonio Channel (source: Rodriguez Archives, LLC 2009). PAL Report No. 2581

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Chapter Three The western part of the neighborhood, known as Minillas, developed substantially in the early twentieth century as an extension of the capital, particularly along Avenida Ponce de León. The Central High School (1925) is one remaining example of the institutional growth that occurred during that period. Along Calle De Diego, one of the 13 buildings of the sprawling Municipal Hospital complex built in the 1920s now serves as the west wing of the Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico. The pilasters marking the entrance to the hospital complex are also extant. Continued development in the late twentieth century has altered the historic street patterns in Minillas and replaced much of its original architecture (Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:66).

Bolívar/Martín Peña The Bolívar/Martín Peña neighborhood consists of approximately 114 acres bordered by Avenida Ponce de León on the north and east, the Expreso Muñoz Rivera on the south, and the Expreso Diego on the west. The area around the Martín Peña Canal and Martín Peña Canal Bridge was the site of an important skirmish between the English and the Spaniards and Puerto Ricans during the British Blockade in 1797 (Marín and Vélez 1995:19). In the late nineteenth century, the area furthest from the main road remained primarily uninhabited. A large matchstick factory owned by Gregorio Bolívar was located at the southeast corner of present-day Calle Bolívar and Avenida Ponce de León. Urban development of the Bolívar area largely occurred during the 1920s and extended east to Martín Peña after 1940 (Figure 3-27). The present-day Martín Peña Canal Bridge is a 1939 Art Deco structure (Pantel, del Cueto & Associates 2000; Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:70).

Figure 3-27. Map of Santurce, 1928 (source: Sepúlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987a:30).

Sagrado Corazón The Sagrado Corazón neighborhood is the easternmost section within the project area. Situated on the east-west hillside known historically as Ubarri Hill, it covers approximately 117 acres between Avenida Eduardo Conde and Calle San Mateo on the north and Avenida Borinquen on the south, from Avenida Ponce de León and Calle San Jorge on the west to Calle Tapia on the east. The convent and chapel of the

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Historic Contexts Colegio de las Reverendas Madres del Sagrado Corazón, built between 1906 and 1913 on the site of Pablo Ubarri’s residence, dominates the neighborhood. Beginning in the early decades of the twentieth century, many of the wealthiest families in San Juan built large houses surrounding the school complex. Many designed by Antonín Nechodoma, including the architect’s own residence, are located in this neighborhood. Numerous Art Deco style apartment buildings were also constructed along Bouret Street in the 1930s (Oficina Estatal de Preservación Histórica 1995: Pórtico y Capilla de la Universidad del Sagrado Corazón National Register Card; Sepúlveda and Carbonell 1987a:71). Architecture Overview The architectural fabric of the Tren Liviano project area reflects significant nineteenth- and twentiethcentury shifts in Puerto Rican government, economic systems, and cultural identity. The project area is a dense urban environment comprised primarily of multi-story, masonry or concrete, municipal, institutional, commercial, and residential buildings set close to the street along local automobile transportation corridors. Mixed-use commercial buildings with ground-floor storefronts are prevalent and heighten the level of pedestrian street activity in each neighborhood. Historic industrial uses are limited to a small cluster between Piers 8 and 9 and the former railroad line and select examples such as the Jimenez y Fernandez building (Map No. 221). Most of the historic buildings in the project area date from 1910 to 1960 and exhibit popular architectural styles encouraged by state government administrations, including Neoclassical, Spanish Revival, Art Deco, Moderne, and Modern. Public school buildings are among the earliest extant aboveground resources in the area, while sleek, Modern style office buildings and apartment, condominium, and hotel high-rises represent mid-twentieth-century development. Historic single-family homes are less common, although several examples exist in the Miramar neighborhood (for example, Map Nos. 100, 130, 132, and 134). Architecture from differing stylistic eras is unified through the application of consistent design features developed in response to Puerto Rico’s tropical climate. Roof overhangs, canopies, hoods, awnings, and brise-soleil provide protection from intense sun, rain, and wind. Mechanisms to mitigate heat and improve natural cross-ventilation include recessed balconies; covered porches; open railings; window openings with grille-work, louvers, or shutters; vent holes; operable transoms; open interior doorways; and high ceilings. The frequent possibility of hurricanes and earthquakes influenced structural design and material choice. Following an earthquake in October 1918, the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Division of Public Buildings in Puerto Rico announced a preference for reinforced concrete instead of traditional brick, stone rubble, or wood construction and for roofs of cost-efficient metal rather than clay tile laid on wood. Concrete buildings with flat or pitched, clay-tiled roofs and cement-plastered exterior wall coatings are common in the project area. Other regionally prevalent materials include wrought-iron, glazed, or ceramic tile ornament; decorative concrete blocks or reliefs; and doors and shutters made from Spanish cedar or native hardwoods (Rigau 1992:162-166; Vivoni Farage 1999:19). Architectural movements and building campaigns in San Juan can be correlated to three broad historic periods in which differing political administrations reshaped Puerto Rico’s role in international commerce, regional industries, interior development goals, and cultural affiliations. These time periods include Puerto Rico’s development as a colony of Spain from the early 1500s through 1898; the acquisition and restructuring of Puerto Rico as a United States territory from 1898 through the 1930s; and the United States’ modernization of Puerto Rico during the mid-twentieth century. Puerto Rico organized as a commonwealth in 1952.

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Chapter Three Spanish Colonial Era, 18th and 19th Centuries Few historic architectural resources dating to Puerto Rico’s colonial period exist in the project area, which lies outside the original city walls and urban core known as Old San Juan. Spanish Colonial architecture in Puerto Rico consists of a blend of European and Creole design influences from the island’s role as a maritime trading port and Spanish territory, mixed with Caribbean eclectic features related to the tropical climate. Buildings from this period exhibit Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical, and Beaux Arts stylistic elements. The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando (Academy) in Madrid, Spain, oversaw public architecture in Puerto Rico from the mid-eighteenth century through 1898. During the nineteenth century, the Academy and Puerto Rican-based architects viewed the Neoclassical and Beaux Arts styles, which were popular in Europe, as expressions of modernity. Development in San Juan remained generally inside the city walls until the late nineteenth century and was also influenced by the presence of the Roman Catholic Church. The church, rather than a public school board, provided education services to an elite portion of the population and eliminated the need for large school complexes. Construction techniques drew on the masonry tradition of the city’s sixteenth-century fortifications and incorporated native or regionally available porous materials such as slow-dried brick, stone, Canary Island slate, and mampostería (a mixture of brick, mud, lime, and broken rock) that could withstand sunny, hot, and humid conditions. Examples of Spanish Colonial architecture in the project area include the Classical Revival style Teatro Alejandro Tapia y Rivera (Map No. 2) built in 1825, and the Neoclassical style Carcel de Puerta de Tierra (Map No. 84) completed in 1878. The west end of the project area abuts the Zona Histórica de San Juan in Old San Juan, which encompasses the most intact collection of sixteenth- through nineteenth-century buildings and landscapes in the city. Although resources from this period are limited within the project area, Puerto Rico’s Spanish Colonial architecture served as a source of design inspiration in subsequent periods (Colom 2004:1-3; Fernández 1965:133; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:21, 33). U.S. Acquisition and Development, 1898-1930s The United States’ receipt of Puerto Rico at the end of the Spanish-American War initiated a period of marked social change and government restructuring that affected the lifestyles and cultural identity of Puerto Ricans. This political shift resulted in government-driven physical development campaigns that introduced or familiarized specific building types in Puerto Rico and defined an Americanized perception of Spanish architecture. The U.S. Department of the Interior organized public works and housing offices in Puerto Rico, hired state architects, and oversaw design competitions for monumental public buildings. Large-scale improvement projects necessitated by the merging of American cultural practices with Spanish traditions in Puerto Rico included the construction of monumental government office buildings, public school complexes, army facilities, hospitals, asylums, and court buildings. American civic associations such as the YMCA and the Red Cross, social clubs, and Protestant missionaries also sought to establish programs in Puerto Rico and fostered the construction of specialized buildings. Development of new road, water, and electrical systems facilitated physical expansion. This growth, paired with a shift toward capitalist commerce that generated a new middle class, encouraged private land ownership and suburban residential development (Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:24-31). Designers working for the U.S. in Puerto Rico initially supported a continuation of the Neoclassical style for civic and school buildings. The style gained favor in the U.S. after the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago and remained popular during the period. Its symbolization of order, harmony, and discipline through symmetricality, Classical references, and monumentality physically expressed the establishment of the new government in Puerto Rico. Many of the new schools constructed in San Juan in the early 1900s with funding from the U.S. Department of the Interior were completed in classically inspired styles, designed by local or foreign-born architects trained in notable mainland U.S. colleges. Prominent Puerto Rican architect Adrian Clark Finlayson (1883-1921) designed the Neoclassical style Rafael Cordero

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Historic Contexts Graded School (Map No. 176) built in 1917. Finlayson, who was educated at Syracuse University, served as a state architect in Puerto Rico and set preferences for public building design in the early twentieth century. Schools and civic buildings provided Puerto Rican-based architects with opportunities to express their design abilities through the high-profile scale of the buildings as well as publication in national architectural journals and local periodicals. Finlayson also designed the Neoclassical style Escuela Graduada Luis Muñoz Rivera (Map No. 353), with architect Rafael Carmoega (1894-1968). According to a plaque on the building, the school was completed in 1922 after Finlayson died. Carmoega, the first Puerto Rican-born state architect from 1921 to 1935, designed several schools, institutional buildings, and residences in both the Neoclassical and Spanish Revival styles. Examples of his work in the project area include the Cruz Roja Americana Capitulo de Puerto Rico (Red Cross) (Map No. 8) of 1935 and the final (as-built) design for the Capitolio de Puerto Rico (Map No. 15) of 1929, for which he served as chief architect. Carmoega also designed the Escuela de Medicina Tropical (1924), located just outside the project area, and served as a planner for the University of Puerto Rico’s (UPR) Río Piedras campus. Other Neoclassical style buildings in the project area designed by notable architects or engineers include the Biblioteca Carnegie (Map No. 12) by Ramón Carbia, 1915; the Casa Olímpica (Map No. 6) by Benjamin V. White, 1912-1913; and the Escuela José Julián Acosta (Map No. 3) by Clarke, Howe & Homer, 1908. The latter firm is noted for their design of a model school building (Escuela Modelo) erected on the UPR Río Piedras campus (Colom 2004:18; Rigau 1992:147-148; Vivoni Farage 2005b:30; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:24). U.S. exposure to Spanish-descended cultures through the acquisition of Spanish Florida, former Mexican territories, and California missions during the nineteenth century introduced exotic design elements to America and sparked a romantic fascination with Spanish art and architecture. After the U.S.’s initial foundational years in Puerto Rico, the government proliferated a new, Americanized Spanish architectural style based on references exhibited on the mainland. The government and U.S.-trained architects perceived this design paradigm as a historicized version of traditional Puerto Rican architecture intended to acknowledge the territory’s past associations. As demonstrated in the work of Rafael Carmoega, both Classical Revival and American Spanish Revival styles were applied to early-twentieth-century buildings in San Juan (Colom 2004:16-18; Rigau 1992:183; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:20-26). The Mission Revival style popularized in the American Southwest and Florida from 1890 to 1920 served as a precursor to the broader Spanish Revival style prevalent in these regions from approximately 1915 to 1940. Characteristic Mission Revival design features include shaped dormers and parapets with coping, arches, overhanging open eaves, square piers, porches, window hoods, quatrefoil windows, occasional towers, and Islamic ornament. The Panama-California Exposition held in San Diego, California, in 1915 and designed by nationally prominent architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue initiated the Spanish Revival (or Spanish Eclectic) style on the mainland U.S. Representation of Spanish Revival design in Hollywood movies and use of the style for tourist resorts in Florida after World War I catalyzed its popularity. Spanish Revival design demonstrated a break with the more rigid and formal Neoclassical style through an exuberant and creative blending of various historic design epochs. Spanish Revival style buildings incorporate Baroque, Renaissance, Byzantine, Gothic, and Neoclassical architectural elements from the Spanish Colonial period in Spain and its territories; Moorish design (traditional Spanish architecture mixed with oriental and Islamic features); and the California Mission style. Features such as asymmetrical facades, focal windows, ornate door surrounds, window grilles and balconies, decorative vents, decorative tile, and porches are characteristic of Spanish Revival style buildings in Puerto Rico (Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:16; 42-43). The large number of Spanish Revival style institutional, religious, commercial, and residential buildings in the project area reflects Puerto Rico’s economic boom during the 1920s and government-subsidized civic improvement programs during the 1930s. The expansion of the sugar industry in the 1920s contributed to the accumulation of wealth and growth of business in Puerto Rico, necessitating new

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Chapter Three housing for a burgeoning middle class as well as commercial and entertainment facilities. Renowned Puerto Rican architect Pedro Adolfo de Castro y Besosa (1895-1936) cultivated the Spanish Revival style from his office in the Condado and designed numerous houses for such affluent business owners. De Castro was born in New York City but returned to Puerto Rico with his family in 1899. He began his design career at Syracuse University from 1914 to 1918 before serving as a draftsman in the Puerto Rican Department of the Interior under Finlayson until 1920. Prior to opening his own practice in 1921, De Castro worked briefly for Antonín Nechodoma (1877-1928), an architect influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), with his Department of the Interior colleague Francisco Roldán. He inherited Nechodoma’s affinity for concrete forms and maintained a similar workshop-studio where a team of craftsmen produced ornament, finishes, and furnishings for his buildings (Colom 2004:17; Vivoni Farage 1999:17-26; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:40). De Castro highlighted the historicist nature of the Spanish Revival style by exploring the dichotomy of new versus traditional architectural ideals. Examples of his work in the project area include the Casa de España (Map No. 13) completed in 1932 and several single-family or small-scale apartment houses (Map Nos. 128, 159, 287, and 289). Additional residential buildings in the project area appear to be designed by DeCastro or one of his colleagues although his association with them is unconfirmed (Map Nos. 291, 292, 293, 321, 329, and 330). De Castro also contributed plans for the Capitolio de Puerto Rico (Map ID 15), but his designs were not constructed. A Boston architect was chosen to design the capital building during a government-sponsored competition in 1907, but World War I delayed construction. Adrian Finlayson, with Pedro de Castro and Francisco Roldán, completed a new Spanish Renaissance inspired design for the capital in 1918. However, the capital was finally completed in 1929 to the specifications of Rafael Carmoega’s Neoclassical style plans. Other examples of Spanish Revival style architecture in the project area include the Ateneo Puertorriqueño (Map No. 11) designed by Francisco Roldán Martinó in 1923. Spanish Revival style apartment buildings and houses (such as Map Nos. 130 and 133) are especially prevalent in the Miramar neighborhood (Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:32). Mid-Twentieth-Century Modernization, 1925-1960s By 1940, Puerto Rico was integrated with U.S. political and social systems. Economic, industrial, and popular cultural/architectural trends paralleled those of the mainland. The economic depression of the 1930s and subsequent federally aided recovery efforts, paired with international interest in mechanization, functionality, and efficiency in design unified architectural principles in Puerto Rico with the rest of the U.S. In 1943, Puerto Rican Governor Rexford Guy Tugwell (1891-1979) appointed a Committee on Design of Public Works to facilitate a public building campaign intended to modernize the state. This transformation was expressed physically in Puerto Rico through the replacement of architectural revivals with the futuristic Art Deco, Moderne, and Modern styles. Government development incentives, public housing projects, and economic development through the creation of Puerto Rico’s tourist industry catalyzed the spread of modern design throughout San Juan during the mid-twentieth century (Colom 2004:19; Vivoni Farage 2005b:30; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:54-55). Approximately half of the project area encompasses characteristic building types from this design epoch, including Art Deco theaters, apartment buildings, and high-rises; streamlined public housing complexes; and Modern hotels. Mixed-use (commercial and residential) buildings from this era are ubiquitous throughout the project area, especially along Avenida Fernández Juncos. Typical streetscapes comprise alternating examples of Art Deco and Modern style buildings, with Moderne, Spanish Revival, and Neoclassical style buildings interspersed. As in earlier design periods, mid-twentieth-century buildings in Puerto Rico incorporate architectural features relevant to the tropical climate. The common use of distinctly tropical design features creates a unified visual context among buildings of varying architectural styles.

