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Analysis of Credit Appraisal at

UNION BANK OF INDIA BY APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010 UNDER THE ESTEEMED GUIDANCE OF Mr. Ramesh Vege Senior Manager, UBI, Bhopal


DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project report titled “Analysis of Credit Appraisal in Union Bank of India� has been prepared by under the guidance of Mr. Ramesh Vege, (Senior Manager), Mr. K.D. Lalwani(Senior Manager), Mr. Vinod Mathur, Assistant Manager, Credit Division, Union Bank of India and Prof. J.D.Agarwal, Director, Indian Institute of Finance, New Delhi.

I also declare that this project has not been submitted nor shall it be submitted in future to any other University or Institution for the award of any other Degree or Diploma.

Dated: 12/06/2009 (Apoorva Ghosh)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project is the result of my deep interest in the Banking sector. First of all, I would like to thank Mr. Raman (General Manager, Zonal Office, Union Bank of India, Bhopal) for giving me this opportunity and allowing me to work in the Finance Division of Regional Office of Union Bank of India. I would express my gratitude to my guide Mr. Ramesh Vege(Senior Manager, Regional Office, Union Bank of India, Bhopal), for giving me an opportunity to undertake this project, as a part of my requirement of Summer Training during my MBF Program. His valuable advice and guidance has been a major factor in completion of this project. I am also indebted to Mr. Khushal D. Lalwani (Asst. Manager, Union Bank of India, Bhopal Branch), for giving his precious time in making me understand the practical difficulties in Credit Appraisal and its management. I would also thank Mr.Ramnathan (Assistant General Manager, Regional Office, Bhopal), Mr. Rakesh Khare (Chief Manager, Regional Office, Union Bank of India) and Mr. Vinod Mathur (Assistant Manager, Regional Branch), for lending out their helping hand in making me understand the basics of Credit appraisal. My deep sense of obligation goes to Prof. J. D. Agarwal, Chairman, Indian Institute of Finance, and Prof. Aman Agarwal, Director, IIF, whose words of wisdom and motivation has inspired me to come this long way. Last but not the least, I would thank the faculty and staff members of Indian Institute of Finance, who have extended their helping hand by sharing their knowledge and experiences.

Date: 21/07/2009 APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Apoorva Ghosh

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project title

:

Credit Appraisal

Duration

:

20th April to 13th June

Place of work

:

Bhopal

Institution

:

Union Bank of India

Project Guide

:

Mr. Ramesh Vege Senior Manager,Union Bank of India

Summary As a part of MBF programme, a student has to pursue a project duly approved by the Director of the institute . I had the privilege of undertaking the project on Credit Appraisal. Credit Appraisal is a process through which institutions like banks etc. try to continue giving quality loan to its customers. One of the basic tenets of the loan policy is to ‘ensure continuous growth of loan assets while endeavouring that they remain secure, performing and standard’. Loans and advances constitute significant portion of a banks Balance Sheet. But lending activity is associated with various risks, the most predominant being default risk. While default risk is unavoidable/inescapable, risk mitigation is recognized as a significant technique. This report also compares the strategies to deal with Credit Appraisal and to check the credit worthiness of the customers. It further looks into the effect of the different techniques used for Credit appraisal and suggests mechanisms to handle the problem by drawing on experiences from different techniques used.

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My project is divided into 5 chapters.

The first chapter deals with the introduction to the organization I have worked with and the current scenario of retail loans. The second chapter deals with the review of literature related to credit appraisal. The third chapter gives a brief account of the objective of the study, research methodology and a brief review of other related literature. Chapter four has all the analysis and interpretations. Chapter five deals with the summary of major findings, discussions of results, suggestions and limitations of the study.

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CONTENTS

 CHAPTER I  About Union Bank of India

Pg 8

 The Genesis of Banking in India 13

Pg

 Retail Loans Offered By Union Bank

Pg 17

- Union Home - Union Top Up - Union Miles - Union Comfort - Union Education - Union Mortgage - Union Smiles - Union Shares  CHAPTER II  Review of Literature 49  CHAPTER III APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Pg


 Risk Management 51

Pg

 Significance 54

Pg

 Credit Risk 57

Pg

 Credit Risk Management 60

Pg

 General procedure to Compile a credit report 63

Pg

 Sources of Information 68

Pg

 CHAPTER IV  Objective 71

Pg

 Asset Liability Management 72

Pg

 Computation Of Net Worth 75

Pg

 Compliance with Accounting Standards

Pg 77

 Balance Sheet Analysis

Pg 81

 Profit and Loss Analysis

Pg 99

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 Common Window Dressing Techniques

Pg 117

 Ratio Analysis

Pg 118

 Break Even Point 128

Pg

 Fund Flow Analysis 134

Pg

 Cash Flow Analysis 142

Pg

 Term Loan Assessment 151

Pg

 Technical Appraisal 156

Pg

 Project report Analysis

Pg 166

 Working Capital Assessment

Pg 172

 Letter Of Credit

Pg 175

 Letter Of Guarantee 176

Pg

 CHAPTER IV  Analysis 178  CHAPTER V APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Pg


 Findings 196

Pg

 Limitations

Pg 197

 Suggestion

Pg 198

 Conclusion 198

Pg

 BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHART INDEX •

Bank of India

Pg

17 •

Balance sheet as per schedule vi 83

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Pg


Balance Sheet for non- corporate entity

Pg

85 •

Proforma of P and L

Pg

89 •

Working Pool of Sources 142

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Pg


CHAPTER I

ABOUT UNION BANK OF INDIA The dawn of twentieth century witnesses the birth of a banking enterprise par excellenceUNION BANK OF INDIA- that was flagged off by none other than the Father of the Nation, APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Mahatma Gandhi. Since that the golden moment, Union Bank of India has this far unflinchingly traveled the arduous road to successful banking........ A journey that spans 88 years. The Union Bank of India, reiterates the objective of their inception to the profound thoughts of the great Mahatma... "We should have the ability to carry on a big bank, to manage efficiently crores of rupees in the course of our national activities. Though we have not many banks amongst us, it does not follow that we are not capable of efficiently managing crores and tens of crores of rupees." Union Bank of India is firmly committed to consolidating and maintaining its identity as a leading, innovative commercial Bank, with a proactive approach to the changing needs of the society. This has resulted in a wide gamut of products and services, made available to its valuable clientele in catering to the smallest of their needs. Today, with its efficient, valueadded services, sustained growth, consistent profitability and development of new technologies, Union Bank has ensured complete customer delight, living up to its image of, “GOOD PEOPLE TO BANK WITH�. Anticipative banking- the ability to gauge the customer's needs well ahead of real-time - forms the vital ingredient in value-based services to effectively reduce the gap between expectations and deliverables. The key to the success of any organization lives with its people. No wonder, Union Bank's unique family of about 26,000 qualified / skilled employees is and ever will be dedicated and delighted to serve the discerning customer with professionalism and wholeheartedness. Union Bank is a Public Sector Unit with 55.43% Share Capital held by the Government of India. The Bank came out with its Initial Public Offer (IPO) in August 20, 2002 and Follow on Public Offer in February 2006. Presently 44.57 % of Share Capital is presently held by Institutions, Individuals and Others. Over the years, the Bank has earned the reputation of being a techno-savvy and is a front runner among public sector banks in modern-day banking trends. It is one of the pioneer public sector APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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banks, which launched Core Banking Solution in 2002. Under this solution umbrella, All Branches of the Bank have been 1135 networked ATMs, with online Telebanking facility made available to all its Core Banking Customers - individual as well as corporate. In addition to this, the versatile Internet Banking provides extensive information pertaining to accounts and facets of banking. Regular banking services apart, the customer can also avail of a variety of other value-added services like Cash Management Service, Insurance, Mutual Funds and Demat. The Bank will ever strive in its Endeavour to provide services to its customer and enhance its businesses thereby fulfilling its vision of becoming “THE BANK OF FIRST CHOICE IN OUR CHOSEN AREA BY BUILDING BENEFICIAL AND LASTING RELATIONSHIP WITH CUSTOMERS THROUGH A PROCESS OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT”.

The Vision Statement

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To become the bank of first choice in our chosen area by building beneficial and lasting relationship with the customers through a process of continuous process .

The Mission Statement  A logical extension of the Vision Statement is the Mission of the Bank,which is to gain market recognition in the chosen areas.  To build a sizeable market share in each of the chosen areas of business through effective strategies in terms of pricing, product packaging and promoting the product in the market.  To facilitate a process of restructuring of branches to support a greater efficiency in the retail banking field.  To sustain the mission objective through harnessing technology driven banking and delivery channels.  To promote confidence and commitment among the staff members, to address the expectations of the customers efficiently and handle technology banking with ease

BOARD OF DIRECTORS SHRI M.V.NAIR Chairman & Managing Director APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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SHRI T.Y. PRABHU Executive Director SHRI S.Raman Executive Director Government of India Nominee

SHRI K.V. EAPEN Government of India nominee on the recommendation of RBI. SHRI K. SIVARAMAN Chartered Accountant Director K.S. SREENIVASAN Director representing Workmen Employees SHRI N. SHANKAR Director representing Officer Employees DEBASIS GHOSH Government Nominee Director under General Category SMT. RANI SATISH Government Nominee Director under General Category

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SHRI ASHOK SINGH

Genesis of banking in India

Banking in India organized in the first decade of 18th century with The General bank of India coming into existence in 1786. This was followed by Bank of Hindustan. Both these banks are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India being established as “The Bank of Calcutta� in Calcutta in June 1806. Couple of decades later, foreign banks like APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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HSBC and Credit Lyonnais started their Calcutta operations in 1850s. At that point of time, Calcutta was the most active trading port, mainly due to the trade of the British Empire, and due to which banking activity took roots and prospered. The first fully Indian owned bank was the Allahabad Bank set up in 1865.

By the 1990s, the market expanded with the establishment of banks like Punjab National Bank, in 1895 in Lahore; Bank of India in 1906, in Mumbai- both of which were founded under private ownership. Indian banking sector was formally regulated by Reserve Bank of India from 1935. After India’s independence in 1947, the Reserve bank of India was nationalized and given broader powers.

Structure of the organized banking sector in India. Number of banks is in brackets.

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA

Central bank and supreme monetary authority Scheduled banks Commercial banks

APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

Cooperatives

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Foreign Banks[40]

Regional Rural Bank[196] Urban Cooperatives[52]

Public Sector Banks [27]

State Co-Op[16]

Private Sector Banks [30]

Old [22]

State Bank of India & Associate banks[8]

New [8]

Other nationalized banks [19]

SBI Group The Bank of Bengal, which later became the State Bank of India. SBI with its seven associate banks command the largest banking resources in India, SBI and its associates banks are : •

State Bank of India

State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur

State Bank of Hyderabad

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State Bank of Indore

State Bank of Mysore

State Bank of Patiala

State Bank of Saurashtra

State Bank of Travancore

Nationalization The next significant milestone in Indian banking happened in the late 1960s when the then Indira Gandhi Government nationalized, on 19th July, 1964. 14 major commercial Indian banks, followed by nationalization of 6 more commercial Indian banks in 1980. The stated reason for the nationalization was more control of credit delivery. After this, until the 1990s, the nationalized banks grew at a leisurely pace of around 4% also called as the Hindu growth of the Indian economy. Currently there are 19 nationalized banks.

Liberalization In the early 1990s the then Narsimha Rao government embarked on a policy of liberalization and gave license to a small number of private banks, which came to be known as New Generation tech-savvy banks, which included banks like ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank. This move along with the rapid growth with strong contribution from all the three sectors of banks, namely, government banks, private banks and foreign banks. However, there had been a few hiccups for these new banks with many either being taken over like Global Trust Bank have found the going tough.