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Historic Contexts Art Deco design developed in Puerto Rico contemporaneously with the mainland U.S. The International Exposition of Decorative Arts held in Paris in 1925 introduced the style to the European/American design community, and the first Art Deco building was constructed in Puerto Rico the same year. The style symbolized a break with the past through its abstract and inventive geometric elements and represented leisure through its kinetic lines, vibrant color schemes, and surface ornament. Other characteristic features of the style include asymmetricality, low parapets, linear forms, glass block, and concrete or tiled stylized decorative motifs inspired by ancient cultures such as Egyptian or Aztec art. Deco motifs in Puerto Rico often depict tropical flora or other regional references. Puerto Rican architects familiar with the Spanish Revival style, such as Pedro de Castro, began experimenting with Art Deco and Moderne during the 1920s at the same time that the styles were flourishing in warm tourist meccas like Miami, Florida. An example of this transition is expressed in the hybrid Spanish Revival and Art Deco style Edificio de Apartamentos Figueroa (Map No. 95) designed by Armando Morales Cando in 1935. The iconic Art Deco style Edificio Miami designed by Pedro Méndez (1902-1990) was erected in the Condado (Santurce, outside the project area) the same year. The project area also encompasses El Falansterio Puerta De Tierra (Map No. 79), a significant Art Deco style public housing development designed by J. Ramirez de Arellano and erected from 1937 to 1938 under the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration (PRRA) (Colom 2004:18; Vivoni Farage 2005b:28). Art Deco design evolved into the Moderne style (also known as Art Moderne, Streamline Moderne, and Late Deco) in the late 1930s. The Moderne style developed with the establishment of consumer-driven industrial design, in which the concept of aerodynamics was translated into the “streamlined” massing of products, vehicles, and buildings. Characteristic features of the style include sleek, horizontally emphasized curvilinear forms (and curved edges); window bands; horizontal band courses; chrome trim; and the incorporation of elements inspired from nautical, aviation, automobile, or train transportation. The Hotel Normandie erected slightly outside the project area on La Isleta in 1938 was designed to resemble the S.S. Normandie ship. Strikingly intact representations of the Moderne style in the project area include the apartment buildings located at 608 Calle Olimpo (Map No. 98) and 602 Calle San Jose (Map No. 356). Art Deco and Moderne design, along with the less prolific (in Puerto Rico) Arts and Crafts and Prairie styles, established progressive architectural precedents that primed Puerto Rico for the Modern design paradigm beginning in the 1940s. The project area encompasses a few examples of wood-frame, Arts and Crafts style Bungalow houses (Map Nos. 141, 229), but the small scale of this building type made it vulnerable to teardowns and infill construction. Prague-born architect Antonín Nechodoma (1877-1928) introduced the Arts and Crafts and Prairie styles to Puerto Rico in 1905 after studying at the University of Prague and working for noted American architect Louis Sullivan (1856-1924) in the U.S. Despite the former prevalence of Nechodoma buildings in San Juan, no known examples of his work were identified in the project area (Fernández 1965:10; Rigau 1992:108-110). The government-appointed Committee on Design of Public Works chose to work in the Modern style because it symbolized progressive society and promoted the improvement of living and working conditions through the application of functional, efficient spaces. Modern style designs incorporate minimalist forms void of ornament; dynamic or sculptural assemblages of overlapping and intersecting planes, recesses and projections, or geometric massing components; an emphasis on horizontality through low forms and cantilevers; integration of exterior and interior spaces through glazed walls and dematerialized corners; window bands; use of newly invented materials; optimization of natural environmental conditions (light, air, heat); textural patterns; and structural innovations resulting in more flexible building requirements, decreased load demands, and minimal materials. The San Juan architectural firm of Toro-Ferrer proliferated the Modern style in the city through their designs for the Caribe Hilton Hotel (1948) and the Supreme Court Building (1956), both outside the

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Chapter Three project area; the 1956-1958 additions to the Capitolio (Map No. 15); and several office buildings. The firm also contributed to the plans for Puerto Rico’s showcase Modern style International Airport constructed in 1956 and designed the Department of Housing (Map No. 10) completed in 1969. Osvaldo Toro (1914-1996) worked for Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill in New York City before joining Cornell University graduate Miguel Ferrer (1914-2004) in Puerto Rico. Ferrer designed the Beaux Arts style Antiguo Casino de Puerto Rico (Map No. 1) with engineer Fernando Montilla in 1914. The firm’s designs typically expressed tropical versions of Corbusian concepts such as pilotis and often incorporated patterned sunscreens (Barreneche 2000; Fernández 1965:222-224, 240-245). High-profile, Modern style public construction projects coincided with a re-branding of Puerto Rico as a tourist destination after World War II. Don José Luis Alberto Muñoz Marín (1898 -1980), who served as Governor of Puerto Rico from 1949 to 1965, initiated a program to supplement Puerto Rico’s agricultural industries and stimulate economic development through the attraction of outside investment and introduction of new industries. Teodoro Moscoso (1910-1992), who worked in economic development under Tugwell’s administration, implemented this improvement program. Their efforts resulted in a building boom that met new demands for hotel and resort accomodations, office space, and housing. A 1956 article regarding the flourishing tourism industry in Puerto Rico noted the presence of 11 hotels under construction, which were planned to provide 1,500 new hotel rooms by the 1957 season (Santin 1956). Toro-Ferrer’s Modern style design for the Caribe Hilton was chosen during a design competition over outdated Spanish Revival style designs by competing American firms. A few years later in 1950, the original portion of the Modern style Darlington Hotel (Map No. 118) was erected in the Miramar neighborhood. The project area also includes the Modern style Miramar Charter House Hotel (Map No. 96) built from 1960 to 1962. The original web-like fenestration pattern of the hotel has been altered, but the building retains its overall massing and setting with views of the Condado Laguna and Atlantic Ocean (Fernández 1965:114, 126-128, 205; Vivoni Farage and Curbelo 1998:56; Vivoni Farage 2005b:30). Housing construction occurred in the form of apartment and condominium high-rises that, along with the hotels, increased the density of San Juan and constituted marked changes in its skyline. In his 1965 book on Puerto Rican architecture, historian Jose Antonio Fernández observed that “Living in an apartment house is a comparatively new experience for Puerto Ricans. Until quite recently, the tall vertical multifamily building was non-existent, but the great increase in population, plus the high cost of land, has dictated its advent” (Fernández 1965:48). Such buildings became common in Miramar and Santurce in the early 1960s. Modern style residential and hotel high-rises in San Juan exhibit vertical or horizontal rectangular massing and elevations broken up by emphasized structural elements visible on the exterior. The buildings are typically set on pilotis over ground-level parking facilities or overhang a first-story base. Orientation and design elements such as recessed or protruding balconies, flat awnings, decorative screen elements, bands of exterior stairs, or walkways enhance cross-ventilation and views and minimize sun exposure. A prime example of a Modern style residential high-rise as expressed in San Juan is the Miramar Condominiums building designed by Henry Klumb and constructed from 1960 to 1962. The Miramar Condominiums occupy a highly visible site facing Avenida Miramar and Expreso Luis Muñoz Rivera. The building is located slightly outside the project area at 705 Calle Miramar. Heinrich (Henry) Klumb (1905-1984) was born in Cologne, Germany, and studied with Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin East from October 1928 to September 1933. Klumb worked throughout the U.S. for ten years and accepted Governor Tugwell’s invitation to oversee general design in the Puerto Rico Committee on Design of Public Works in December 1943. He established his own practice in Puerto Rico in 1945, designing numerous residential high-rises, office buildings, and a shopping mall in the Modern style. Klumb also achieved notoriety for his master design plan for the UPR Río Piedras campus (1944-1966). Characteristic elements of his designs include simple concrete forms; perforated walls; the incorporation of brise-soleil and other mechanisms to control cross-ventilation, light and shadow; provision for publicly

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Historic Contexts accessible spaces within buildings or on site; and the mitigation of energy consumption (Colom 2004:19; Fern谩ndez 1965:53; Vivoni Farage 2005b:33-36). Recent Developments, 1960s to 2011 The various mid-twentieth-century development programs resulted in a built-up landscape in San Juan with minimal open spaces available for new construction without demolition. Contemporary infill in the project area is scattered and consists primarily of a few reconstructed houses, often designed to match the architectural styles of adjacent buildings, and modest commercial buildings. Portions of the project area encompass new construction around Pier 3 on La Isleta near old San Juan, at the Convention Center on the remains of the historic naval base on Isla Grande, and the Tren Urbano Sagrado Coraz贸n commuter rail station in Santurce.

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CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the results and recommendations of the reconnaissance and intensive surveys completed in the Tren Liviano project potential impact area. The surveys were conducted in the potential impact area as defined in Chapter 1, undertaken in accordance with the methodology outlined in Chapter 2, and analyzed within the historic contexts set out in Chapter 3. All Chapter 4 tables are in Appendix A, and Chapter 4 figures are in Appendices B and C. Reconnaissance Survey Results The reconnaissance survey collected specific archival research and field site visit data on historic resources located within the Tren Liviano potential impact area. The reconnaissance survey historic resources are distributed along the linear project corridor from west to east in three broad geographical areas of La Isleta, Isla Grande, and Santurce. The historic resources identified in the reconnaissance survey include civic, ecclesiastical, educational, commercial, industrial, landscape, and residential uses, and represent properties with a range of pre-existing survey information and National Register status. Appendix A: Table 4-1 provides a list of all the reconnaissance survey historic resources, along with address, date of construction, and National Register status. The reconnaissance survey historic resources are located on detailed project maps in Appendix B: Figures 4-1A to 4-1L. The general location of properties listed in, previously evaluated as eligible for, and potentially eligible for the National Register are shown in Appendix C: Figures 4-2A to 4-2E. Appendix D contains the Reconnaissance Survey Inventory Forms prepared for each of the historic resources in the Tren Liviano potential impact area. This group of forms consists of updated forms for resources previously included in surveys of La Isleta/San Juan Extramuros (SepĂşlveda Rivera and Carbonell 1987b), Old Navy Base (CSA Architects and Engineers 1998), and Miramar (Vivoni Farage 2005a), as well as new forms for properties without earlier survey forms on file at the PR SHPO. A twopage form, was completed for all the historic resources surveyed. The forms contains identification information, date of construction, architect, description and observations, references, photographs of the resource and its immediate context, and a site map. New descriptions are provided for all properties that were not already listed in or evaluated as eligible for the National Register, or included in the 2005/2006 Miramar survey. These forms provide an equivalent baseline of current information for all historic resources within the Tren Liviano potential impact area. In addition, further detailed architectural description, historical narrative, and National Register status information is provided in this report for “historic propertiesâ€?, which are defined as those historic resources that are listed in, previously evaluated as eligible for, and recommended eligible for the National Register (refer to Chapter 3, Methodology for further discussion of historic properties). The following sections of Chapter 4 present synopses of: 1) known historic properties that were found during the reconnaissance survey to have already been recorded as National Register listed or eligible in the Tren Liviano potential impact area; 2) potential historic properties that were selected during the reconnaissance survey for intensive survey and National Register eligibility evaluation; and 3) the results and eligibility recommendations of the intensive survey. These narratives include the map number, address or location, historic or common name of the property, a brief description of the property and its significance, and its National Register status.

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Results and Recommendations National Register-Listed and Determined Eligible Historic Properties Historic properties that have already been recorded within the Tren Liviano potential impact area and designated in one of the following categories include one historic district and individual properties. These properties are summarized in Appendix A: Table 4-2 and shown in Appendix B: Figures 4-1A to 4-1L and Appendix C: Figures 4-2A to 4-2E: •

Designated National Historic Landmark (No properties in this category were identified)

National Register Listed (PR SHPO), and Planning Department historic sites and zones (IPRC)

Determined Eligible for the National Register by a formal action of the PR SHPO or Keeper of the National Register, NPS (No properties in this category were identified)

La Isleta The Zona Histórica de San Juan historic district is located on the northwest tip of La Isleta and encompasses the oldest portion of the City of San Juan that was developed by the Spanish government between 1519 and 1898. The southwest corner of the district is approximately 200 feet northwest of the project near the proposed Pier 3 Terminus station. Old San Juan was the location of the first municipal government established in the New World outside of Santo Domingo and served as the seat of civil, military and religious authorities as well as an important commercial center. The district retains intact portions of the city’s defense walls and facilities and numerous high-style examples of Spanish Colonial, Classical Revival, and Renaissance Revival architecture dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. The district was listed in the National Register in 1971 under Criteria A and C in the areas of Architecture, Art, Commerce, Conservation, Military, Political, Religion/Philosophy, Theater and Urban Planning. The Antiguo Casino de Puerto Rico (Map No. 1) is located on Calle de la Fortaleza and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed in the Beaux Arts style by engineers Fernando Montilla and Miguel Ferrer in 1914, and completed by 1917. The building has a zinc-sheathed mansard roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and an ornate double-height portico. Terraces, bracketed balustrades, cornices, and Classical trim ornament the exterior. The interior includes the decorative work of artist José Albrizzio. The property was listed in the National Register in 1976 under Criteria A and C in the areas of Architecture, Literature, Music, Politics/Government, and Social History for its representation of the Beaux Arts style and for its association with the cultural and political elite who used the building as a gathering space during the early and mid-twentieth century. The Biblioteca Carnegie (Map No. 12) is located on Avenida Juan Ponce de León and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed in the Neoclassical style by engineer Ramon Carbia in 1915. The building has an overhanging hip roof covered with terra cotta tile, cement-plastered walls, square and arched window openings, punctuated by a recessed, fivebay, Doric portico on the facade. The property was listed in the National Register in 1978 under Criteria A and C in the areas of Architecture and Education for its representation of the Neoclassical style and for its association with Andrew Carnegie’s system of public libraries. It was the first building in Puerto Rico designed specifically for use as a library. The Casa de España (Map No. 13) is located on Avenida Juan Ponce de León and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed by architect Pedro de Castro in the Spanish Revival style and built in 1932 for the Casa de España, a private civic and cultural organization for Spanish citizens in Puerto Rico. Castro’s design reflects Moorish influences through the

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Chapter Four incorporation of a flat roof, interior courtyard, corner towers, numerous verandas, stone reliefs, Arabic ceramic tiles, and porte-cochère with a Moorish arch. The property was listed in the National Register in 1977 under Criteria A and C in the areas of Architecture and Social History for its representation of the civic design work of Pedro de Castro and its associations with the Casa de España organization. The Capitolio de Puerto Rico (Map No. 15) is located on Avenida Juan Ponce de León and faces south toward the project. It consists of three sections including a monumental, original three-story building designed in the Neoclassical style by architect Rafael Carmoega, constructed from 1925 to 1929, with identical, flanking two-story wings designed in the Modern style by Toro-Ferrer, erected from 1956 to 1958. The original building consists of reinforced concrete construction and has a flat roof topped by a large dome, exterior walls faced with marble, and massive Classical porticos on the north and south elevations. The International style wings are connected to the original building by walkways and consist of reinforced concrete construction with flat roofs and marble facing. The original portion of the Capitolio was listed in the National Register in 1977 under Criteria A and C in the areas of Architecture and Politics/Government for its representation of the Neoclassical style as applied to civic buildings and its role as the seat of the newly formed, independent government. The National Register registration form was amended in 2009 to include the Modern style wings, which are significant under Criterion C in the area of Architecture. El Falansterio de Puerta de Tierra (Map No. 79) is located between Avenida Fernández Juncos and Calle del Tren near the proposed San Agustín East station. El Falansterio is a three-story, reinforced concrete apartment complex designed in the Art Deco style by architect J. Ramirez de Arellano and constructed in 1937. The complex consists of nine buildings, which are each divided into 18, 12-unit sections, comprising a total of 216 apartments. Each building has a flat roof, cement-plastered walls, and Art Deco architectural features such as stepped entrances, rounded corners, vertical grooves, and geometric ornamentation. The property was listed in the National Register in 1984 under Criteria A and C in the areas of Architecture and Social History for its representation of the Art Deco style and its significance as an early federal public housing development in Puerto Rico. In 1952, residents of the complex organized the Falansterio Housing Cooperative, which purchased the complex and sold the units back to the residents, making it the first housing cooperative in Puerto Rico and a model for the island. The Carcel de Puerta de Tierra (Map No. 84) abuts the project along Calle del Tren, but faces north on Avenida Juan Ponce de León. It is a three-story, concrete building designed in the Neoclassical style by engineer Domingo Sermero and constructed from 1877 to 1887. The building consists of three flat-roofed wings with Classical cornices, engaged pilasters, and round-arched windows. The facade is continuous, but open courtyards separate the wings on the interior. The building was designed as a hospital, but initially served as a prison. In 1905 the Portorican American Tobacco Company purchased the building and converted it into a cigar factory. It subsequently functioned as the headquarters for Barcardi and Company and is currently used as the National Library and Archives of Puerto Rico. The property was listed in the National Register in 1976 under Criteria A and C in the areas of Architecture Commerce, Education, and Social History for its representation of the Neoclassical style, associations with Spanish and American government, and associations with regional industry. The Puente Ferroviano San Antonio/Bridge No. 1571 (San Antonio Railroad Bridge) (Map No. 93) spans the Canal San Antonio adjacent to the project. The bridge is a 16-span rolled beam and cast concrete structure designed in the Classical Revival style by Etienne Totti y Torres, Chief Engineer of the American Railroad Company, and built from 1923 to 1932. Engineers Ramon Gelabert and Reinaldo Ramírez supervised the construction. It measures 90 meters long by 7.5 meters wide and incorporates arch-framed slab spans. The bridge served as the primary railroad crossing for the company until 1953 when passenger and cargo service was suspended. It was listed in the National Register as part of the

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Results and Recommendations Historic Bridges of Puerto Rico multiple property documentation in 2009 under Criterion A in the area of Transportation for its significance as an integral crossing between Puerta de Tierra and Santurce.

Isla Grande No National Register-Listed or Determined Eligible Properties were identified within the Tren Liviano APE on Isla Grande.