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The next stage for the India banking has been setup with the proposed relaxation in the norms for Foreign Direct Investment, where all Foreign Investors in banks may be given voting rights which could exceed the present cap of 100%.

Retail loans Offered by the Union Bank of India

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Union Home: Eligibility •

Indian Citizen - 21 years and above.

Either single account or joint account with other family members viz., father, mother, wife, son or daughter with regular source of income.

Individuals who may be employed/self-employed in business having regular income.

A minimum of 40% marks as per investment grade scoring chart.

Purpose •

Purchase of independent house/flat.

Construction of independent house/flat.

Repair/Improvement/Extension.

Repayment of loan availed from another agency/Bank/NBFC.

For purchase/ construction of 2nd property (independent house/flat)

Plot sold by a Government-recognized agency viz., HUDA, HOUSEFED and such others.

Quantum APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Max. Rs. 100 lacs for major 'A' class cities; for other cities Rs.50 lacs

Max. Rs. 10 lacs for repair.

Margin •

For purchase/construction, 20% of the value of independent house/flat.

For repairs, 20% of total cost of repair.

For purchase of plot, 20% of the value of the plot.

Repayment •

Moratorium up to 18 months wherever loan is taken for under construction flat or building.

By EMI.

The maximum repayment period should not exceed 20 years for construction / purchase of house/ flat and 10 years for repair.

Option of Flip/Step-up/Balloon methods of repayments for the convenience of the borrowers.

Special Package (w.e.f. 16.12.2008) Free Life Insurance Coverage for outstanding loan No processing Charges No Prepayment Charges Loan up to 5 Lac : 8.50% (reset After 5 year) Margin : 10% by borrower Loan from 5 Lac to 20 Lac : 9.25% (reset After 5 year) APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Margin : 15 % by borrower Special Combo Offer for Home Loan effective from 15.05.2009 to 30.09.2009 Special Combo Offer is applicable for loan upto 50 lacs Loan upto Rs. 30 Lacs Tenor

Upto 5 year

>5 Year to 10

>10 Year to 20 Year

Year Ist Year 2nd Year till final repayment

8.00% BPLR

- 2.75%

i.e . 9.25 %

8.00%

8.00%

BPLR - 2.50 %

BPLR - 2.25 %

I .e. 9.50 %

i.e 9.75 %

>5 Year to 10

>10 Year to 20 Year

Loan over Rs 30 Lacs upto 50 Lacs Tenor

Upto 5 year

Year Ist Year 2nd Year till final

8.00% BPLR

repayment APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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- 2.50%

8.00%

8.00%

BPLR - 2.25 %

BPLR - 2.00 %


i.e . 9.50 %

I .e. 9.75 %

i.e 10.00 %

Features Applicable for the borrowers who availed loan up to Rs. 50 lacs only. Free life insurance policy will not be availed to the borrower. No takeover account from other bank/ institution to be permitted. All other terms and conditions of Union Home Loan scheme will remain unchanged

Rate of Interest (w.e.f. 01.04.2009 ) Up to Rs 30 Lacs

Above Rs 30 lacs upto Rs 50 Lacs

Above Rs 50 lacs

As on 01.04.2009

As on 01.04.2009

As on 01.04.2009

Floating

Floating

Floating

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Upto 5 Yrs.

Upto 5 Yrs.

Upto 5 Yrs.

BPLR-2.75% = 9.25%

BPLR-2.50% =9.50%

BPLR-2.25% =9.75%

>5 Yrs to 10 Yrs

>5 Yrs to 10 Yrs

>5 Yrs to 10 Yrs

BPLR-2.50% = 9.50%

BPLR-2.25% =9.75%

BPLR-1.75% =10.25%

>10 Yrs to 15 Yrs

>10 Yrs to 15 Yrs

>10 Yrs to 15 Yrs

BPLR-2.25% = 9.75%

BPLR-2.00% =10.00%

BPLR-1.50% =10.50%

>15 Yrs to 20 Yrs

>15 Yrs to 20 Yrs

>15 Yrs to 20 Yrs

BPLR-2.25% = 9.75%

BPLR-2.00% = 10.00%

BPLR-1.50% = 10.50%

Fixed rates - upto Rs 30 lacs - 9.75% (upto 5 years) Above Rs 30 lacs - 10.75% (upto 5 years)

BPLR = 12.00% with effect from 01.04.09

Processing Charges inclusive of applicable service tax •

0.50% of loan amount subject to a maximum of Rs.15000/- plus service tax as applicable

0.25% of the loan amount at the time of application plus service tax as applicable

0.25% of loan amount on acceptance of sanction plus service tax as applicable

Insurance •

Free Building Insurance.

Natural Death (other than accidental death) may be covered under Union Home Plus, which is optional and additional loan can be sanctioned.

Free Personal accident coverage (in case of death).

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Value Added Services •

Credit Card will be issued (free of admission fees and annual fees during first year)

Triple Insurance benefit

No hidden or built-in costs

Quick processing and disposal of loan applications

Flexible repayment options

Guarantee Third party guarantee is not mandatory. HOME LOAN FOR PURCHASE OF 2nd PROPERTY (HOUSE/FLAT/BETTER ACCOMMODATION) Co-Applicant •

Prospective borrower can include spouse or any other co-owner as a co-applicant.

To enhance the loan amount, co-applicant's income can be taken into account while calculating repayment capacity.

Eligibility •

Loan can be availed for the second property even while the existing house/flat is under mortgage to Banks/Financial Institutions (subject to conditions).

Quantum •

Depends on the repayment capacity as well as the cost of the property.

80% of the cost (cost will include cost of house, stamp duty, registration fees, transfer fees, if any, and all such charges.) subject to maximum of Rs.50,00,000 or 4 times the gross annual income, whichever is less.

Repayment

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Maximum repayment period is 20 years (including moratorium) OR permissible up to the retirement age of the borrower OR 65 years (in case of professionals/businessmen) whichever is earlier.

The existing house to be disposed off in 12 months time (optional) and sale proceeds to be deposited in the loan account.

The EMI would be fixed on balance amount outstanding in the account.

Margin •

If money from the sale proceeds of the existing house is deposited in the account, the same would be treated as margin.

Security •

Similar to Home Loan.

Processing Charges ( Processing charges excluding applicable service tax ) 0.50% of loan amount subject to a maximum of Rs.15000/- and payable •

0.25% of the loan amount at the time of application plus service tax as applicable

0.25% of loan amount on acceptance of sanction plus applicable as applicable

Other Attractive Features •

No prepayment penalty

Free Insurance facility against Fire, allied perils including Earthquake, Personal Accident (Death)

Flexible repayment schedule

Easy and convenient EMIs

Loan sanctioned within 72 hours of receipt of application in full as per requirement.

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Option to pay interest on a daily reducing balance basis.

Other Conditions: No Prepayment penalty if the loan is adjusted by the borrower from his own verifiable legitimate sources or genuine sale. However, 2% charged on an average o/s. balance of last 12 months if loan is closed on take over by other Banks / Financial Institutions.

Union Top up: ELIGIBILITY Existing home loan borrowers (Standard Assets with regular EMI repayment) who  Are salaried/professional & self employed, agriculturists or business men having regular source of Income.  Have repaid minimum 24 EMIs in Home loan account and  Where net take home pay/monthly income is not be less than 35% of gross monthly income/earnings after considering all deductions including the EMI of the proposed TOP-up Loan.

PURPOSE To meet any type of expenditure in respect of the House viz. repairs/renovation/ remodeling / furnishing etc. NATURE OF FACILITY APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Term Loan (Floating) QUANTUM The maximum amount of loan can be extended upto 50% of EMIs repaid subject to minimum of Rs.50,000/- to Maximum of Rs.5,00,000/-

RATE OF INTEREST (w.e.f. 01.04.2009)

Union

(Original Housing Loan

(Original Housing Loan

Top-Up

Limit upto Rs.30 lacs)

Limit Above Rs.30 lacs)

Term

BPLR – 1.75% i.e. 10.25%

BPLR –1.00% i.e. 11.00%

Loan

(Floating)

(Floating)

MARGIN 50% [i.e. only 50% of the amount already repaid will be considered as top-up loan subject to maximum cap]. PROCESSING CHARGES 0.50% of the Top-up Loan amount. SECURITY Existing Mortgaged House will continue as security (the house for which housing loan is extended and is secured by EM.). GUARANTEE Guarantee is applicable wherever guarantee is taken in the existing Home Loan. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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REPAYMENT The maximum repayment period is of 5 years or left over period for the borrower before he attains retirement or 60 years of age which ever is earlier. Term loan is subject to review every year TAX BENEFITS Accrued interest on Top-up loan is eligible for exemption under section 24 of Income Tax Act, provided the loan is granted for the purposes of renovation, additions, repairs or reconstructions of house property. However, if the loan is granted for furnishing of house, such exemption is not available. (The Installments towards repayment of Principal is not eligible for exemption under Income Tax).

Union Miles: Union Miles Scheme is offered to individuals /frims for vehicle finance for thier personal use. ELIGIBILITY •

Individuals of the age 18 years and above

•

Permanent employee of Central/State/Defence/Police Force/Public or Joint Sector Undertaking/reputed firms/ established Educational Inst.

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Professional/Businessmen having regular income.

Borrower has at least minimum services to liquidate the loan 1 year prior to retirement.

Firms / Companies.

A Minimum of 40% marks as per investment grade scoring chart

PURPOSE •

For Purchase of new two/four wheelers, for personal or professional use

Second hand vehicles upto 3 years old also eligible.

QUANTUM 4 Wheeler- 4 times the net income /net annual salary subject to a maximum loan of Rs 25 lacs for new vehicle and Rs 10 lacs for old vehicle 2 Wheeler- 4 times the net income /net annual salary subject to a maximum loan of Rs 1 lacs for new vehicle

MARGIN •

15% of cost of vehicle.

50% of old vehicle.

Under tie-up - 10%. or agreed upon

REPAYMENT •

4 Wheelers - A Maximum of 60 months in Equated Monthly Installments(EMIs).

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2 Wheelers - A Maximum of 36 months in Equated Monthly Installments(EMIs). Under Tie-up ------------4 Wheelers - A Maximum of 84 EMIs (Ford India) 2 Wheelers - A Maximum of 60 EMIs (Bajaj Auto Ltd.)

RATE OF INTEREST (w.e.f. 01.04.2009) Period

Rate Of Interest

4 wheelers Upto 3 Years Above 3 Years

11.00% p.a 11.25% p.a

Rate of Interest (w.e.f 01.04.2009) 2 Wheelers Upto 3 Years

12.75% p.a

Above 3 Years

13.25% p.a

Old Cars(< 3 Years)

13.25% p.a

PROCESSING CHARGES (EXCLUDING SERVICE TAX) •

Two Wheelers Rs. 250

Four Wheelers Rs. 500 per vehicle for Loan upto Rs. 2 Lacs.

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Four Wheelers Rs. 1000 per vehicle for Loan over Rs. 2 Lacs.

SECURITY •

Hypothecation of vehicle financed by the Bank.

Bank's lien to be got noted with the Transport Authorities.

GUARANTEE Guarantee of the spouse. In case unmarried, third party guarantee with sufficient means. OTHER CONDITIONS •

No Pre-Payment penalty if the loan is adjusted by the borrower from his own verifiable legitimate sources or genuine sale. However, 2% charged on an average o/s. balance of last 12 months if loan is closed on take over by other Bank/Financial Institutes

Comprehensive Insurance with Bank Clause.

Salary Certificate/proof of income and proof of residence to be obtained and held on record.

Union Comfort: ELIGIBILITY •

Age 18 yrs completed.