Santurce The Edificio de Apartamentos Figueroa (Map No. 95) is located at 601 Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces north toward the project, which will follow Avenida Juncos on the west side of the property. The building is a two-story, concrete apartment house designed in a hybrid Art Deco and Spanish Revival style by Armando Morales Cando in 1935. It has a flat roof, rough-textured stucco walls, and roughly rectangular plan with projecting bays. Exterior details include rounded corners, geometric shapes, and fluted pilasters, and window and door canopies with clay tile roofs. The property was listed in the National Register in 2000 under Criterion C at the local level in the areas of Architecture and Community Planning and Development. It represents the hybrid Art Deco-Spanish Revival style buildings constructed in the Miramar neighborhood during the 1930s and marked the beginning of Miramar’s urban expansion into previously industrial and marginal areas near the former American Railroad Company tracks. Previously Evaluated as National Register-Eligible Historic Properties Historic properties in the Tren Liviano potential impact area that have been previously surveyed and evaluated as eligible for inclusion in the National Register by the PR SHPO during a planning program or project review are summarized in Appendix A: Table 4-3 and are shown in Appendix B: Figures 4-1A to 4-1L and Appendix C: Figures 4-2A to 4-2E: •

Previously evaluated as National Register-eligible by the PR SHPO or in architectural surveys in one of the following categories o o o o

Verbal communication from PR SHPO (2011) Miramar Intensive Survey (2006) Naval Base Survey (1998) Tren Urbano Phase IA, Minillas Extension Survey and Draft MOA (1998-2000)

La Isleta The Teatro Alejandro Tapia y Rivera (Map No. 2) is located on Calle de la Fortaleza, at the edge of Plaza de Colón in Old San Juan, and faces north away from the project. It is a three-story, rectangular, Classical Revival style, masonry theater constructed from 1824 to 1832. The building was restored and modernized in 1949. It has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, a first-floor arcade, and narrow two-story wings with balustered roofs. A pedimented gable, corner quoins, and flat pilasters ornament the facade. The theater is a contributing building in the Zona Histórica de San Juan historic district and the PR SHPO also previously evaluated the building as individually eligible for National Register listing. The Escuela José Julián Acosta (Map No. 3) is located on Calle de la Fortaleza and faces north away from the project. It is a two-story, H-plan, reinforced concrete building designed by the architectural firm of Clarke, Howe & Homer and constructed in 1908. The Neoclassical style school has a flat roof with a decorative parapet, painted cement-plastered walls, perpendicular wings at each end, and regularly spaced rectangular windows. A one-story arcaded entrance portico with a balustered roof projects from the

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Chapter Four center of the facade, and molded plaster panels and ornamental shields are applied to the exterior. A low painted concrete balustrade lines the street in front the building. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Casa Olímpica/YMCA (Map No. 6) is located on Avenida Ponce de León and faces south toward the project. It is a three-story, I-shaped building designed by Benjamin V. White and constructed in 1912-1913 in the Neoclassical style. The reinforced concrete building has a flat roof with a decorative parapet, painted cement-plastered walls, and a one-story flat-roof portico across the center of the facade. Shallow curved balconies, applied balusters, a dentilled cornice, and decorative mosaic tile adorn the exterior. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Ateneo Puertorriqueño (Map No. 11) is located on Avenida Ponce de León and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed by Francisco Roldán Martinó and constructed in 1923. The Spanish Revival style building has a terra cotta roof with overhanging eaves, painted cement-plastered walls with minimal fenestration, and an arcaded loggia across the second floor of the facade. Rectangular sculptured panels flank the central entrance, which is surmounted by an ornate mosaic tile arch set on pilasters. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Parque (Map No. 14) is a narrow, linear landscape bordered by Avenida Ponce de León to the north and Paseo de Covadonga to the south. Sidewalks line the edges of the park, which contains open grass areas surrounded by trees and several monuments. A World War I commemorative monument located in the center of the park was erected in 1927 and is constructed of a marble base with a copper figure. The park likely dates to 1927 and appears on historic maps by 1938. The north edge of the park also includes the Walkway of Presidents, consisting of paved areas and a series of sculptures of former United States presidents, installed in 2010. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the park as eligible for National Register listing. The Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Tribunal General de Justicia (Map No. 91) is on Avenida Ponce de León and faces north away from the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a decorative parapet, painted cement-plastered walls, and an ornate two-story entrance portico with a central ogee arch set on paired Ionic columns. Shallow latticed balconies, groups of three arched windows, and a medallioned cornice ornament the facade. A painted concrete wall with decorative grillwork lines the street in front of the building and around the east side. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing.

Isla Grande There are no properties known to have been previously evaluated as National Register eligible by the PR SHPO in Isla Grande. The Old Naval Base area, developed as the 10th Naval District headquarters in the early 1940s with an airfield and large complex of support buildings and housing, may have been considered potentially eligible at one time, but has experienced extensive neglect and demolition with resultant loss of integrity (CSA Architects and Engineers 1998). Remaining individual buildings within the Tren Liviano potential impact area were evaluated as part of the project surveys.

Santurce Leander’s Hotel (Map No. 97) is located at 604 Calle Olimpo and faces east away from the project. It is a six-story, narrow rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a shallow arched parapet at the center of the facade and unpainted

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Results and Recommendations cement-plastered walls. Architectural ornament consists of a projecting terra cotta bracketed cornice, slanted terra cotta window hoods, projecting molded concrete sill courses and lintels, and decorative rectangular cement plaster panels. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. Rodriguez Moreno Hall (Map No. 98) is located at 608 Calle Olimpo and faces east away from the project. It is a seven-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1942. The Moderne style building has a flat roof with an ornamental parapet, painted cement-plastered walls with curved corners and horizontal scoring, and rectangular louvered windows. The central bay of the facade contains recessed paired balconies with concrete railings. Streamlined curved hoods shelter the windows, balconies, and doorways. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia Juanita Vda. De Finlay (Map No. 100) is located at 601 Elliot Place and faces west toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, wood-frame bungalow constructed in 1910. The Arts and Crafts style house has a gabled roof with exposed painted rafters, painted clapboard walls, and a painted concrete foundation. A wide shed-roofed porch wraps around the west and south sides of the house and is enclosed with decorative metal grillwork screens. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Vidal Apartments (Map No. 121) are located at 660 Calle Miramar and face east away from the project. It is a large seven-story, reinforced concrete apartment block built in 1935. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and an irregular footprint. Multiple shallow balconies with metal railings and slanted terra cotta hoods project from the facade, and fabric awnings shelter recessed balconies. A central stepped parapet rises from the central bay. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia Lic. Jaime Santiago Semidey (Map No. 123) is located at 702 Calle Miramar and faces east away from the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The Spanish Revival style house has a flat roof and painted cement-plastered walls and is enclosed by a concrete and metal wall with pedestrian and vehicle entrance gates. The rectangular windows have terra cotta hoods and metal grillwork screens. A terra cotta roof also shelters an enclosed porch that wraps around the east and north sides. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 665 Calle Miramar (Map No. 124) faces west and south toward the project area. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building completed in 1915 in the Arts and Crafts style. It has a shallow-pitched gable roof and painted cement-plastered walls. A one-story flat-roof portico with attached carport wraps around the west and south sides. A concrete balustrade adorns the portico roof, and a low decorative concrete wall encloses the property. An exterior staircase is attached to the south elevation, and a detached two-story flat-roof outbuilding stands in the southeast corner of the lot. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The apartment house at 700 Calle Roosevelt (Map No. 129) faces north away from the project. It is a four-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building completed in 1946 in the Modern style. It has a flat roof and painted cement-plastered walls. Horizontal bands of louvered windows and recessed balconies define each level on the exterior. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 703 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos (Map No. 130) faces south toward the project. It is a onestory, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The Spanish Revival style building

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Chapter Four has a flat roof with a curved parapet and painted cement-plastered walls. A one-story square tower rising from the southwest corner of the roof has a terra cotta hip roof with deeply overhanging eaves and a bracketed cornice. Paired arcaded openings pierce the tower walls, and steps lead to the main entrance in the first floor of the tower. Terra cotta roofs also shelter a shallow arcaded porch across the facade, the windows along the side elevations, and a small pyramidal-roofed turret at the southeast corner. A twostory, rectangular, flat-roofed Modern style addition is attached to the rear of the building. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia Ana Serra (Map No. 131) is located at 705 Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1917. The Classical Revival style building has a flat roof with overhanging eaves, painted cement-plastered walls, and large rectangular and arched windows. The roof extends out over a two-story front porch with a onestory carport attached to the west side. Architectural trim consists of Ionic columns and pilasters, applied plaster medallions, and carved plaster floral motifs adorning the upper-level porch balustrade and the low concrete wall around the property. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 700 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 132) faces north toward the project. It is a onestory, rectangular, reinforced concrete, Arts and Crafts style bungalow constructed in 1925. The house has a front-gabled roof with exposed rafters, painted cement-plastered walls, and a raised basement. The roof extends over a porch that spans the width of the facade. A decorative metal fence set atop a low decorative concrete wall encloses the small corner lot. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The apartment house at 702 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 133) faces north toward the project. It is a four-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof and cement-plastered walls. A square stair tower at the northwest corner has a terra cotta roof and pairs of arcaded openings with decorative balustrades on the facade. Shallow balconies project from the facade, and several windows have terra cotta hoods. A covered balcony extends across the facade on the fourth floor. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia de Julia Negron (Map No. 134) is located at 706 Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces north toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete duplex constructed in 1940. The Neoclassical style building has a flat roof with deeply overhanging eaves, painted cement-plastered walls, and an integral porch that spans the width of the facade. The porch has a carved balustrade, round columns at the corners, and a central partition. A decorative metal fence set atop a low concrete wall encloses the lot. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia José Cid Sola (Map No. 138) is located at 669 Calle Union, at the corner of Avenida Fernández Juncos, and faces west and south toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1910. The house has a gabled roof covered with sheets of white-painted zinc, and painted cement-plastered walls. Circular one-story towers with conical roofs are attached to the southwest and southeast corners of the house, and a shed-roof porch with slender columnar posts wraps around the west and south elevations. A decorative metal fence encloses the lot. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 668 Calle Estado (Map No. 141) is located at the corner of Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces east and south toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, wood-frame, Arts and Crafts style bungalow built in 1917. The house has a shallow terra cotta hip roof with a deep overhang that extends

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Results and Recommendations over a full-width front porch, painted clapboard walls, and a concrete foundation. Shallow hip-roof dormers rise from the center of each roof slope, and a short pyramidal-roof cupola is located at the top of the roof. The porch has a carved wood balustrade and paired square posts beneath a wide boxed cornice. Leaded-glass sidelights and a transom surround the main entrance. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 669 Calle Estado (Map No. 143) faces west and south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The house has a flat terra cotta roof with a stepped parapet along the facade and painted cement-plastered walls with a small amount of applied stone decorative trim. A narrow stair tower is located at the northwest corner, and recessed balconies with arcaded openings span the front elevation. Slanted terra cotta hoods or metal awnings shelter most of the windows. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 803 Calle la Paz (Map No. 145) located at the corner of Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos faces east and south toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The house has a shallow terra cotta hip roof and rough-textured painted stucco walls. Arcaded openings with metal grillwork screens and plastered panel bases line the south and east elevations, and a decorative metal fence atop a concrete wall encloses the property. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 707 Calle Estado (Map No. 146) faces west and north toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced-concrete building constructed in 2006 on the site of an Art Deco style building that is not extant. It has a flat roof, rough-textured stone side walls, and a flat-roof carport attached to the south elevation. A fabric awning shelters the glazed facade wall, and a tall decorative metal fence encloses the lot. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the former Art Deco building on this site as eligible for National Register listing. This property was surveyed as part of the Tren Liviano project to record its current conditions and document the removal of the former historic building from the property. The house at 800 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos (Map No. 147) faces north toward the project. It is a twostory, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The building has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and a flat-roof carport with a metal balustrade attached to the west elevation. A tall decorative metal fence on a painted concrete wall encloses the lot. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia de la Familia Aybar (Map No. 148) is located at 802 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1933. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall and projecting bracketed cornice, painted cement-plastered walls, and a one-story flat-roof enclosed porch across the facade. The porch has a tall metal balustrade with painted concrete posts and a projecting gabled entrance portico. Slanted terra cotta hoods shelter the upper-story windows. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Villa Ivelisse (Map No. 149) is located at 667 Calle la Paz, at the corner of Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos, and faces west and south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1930. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a decorative stepped parapet, rough-textured painted stucco walls, and a two-story enclosed porch with a terra cotta hipped roof across the south elevation. Terra cotta hipped-roof bracketed hoods shelter the main entrance and the

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Chapter Four upper-story windows in central bay of the west facade, streamlined columns flank the slightly recessed double front doors, and mosaic tile adorns a round-arched window above the entrance. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia Antolin Perez/Margie Arosteli (Map No. 151) is located at 809 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a parapet enclosing a rooftop porch and painted cement-plastered walls. A two-story enclosed porch with a ceramic tile hipped roof spans across the facade, a flat-roof carport with a wood balustrade extends from the west side, and several flat-roof towers rise from the roof. Delicate carved wood balustrades and bracketed cornices adorn the upper levels. The front porch features paired slender columns, applied wood balusters beneath the second-story windows, and a ceramic tile awning and ornate iron grille-work screens on the first story. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 701 Calle la Paz (Map No. 153) is located at the corner of Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces west and north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The house has a flat roof with a gabled parapet and painted cement-plastered walls. A one-story terra cotta hip-roof porch across the north facade has arcaded openings with metal grillwork screens and a concrete railed balustrade. A terra cotta hip-roofed carport with arcaded openings extends from the east elevation. The building also features a shallow terra cotta awning attached to the parapet, an applied cornice molding, and slanted terra cotta bracketed hoods over most of the windows. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 700 Calle Concordia (Map No. 155) at the corner of Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos faces east and north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1935. The house has a flat roof with a solid parapet, painted cement-plastered walls, and a large square crenellated tower at the northeast corner. A shallow terra cotta awning lines the upper level of the east facade, and separate terra cotta awnings shelter many of the windows. The first floor of the tower has wide arched openings with ornate grillwork screens. The building also features narrow bands of mosaic tile and mosaic tile panels. A low painted concrete wall topped with delicate metal trim encloses the property. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 661 Calle Concordia (Map No. 156) faces west away from the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1928. The house has a flat terra cotta roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and large round-arched window openings along the first floor of the facade. A decorative metal fence atop a low concrete wall encloses the property. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Apartamentos Fernรกndez Gonzales (Map No. 158) are located at 817 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and face south toward the project. The three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete apartment block was constructed in 1930 in the Art Deco style. The third story is set back from the lower levels and has a flat roof. A solid parapet wall with concrete coping surrounds the open porches on the roof of the second story. The building features painted cement-plastered walls with rounded corners, recessed balconies with grillwork screens on the first and second stories, flat projecting window hoods that continue around the corners of the building, and linear applied Art Deco trim that cut the elevations vertically. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing.

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Results and Recommendations The Residencia Pérez-Porrata (Map No. 159) is located at 810 Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces north toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed by Pedro de Castro and constructed in 1935. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat terra cotta roof with a gabled parapet on the facade, rough-textured painted stucco walls, and round-arched window openings. A flat-roof wing along the west elevation has a small pyramidal-roof turret at the northwest corner, and a flat-roof carport is attached to the east elevation. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The house at 667 Calle Hernández (Map No. 160) is located at the corner of Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces west and south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, Tudor Revival style, concrete building constructed in 1925. The house has a gable roof sheathed in metal, painted cement-plastered walls with applied half-timber trim in the south gable end, and a one-story hip-roof screened porch wrapping around the southwest corner. Clusters of round columns support the metal-sheathed porch roof, and rectangular plaster panels line the solid concrete balustrade. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Apartamentos Alberto Gonzales (Map No. 162) are located at 903 Avenida Fernández Juncos and face south toward the project. The three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete apartment block was constructed in 1949 in the Modern Movement style. It has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and minimal ornamentation. Horizontal bands of fenestration line the upper stories, and narrow vertical rectangles of glass blocks pierce the first-floor walls. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Primera Iglesia del Nazareno (Map No. 164) is located at 909 Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces southeast toward the project. It is a one-story, irregularly shaped, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1925. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and two three-story campanile-style towers with pyramidal terra cotta roofs. The main entrance is located in a one-story enclosed vestibule with a terra cotta roof that projects from the slanted southeast corner. A tall concrete parapet with a curved top rises behind the porch roof between the two towers. Round-arched windows line the south and east elevations, oculus windows are centered in the second-story tower walls, and round-arched openings with metal grills pierce the top story of the tower above a projecting cornice. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Residencia Familia Luchetti (Map No. 169) is located at 663 Calle Hoare and faces west on a side street perpendicular to the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1940. The Modern style building has a flat roof with a deep overhang and a slightly canted fascia, painted cement-plastered walls with a simple plaster sill course, and a flat-roof porch that wraps around the southwest corner. The porch features clusters of square posts under a wide concrete cornice, a decorative concrete balustrade, and geometric grillwork screens. The Miramar survey and the PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Escuela Graduada S. Ruis Belvis (Map No. 217) is located on Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1929. The Spanish Revival style building has a metal shallow-pitched hip roof with deep overhangs and a bracketed cornice, painted cement-plastered walls with a molded plaster sill course, and a symmetrical facade. The main entrance is located in a three-story central projecting tower with a shallow hipped roof. Recessed plaster semicircles top each of the windows on the first floor and the main entrance. A low concrete wall with an open balustrade lines the road in front of the school. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing.

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Chapter Four The Asociaciรณn Mรฉdica de Puerto Rico (Map No. 246) is located at 1305 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building with an interior courtyard, constructed in 1940. The Spanish Revival style building has a terra cotta hipped roof with a molded cornice, painted cement-plastered walls with molded plaster belt and sill courses, and a symmetrical facade. A shed-roof carport with wide round-arched openings extends from the west elevation. An elaborate molded plaster medallion and swags top the main entrance, which is flanked by pilasters and has a shallow-arched surround. Half-height pilasters resting on carved brackets line the upper story of the facade. An ornate metal fence atop a painted concrete wall encloses the property. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Comisiรณn de Investigaciรณn Procesamiento y Apelaciรณn (Map No. 247) is located at 1307 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1940. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a central ogeearched parapet, painted cement-plastered walls with a molded plaster belt course, and a symmetrical facade. Shallow projecting cornices with terra cotta roofs flank the central parapet and line the side elevations. Mosaic tiled steps lead to the main entrance, which has sunburst rays scored into the plaster above the round-arched surround. Narrow spired, half-height pilasters flank the sunburst, and a wide rectangular plaque runs across the top. The rectangular windows have flat projecting lintels and sills; the lintels appear on the side elevations even where there are no windows. A metal fence atop a painted concrete wall encloses the property. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Departamento de Agricultura y Comercio Industrias (Map No. 248) is located on Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos, behind the Comisiรณn de Investigaciรณn Procecesamiento y Apelaciรณn, and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1940. The Art Deco style building has a flat roof with a banded cornice, painted cement-plastered walls with a molded plaster belt course above the second-story windows, and a symmetrical facade vertically articulated by flat pilasters. The slightly projecting central facade bay has a short solid parapet with a molded cornice. The main entrance is located within a double-height rectangular surround that has double-height glass-block sidelights and a dentil cornice. The other facade bays all contain gridded rectangular windows. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Departamento de Agricultura (Map No. 249) is located on Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a large, three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building with an interior courtyard, constructed in 1940. The Art Deco style building has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall, painted cement-plastered walls with rounded corners partially filled with curved glass block windows, and a symmetrical facade. The main entrance consists of three doorways with geometric grillwork screens flanked by double-height fluted pilasters that have plaster medallions at the top, with narrow flat pilasters on either side of the center door. Three narrow gridded lights centered between vertical glass-block windows are located above the doorways. Rectangular banks of gridded windows line the elevations between horizontal bands formed by molded plaster trim and scored lines in the concrete. Alternating flat and fluted pilasters vertically articulate the bays on the first and second stories. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Departamento de Agricultura y Comercio Autoridad de Tierras (Map No. 250) is located on Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1940. The Art Deco style building has a flat roof, painted cementplastered walls, and a symmetrical facade. A flat projecting cornice below the solid parapet wall is interrupted by a central stepped Art Deco parapet on the facade. The main entrance is located in a central two-story projecting bay and is flanked by narrow double-height glass block windows and fluted pilasters.