Permanent employee of Central Government / State Government/ Defence / Police Force / Autonomous bodies / Public / Joint Sector undertaking / Corporations / Limited Companies / Firms / Established Educational Institutions.

Individuals having regular income.

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Tax payers, Non-I-T permissible if annual pay Rs.1 lac or more and net take home annual pay Rs.0.40 lac - after deducting EMI of present loan.

Salary accounts with financing branch.

Min. 40% marks as per investment grade scoring chart.

PURPOSE To meet personal expenses or purchase of consumer durables. QUANTUM •

6 months net salary not exceeding Rs. 1 lac for salaried class.

For others, 50% of annual income as per last 2 IT returns (not exceeding Rs.1 lac.)

MARGIN Nil. REPAYMENT In 36 Euated Monthly Instalments(EMIs). Repayment starts from the nest month of disbursement of loans. RATE OF INTEREST (w.e.f. 01.04.2009) •

15.00%.

Concession in the rate of interest can be considered by Regional Head in case of group borrowers.

10% under HCL Tie-up scheme for purchase of PCs.

PROCESSING CHARGES (EXCLUDING SERVICE TAX) •

Rs. 100 upto Rs. 10,000/-

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Rs. 250 upto Rs. 50,000/-

Rs. 500 above Rs. 50,000/-

SECURITY One Guarantor having means equivalent to the loan amount, Hypothecation Of Asset wherever applicable. OTHER CONDITIONS •

Proof of Income (Salary Certificate).

Proof of Residence (latest Tel. Bill/Electricity Bill/Employer's Certificate)

Irrevocable undertaking letter from the employer for recovery of installment from salary every month and to remit to bank directly.

Irrevocable undertaking by the borrower authorising the Bank to recover the loan installments from his/her salary A/c./SB A/c. with the Branch.

* Prevailing Rate of Interest will be applicable as on date of sanction.

Union Education: The scheme aims at providing financial assistance on reasonable terms: •

To the poor and needy students that they may undertake basic education

To meritorious students that they may pursue higher or professional or technical education

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ELIGIBILITY The student applying for UNION EDUCATION Loan ought to: •

Be an Indian National

Has secured admission to professional or technical courses through an appropriate Entrance Test or selection process

Has secured admission to a foreign University

Has passed an appropriate qualifying examination a. Studies in India 

School education up to +2

Graduation/Post-Graduation

Professional course

Management course

Special Education Loan Scheme for Students pursuing courses from approved institutions like IITs/IIMs/ /NIT XLRI/BITS/VIT/IISc/S.P. Jain Institute Of Management/Symbiosis Institute Of Management and T.S. Chanakya, Navi Mumbai- Nautical Science and MERI, Calcutta, Marine Engineering, MERI, Mumbai, Maritime Science.

b. Studies Abroad : 

Graduation: For job-oriented professional or technical courses offered by reputed universities

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Post-Graduation: MCA, MBA, MS and such other courses

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Courses conducted by CIMA, London, CPA, USA., and such other institution PURPOSE To the poor and needy students to undertake basic education. To meritorious students to pursue higher or professional or technical education. CONDITIONS •

The Parent/Guardian of the student who is availing loan from our bank shall be made coobligator/joint borrower irrespective of the age of such students.

The Loan Accounts of students applying through college/institutions will be sanctioned/disbursed at the branch nearest to permanent residence/place of domicile of the borrower student.

Loan will be disbursed directly to the college/institute.

Student to produce mark list of previous term/semester before availing next installment.

Student /Parent to provide latest mailing address before availing next installment.

In case of parents with transferable job, new address to be provided before availing installments.

QUANTUM OF LOAN Need-based finance subject to repayment capacity of the parent or student with margin and upto the following ceilings

For studies in India - Up to Rs. 10 lacs For studies abroad - Up to Rs. 20 lacs APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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MARGIN No margin for loans up to Rs. 4.00 lacs . However, for loan of higher amounts, the margin requirement is 5% for inland studies and 15% for studies abroad. Scholarship/assistance to be included in margin. Margin maybe brought in on pro-rata basis as and when disbursement is made REPAYMENT Repayment holiday or Moratorium on loan: Course period + 1 year OR 6 months after job placement, whichever is earlier. Starting from this point, the loan is to be repaid in 5-7 years after completion of course period/moratorium. RATE OF INTEREST(w.e.f 01.04.2009) For Male Student : Up to Rs. 4.00 lakhs

:

11.75% (Fixed)

Above Rs. 4.00 lakhs upto Rs.7.50 lakhs : Above Rs. 7.50 lakhs :

12.50% (Fixed) 12.00% (Fixed)

For Female Student: Up to Rs. 4.00 lakhs

:

11.25% (Fixed)

Above Rs. 4.00 lakhs upto Rs.7.50 lakhs : Above Rs. 7.50 lakhs

:

12.00% (Fixed) 11.50% (Fixed)

For Special Education Loan Scheme : Special scheme For IIM students : 10.50% for Male : 10.25 % for Female APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Special Scheme for BSc in Nautical Science,Marine Engg,Maritime Science : 11% Special Scheme IIT/NIFT students: 10.50% for male : 10.25% for Female Special Scheme for XLRI.BITS/VIT/IISC/SYMBOISIS/SP JAIN/NIT : 11.00% Special Scheme for students of ISB(Indian School of Business) only for Hyderabad : 10.50% for male 10.00% for Female Special scheme for students of Asian Institute of Management : 11.00% Simple interest will be calculated during repayment holiday/moratorium period.Interest rate is fixed and will not undergo any change till the loan amount is repaid in full PROCESSING CHARGES NIL SECURITY Upto Rs. 4 lakh : No security Above Rs 4 Lakh & upto Rs 7.5 lakh : a suitable third party / personal guarantee However for loans above Rs 7.5 lakh, Collateral security of suitable value along with coobligation of parents / guardian / third party / accompanied by assignment of future income of student for the payment of installments is required. A Life insurance policy from Insurance company for a sum not less than the loan amount is required to be taken in the name of the student and duly assigned in favour of Union Bank. OTHER CONDITIONS Loans can be considered for eligible students in case they approach the Bank in the subsequent year of the commencement of the course. Branches can issue Bank Guarantee, for payment seats wherever required. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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No Prepayment penalty if the loan is adjusted by the borrower from his own verifiable legitimate sources or genuine sale. However, 2% charged on an average o/s. balance of last 12 months if loan is closed on take over by other Banks / Financial Institutions. The Loan Accounts of students applying through college/institutions will be sanctioned/disbursed at the branch nearest to permanent residence/place of domicile of the borrower student. No Pre-Payment penalty for self-closure. However, 2% charged on an average o/s. balance of last 12 months if loan is closed on take over by other Bank/FIs. Union Education Scheme for Commercial Pilot Training Programme / Course Nature of course/training programme Commercial Pilot Training / Course Eligibility Should be Indian National. Should have secured admission to the relevant course through admission test.

Should have secured admission to the foreign institutions for studies abroad. Duration of the Course 12-24 months Type Of Institution 1. For Course / Training programme in India: Government or recognized Private Institute approved by Director general Of Civil aviation, Government Of India. 2. For course/training programme abroad: The course/ training programme should have been offered by recognized institutions abroad approved by competent authority in that country eg. in U.S.A the Federal Aviation Administration, Govt. Of U.S.A.

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The licenses issued by such institution should be convertible into corresponding Indian Licences in case the applicant desires to take up employment in India after completion of course/ training abroad, as per directives of Director General Of Civil aviation, Government of India. Quantum Of Loan Nil margin up to Rs.4 lacs. Min.5 % margin for loans above Rs. 4.lacs in India. Min.15% Margin for loans above Rs. 4 lacs for studies abroad. Scholarships/ assistance to be included in Margin. Margin to be brought in year to year whenever disbursement made on pro rata basis. Rate Of Interest Male

Female

For loans up to Rs. 4 lacs

11.75% 11.25%

For Loans above Rs.. 4 lacs and Below 7.5 lacs

12.50% 12.00%

For Loan above Rs. 7.5 lacs

12.00% 11.50%

(1% concession if interest is serviced during moratorium period) Security No security up to Rs. 4 lacs. Loan above Rs. 4 lacs and upto Rs. 7.50 lacs- personal guarantee to the satisfaction of the bank. For loans above Rs. 7.50 lacs- suitable collateral security/third party guarantee acceptable to the bank. Life insurance policy for a sum not less than the loan to be taken on the life of the student/ applicant and assigned in favor of the BanK.

Union Mortgage: APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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ELIGIBILITY Any qualified medical practitioner / Dentist in the age group of 25 to 60 years with minimum three years experience and in the age group of 25 to 60 years. Firms / Companies engaged in medical profession in which Doctors / Dentist are Partners or Directors or the Proprietor. QUANTUM An amount equivalent to 75% of the equipment cost and other Assets to be financed.

MARGIN Minimum 25% of cost of equipments and other assets to be financed. REPAYMENT Maximum 7 years including initial moratorium period of 3/6 months - By Equated Monthly Instalments.

RATE OF INTEREST (w.e.f. 01.04.2009) (BPLR=12.00%) A Fixed Interest rate of 12.50% for Individuals and 12.50% for others. Interest rate will not undergo any change till full repayment of the loan . PROCESSING CHARGES(EXCLUDING SERVICE TAX) 0.50% of loan amount. SECURITY Hypothecation of equipment / items purchased out of Bank finance. Collateral security 50% of loan amount. EM of premises in case the loan is for acquiring premises APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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OTHER CONDITIONS Third Party gurantee is not mandatory No Prepayment penality if the loan is adjusted by the borrower from his own verifiable legitimate sources or genuine sale. However, 2% charged on an average o/s. balance of last 12 months if loan is closed on take over by other Banks / Financial Institutions. * Rate of Interest prevailing on the date of sanction shall be applicable. Union Mortgage Scheme [Scheme for financing against Mortgage of immovable property] ELIGIBILITY Any Individual in the age group of 18-60 years of age owning residential/ commercial property (land/plot/ building) and who are Income-Tax assesses having net monthly income of Rs.10,000/- pm in the case of salaried persons and an annual income of Rs.1.20 lacs p.a. in the case of non salaried perosns. Earning family members income can also be clubbed to arrive the eligibility criteria. Individuals who are not Income Tax assessees also eligible for this scheme, subject to production of proof of income acceptable to the Bank. A minimum 40 points as per investment grade scoring chart. PURPOSE To meet any personal expenditure of varied needs like marriage of children, higher education, medical expnses or any unforeseen expnses and also as liquidity finance. QUANTUM OF LOAN APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Metro/Urban Semi Urban - Minimum Rs. 1 lac. Rs.1 lac - Maximum Rs. 50 Lac. Rs.25 lacs subject to 36 times of gross monthly income of salaried persons(Net of all deductions including TDS etc.) whichever is less OR - 2 times the Net annual Income in case of others (Income as per the latest IT return less taxes payable) whichever is lesser. NATURE FACILITY Facility can be given in the form of Term Loan or Secured Overdraft. However, SOD Facility will not be considered for salaried persons

MARGIN 50% of the fair market value of the property mortgaged as per the latest valuation report not older than six months from an approved valuer of the Bank. Fresh valuation at the cost of the borrower(s) once in three years required during currency of advance. REPAYMENT Loan amount together with interest is to be repaid in maximum 60 equal monthly installments. Post-dated cheques fot the 60 EMIs will be collected up-front. Subject to closure of the loan with full adjustment prior to the retirement in case of salaried class RATE OF INTEREST (LATEST RATE OF INTEREST WILL BE APPLICABLE) APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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- Fixed Rate ----

15.25%

- Floating rate ---- BPLR + 2.50% i.e.. 14.50% - 2% penal interest to be levied on overdue installment. [ Present BPLR is 12.00% ] PROCESSING CHARGES (EXCLUDING SERVICE TAX) One time fee of 0.50% of the loan amount, collected up front. SECURITY Equitable Mortgage of non-encumbered residential house/flat, commercial or industrial property situated in Metro, Urban & Semi-urban centres only in the name and possesion of the borrower and/or his/her family member.