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Results and Recommendations Fluted pilasters vertically articulate the bays on the first and second stories. Flat and molded plaster belt and sill courses and scored lines in the concrete horizontally separate the narrow rectangular louvered windows in each bay. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing. The Teatro Matienzo/Music Hall (Map No. 315) is located at 1558 Avenida Juan Ponce de Leon and faces north away from the project. The back of the theater is visible from Avenida Fernandez Juncos across several vacant lots. It is a three-story, Art Deco style, concrete building designed by Joseph O’Kelly and constructed from 1939 to 1940. It has a flat roof and painted, cement-plastered walls ornamented by vertical Art Deco relief panels and medallions made of cast concrete. The main entrance is centered on the facade and consists of three sets of double glass doors beneath a mosaic-tiled awning and multi-story projecting marquee. A second entrance with a similar awning and marquee is located on the east elevation and contains a metal security gate. The building was constructed as part of the Circuito Llamas movie theater chain and included a movie theater in the front and music hall in the back (Cinema Treasures 2011). The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing under the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension project. The apartment high-rise at 602 Calle San José (Map No. 356) faces east and is highly visible from Avenida Fernández Juncos and the project to the south. It is a five-story, rectangular, Moderne style, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1940. The building has a flat roof and painted cementplastered walls with rounded southeast and northeast corners. Recessed balconies occupy the rounded corners on four floors and the fifth-floor balconies are open. Flat projecting hoods that curve around the corners shelter all of the windows. A narrow stair tower centered on the facade has square, glass block windows on each floor and three vertical pillars at the top. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing under the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension project. The house at 607 Calle San José (Map No. 357) faces west. It is a two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The building has a flat roof with a partially crenellated parapet wall and painted cement-plastered walls. The symmetrical facade features a projecting molded cornice, a narrow molded belt course, and a mosaic tile plaque at the center of the parapet. The main entrance is located in a one-story projecting central vestibule with a flat roof surrounded by a solid balustrade and round-arched window and door openings that contain metal arched screens. Slanted terra cotta bracketed hoods shelter most of regularly spaced windows. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing for the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension survey. The house at 1800 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 375) faces north toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The building has a flat roof with a mission-arched parapet and rough-textured painted stucco walls. The main entrance is located in a recessed porch with a semi-circular fabric awning. A secondary entrance to the east has a gabled hood supported by turned columns. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing under the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension project. The Apartamentos Rodriguez-Moreno (Map No. 377) are located at 1804 Avenida Fernández Juncos and face north toward the project. The four-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete apartment block was constructed in 1948 in the Art Deco style. It has a flat roof with a banded cornice and a stepped Art Deco parapet at the center of the facade, painted cement-plastered walls, and cantilevered balconies. The first story houses storefronts with faux stone cladding and large louvered windows. The main entrance is centered on the facade beneath a flat projecting concrete hood. Each of the central bays on the upper floors contains a narrow louvered window flanked by narrow glass block windows and fluted pilasters.

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Chapter Four Flat projecting hoods shelter the fourth-floor balconies. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing under the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension project. The mixed-use building at 1816 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 380) faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete apartment house constructed circa 1940, with a ground-floor storefront. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with central gabled parapets and painted cement-plastered walls. Plaster medallions are centered in the gabled parapets. Short square towers at each corner of the roof have pyramidal terra cotta roofs and small square windows. The first story houses storefronts beneath a continuous slanted terra cotta bracketed hood. Similar hoods shelter the windows and doors on the second story, which open onto metal-railed balconies supported by carved brackets. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing under the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension project. The house at 1850 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 395) faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The house is designed in the Spanish Revival style and expresses Moorish influence. It has a flat terra cotta roof with short square corner turrets and rough-textured painted stucco walls. A two-story enclosed porch projects from the facade, with an enclosed exterior staircase adjacent. The porches have elaborate ogee-arched window openings in a variety of designs with turned posts and medallioned bases. Slanted terra cotta bracketed hoods shelter the other windows. The PR SHPO previously evaluated the building as eligible for National Register listing under the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension project. Potentially National Register Eligible Historic Properties Included in Intensive Survey Potentially eligible historic properties are historic resources in the Tren Liviano project potential impact area that were surveyed at the reconnaissance level and assessed as being possibly eligible for listing in the National Register, thus warranting intensive survey and eligibility evaluation as part of the project. This assessment to select resources for intensive survey was conducted in accordance with the selection criteria outlined in Chapter 2. The analysis considered visual character and probable architectural significance, neighborhood setting, and historic context, as well as property-specific historical information when available. These properties are summarized in Appendix A: Table 4-4 and are shown in Appendix B: Figures 4-1A to 4-1L and Appendix C: Figures 4-2A to 4-2E: •

Identified and recommended for intensive survey and National Register eligibility evaluation

The potentially National Register-eligible properties identified for intensive survey and National Register eligibility evaluation consist of one historic district and individual historic resources along the project corridor. These resources are discussed in the intensive survey section below. Intensive Survey and National Register Eligibility Evaluation Results The intensive survey and National Register eligibility evaluation completes the identification of historic properties in the Tren Liviano potential impact area. The intensive survey produced detailed architectural description and research on the history of each historic resource that had been identified as potentially eligible during the reconnaissance survey. The evaluation analysis considered the historic resource’s historic architectural integrity, and its significance in accordance with the National Register Eligibility Criteria, provided in Chapter 2, and within the applicable historic context delineated in Chapter 3. Resources were evaluated as either recommended eligible for inclusion in the National Register, or as recommended not-eligible for the National Register. Properties were recommended as either eligible or not eligible in regards to their

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Results and Recommendations qualifications under the National Register Evaluation Criteria: for association with significant historical events or persons (Criteria A and B); as a good example of the type and period when compared with other property of this class in the area, as the work of a master, or as a component in a distinctive grouping comprising a historic district (Criterion C); and for the likelihood of yielding information important in history or prehistory (Criterion D). The results of the National Register Eligibility evaluation and recommendations are presented in Appendix A: Table 4-5. These properties are shown in Appendix B: Figures 4-1A to 4-1L and Appendix C: Figures 4-2A through 4-2E. A PR SHPO Intensive Survey Inventory Form, contained in Appendix E, was completed for each property included in this group, with architectural materials and features along with an assessment of each property with respect to the National Register eligibility criteria. These historic resources are presented in narrative statements, including the National Register eligibility recommendation, below: •

Included in intensive survey and evaluated for National Register eligibility Properties Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

The following properties were evaluated and found to meet the National Register criteria, and thus are recommended as eligible.

La Isleta The Baños Publicos Municipales (Map No. 4) is built into a hill at the west end of Paseo de Covadonga and faces south toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, concrete building completed in 1909 in the Neoclassical style. The building has a flat roof with a rooftop balustrade and a projecting dentilled cornice, painted cement-plastered walls with curved corners, and a rusticated foundation. The main entrance is centered on the facade within a slightly projecting bay with corner pilasters and an ornate surround. A splayed staircase with slate steps and a central balustrade descends to the street. A similar entrance is centered north elevation and is accessed by a slate walkway at grade. Both entrances retain wood double doors and the date 1909 in the tympanum of the door pediment above. A carved garland remains within the north door surround. Symmetrically spaced rectangular window openings are set within cement-quoined surrounds and each contains three wood shutters with three square windows forming a transom above. Raised trim ornaments the wall beneath each window opening. The public bath house building was constructed by the U.S. government after Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory. Lettering around the main entrance, which is not extant, indicated that the building historically functioned as a municipal public bath house and a dental clinic (Rodriguez Archives, LLC 2009). The building is immaculately preserved. It occupies its original site at the edge of Old San Juan overlooking the harbor and retains its original massing, materials, and Neoclassical style design. Alterations are limited to the removal of wood doors from the entrance stairs and decorative garlands around the windows and entrance on the façade. The original wood shutters and windows have been restored or replaced in-kind. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level for its association with early-twentieth-century public improvements after the U.S. acquisition of Puerto Rico and as a well-preserved example of high-style, public Neoclassical architecture in San Juan. The Cruz Roja Americana Capítulo de Puerto Rico (Map No. 8) is located at 8 Avenida Ponce de León and faces north away from the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed by Rafael Carmoega and constructed in 1935 for the Puerto Rico Chapter of the American Red Cross, which formed in 1917. The Red Cross was initially established in Puerto Rico in 1893 when

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Chapter Four Manuel FernĂĄndez Juncos organized the Provincial Commission of the Spanish Red Cross. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat terra cotta roof with corner parapets and painted cement-plastered walls with a molded plaster belt course. The rectangular main entrance is centered on the symmetrical facade beneath an ornate molded plaster entablature set on shallow scored concrete pilasters. A set of double doors centered on the second story beneath a similar molded plaster entablature open onto a shallow iron balcony. The rectangular window openings contain metal multi-paned louvered sash. Additional decorative elements consist of circular medallions with red crosses on either side of the second-story doors and square molded plaster panels on the corner parapets. The building retains its original plan, orientation, Spanish Revival style architectural elements, and louvered windows. No alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level for its association with the establishment of American civic organizations in Puerto Rico during the early twentieth century and for its representation of the work of notable Puerto Rican architect Rafael Carmoega. The Departamento de Hacienda (Map No. 10) is located on the south side of Paseo de Covadonga and faces north toward the project. It is an eight-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed by Toro-Ferrer and constructed in 1969. The Modern style building has a flat concrete roof and scored concrete walls with a flat screen of patterned precast concrete attached to the front and rear elevations. The upper floors are cantilevered out over the first story on square T-shaped columns. A grid of glass panes forms the first-floor facade, and the main entrance is a set of glass doors centered between tall Tshaped columns. Rows of windows line the north and south elevations behind the light-filtering concrete screens. The side elevations feature a central vertical band of narrow rectangular windows, six on each floor separated horizontally by concrete panels and vertically by thin projecting columns. The top floor has open terraces around the perimeter sheltered by the flat louvered roof. The architects designed every aspect of the building, including the furnishings, to achieve fluid circulation patterns and continuity. The lobby features a sculptural curving staircase that contrasts with the starkly geometric exterior. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and distinctive Modern architectural features. A parking garage built in 1996 near the east elevation is connected to the building by a pedestrian walkway covered by a pergola and designed by Borinquen Evencio and JosĂŠ RodrĂ­guez. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C and Criteria Consideration G at the state level as an exceptional example of a Modern style institutional building designed by the architectural firm of Toro-Ferrer. The Edificio Freiria (Map No. 18) is located at 54 Paseo de Covadonga at the corner of Calle Pershing, and faces north and west toward the project, which may cut through the property. It is a two-story, polygonal, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a shaped parapet and painted cement-plastered walls. Molded concrete cornices project above both the first and second floors, and the first-floor cornice has a wide frieze band. Narrow flat concrete bands vertically divide the elevations. Three recessed entrances are spaced evenly across the facade, and secondary entrances are located on the east side elevation. Projecting concrete hoods with stepped brackets shelter rectangular window openings that contain steel jalousie sash on the second floor. Horizontal grids of metal louvered windows light the first floor. The building occupies its original site facing Paseo de Covadonga, with the rear of the building spanning back to Avenida Frenandez Juncos across from the piers. It retains its original plan, massing, Spanish Revival style design elements, and fenestration pattern. The windows and doors appear original, but metal security grilles were installed over the doors on the facade and a garage bay was installed on the east side elevation. The property also appears to retain its original function as an office or light industrial building with convenient access to local transportation and shipping routes.

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Results and Recommendations This property is recommended eligible for National Register listing under Criterion C at the local level for its well-preserved expression of the Spanish Revival style as applied to a commercial building in San Juan. The Ejército de Salvación (Map No. 31) is located on the north side of Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete industrial loft constructed circa 1930. The building has a flat roof with a solid parapet and pier-and-spandrel, cementplastered walls. A one-story flat-roof tower with a crenellated parapet and a projecting cornice rises from the center of the facade. Bands of concrete trim vertically and horizontally divide the elevations. Additional ornament includes regularly spaced pyramidal posts lining the edge of the roof. Multiple entrances are located along the first story of the facade, and two additional entrances are located on the east side elevation. Windows consist primarily of metal louvers set in simple concrete surrounds. The building served industrial purposes until the early 1960s, when the Salvation Army acquired it. The building appears to be part of a former industrial complex. A similarly constructed ancillary building (Map No. 30) is located on a separate, adjacent property at the corner of Calle Valdez and Calle Coconut Palm and faces east. The one-story vernacular industrial reinforced concrete building was constructed circa 1940. It has a flat roof with a decorative parapet and painted cement-plastered walls with a wide concrete band entablature and corner pilasters. Bands of concrete trim vertically articulate the bays on the facade and south elevations. A metal overhead garage door is centered on the facade and flanked by narrow metal pedestrian doors. Fenestration is minimal and consists of horizontal and vertical rectangular glass block windows. The Ejército de Salvación is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level for its associations with the early twentieth-century industrial development between the railroad and the wharves and as a rare and relatively intact example of industrial architecture in San Juan. The ancillary building associated with this property is recommended eligible as part of the industrial complex but is not recommended individually eligible for National Register listing. The Carcel Municipal (Map No. 85) is located on the north side of Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces south away from the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building with one-story rear wings around an interior courtyard, constructed in 1936. The Art Deco style building has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and applied concrete trim. Art Deco posts line the edges of the wing roofs. The main entrance is centered on the facade and has an oversize projecting concrete surround with scored pilasters and a wide entablature. Gridded metal windows of various types are set in rectangular openings. A tall metal fence with concrete posts encloses the lot. The building was constructed as part of government-sponsored improvement campaigns during the early twentieth century. It occupies its original site behind the former orphanage and train line along Calle del Tren and retains its original plan, massing, and modest Art Deco style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended eligible for National Register listing under Criteria A and C at the local level for its association with the development of early twentieth-century government institutions and its representation of the jail building type. The Hogar Infantil (Map No. 86) is located on the south side of Calle del Tren and faces north toward the project. It is a one-story, H-plan, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1927 as an orphanage for young children. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall, a projecting molded cornice, painted cement-plastered walls, and a symmetrical facade. Mosaic tile panels are located along the parapet wall. The main entrance is located in a central projecting vestibule and consists of a round-arched opening with Gothic style half-height pilasters, a keystone, and mosaic tile spandrels. Regularly spaced, rectangular window openings are either empty or contain metal louvered

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Chapter Four sash. The building retains its original setting facing the former railroad line along Calle del Tren and the majority of its historic architectural features. Alterations are limited to the removal of the original sash from the extant window openings, concrete infill within the main entrance, and the removal of a tiled awning that originally extended the full length of the facade. A chain-link fence encloses the lot. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level for its associations with the establishment of social services in San Juan during the early twentieth century and for its representation of Spanish Revival style institutional architecture. The Cigar Factory (Map No. 87) is located on Avenida Ponce de Léon on a lot that extends south toward Calle del Tren, and faces north away from the project. It is a five-story, reinforced concrete industrial loft constructed circa 1920 with a flat roof and cement-plastered, pier-and-spandrel walls. The building is rectangular and measures five bays wide by nine bays long. The roof has a solid parapet wall across the facade. Vertical bands of concrete articulate the bays and form corner pilasters, and horizontal bands run across the upper floors. Three rectangular entrances are located on the facade. The center entrance is in a slightly projecting gabled vestibule with concrete pilasters, and the entrances in the two outer bays have oversize rectangular concrete surrounds. Regularly spaced, rectangular window openings—single and in groups of three—contain metal double-hung sash. The second-floor facade windows have flat concrete hoods and molded panel entablatures. The building was constructed for industrial use and occupies its original site facing former train line that ran along Avenida Ponce de Léon (Rodriguez Archives, Inc. 2009). Alterations include the removal or covering of the original roof monitor, window replacement, and the installation of metal roll doors within the historic door openings. The building retains its original massing, pier-and-spandrel structural system, materials, and architectural features. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a rare and relatively intact example of industrial architecture in San Juan.