SOD limit is subject to review/renewal every year. SOD interest to be serviced every month OTHER CONDITIONS No Prepayment penalty if the loan is adjusted by the borrower from his own verfiable legitimate sources or genuine sale. However, 2% charged on an average outstanding balance of last 12 months if loan is closed on take over by other Banks/Financial Institutions. UNION SHARES ELIGIBILITY Individuals holding shares/debentures/bonds either in their name or jointly. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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PURPOSE Personal purposes like Education, Housing, Consumer Goods and such other needs. QUANTUM OF ADVANCE The maximum amount that can be granted is up to Rs.20.00 Lacs for security held ONLY in DEMAT Form. PERIOD 3 years for Loan repayable in installments. SOD facility to be renewed/reviewed every year. RATE OF INTEREST (w.e.f. 01.04.2009) (BPLR = 12.00%) Rate of Interest BPLR+4.50% i.e. 16.50% SECURITY Pledge of shares of those companies approved by the Bank (Please refer to nearest branch of Bank for the list of approved companies) OTHER CONDITION No PrePayment penalty for self-closure. However, 2% charged on an average o/s. balance of last 12 months if loan is closed on take over by other Bank/Financial Insitutions

Union Cash ELIGIBILITY

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Retired employees of Government / Semi Government undertakings, Banks and other reputed private organisations etc. who draw fixed income / pension through our Bank. PURPOSE To meet financial requirements. TYPE OF LOAN: •

Demand Loan repayable in installments with a maximum repayment tenure of 36 months

Term Loan with repayment tenure of above 36 months and maximum upto 48 months.

QUANTUM Upto Rs.1,00,000/- or 12 times the monthly pension, whichever is less. MARGIN 25% in case of Deposit Receipts / NSC / Bonds issued by Government of India / Financial Institutions. 50% in case of Shares & Debentures. REPAYMENT 12 – 36 EMIs in case of Demand Loan repayable in Installments Above 36 to 48 EMIs in the case of Term Loan RATE OF INTEREST (w.e.f. 01.04.2009) A fixed interest rate of 13.75% (Fixed) PROCESSING CHARGES (EXCLUDING SERVICE TAX) APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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NO Processing charges. SECURITY Pledge of Deposit Receipts / Shares / Debentures of corporates of good standing, NSCs Bonds issued by Government of India / Financial Institutions etc. Where sufficient security is not available, personal guarantee of spouse or a person who is the nominee under pension scheme is to be obtained. In genuine cases, the Bank may consider this facility on a clean basis. OTHER CONDITIONS Declaration is required from the spouse who is eligible for family pensio

UNION SMILE Pensioners & salaried class who are drawing their pension/ salary throu gh Union Bank of India. PURPOSE To meet unforeseen medical expenses, timely payment of dues to State Electricity Board, Telephone, School fees and water charge and other such needs. QUANTUM Maximum 90% of one monthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pension/salary credited in the account MARGIN 10% REPAYMENT

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Entire amount of overdraft and interest should be recovered while crediting next pension/salary. Otherwise, it can be recovered in installments within a period of 3 months, if so required by borrower. RATE OF INTEREST (w.e.f. 01.04.2009) (BPLR=12.00%) 2% of the amount of overdraft in the account every month. Interest to be recovered as and when the pension /salary is credited. PROCESSING CHARGES Nil. SECURITY Nil.

OTHER CONDITIONS The facility can be allowed on an ongoing basis by liquidating earlier dues. Pensioners of Union Bank of India are also eligible.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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This chapter basically deals with all the important research works done in the same field as that of the projects topic. Credit appraisal is not something new, right from the olden days, men has appraised people, places etc. so that he can bring them to his own personal use and profit from them. Behavioral science explains rating scales used to measure if not gauge the human psyche to a certain extent. The same way credit appraisal too has its own procedure. Some of the important findings and researches areâ&#x20AC;Ś This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a decision support system (DSS) for credit management. This study formed a part of a larger initiative to assess the effectiveness of IT-based credit management processes at the State Bank of India (SBI). Such a study was necessitated since credit appraisal has emerged to become a critical sub-function in Indian banks in view of growing incidence of non-performing assets. The DSS that we assessed was a credit appraisal system developed in Quattro ProÂŽ at SBI. This system helps in the analysis of balance sheets, calculation of financial ratios, cash flow analysis, future projections, sensitivity analysis and risk evaluation as per SBI norms. We used a strong quasi-experimental design, called the Solomon's four-group design, for our assessment. In our experiment, managers of SBI who attended training programs at the SBI training college, were the subjects. The experiment consisted of measurements that were taken as pre- and post-tests. An experimental intervention was applied between the pre-tests and the post-tests. The intervention, or stimulus, consisted of DSS training and use. There were four groups in our experiment. The stimulus remained constant as we took care to ensure that the course contents as well as the instructors remained the same during the course of our experiment. Two were experimental groups and two were the control groups. All four groups underwent training in credit management between the pre- and post-tests. Results from our research show that while the DSS is effective, improvements need to be made in the methodology to assess such improvements. Moreover, such assessment frameworks, while being adequate from a DSS-centric viewpoint, do not respond to the assessment of a DSS in an organizational setting. In our concluding section, we have discussed how this evaluative framework can be strengthened to initiate an activity that will allow the long-term, and possibly the only meaningful, evaluation framework for such a system. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Pension fund industry in India grew at a CAGR of 122.44% from 1999-00 to 2006-07.In terms of ownership, debit cards are more in number than credit cards but in terms of transactions, use of credit cards is more prevalent than debit cards. The ATM outlets in India increased at a rate of 28.09% from March 2006 to March 2007.Outstanding Education loan segment is expected to grow at 36.41% till March 2009 from March 2007 onwards to cross Rs. 27000 Crore Mark.Two-wheeler finance industry is projected to forge ahead at a CAGR of 14.21% till 2009-10 from 2005-06.Indian Mutual Fund industry witnessed a growth of 49.88% from May 2006 to May 2007, and a higher 215.61% growth was recorded in closed ended schemes. Increasing number of millionaires in India is increasing the scope of Wealth Management Services. Bankable households in India are estimated to move up at a CAGR of 28.10% during 2007-2011. Information Sources Information has been sourced from books, newspapers, trade journals, and white papers, industry portals, government agencies, trade associations, monitoring industry news and developments, and through access to more than 3000 paid databases. This section covers the key facts about the major players (including Public, Private, and Foreign sector) in the Indian Banking Industry, including Bank of Baroda, State Bank of India, Canara Bank, Punjab National Bank, HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, Kotak Mahindra Bank, Citibank, Standard Chartered Bank, HSBC Bank, ABN AMRO Bank, American Express, etc.