Isla Grande The Autoridad de los Puertos (Map No. 102) is located on a large open lot between Calle Lindbergh and Calle Mabo and faces northwest away from the project. It is a sprawling, two-story, I-shaped, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1950, during a period of expansion for the Port of San Juan. The Modern style building has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall, a projecting cornice, painted cementplastered walls with some horizontal scoring at the corners, and a symmetrical facade. Oversize, intersecting geometric planes create a projecting entrance vestibule at the center of the facade. The regularly spaced, rectangular window openings contain metal awning sash. Applied plaster molding forms double-height rectangular frames that vertically connect the first- and second-floor windows. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and Modern style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level for its associations with the post-World War II development of Isla Grande and as a wellpreserved example of mid-twentieth-century Modern style architecture. The Portos Café (Map No. 103) is located on a small lot between Calle Lindbergh and Calle Mabo and faces northwest away from the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1960, near the beginning of the area’s development for tourism purposes. The Modern style building has a flat roof with a wide concrete fascia and a deep overhang, painted cement-plastered walls, and a front patio sheltered by a distinctive concrete roof composed of circular and curved geometric elements supported on slender square columns. The main entrance consists of a set of glass double doors asymmetrically placed on the facade within a grid of plate glass windows. Groups of

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Results and Recommendations rectangular fixed windows line the front half of the side elevations. Additional windows, a metal pedestrian door, and a metal overhead door are located on the rear elevation. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and Modern style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level for its associations with the early development of Isla Grande in the second half of the twentieth century as a tourist destination and as a well-preserved example of mid-twentieth-century Modern style architecture. The U.S. Naval Air Station Public Works Building and Transportation Pool (Map Nos. 113 and 114) are located at the corner of Calle Mabo and Bulevar Saint Thomas on the proposed site of a project maintenance facility. The buildings face southwest. The U.S. Navy Station Public Works Building (Map No. 113) is the larger of two maintenance hangars developed as part of the Isla Grande Naval Base during World War II. It is a large, rectangular, three-story, concrete and steel-frame airplane hangar constructed circa 1940. The building has a flat roof with shallow-gabled concrete parapets on the northeast and southwest elevations and a central shallow-gabled clerestory, corrugated metal walls, and a concrete foundation. A large, two-story, shed-roof wing with a monitor is attached to the southeast elevation, and several two- and three-story additions are located on the northwest side of the building. The northeast and southwest elevations are spanned by full-height retractable metal hangar doors with multi-paned lights. Rectangular, metal, multi-paned, awning windows line the other walls. The U.S. Navy Station Transportation Pool (Map No. 114) is connected to the east side of the Public Works Building by I-beams that may have supported a roof covering a work space. It is a two-story, rectangular, concrete and steel-frame shop with tall one-story wings on each side, constructed circa 1940. The military vernacular building has a flat roof with overhanging exposed metal rafters and concrete walls. An oversize garage bay centered on the southwest elevation contains two metal doors with multipaned lights and a multi-paned transom. A pedestrian door is located on the southwest wall of the northwest wing. Groups of rectangular, metal, multi-paned, awning windows line the walls. The Public Works Building and Motor Pool were constructed in 1940 and may be the so-called “engine maintenance facility� referenced in historic descriptions of the naval base. The hangar is similar in its layout and massing to the Navy’s A&R Shop Hangar, whose designer is not known (Pedrotty et al. 1999:4-65). Other portions of the naval facility were designed by renowned architect and engineer Albert Kahn, although his association with these two structures cannot be confirmed (Albert Kahn, Inc. 1940). These buildings occupy their original site on the former naval base, although the setting has been altered through demolition of large portions of the base. They retain their original massing, structural system and materials. The buildings are currently vacant and are in poor condition. The U.S. Navy Station Public Works Building and Transportation Pool are recommended eligible for National Register listing under Criterion C at the local level for their representation of a World War II maintenance hangar in Puerto Rico. The associated Transportation Pool is considered a contributing part of the Public Works Building. The property does not meet National Register Criterion A for its historic associations with the navy base because the majority of the surrounding base has been demolished. The San Juan Naval Air Station Hangar (a/k/a Puerto Rico Army National Guard Hangar 21, Map No. 117) is located on Bulevar Saint Thomas and faces northeast toward the project. It is a large, rectangular, one-story, concrete and steel-frame airplane hangar constructed in 1940. The military vernacular building has a flat roof with shallow-gabled concrete parapets on the northwest and southeast elevations and two sawtooth monitors. Flat-roof wings are attached along the northeast and southwest elevations. The walls are covered with corrugated metal siding. Retractable metal hangar doors with multi-paned lights span

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Chapter Four the northwest and southeast elevations and retract into enclosures at both ends of these elevations. The wings have metal louvered windows. The building occupies its original site on the former naval base, although the setting has been altered through demolition of large portions of the base. It retains its original massing, structural system and materials. The San Juan Naval Air Station Hangar is one of two such structures constructed by the Navy during World War II at San Juan, which was one of several Caribbean Naval defensive installations established during the war. Construction of the U.S. Naval Station at San Juan was authorized in May of 1939 and began in 1940. Standardized plans for the hangar, called the B-M Seaplane Hanger, had been drafted in 1939 for the Navy by the architectural firm of Albert Kahn, an important American designer who is noted for his development of large, clear-span industrial spaces. The B-M Seaplane Hangars featured a single large bay measuring 2320 by 240 feet spanned by a flat-gabled truss with a clearance of 38 feet. Pairs of distinctive sawtooth monitors top the roofs of most of these hangars. Although other architectural and engineering firms are known to have designed variants of Kahn’s standardized hangars, those erected at San Juan are likely based on Kahn’s design, as plans for another building, the Aircraft Storehouse (demolished) carried Kahn’s name in the title block, indicating that his firm had direct responsibility for the San Juan facility. The type B-M land and seaplane hangars were the predominant Naval aircraft shelters constructed during World War II and examples of the hangars were built at least eleven American naval bases for the conflict. In addition to the one remaining hangar at San Juan, at 15 additional hangars of the B-M Seaplane type were extant as of 1999 at Jacksonville, Florida; Corpus Christi, Texas; and Norfolk, Virginia. Several such hangars were likely constructed at Caribbean naval installations outside of US territory, including those at Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico and in Trinidad, Bermuda, St. Thomas, Cuba, and Panama. However the design origins and presence/absence of these other hangars cannot be confirmed (Albert Kahn, Inc. 1940; Naval History and Heritage Command 1947:4-6; Pedrotty et al. 1999:4-22 – 4-24, 7-4). This property is recommended eligible for National Register listing under Criterion C at the state level in the area of engineering as an intact representative example of a World War II standardized type B-M Seaplane Hangar designed by Albert Kahn, who is a recognized master of industrial architectural design. The hangar is the only remaining example of its type in Puerto Rico and one of only 15 extant in the United States. The property does not meet National Register Criterion A for its historic associations with the navy base because the majority of the surrounding base has been demolished.

Santurce The Rafael Cordero Graded School (Map No. 176) is located on Calle Aurora and faces north toward the project. State architect Adrian C. Finlayson designed the large, two-story, U-shaped, reinforced concrete school, constructed in 1917. It is one of numerous Neoclassical style schools built in Puerto Rico during the early period of U.S. governance. The building has a flat roof with an ornate dentilled and medallioned cornice and painted cement-plastered walls that have a narrow scored concrete belt course adorned with applied plaster bosses. A two-story loggia lines the facade, with shallow-arched openings with grillwork screens on the first floor and cylindrical columns alternating with open-work concrete balustrades on the second floor. The two-story wings that extend south to form the U-shaped plan have end-gabled roofs with deep cornice returns, applied ornamental plaster medallions, and large roundarched windows centered in the gable ends. A decorative metal fence atop a low concrete wall lines the street in front of the school. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and Neoclassical style architectural elements. No alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level under the existing “Early XXth Century Schools in Puerto Rico” thematic National Register listing. It possesses significant associations with the ambitious early twentieth-century school building

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Results and Recommendations program carried out by the U.S. government in Puerto Rico and exemplifies state architect Adrian C. Finlayson’s Neoclassical style school designs. The Parroquia de la Monserrate and Academia Santa Monica (Map Nos. 208, 209, 210, and 211) is a church and parochial school complex located at 1058 Avenida Fernández Juncos that includes four historic buildings constructed between 1916 and approximately 1950. The buildings occupy multiple lots and face north toward the project. The oldest part of the complex is a three-story, rectangular, concrete Spanish Revival style school building (Map No. 211) constructed in 1916. The building extends along the south side of the complex and connects to the rear of the church on its west end. It has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall and projecting terra cotta cornices, painted cement-plastered walls, and a large twostory projecting central entrance vestibule with a central tower. The pyramidal tower roof is covered with terra cotta tile and has deep overhanging eaves supported on carved brackets and a central cross. Roundarched openings form a loggia along each floor of the building’s facade; the upper two floors have solid brick balustrades with metal rails. The main entrance is a round-arched opening sheltered by a terra cotta hood with narrow round-arched stained-glass windows centered above it on each floor. Groups of three rectangular louvered windows with continuous concrete hoods are located in the outer bays of the threebay entrance vestibule. A two-story, rectangular, Gothic Revival style concrete church (Map No. 209) constructed circa 1920 extends along the west side of the complex. It has a front-gabled roof with a solid concrete parapet wall and spires at the corners, and painted cement-plastered walls with vertical concrete buttresses along the side elevations. A two-story flat-roof bell tower rises from the center of the north end, and one-story shed-roof bays project from the side walls. The main entrance is centered on the facade within a projecting three-story vestibule. A metal awning shelters the double doors. A pointed-arch opening with a stained-glass fleur-de-lis window beneath a stained-glass roundel fills the second story of the vestibule. The third story contains a set of three pointed-arch blind openings on a continuous projecting sill and a circular opening centered in a pedimented gable with deep bracketed cornice returns. The pointed-arch arcade is repeated on the elevations of the tower’s base. The belfry at the top of the tower has two pointed-arch openings on each side with a solid concrete railing, a terra cotta roof with a deep overhang, and a concrete cross centered on the roof. Double-height window openings with rectangular louvered sash at the bottom and pointed-arch stained-glass transoms line the front and side elevations. A small three-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style concrete building (Map No. 210) constructed circa 1930 occupies the front portion of the complex and functions as part of the school. It has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, a set-back third floor, and a two-story arcaded porch across the three-bay facade. The porch features a decorative parapet with a central plaster medallion and cross, an enclosed second story with metal gridded jalousie windows and a concrete balustrade that has decorative square holes punched into it, and an open first story sheltering three rectangular sets of double wood doors. A flat concrete cornice projects above both the first and second floors, and a terra cotta hip roof with carved brackets extends over the projecting central bay of the porch. Rectangular jalousie windows with projecting flat concrete hoods line the side elevations. A four-story, L-shaped, Modern style concrete building (Map No. 208) constructed circa 1950 is located west of the church and is connected to it by an elevated walkway. The building appears to function as residences. It has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and recessed balconies lining the east side elevation. The asymmetric facade features a gridded concrete screen across two-thirds of the wall. Horizontal bands of louvered windows with wide concrete bases run behind the screen. The eastern bay of the facade is solid concrete with rectangular stucco panels running vertically along the inner edge, adjacent to the windows.

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Chapter Four The Parroquia de la Monserrate and Academia Santa Monica complex includes a late twentieth-century classroom building along its east side, but the four historic buildings retain integrity in terms of siting, design, and materials. The complex is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level for its expression of early twentieth-century Gothic Revival and Spanish Revival style architecture as applied to large-scale institutional buildings in San Juan. The Jimenez y Fernandez Sucesores Inc. (Map No. 221) is located at 1103 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, irregularly shaped, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1924, with later one- and two-story additions. The Spanish Revival style industrial building has a flat roof with a solid concrete parapet and projecting molded concrete cornice along the asymmetric facade. The pier-and-spandrel walls are finished with painted cement plaster. Horizontal scoring on the first floor achieves a rusticated aesthetic. Scored concrete pilasters and wide bands of concrete trim divide the facade vertically and horizontally, and concrete medallions adorn some of the trim. The first-floor bays contain varying sizes of blind concrete round arches, with a narrow overhead metal door inserted in the westernmost bay and a modern rectangular metal door in the next bay. Rectangular metal louvered sash with flat projecting sills and lintels occupy the second-floor bays. The building retains its original orientation, as well as most of its original Spanish Revival and Neoclassical style decorative elements. Three of the entrances along the facade have been filled in with concrete, and the remaining two facade entrances have replacement doors. The building complex includes expansion additions to the sides and rear. The building is one of the few historic industrial complexes extant in the neighborhoods of San Juan and is still used for light industrial purposes. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level for its associations with the early twentieth-century industrial development of San Juan and as a relatively intact local example of industrial architecture. The house located at 659 Calle Condado (Map No. 229) faces west. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1940. The Arts and Crafts style building has a shallowpitched hip roof covered with sheets of corrugated metal and painted rough-textured stucco walls. The deeply overhanging eaves have bead-board soffits, and the building features a flat painted concrete cornice and corner pilasters. The only entrance visible from the street is a rectangular doorway with a metal grill that accesses a two-story addition at the east end of a narrow alley along the south side of the building. Large shallow-arched windows with flat painted concrete surrounds, decorative cut-out concrete bases adorned with mosaic tile diamonds, and metal grills are located on the front and side elevations at the southwest corner. A row of three narrow rectangular casement windows with grids of decorative stained glass occupies the north side of the facade. Other visible window openings are rectangular with metal grills. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a rare and well-preserved example of Arts and Crafts style architecture in San Juan. The mixed-use building located at 1322 Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos (Map No. 261), at the corner of Calle Hipodrรณmo, faces east and north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1940. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a solid concrete parapet wall, painted cement-plastered walls, and multiple concrete-railed balconies along the north and east second-floor elevations. The northeast corner of the building is angled toward the street and has an arched parapet. Rectangular doorways line the north and east elevations. The lower doorways have flat painted concrete surrounds and slanted metal grills. The upper doorways have molded concrete surrounds and double louvered wood doors with square transoms. Additional architectural trim consists of ornate molded cornices projecting above both the second and first stories and flat painted concrete corner pilasters and belt courses.

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Results and Recommendations This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a well-preserved example of an early to mid-twentieth-century, Spanish Revival style, mixed-use building in San Juan. The Residencia Ernesto Reyes (Map No. 287) is located at 1420 Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces east and north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building designed by noted Puerto Rican architect Pedro de Castro and constructed circa 1930 (Vivoni Farage 1999:169). The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a solid concrete parapet wall and rough-textured stucco walls. The parapet wall has concrete coping, short square corner turrets, and decorative cut-out patterns at the corners. A one-story flat-roof wing extends across the north elevation and appears to have a rooftop terrace behind the tall parapet wall. The main entrance is located in the south bay of the east elevation and is sheltered by a gabled hood with a ceramic tile roof, exposed rafters, and carved brackets. A second-story door with a tiled slanted hood opens onto the roof of the wing from the east bay of the north elevation. Multi-paned rectangular casement windows have shallow flared mansard hoods and narrow wood surrounds, with the exception of the second-story window in the north bay of the east elevation that has a tiled slanted hood and a carved concrete base with a fleur-de-lis pattern. A two-story detached garage with a similar, simplified design stands at the southwest corner of the lot, facing east toward Calle Lafayette. The entire lot is enclosed by a decorative metal fence atop a low concrete wall. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a well-preserved and representative example of architect Pedro de Castro’s residential designs. The house located at 1454 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 291) is located within a cluster of Spanish Revival style residences and faces north toward the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The Spanish Revival style building has a very shallow-pitched terra cotta hip roof and rough-textured painted stucco walls. A wide hip-roof porch projects from the center of the facade, and a decorative concrete wall with a metal grillwork door extends from the east elevation across the concrete driveway. Short square flat-roof towers with decorative concrete coping and applied plaster medallions rise from the northeast and northwest corners of the building. A small square cupola with a hip roof and pointed-arch openings is centered on the west side elevation, and a shallow gabled bay projects from the east side elevation. The main entrance is a rectangular door with a metal grill located off-center beneath the front porch. The porch roof is covered in corrugated sheet metal and has deeply overhanging eaves with exposed rafters and carved corner brackets. Wide gabled openings with molded concrete surrounds, concrete keystones, and wood screens fill each of the exterior porch walls. Concrete steps leading up to each opening have large decorative concrete planters at the center. The rectangular window openings on the building are all covered with vertical board panels. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a well-preserved example of an early twentieth-century, Spanish Revival style, small-scale, single-family residence in San Juan. The apartment house at 1456 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 292) is located at the corner of Avenida B within a cluster of similarly designed residences, and faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building, possibly designed by Pedro de Castro and constructed circa 1930. It has a flat roof with brick-faced coping and rough-textured stucco walls with scattered faux-brick patches. Recessed balconies with wide round-arched openings fill the west front bay, and the east front bay projects slightly from the facade under a stepped parapet. Windows are paired rectangular, louvered, wood casement sash with square transoms beneath slanted terra cotta hoods with carved brackets.

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Chapter Four This property was included in the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension survey. It is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a possible example of architect Pedro de Castro’s apartment house designs in San Juan. The apartment house at 1460 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 293) is located at the corner of Avenida B within a cluster of similarly designed residences, and faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building, possibly designed by Pedro de Castro and constructed circa 1930. The building has a flat roof with brick-faced coping and painted rough-textured stucco walls with scattered faux-brick patches. It is wedged into the rear portion of a triangular corner lot, and the east side elevation steps out as it extends south. A two-story attached garage is recessed between the west side elevation and the adjacent building, with a driveway onto Avenida Fernández Juncos; and a second garage door is located in the southernmost bay of the east side elevation, facing Avenida B. A two-story shed-roof porch projects across the west bay of the facade beneath a decorative parapet. The lower level of the porch features wide round-arched openings on all three sides, and the upper level has rectangular openings with decorative metal railings. Windows are narrow rectangular casement sash or metal louvers with slanted terra cotta hoods set on carved brackets and ornate decorative metal grilles. A narrow horizontal rectangular opening on the east side contains a grid of glass blocks. This property was included in the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension survey. It is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a possible example of architect Pedro de Castro’s apartment house designs, with a unique footprint that conforms to a wedgeshaped urban lot. The Iglesia San Vicente de Paúl (Map No. 348) is located at 1654 Calle Los Angeles and faces east. It is a two-story, basilica-plan, reinforced concrete church designed by Francisco Fullana and constructed in 1941. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a tall concrete parapet wall and painted cement-plastered walls. The symmetrical facade is dominated by a central projecting, two-story entrance vestibule with a two-story square bell tower. One-story, flat-roof side aisles flank the vestibule and secondary entrance vestibules with tall gabled roofs project from the north and south ends of the facade. A one-story apse is attached to the north end of the building. The church features molded concrete coping along the top of the parapet walls and flat concrete pilasters and buttresses articulating the bays. The main entrance has an ornate double-height surround composed of molded concrete columns flanking a wide round-arched opening with arched windows above. Multiple pilasters adorn the bell tower, which has round-arched openings on all sides and a curved roof topped by a cross. The secondary entrances also consist of round-arched doors with ornate carved surrounds and have fleur-de-lis windows centered above them. Carved concrete niches topped with crosses are centered at the terra cotta roof peaks. The clerestory has round-arched stained glass windows, and the side aisles have rectangular metal louvered sash with stained glass fanlights set in round-arched openings. An ornate metal fence encloses a decorative brick courtyard along the front of the building. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criterion C at the local level as a well-preserved example of an early to mid-twentieth-century, Spanish Revival style, urban church in San Juan. The Escuela Matienzo Cintrón (Map No. 351) is located on the north side of Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, H-plan, reinforced concrete school constructed circa 1935. The Spanish Revival style building has a flat roof with a decorative concrete parapet wall and painted cement-plastered walls. It features applied plaster medallions and panels, round-arched window architraves, and slanted ceramic-tiled hoods on carved brackets. The main entrance is centered on the

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Results and Recommendations facade within a two-story projecting bay and consists of a wide round-arched opening with wood double doors and a decorative metal screen. A pair of rectangular wood double doors opens onto a metal-railed balcony above it. Identical balconies are centered on the second floor at the east and west ends of the facade. Regularly spaced, rectangular metal louvered windows with flat projecting concrete sills line the walls, and the first-floor windows on the facade have blind fanlights. The entire lot is enclosed by a decorative metal fence on a concrete wall. A raised concrete terrace with a painted concrete balustrade spans across the rear of the lot. Development of the school is related to an expansion of public facilities carried out by the U.S. government during the early twentieth century. The building retains its original siting, plan, massing, materials, and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property was included in the Tren Urbano Phase 1A Minillas Extension survey. It is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level under the existing “Early XXth Century Schools in Puerto Rico” thematic National Register listing. It possesses significant associations with the ambitious early twentieth-century school building program carried out by the U.S. government in Puerto Rico and represents the Spanish Revival style, popular during that time period. The Escuela Graduada Luis Muñoz Rivera (Map No. 353) is located on the south side of Avenida Fernández Juncos and faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, U-shaped, reinforced concrete school designed by the state architects Adrian C. Finlayson and Rafael Carmoega and constructed in 1922 (one year after Finlayson’s death). It is one of numerous Neoclassical style schools built in Puerto Rico during the early period of U.S. governance. The Neoclassical style building has shallow-pitched hip roofs with solid concrete parapet walls, projecting molded concrete cornices, and painted cement-plastered walls. The two-story loggia along the facade has round-arched openings with ornate grillwork screens and decorative concrete planters on the first floor and paired columns alternating with decorative metal railings and screens on the second floor. A faux brick entablature runs beneath the cornice. Ornamental plaster swags, faux brick and concrete pilasters, and a fan-shaped concrete panel centered above the firstfloor windows adorn the facades of the two-story wings at each end of the building. Metal louvered sash are set in regularly spaced, rectangular window openings. A low concrete wall encloses the lot. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and Neoclassical style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended eligible for listing in the National Register under Criteria A and C at the local level under the existing “Early XXth Century Schools in Puerto Rico” thematic National Register listing. It possesses significant associations with the ambitious early twentieth-century school building program carried out by the U.S. government in Puerto Rico and exemplifies the work of architects Adrian C. Finlayson and Rafael Carmoega. Properties Recommended Not Eligible for National Register Listing

La Isleta The commercial building at 52 Paseo de Covadonga (Map No. 17) faces north toward the project. It is a three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1950 in the Art Deco style. The building has a flat roof, painted cement-plastered walls, and a symmetrical three-bay facade. The main entrance in the recessed center bay has an oversize projecting rectangular surround and is flanked by plate-glass windows. The wall above the entrance is covered by a fabric screen advertisement. Rows of six rectangular fixed sash with transom lights in each of the other bays are enclosed by projecting concrete surrounds that are canted slightly out from the facade.

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Chapter Four This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The residential building at the corner of Calle del Tren and Calle Pelayo (Map No. 51) faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building completed circa 1940 in the Neoclassical style. The building has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall and a projecting molded cornice, and painted cement-plastered walls. A concrete second-floor balcony with a decorative concrete balustrade wraps around the south and east elevations. A one-story slant-roofed porch with a metal railing and concrete posts spans across the facade. Flat pilasters, window trim, and a projecting cornice are applied to the second-floor walls. Multiple entrances are located on both the south and east elevations, and metal louvered windows line the second floor. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and some of its Neoclassical style architectural elements. The parapet wall is in deteriorated condition, and the trim is missing from the first floor. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The mixed-use building located on the south side of Calle San AgustĂ­n (Map No. 72) faces north away from the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building with a small interior courtyard open to the rear, completed circa 1930. The building is designed in the Spanish Revival style and features Classical influences. It has a flat roof with a decorative parapet, painted cement-plastered walls, and a second-story balcony with a solid concrete balustrade across the symmetrical facade. Four sets of wood double doors with louvered transoms line the first floor, and a recessed center entrance with a metal grill is flanked by half-height rectangular grilled window openings. Similar wood double doors line the second floor. Continuous projecting flat concrete hoods run across the facade above both floors; the first-floor hood is supported by carved concrete brackets. The rear elevation faces Calle del Tren and features regularly spaced, rectangular, louvered windows. The building retains its original siting, orientation, massing, materials and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The San Juan Departamento de PolicĂ­a (Map No. 73) is located at 360 Calle San AgustĂ­n and faces north away from the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The building is designed in the Spanish Revival style and features Classical influences. It has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall and a projecting molded cornice, painted cement-plastered walls, and round-arched openings with narrow molded trim lining the five-bay facade. A balcony with a decorative metal railing spans across most of the second-floor facade. The openings contain recessed wood double doors with decorative fanlights. Round-arched moldings top the openings in the outer bays, and the easternmost bay on the first floor has a decorative molded frieze and a rectangular transom light above the only rectangular door opening. The rear elevation faces Calle del Tren and features regularly spaced, rectangular, louvered windows and a second-floor balcony with a solid concrete balustrade. The building retains its original siting, orientation, massing, materials and Spanish Revival style architectural elements.

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Results and Recommendations The central doors on the first floor have been replaced with French doors, but the remaining doors and windows appear to be original. The building appears to have originally served as an apartment house. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The commercial building on the south side of Calle San Agustín near Calle San Juan Bautista (Map No. 74) faces north away from the project. It is a one-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The building is designed in the Spanish Revival style and features Classical influences. It has a flat roof with a tall solid parapet wall, an applied projecting dentil cornice, and painted cement-plastered walls. Each of the four facade bays contains a rectangular glass door with a metal storm door. Continuous molded plaster trim forms round arches above each door with semi-circular decorative metal grilles at the top and runs horizontally across the wall between each opening. A molded plaster belt course above the arches and molded plaster medallions between each arch complete the architectural ornament. An attached metal awning spans across three of the four arches. The building retains its original siting, orientation, massing, materials and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. The doors appear to have been replaced, and the metal awning is not original. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The apartment house at the southwest corner of Calle San Agustín and Calle San Juan Bautista (Map No. 75) faces north away from the project. It is a three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1930. The building is designed in the Spanish Revival style and features Classical influences. It has a flat roof with a solid parapet wall, a projecting molded cornice, painted cement-plastered walls, and a second-floor balcony with a decorative curved metal railing across the facade. Molded plaster pilasters adorn the north corners up to the second floor, and bands of concrete trim run horizontally around the building at each floor. Arcaded openings with metal grills line the first floor on the north and east elevations, and the upper floors have regularly spaced rectangular openings. The second-floor openings on the facade have projecting lintels and molded surrounds, while those on the side elevations have simple concrete surrounds and bracketed hoods. They all contain wood French doors. The third-floor openings have flat metal railings across the bottom, and those on the side elevations have bracketed hoods. An exterior staircase with metal grills is attached to the rear elevation that faces Calle del Tren. The building retains its original siting, orientation, massing, materials and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The Club Náutico de San Juan (Map No. 92) is located between Avenida Fernández Juncos and the San Antonio Channel, near the Channel crossings, and faces east toward the project. It is a three-story, irregularly shaped, reinforced concrete building, originally constructed in 1933 but substantially renovated and expanded in the 1950s. The Modern style building has a flat roof, glass and painted cement-plastered walls, and minimal concrete trim. The main entrance is located on the north elevation, at the base of a circular tower that resembles the helm of a ship. Entrances open onto a large wood dock

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Chapter Four from the lower level of the south and west elevations. Bands of plate glass windows line the second and third floors on the south and west elevations. The third floor has a recessed deck along the south wall, with a metal railing and circular concrete posts. The window walls on the third floor are canted slightly away from the building. The original Club Náutico building was designed by engineer Robert Prann, who completed several high-profile projects in Puerto Rico beginning in 1924. The building has continually operated as a private, European-type yacht and social club, organized to promote marine sports. Establishment of the club was associated with the influx of American organizations in Puerto Rico. Club Náutico is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because the 1950s renovations significantly altered the original massing and design of the building. These renovations exhibit a modest version of the Modern style, which is prevalent in San Juan.

Isla Grande The Puerto Rico Army National Guard Hangar (Map No. 105) is located on Calle Lindbergh and faces southeast toward the project. It is a large, rectangular, one-story, concrete and steel-frame airplane hangar constructed circa 1950. The military vernacular building has a flat roof with shallow-gabled concrete parapets on the northeast and southwest elevations and concrete walls with corrugated metal siding. The northeast and southwest elevations are spanned by retractable metal hangar doors. The building retains its original siting on the Isla Grande Airport, massing, and materials. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. The building was constructed after the U.S. military transferred ownership of the land comprising the present day airport to the Transportation Authority of Puerto Rico. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it was constructed after the Naval Base of Isla Grande’s primary period of significance. The building does not appear to conform to any identifiable historic military hangar design (Pedrotty et al. 1999).

Santurce The commercial building at the corner of Avenida Fernández Juncos and Calle San Juan (Map No. 214) faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete Art Deco style building constructed circa 1940. It has a flat roof with a solid concrete parapet wall, painted cementplastered walls, a symmetrical seven-bay facade, and a one-story rear addition. Visually prominent, vertically scored concrete pilasters articulate the bays on the front and side elevations, and continuous flat projecting concrete cornices run above each of the floors. The first floor has two storefronts on either side of the central entrance to the second floor. Each storefront has a central entrance of glass doors with a wide entablature flanked by large plate glass windows covered with metal grills. The storefront bays on the east side elevation are filled with vertical board panels. Rectangular window openings on the second floor contain metal louvered sash, and the central bay contains a stepped Art Deco concrete pilaster. The building retains its original siting, orientation, massing, and many of its original Art Deco style architectural elements. However, the main entrances and all of the original storefront windows on the public elevations appear to be covered or altered through replacement. Development of this building is related to the expansion of commercial property outside the historic core of San Juan during the twentieth century. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history.

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Results and Recommendations The commercial building at the southwest corner of Avenida Fernández Juncos and Calle Condado (Map No. 228) faces north toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete Art Deco style building with a set-back third story, constructed circa 1950. The building has a flat roof with a tall concrete parapet wall, and painted cement-plastered walls with ceramic tile facing on the first floor. A thin flat concrete cornice projects from the roofline, and a wider scored concrete cornice projects above the first floor. Both cornices have curved corners and wrap around the east side of the building. Asymmetrically spaced, concrete pilasters extend from the first-floor cornice to curve over the edge of the parapet wall. The main entrance is a set of metal glazed double doors centered on the facade, with sidelights and a transom. Large plate-glass storefront windows flank the entrance. Secondary entrances are located on the east side elevation. Fenestration on the second floor consists of metal jalousie sash in rectangular openings. The building retains its original siting, orientation, plan, and general Art Deco style design. Prominent Art Deco vertical pilons remain on the second floor of the facade, but the ground floor storefront windows and entrances have been altered through replacement. Development of this building is related to the expansion of commercial property outside the historic core of San Juan during the twentieth century. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The Apartamentos Antonio J. Miró (Map No. 290) is located at 1450 Avenida Fernández Juncos within a cluster of similarly designed residences, and faces north toward the project. The two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete apartment house was designed by Pedro de Castro and constructed circa 1930. It has a flat roof with a solid concrete parapet wall and painted cement-plastered walls. The parapet wall has concrete coping with decorative arched trim beneath and small square corner turrets with terra cotta roofs. The asymmetrical two-bay facade features an asymmetrically gabled, twostory, projecting bay on the west and a slant-roofed, one-story, projecting bay on the east with a small metal-railed balcony above it. The bay roofs are terra cotta. Entrances with metal grills and fabric awnings are located on the first floor, and rectangular sliding glass windows under large round-arched transoms occupy the upper story of the west bay. Additional fenestration consists of rectangular metal louvered sash beneath slanted terra cotta hoods supported on carved brackets. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and the majority of its original Spanish Revival style architectural elements. The facade has been altered through the installation of windows in the originally open recessed entrance porch and second-floor balcony. The three adjacent round-arched openings originally functioned as balconets with solid shutters or double doors. One is currently covered, one contains a replacement window, and one has been converted into a primary entrance. A historic second-floor balconet within a rectangular opening remains above the current main entrance, but the original wood shutters have been removed (Vivoni Farage 1999:128). Although the building retains some of notable Puerto Rican architect Pedro de Castro’s design elements, more intact examples of his residential work appear exist in San Juan. Therefore, this property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register. The mixed-use building at 1601 Avenida Fernández Juncos (Map No. 324) is located at the corner of Calle del Parque and faces west and south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, Spanish Revival style, reinforced concrete building constructed in 1938. It has a flat roof with a decorative concrete parapet wall, painted cement-plastered walls, and multiple concrete balconies along the west and south elevations. The balconies are supported on carved concrete brackets and have metal railings. Rectangular multi-paned glass doors (paired and single, some with sidelights) and multi-paned casement windows line the west and south walls. A set of smaller double multi-paned glass doors with a fanlight

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Chapter Four and a decorative concrete spandrel is centered on the first floor of the south facade. The southwest corner of the building is angled toward the street and has a single glazed door on the first floor and a balcony with French doors on the second floor. The second-floor openings all have slanted terra cotta hoods with carved brackets. On the south facade, rectangular framed panels with metal scrollwork are centered above each of the single doors on the first floor and between the two outermost bays on the second floor. On the east elevation, four of the first-floor entrances have flat projecting concrete hoods, and rectangular framed panels with metal scrollwork flank the central window on the second floor. The building retains its original siting, orientation, massing, plan, and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. All of the windows and doors appear to have been replaced and new side lights have been installed on the first floor of the facade. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and it was not identified as the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The mixed-use building at the northwest corner of Avenida Fernรกndez Juncos and Calle Victor Lopez (Map No. 326) faces south toward the project. It is a three-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1950. The building is designed in the Spanish Revival style with prominent Moorish architectural features. It has a flat roof with a solid concrete parapet wall and painted cementplastered walls. Covered concrete balconies project from the two outer bays on the third floor of the facade, a recessed balcony occupies the southeast corner bay on the second floor, and a small concrete balcony is attached to the west bay on the second floor. The covered balconies have flat terra cotta roofs with decorative central parapets, round-arched openings with carved concrete columns and decorative metal railings, and carved concrete support brackets. The recessed balcony has round-arched openings with curved metal grills. The attached second-floor balcony has a fabric awning, a decorative metal railing, and carved concrete support brackets. Wood paneled doors open onto each of the balconies. Entrances on the first floor consist of a round-arched opening into an interior corridor and a rectangular glass door into a restaurant. Flat projecting concrete hoods shelter most of the metal louvered window sash set in rectangular openings. The building retains its original siting, orientation, massing, plan, and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. The entrances on the first floor and many of the windows have been replaced. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The house at 656 Calle Victor Lopez (Map No. 329) faces west. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete building constructed circa 1940 and designed in the Spanish Revival style. The building has a flat roof with a concrete parapet wall and painted cement-plastered walls. Recessed balconies with fabric awnings and curved metal grilles occupy the southwest corner bay. In the north bay of the facade, a single round-arched opening with a fabric awning and a decorative gabled hood accesses the interior staircase, which is lit by several round-arched openings with decorative metal grills. Concrete coping and plaster medallions adorn the parapet wall on the facade. The side elevations are lined with regularly spaced, multi-paned casement windows sheltered by slanted terra cotta hoods on carved brackets. The building retains its original plan, orientation, and Spanish Revival style architectural elements. No substantial alterations are visible on the exterior. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it exhibits a common form of historic architecture prevalent in San Juan, for which more intact and notable examples

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Results and Recommendations remain, and is not associated with the work of a master designer. The property also does not possess significant known historical associations with events or people important in American history. The residential building on the north side of Avenida Fernández Juncos, near Calle Santa Ana (Map No. 330) faces south toward the project. It is a two-story, rectangular, reinforced concrete, Spanish Revival style building constructed circa 1940. The building has a flat roof with a decorative parapet wall and rough-textured painted stucco walls. An enclosed staircase rises from east to west across the facade to a projecting bay at the center of the facade’s second story. A narrow round-arched opening with a metal door is located at the base of the staircase, and a wide round-arched opening in the west bay of the facade provides access to a covered carport. There are no remaining window openings in the building, but decorative metal grills, balconets, and slanted terra cotta hoods around the former window openings adorn the walls. These openings have been filled in with concrete and stucco. This property is recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register because it lacks architectural integrity due to the removal of all of the fenestration on the facade. It does not possess significant known historical associations and was not identified as the work of a master designer. La Casona (Map No. 354) is located at 609 Calle San Jorge and faces southwest toward the project. It is a two-story, irregularly shaped, Spanish Revival style former mansion constructed circa 1900. The building currently functions as a restaurant and has been expanded and remodeled. It has flat roof with a decorative concrete parapet wall and painted cement-plastered walls. A two-story bay with a terra cotta hip roof projects from the southwest corner, and several other late twentieth-century additions extend from the southeast corner and the north elevation. The south and west elevations are screened from the street by dense vegetation but horizontal bands of molded plaster trim and slanted terra cotta hoods on carved brackets are visible. An interior courtyard is located between this building and the adjacent one to the east that is part of the same restaurant complex. A decorative concrete wall topped with a decorative metal fence surrounds the property and connects it to the other building and a parking area. Although a portion of the original mansion has been restored, extensive late twentieth-century renovations and additions for commercial use have altered its original setting, plan, and massing. This property is therefore recommended not eligible for listing in the National Register due to a loss of integrity. Summary of Results and Recommendations The Tren Liviano reconnaissance survey recorded specific information on 404 previously documented and newly surveyed individual historic resources and one previously designated historic district in the project potential impact area. The reconnaissance group includes: • • • •

303 historic resources documented only at the reconnaissance level; 1 district and 8 individual historic properties previously listed in the National Register; 48 individual properties previously evaluated as eligible for the National Register by the PR SHPO or as part of an earlier survey; and 45 individual historic resources identified as being potentially eligible and included in the intensive survey.

Following the intensive survey of the 45 potentially eligible resources: •

29 individual historic properties are recommended as National Register eligible. recommended-eligible group consists of: o 1 historic district of 6 resources; o 21 individual properties;

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•

o 2 properties each comprised of 2 related resources; and o 1 property composed of 4 associated resources. 16 individual historic resources are recommended to be ineligible for listing in the National Register.

It is recommended that the Municipality continue to coordinate and consult with the PR SHPO and IPRC regarding National Register listed and eligible historic properties and any potential impacts to such properties that may occur from the Tren Liviano project.

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REFERENCES

Adams, Virginia H. and Catherine deJarnette Vieth 1995 Reconnaissance and Intensive Architectural and Historic Survey, Tren Urbano, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico. PAL Report No. 655. Prepared for Frederic R. Harris, Inc. and Tren Urbano General Management, Architecture, & Engineering Consultant, Hato Rey, Puerto Rico. Adams, Virginia H. and Mary Kate Harrington 1998 Reconnaissance and Intensive Architectural and Historic Survey, Minillas Extension, Tren Urbano Project, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico. PAL Report No. 775. Prepared for GMAEC – Tren Urbano, Hato Rey, Puerto Rico and Puerto Rico Highway & Transportation Authority, Santurce, Puerto Rico. Albert Kahn, Inc. 1940 Aircraft Storehouse, U.S. Naval Air Station, San Juan Puerto Rico. Foundation Plan approved April 22, 1940, Drawing No. 135237. Prepared by Albert Kahn, Inc., Detroit, MI for Naval Department, Bureau of Yards and Docks. On file, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR. Collection No. PrM/0310/P0022. Aponte, Roger W. 2009 Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico. Retrieved May 2011 from http://ferrocarrilesdepuertorico.web.officelive.com/P2Welcome.htm#French_Train. Aponte Torres, Gilberto 1985 San Mateo de Cangrejos: Notas para su Historia. San Juan, PR. Autoridad de los Puertos 2010 Autoridad de los Puertos – Instalaciones Maritimas. Retrieved June 16, 2010 from http://www2.pr.gov/agencias/autoridadpuertos/instalacionesmaritimas/Pages/default.aspx. Bernier, Rose Mari 2011 Personal Communication with John Daly and Virginia Adams, May 25, 2011. Biblioteca Digital Puertorriqueña 2006 Descripción de las colecciones. Retrieved May 2011 from http://bibliotecadigital.uprrp.edu/. Bird-Ortiz, Nianti 2005 Paper Recycling Mill: A Sustainable Education Center in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of The Graduate School of the University of Maryland at College Park in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture. Retrieved 2 June 2011 from drum.lib.umd.edu. The Board of Porto Rico Fire Underwriters 1918 General Plan of Santurce. San Juan, PR.

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References Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor 1906 Commercial Porto Rico in 1906. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. del Campo, Félix J. and Roberto Sackett 1988 Farmacia Serra, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Caplow, Theodore , Sheldon Stryker, and Samuel E. Wallace 1964 The Urban Ambience. The Bedminster Press, New York, NY. Castro, Maria de los Angeles 1980 Arquitectura en San Juan de Puerto Rico (Siglo XIX). Editorial Universiteria (Univerisad de Puerto Rico), San Juan, Puerto Rico. Carillo, Norma Medina and Hector Santiago Cazull 1998 Informe Preliminar, Prospeccion Arqueologica Fase 1-A, Nuevo Distrito Del Centro de Convenciones de Puerto Rico. Prepared by CSA Architects and Engineers, San Juan, Puerto Rico for Compania de Turismo de Puerto Rico. Chief of Engineers, US Army 1915 Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, 1915. Washington, DC.

Office of the War Department,

Cinema Treasures 2011 Teatro Matienzo. Retrieved June 22, 2011 from http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/4118. Colom, Jorge Ortiz 2004 “The Essence of Puerto Rican Historic Architecture.” Institute of Technology of Jamaica Axis, 7:54-81. Colton, George R. 1911 Annual Report of the Governor of Porto Rico to the Secretary of War, 1911. Office of the Secretary of War, Washington, DC. Cooke, Tom M. 1903 Report of the Commissioner of the Interior for Porto Rico to the Secretary of the Interior, U.S.A. 1901. Office of the Secretary of the Interior, Washington, DC. CSA Architects and Engineers 1998 Naval Base Report: Informe Preliminar, Prospeccion Arqueologica Fase 1-A, Nuevo Distrito Del Centro de Convenciones de Puerto Rico. Submitted to Compania de Turismo de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Damiani Cósimi, Julio 1997 Santurce, PR: Morfologia Urban y Estructura Social de un Suburbio (1894-1910). Unpublished thesis. University of Puerto Rico, San Juan. Deleo, Arnaldo 2010 Puerto Rico Port Authority, Ready for the Excitement of New Ventures. Retrieved June 6 2011 from http://www.camarapr.org/presentaciones/British/7-British_Deleo.pdf.

90 PAL Report No. 2581


References Department of Economic Development and Commerce 2011 Master Plan. Retrieved June 7 2011 from http://www.bahiaurbana.com/BahiaUrbana2011v12.swf. Department of the Interior 1925 [Annual Report], 1924-1925. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1983 Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines for Archaeology and Historic Preservation (48 FR 44716, September 29, 1983), Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks 2011 Chapter 18: Bases in South America and the Caribbean Area, Including Bermuda, in Building the Navy’s Bases in World War II: History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineer Corps, 1940-1946. Retrieved May 19 2011 from www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/Building_Bases/bases-18.html. Esteves, Guillermo 1919 War Department Annual Reports, 1919: Volume III. Washington, DC

Office of the War Department,

Fernàndez, José A. 1965 Architecture in Puerto Rico. Architectural Book Publishing Company, New York, NY. Gala Aguilera, Santiago, Juan Llanes Santos, and Ingrid Iglesias Torres 2009 El Capitolio de Puerto Rico, National Register of Historic Places Nomination, Additional Documentation. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Gjessing, F. C. and Loretta Schmidt 1973 San Juan National Historic Site, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Gómez, Marisa and Ester Cardona 1984 Church, School, Convent and Parish House of San Agustín, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Grahame, Laurence H. 1905 Report of the Commissioner of the Interior for Porto Rico to the Secretary of the Interior, U.S.A, 1905. Office of the Secretary of the Interior, Washington, DC. Grupo Editorial EPRL 2010 San Juan: Miraflores Magazine. Retrieved June 2, 2011 from http:www.enciclopediapr.org. Guinness, Gerald 1999 “The Covers of This Book Are Too Far Apart, Book Reviews for The San Juan Star.” Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Hernández Alvarado, Edgardo 2011 Letter to Carlos A. Rubio Cancela, Oficial Estatal de Conservación Histórica. 20 April. Original located at Oficina Estatal de Conservación Histórica San Juan, Puerto Rico.

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References Jopling, Carole F. 1988 Puerto Rican Houses in Sociohistorical Perspective. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN. Llanes Santos, Juan and Berenice R. Sueiro 2007 Luis Muñoz Rivera Park, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Marull, José E. 1997 Linea Avanzada, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2009

San Antonio Railroad Bridge. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. September 30, 2009. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Marvel, Thomas S. 1994 Antonin Nechodoma, Architect 1877-1928, The Prairie School in the Caribbean. Gainesville, FL, University of Florida Press. McDonald, Melissa 1983 San Juan Railroad Terminal. HABS No. PR-112. Historic America Buildings Survey, National Park Service, Washington, DC. Miller, George T. 1906 Harbor of San Juan, P.R. Report of Mr. George W.T. Miller, Assistant Engineer. From House Documents, Volume 50. 59th Congress, 1st Session, December 4, 1905 – June 30, 1906. House Printing Office, Washington, DC. Morales Parés, Armando 1984 Barbosa House, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1984b El Falansterio de Puerta de Tierra, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1983

Casa de España, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

1983b Polverín Miraflores, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Morales, Luis M. Rodriguez 1971 Zona Histórica de San Juan (San Juan Historic Zone), National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Morrison, Allen 2008 The Tramways of San Juan Puerto Rico. Electric Transport in Latin America. Retrieved May 2011 from the world wide web: http://www.tramz.com/pr/sj.html.

92 PAL Report No. 2581


References National Park Service 2011 The Forts of Old San Juan: Guardians of the Caribbean. Retrieved 16 May 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/60sanjuan/60sanjuan.htm. Naval History and Heritage Command 1947 Building the Navy’s Bases in World War II. History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineer Corps, 1940-1946. Volume II, Part II – The Advance Bases. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. New Deal Network 1938 Puerto Rico in the Great Depression: Facts about the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. Retrieved May 2011 from http://www.newdeal.feri.org/pr/pr10.htm. New York Times 1928 Dies After Auto Wreck. 17 April. 1935

New Set-up Ordered in Puerto Rico Relief. 30 May.

1952

New Stress on Art in Puerto Rico. 25 May.

1955

Puerto Rico’s $15,000,000 Airport. 22 May.

1956

Hotel Construction in Puerto Rico at Peak in History of Caribbean. 29 July.

1959

San Juan Rarities. 7 June.

2000

Puerto Rican Architects Return to Green Pastures. 20 April.

O’Neill, Luis F. Pumarada 1994 Historic Bridges of Puerto Rico, c. 1840-1950, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1998

Puente San Antonio. HAER No. PR-35. Historic American Engineering Record, National Park Service, Washington, DC.

Pantel, del Cueto & Associates 2000 Stage I Cultural Resources Determination: Minillas Extension. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Pedrotty, Michael A., Julie L. Webster, Gordon L. Cohen, and Aaron R. Chmiel 1999 Historical and Architectural Overview of Military Aircraft Hangars. United States Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, IL. Prepared for United States Air Force, Headquarters, Air Combat Command. Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office 1995 National Register of Historic Places Cards. San Juan, Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico Art Deco Society 2010 Buildings/Edificios. Retrieved May http://artdecopr.org/PRADS/Buildings___Edificios.html.

2011

PAL Report No. 2581

from

93


References Puerto Rico Illustrado 1925 “Un Chalet Comfortable.” 3 October, pp. 29. 1926

“Inauguration de la Empresa de Transportación Aerea.” 6 November, pp. 42.

1927

“Paisajes de Puerto Rico.” 13 August, pp. 30.

1927

“Biblioteca Carnegie.” 22 October, pp. 40.

1927

“El Nuevo Templo Teosófico.” 17 December, pp. 53.

1928

“Figuras de Relieve, El ‘Hogar Infantil.’” 24 March, pp. 11.

1940

“Ferrocarriles de Puerto Rico.” 28 December. pp. 124-125.

Pumarada O’Neill, Luis F. 1994 Historic Bridges of Puerto Rico, ca. 1840-1950, Multiple Property National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Ramirez, José N. and José E. Marull 1991a 659 Concordia, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1991b 659 La Paz Residence, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1991c 663 La Paz Residence, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Rigau, Jorge 1992 Puerto Rico 1900. Turn-of-the-century Architecture in the Hispanic Caribbean 1890-1930. Rizzoli, New York, NY. Rigau, Jorge and Juan Penabad 1993 Casas de Vecindad, La Posibilidad de Ser Nosotros en la Ciudad. On file at Oficina Estatal de Preservación Histórica, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Rivera, Johnny Torres 2011 Puerta de Tierra, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Puerta de Tierra – San Juan. Retrieved May 2011 from: http://www.puertadetierra.info/. Rodriguez Archives, LLC. 2009 Archivo Histórico y Fotográfico de Puerto Rico - Colección Rodríguez. Retrieved May 2011 from http://archivofotograficodepuertorico.com/. Rodríguez, Luz Marie 2000 “Suppressing the Slum! Architecture and Social Change in San Juan’s Public Housing.” In Ever New San Juan: Architecture and Modernization in the Twentieth Century. Archivo de Arquitectura y Construcción de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

94 PAL Report No. 2581


References Rodríguez, Manuel R. 2010 A New Deal for the Tropics: Puerto Rico during the Depression Era, 1932-1935. Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, NJ. Rubio Cancela, Carlos A. 2011 Letter to Edgardo Hernández Alvarado, Sub-Director Ejecutivo, Área de Operaciones e Ingeniería. 29 April. Original located at Oficina de Área de Operaciones e Ingeniería, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Santiago Cazull, Hector 1999 Figueroa Apartment National REgsiter of Historic Places Nomination, San Juan, Puerto Rico. On file at Oficina Estatal de Preservación Histórica, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sepúlveda Rivera, Aníbal 1989 San Juan, Historia Ilustrada de su Desarrollo Urbano, 1508-1898. Carimar, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004 Puerto Rico Urbano, Atlas Historico de la Cuidad Puertorriqueña, Volumes 1-4. Centro de Investigaciones CARIMAR. For Departamento de Transportación y Obras Públicas, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sepúlveda Rivera, Aníbal and Jorge Carbonell 1987a Cangrejos-Santurce: Historia Ilustrada de su Desarollo Urbano (1519-1950). Centro de Investigaciones CARIMAR, Oficina Estatal de Preservación Histórica, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1987b San Juan Extramuros, La Puntilla-Marina y Puerta de Tierra. Centro de Investigaciones CARIMAR, Oficina Estatal de Preservación Histórica, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1989 Escuela Brumbaugh, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1990

San Juan Extramuros, Iconografía Para su Estudio. Centro de Investigaciones CARIMAR, Oficina Estatal de Preservación Histórica, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Seward, William H. 1868 Letter of the Secretary of State, Transmitting A Report on the Commercial Relations of the United Sates with Foreign Nations, for the Year Ended September 30, 1867. Office of the Secretary of State, Washington, DC. Sociedad Ferroviaria Puertorriqueña 2010 Estructura Corporatica del Ferrocarril de Circunvalacion. Retrieved May 2011 from http://sociedadferroviaria.wordpress.com/2010/08/15/estructura-corporativa-del-ferrocarrilde-circunvalacin-parte-i/. Soto Mejel, Germán, Gerardo Navas, Felix Julián del Campo, and Joaquin Acevedo 1985 Colegio de las Madres del Sagrado Corazón, National Register of Historic Places Nomination. On file at Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sulsona, J. Domingo 1899 A Map of the Island of Puerto Rico, Second Edition. Printed by A Hoen & Company, Baltimore, MD.

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References

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 1921 United States Coast Pilot, West Indies. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Department of Commerce, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, DC. United States Army, Corps of Engineers 1927 General view of harbor at San Juan, Porto Rico looking South. Retrieved May 2011 from http: //memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?gmd:3:./temp/~ammem_BovN::@@@mdb=hh, gmd,pan. United States Department of Commerce 1924 Railroad Map of Porto Rico. Retrieved May 2011 from http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/map_item.pl?data=/home/www/data/gmd/gmd4/g4971/g4971p/ct000303.jp2&style=gmd &itemLink=r?ammem/ncpsbib,gmd,pan,:@field(NUMBER+@band(g4971p+ct000303))&titl e=Railroad%20map%20of%20Porto%20Rico. University of Puerto Rico 1997 Guia de Colecciones, Archivo de Arquitectura y Construcción de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR. 2011 Puerto Rican Digital Library Online. University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR. Retrieved May 2011 from http://bibliotecadigital.uprrp.edu/. Vega, Dr. Jesus 2002 Archaeological Monitoring, Replacement of San Antonio Bridge, San Antonio Channel, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Submitted to Jordi Bofill, P.E. CMA Architects & Engineers, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1997 Archaeological Evaluation Stage II, Site Delimitation of Fort San Antonio, Esteves Bridge, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Submitted to Engr. Angel Herrera, CMA Architects & Engineers, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Vivoni, Enrique, Jorge Ramírez, Aracely Ramírez, Ariel Cáceres, Fabiola Cintrón, Glory Moyet, Karen Cana, Ludgarda Vega, Martha Garrido, Neftalí Vega, Ricardo Sárraga, and Wilfredo Pérez 2011 Una Puerta Para San Juan: Documentatión de Estructuras Patrimoniales y Propuestas para un Centro Cívico. Secuencia Curricular en Conservación Patrimonial. Vivoni Farage, Enrique 1995 Lo internacional de la arquitectura puertorriqueña. Claridad. July 7-13. 1997 “The Architecture of Power: From the Neoclassical to Modernism in the Architecture of Puerto Rico, 1900-1950.” Retrieved 16 May 2011 from http://www.cmu.edu/ARIS_3/frameset.html. 1999 Alarife de Suenos, Pedro Adolfo de Castro y Besosa. Archivo de Arquitectura y Construcción de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2005a Reconocimiento General de Miramar, Puerto Rico. Archivo de Arquitectura y Contrucción, University of Puerto Rico. Prepared for la Oficina Estatal de Conservación Histórica, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

96 PAL Report No. 2581


References 2005b “Modern Puerto Rico and Henry Klumb.” Docomomo 33 (September):28-37. 2006 Reconocimiento Intensivo de Miramar, Puerto Rico. Archivo de Arquitectura y Contrucción, University of Puerto Rico. Prepared for la Oficina Estatal de Conservación Histórica, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Vivoni Farage, Enrique and Silvia Álvarez Curbelo 1998 Hispanophilia, Arquitectura y Vida en Puerto Rico, 1900-1950. Archivo de Architectura y Construcción de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Vivoni Farage, Enrique, ed. 2000 San Juan Siempre Nuevo: Architectura y Modernización en le Siglo XX. Archivo de Architectura y Construcción de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2006b KLUMB Una arquitectura de impronta social: An Architecture of Social Concern. Archivo de Arquitectura y Construcción de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Wallesch, Shayne E. 2005 “American Legion.” World War II Troop Ships. Retrieved June 8 2011 from http://ww2troopships.com/ships/a/americanlegion_USN/default.htm. World Port Source 2011 Port of San Juan – Port Details. Retrieved June http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/PRI_Port_of_San_Juan_226.php.

6

2011

from

Yager, Arthur 1916 Report of the Governor of Porto Rico to the Secretary of War, 1916. Annual Reports, War Department, Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1916. Office of the War Department, Washington, DC.

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Historic Resources

Zona Histórica de San Juan

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

15

13 12 11

6 1

AVENIDA JUAN 8

14

ÓN PONCE DE LE

Building Parcel

9

7

16

3

2

V/O

NH

V/O

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

17 18

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

NH V/O

NH

Historic Property Listed in the National Register

4

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

V/O

NH

10

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

NH

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

V/O

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

5

NH

Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

NH

PIER 3 TERMINUS V/O

A

B

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

NH

G

H I J K

SAN JUAN BAY

L 32

°

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1A

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


Historic Resources Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

15

14

Building Parcel

23

24

NH 18

25

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

26

27

19 V/O

20

28 21

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

29

22

Historic Property Listed in the National Register

34

30

31

CAPITOLIO

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

41

48

V/O

44

54

46

V/O

Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

V/O

V/O

53 52

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

V/O V/O

50 NH

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

56 57

V/O

43 V/O

55

49

45

35

V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

47

42

35

51

36

SAN AGUSTIN WEST

37

A

B

38

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

NH 32

39

G

H I

40

J K

SAN JUAN BAY

L 33

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1B

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


Historic Resources

JUAN P

O NCE

57 58

NH

DE LEÓ

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

N

NH

59 62 60

61 V/O

V/O

67

NH

70

63

73 74

69

64 65

81

71

68

72 NH

66

75

76

NH

78

NH V/O

77

V/O V/O

Building

V/O

Parcel V/O

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

SAN AGUSTIN EAST

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

84 40

NH 79

83

Historic Property Listed in the National Register

80 82

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

87

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

NH 85

AVENIDA FERNANDEZ JUNCOS

86

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

NH

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

NH

A

B

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

G

H I J K

SAN JUAN BAY

L

°

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1C

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


Historic Resources Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

87 NH NH Building

AVE NID A

91 NH

Parcel

JUA N

88 89

PO N

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

CE

DE

LE ÓN

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

90

Historic Property Listed in the National Register

NH

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

MID PARK

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

V/O

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

NH

NH Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

NH

NH

A

B

V/O

NH NH

NH

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

G

NH

H I J

NH NH

L

°

NH V/O

92

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1D

NH

93

K

SAN JUAN BAY

V/O

NH

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


NH

Historic Resources

93 NH

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

NH

NH

V/O

94 V/O

Building Parcel Project Impact Area for Historic Resources V/O

V/O

V/O

95

V/O

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number Historic Property Listed in the National Register

V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

O

CANAL SAN ANTONIO

CALLE

ARECIB

V/O

V/O V/O

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

96

V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

NH

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

97 Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

V/O

V/O

V/O

V/O V/O

V/O

98

NH

A

V/O

LLE MIR A

V/O

V/O

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

G

H I J

CA

99

V/O

100

K

SAN JUAN BAY

V/O V/O

B

MA R

V/O

L

V/O

101

V/O

V/O V/O

118

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

NH

TREN LIVIANO

V/O V/O

0

Figure 4-1E

V/O V/O

V/O

Location Map

MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

NH

120

121


Historic Resources Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

Building Parcel Project Impact Area for Historic Resources V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number Historic Property Listed in the National Register

V/O

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

V/O

CA

LL E

LI ND

BE

RG

H

V/O

A

B

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

102

G

H I J K

SAN JUAN BAY

103

L CONVENTION CENTER

104

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1F

105 V/O

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

V/O

106 NH


NH

Historic Resources

V/O

NH

106 V/O

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

109 NH 108

107

110 111

V/O

MAINTENANCE FACILITY 112 113 115

NH

NH Building Parcel

114

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

NH

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number Historic Property Listed in the National Register

116

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

117

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

BO UL

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

EV AR

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

D

SA

IN T

Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

TH O

M

AS

A

B

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

G

H I J K

SAN JUAN BAY

L

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1G

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


E MIR CALL

94

Historic Resources 95

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

96 V/O V/O

CIB

V/O

98

E LL

V/O

AMAR

97

NH

E MIR CALL

O

V/O

E AR

V/O

CA

V/O

L IO NA O N A T C N A N A S

NH V/O

V/O

99

V/O

EL GANDUL

V/O

100

V/O

V/O

Building

156

V/O

158

Parcel

157 V/O

151

101

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

152

149 150 V/O

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

NH 145

129

NH

143

V/O

V/O

V/O

138 139

NH V/O

V/O

V/O

121

V/O

130

131

ERNAN NIDA F

AVE 124

V/O

125 136

122

120

140

137

NH V/O

159

144

V/O

127 128

132

133

NH

134 135

141

V/O

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

154

153

DEZ JU

NCO S

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

147 148 V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

142 NH

NH

Historic Property Listed in the National Register

155

NH V/O

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

146

126 V/O

NH

B

E PR SO

NH

A

123

EX

119

LU

118

M

D

F

E

G

I

S

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

OZ

H I J

RI VE RA

K

SAN JUAN BAY

L

°

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1H

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


Historic Resources Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places V/O V/O 222

223 215

V/O

216

221

V/O

197

200 201 198 199

178 177 170

189 190

180

184

169

171

164

179

174 172 173

181 182

161 160

168

186 NH

V/O

188

195 196 V/O

A AVENID

192 191 193

230

233 235 231 232

FERNA

212 NH

V/O

Parcel Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

UNCO S NDEZ J

210

206 207 208

V/O

PARADA 18

V/O

187

EL GANDUL

NH

Building

229

V/O 203 204 205 V/O 202

190

NH

183

163 162

185

V/O

217

V/O

234

NH

214

218

227

219 220

213

224

226 225

228

236 236

NH

NH

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number Historic Property Listed in the National Register Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

194 209

211

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible

175

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

167 165

Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

166 176

A

B

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

G

H I J K

SAN JUAN BAY

L

NH

AS CALLE LAS PALM

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1I

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


Historic Resources

O PI AUT

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

V/O

V/O

267

268

V/O

V/O

É JOS

V/O

STA

266 248

V/O

240

NH

251 252

272 273

271

V/O

V/O

269

V/O

V/O

Parcel

V/O

278 277

AVENIDA FERNANDEZ 243 242

244

258

256

259

V/O

279

281 NH

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

SANTURCE CENTRO 282

V/O

260

283

284

285

NH

286

287

288

289 290

291 292

NH NH

V/O

280

JUNCOS

261

254

Building

NH

NH

263 264

NH

276 275

NH

265

255

275

274

GO

238

247

270

NH

253

DIE

241 V/O V/O

262

246

245

239

250

DE

249

NH Historic Property Listed in the National Register

293

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

NH

A

B

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

257

H

OPI AUT

G

J K

STA

SAN JUAN BAY

I

É JOS

L

DE GO

DIE

°

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1J

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


Historic Resources 316

Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

315 317 V/O

V/O

318

V/O

V/O

V/O

320

V/O

337

NH

306 NH

NH

V/O

V/O

329

323

NH

324

295

304

NH

CO Z JUN

AVEN

V/O 305

328

V/O

300 V/O

294

298 299 296 297

301

302

309

310

311

314

V/O

V/O

NH

V/O

NH

NH

353

358

359

NH V/O

343

Building

344

348 Parcel

352

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

335 334

313

V/O

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

V/O

308

V/O

327

NH V/O

S

NH

333

NH V/O

341

V/O

342

346 347 345

NDE ERNA I DA F

355

V/O

SAN MATEO

332 330

325 326

V/O

340

336 322

357

354

339

331

321

V/O

356

351

350

V/O

V/O

349

V/O

338

319

V/O

V/O

V/O

V/O

V/O

Historic Property Listed in the National Register Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

V/O

303 307

EXPRESO LUIS M

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

312

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

PR

EX

ES

ÑO MU S I U OL

ZR

Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

A ER

IV

A

B

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

OPI AUT

G

H I J

JO STA

K

SAN JUAN BAY

L

SÉ DE GO

DIE

°

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1K

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO


Historic Resources Detailed Location of Historic Resources Identified in the Reconnaissance Survey, Including Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

368 367 363

AVEN

371

V/O

V/O

NH NH

369

361 362 360

370

V/O

CE D

E LE

ÓN

393 372

373 381 374

V/O

382

376 377 378

391 392

383

V/O

V/O V/O

PON

V/O

364 375

JUA N

390 V/O

365

I DA

V/O

378 379

380

AVEN

I DA

FER N

384

V/O

366

389

394

402 V/O

403 V/O

AND

385 386 387

V/O

V/O

V/O

388

V/O

EZ J UNC

396

404

V/O

OS

V/O V/O

V/O

NH

NH

Parcel V/O

Project Impact Area for Historic Resources

V/O V/O

NH 395

Building

NH

V/O

NH 397

NH NH

Vacant or Open Land

NH

Building - Not Historic

19

Map ID Number

V/O

V/O

V/O

V/O

V/O

Historic Property Listed in the National Register

V/O

398

Historic Property Previously Evaluated as Eligible for Listing in the National Register

399

EXPRESO LUIS MUÑ OZ

RIVE

400

401

V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

RA V/O

Historic Resource Identified for Intensive Survey, Recommended Not Eligible V/O

Historic Resource in Reconnaissance Survey Only

V/O

Tren Liviano LPA Route (Option 5, Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

A

V/O V/O V/O

B

V/O V/O V/O

V/O

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

D

F

E

G

H I J

V/O

K

SAN JUAN BAY

SAGRADO CORAZON TREN LIVIANO TERMINUS

L

V/O

°

Location Map

0

Figure 4-1L

50

Meters 100

1 : 2300

TREN LIVIANO MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO NH NH


1 2 3 4 6 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 30 31

3

Antiguo Casino de Puerto Rico Teatro Alejandro Tapia y Rivera Escuela José Julian Acosta Baños Publicos Municipales Casa Olimpica/YMCA Cruz Roja Americana Capítulo de Puerto Rico Departamento de Hacienda Ateneo Puertorriqueño Biblioteca Carnegie Casa de España Parque Capitolio de Puerto Rico Edificio Freiria Ejército de Salvación Ancillary Building Ejército de Salvación

PIER 3 TERMINUS

¬ «4

2

# *# *

" )1

Zona Histórica de San Juan

¬ «8

6

10 ¬ «

11

# *# * AV ENIDA JU

13 " ) 12 " )

18 ¬ «

DE LE ON AN PONCE

14

# *

15 " )

CAPITOLIO

30 ¬ « 31 ¬ «

SAN AGUSTIN WEST DREAS SAN AN CALL E

0

120

D

1 : 8,000

240

Meters

Location Map

E

TREN LIVIANO

C

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

Figure 4-2A

°

CALLE DEL TRE N

8

B

Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

! (

A

Previously Evaluated as Eligible for NR Listing

# * 2

National Register Listed 1

" )

Proposed Tren Liviano Route (Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

General Location of Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

HISTORIC RESOURCES


79 84 85 86 87 91 93

AVENIDA FERNANDEZ JUNCOS

79 " )

El Falansterio de Puerta de Tierra Carcel de Puerta de Tierra Carcel Municipal Hogar Infantil Cigar Factory Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Tribunal General de Justicia Puente Ferroviano San Antonio

CALLE DEL TRE N

SAN AGUSTIN EAST

85 86 ¬ ¬ « «

84 " )

AV E NID UA

87 ¬ «

AJ NP O NC ED E LE ON

# * 91

MID PARK

" ) 93

0

120

1 : 8,000

Meters 240

Location Map

E

TREN LIVIANO

C

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

Figure 4-2B

°

8

D

Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

! (

2

B

Previously Evaluated as Eligible for NR Listing

# *

A

National Register Listed 1

" )

Proposed Tren Liviano Route (Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

General Location of Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

HISTORIC RESOURCES


93 95 97 98 100 102 103 113 114 117 121 123 124 129 130 131 132

Puente Ferroviano San Antonio Edificio de Apartmentos Figueroa Leander's Hotel Rodriguez Moreno Hall Residencia Juanita Vda. De Finlay Autoridad de los Puertos Portos Café U.S. Navy Station, Public Works Building U.S. Navy Station, Transportation Pool San Juan Naval Air Station Hangar Vidal Apartments Residencia Lic. Jaime Santiago Semidey Residencia Residencia Residencia Residencia Ana Serra Residencia

117

¬ «

114

113

¬ « ¬ «

MAINTENANCE FACILITY

103

102

¬ « ¬ « CONVENTION CENTER

NDBE RG CALL E LI

H

CANAL SAN ANTONIO

98

97

132

# * # *

123

124

121

# * * # *# # *

# * 100

95 " )

93 " )

0

A

120

D

1 : 8,000

Meters 240

Location Map

E

TREN LIVIANO

C

B

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

Figure 4-2C

°

8

! (

Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

Previously Evaluated as Eligible for NR Listing

# * 2

National Register Listed 1

" )

Proposed Tren Liviano Route (Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

General Location of Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

HISTORIC RESOURCES


131

141

148

147

138

153

155

159

151

145 149

143

158 160

156

Residencia Residencia Residencia Residencia Ana Serra Residencia Residencia Residencia de Julia Negron Residencia José Cid Sola Residencia Residencia Residencia Residencia Residencia de la Familia Aybar Villa Ivelisse Residencia Antolin Perez/Margie Arosteli Residencia Edificio Residencial/Comercio Residencia Apartamentos Fernández González Residencia R. Pérez-Porrata Edificio Comercio Apartamentos Alberto Gonzalez Primera Iglesia del Nazareno Residencia Familia Lucchetti Rafael Cordero Graded School Facilidad Religiosa Parroquia de la Monserrate Academia Santa Monica Academia Santa Monica Escuela Graduada S. Ruis Belvis Jiménez y Fernández Sucesores, Inc. Residencia Asociación Medica de Puerto Rico Comisión de Investigación Dept. de Agricultura y Comercio Industrias Departamento de Agricultura Departamento de Argricultura y Comercio Edificio Residencial/Comercio Residencia Ernesto Reyes Residencia Residencia

134

130

124 129 130 131 132 133 134 138 141 143 145 147 148 149 151 153 155 156 158 159 160 162 164 169 176 208 209 210 211 217 221 229 246 247 248 249 250 261 287 291 292

133

132

124

129

176

¬ «

164

162

169

EL GANDUL

# * # *# # *# # *# # ** *# *# # * *# * # * * # * # * # *# # * *# *# * # * # *# *# * 208

211

209

210

¬ «¬ «¬ ¬ «« 221

PARADA 18

217

# *¬ « AV E

229

¬ « NI DA FE RN AN DE Z JU NC OS

246

247

249

248

SANTURCE CENTRO

261

¬ «

250

* # *# # *# *# * 287

291

292

0

A

120

D

1 : 8,000

Meters 240

Location Map

E

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

TREN LIVIANO

C

B

Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

Previously Evaluated as Eligible for NR Listing

National Register Listed

293 Figure 4-2D

¬ «¬ « ° ¬ «¬ «

8

! (

2

# *

1

" )

Proposed Tren Liviano Route (Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

General Location of Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

HISTORIC RESOURCES


287 291 292 293 315 348 351 353 356 357 375 377 380 395

291

¬ «

292

Residencia Ernesto Reyes Residencia Residencia Residencia Teatro Matienzo/Music Hall Iglesia San Vincent de Paúl Escuela Matienzo Cintrón Escuela Graduada Luis Muñoz Rivera Residencia Residencia Residencia Apartamentos Rodriguez-Moreno Edificio Residencial/Comercio Residencia

293

¬ «¬ «

287

¬ «

SANTURCE CENTRO

NI DA JU

AN

315

# *

AV E

PO NC E DE LE

SAN MATEO

348

353

351

¬ « ¬ « ¬ «

ON

356

375

377

# * # * 380

# * 395

# *

SAGRADO CORAZON TREN LIVIANO TERMINUS

357

# *# *

0

A

120

D

1 : 8,000

Meters 240

Location Map

E

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

MUNICIPALITY OF SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

TREN LIVIANO

C

B

Recommended Eligible for National Register Listing

Previously Evaluated as Eligible for NR Listing

National Register Listed

Figure 4-2E

°

8

! (

2

# *

1

" )

Proposed Tren Liviano Route (Antonio Di Mambro 10-25-2011)

General Location of Historic Properties Listed in, Previously Evaluated as Eligible for, or Recommended Eligible for the National Register of Historic Places

HISTORIC RESOURCES

Profile for Publicidad Tere Suarez

2581 HPT Technical Report Volume I - Revised.pdf  

Tren Liviano - Declaracion Impacto Ambiental

2581 HPT Technical Report Volume I - Revised.pdf  

Tren Liviano - Declaracion Impacto Ambiental

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