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CHAPTER III INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT

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In todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scenario, it is very important to understand that every industry needs to brace itself and hedge itself against risks. Risks are of various kinds and in different magnitude. No matter which industry or sector the company belongs it needs to update every day itself to the various things happening all over the world which may directly or indirectly affect its business, growth and potential in the market. With banks the scene is no different, whenever there comes some slowdown or the market slouches the banks are effected too. Banks are directly related to people and industry and market. In the recent times, we have seen that the retail loan section of the banks have come up as one of the important areas. All the big industry, small and medium enterprises and individuals, avail loans for all their purposes. The important thing in this case is that, banks canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t give loans to everyone. They need to check the credit worthiness of the borrower. To rate the worthiness of an individual to that of a company there are various methods. From checking their market image, their past record, potential and security provided, it is decided whether they are worthy enough or not. To talk in more financial terms, for corporate loans there are various methods like balance sheet analysis, fund flow and cash flow analysis, working capital management, ratio analysis etc. Every bank also has their own credit rating system; they take into consideration a number of things, apart from financial workings. All this and more is discussed at length in the coming chapter.

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RISK MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISE- WIDE RISK MANAGEMENT-EXPECTATIONS FROM THE FIELD Introduction : Risk is an integral part of any business environment, more so in the case of Banks, which are in the business of financial intermediation. The word Risk is derived from the Italian word ‘Risicare’ which means to dare. Risk can be identified, measured and managed while uncertainty remains altogether unknown and hence unmanageable. The first step to be recognized is that risk has two distinct phases : risk as opportunity and risk as hazard. Risk as opportunity is implicit in the relationship that exists between risk and return. Risk as hazard is what most of us mean by the term. The second characteristic is that risk is always in future. It always pertains to what can happen but not what has happened. The third characteristic of risk Is that it keeps changing with time. Risk management tus is a process which manages and controls all the three activities. How does risk matter to the bank? Banks and Financial Institutions perform the essential function of channelizing funds from those with surplus funds to those with shortage of funds. Broadly, the risks by the banks today can be classified as under: I.

Credit Risk : it’s one of the major risks faced by the banks on account of the nature of their business activity, which includes dealing with or lending to a corporate, individual, another bank, financial institution or a country. Credit risk includes borrowers risk and

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portfolio risk. Borrower risk may be defined as the possibility that a borrower will fail to meet his obligations in accordance with agreed terns. It may also be reflected in the downgrading of the standing of the borrower making him more vulnerable to possibility of defaults. Portfolio risk arises due to credit concentration/investment concentration etc. II.

Market Risk : market risk is the potential of erosion in income or market value of an asset arising due to changes in market variables, such as interest rate, foreign exchange rate, equity prices and commodity prices. a) Transaction Rate Risk : The risk in the erosion of earnings due to variation in interest rate within a given time zone is referred to as interest rate risk. Interest rate risk may itself arise on account of gap or mismatch risk, basis risk, embedded options risk, yield curve risk etc.

b) Exchange Rate Risk : this risk is of two types viz. transaction risk and translation risk. Transaction risk â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it is observed when movements in price of a currency, upward or downward, results in a loss of a particular transaction. Transaction risk also destabilizes the anticipated cash flows. Translation risk â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in a situation of translation, the Balance Sheet of a Bank, when converted in home currency, undergoes a drastic change, chiefly owing to exchange rate movements and changes in the level of investments or borrowings in foreign currency even without having translation at a particular point of time.

Forex risk arises when a bank is holding foreign exchange assets or liabilities that have not been hedged against movement in exchange rates. This position is referred to as open position. Forex APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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risk affects both spot and forward position of the bank. Banks are also exposed to movement in forward premium rates, which is a manifestation of interest rate movements, when there is a mismatch in the maturity pattern of forward transactions. c) Equity Price Risk : the risk arises from the potential of an institution to suffer losses on its exposure to capital markets, from adverse movements in prices of equity. d) Commodity Price Risk : the risk arises from the potential of movements in prices of physical products, which are or can be traded in the secondary market. These products include agricultural products, minerals, oils and precious metals.

III.

Liquidity Risk : it arises due out of the possibility that a bank maybe unable to meet its liabilities as they become due for payment or may be to find the liabilities at a cost much higher than normal cost. The risk arises due to mismatch in the timing of inflows and outflows of funds, and from funding of long term assets by short- term liabilities. Surplus liquidity could also represent a loss to the bank in terms of earnings missed and hence an earning risk.

Operational Risk – it arises out of malfunctioning of information systems or service delivery process or internal sabotage. In all these cases, the losses are similar and even can generate losses of unknown magnitude. Systemic Risk – banks are highly inter-related with mutual commitments. Hence the failure of one institution generates a risk of failure for those other banks which have committed funds with defaulting bank. Solvency Risk – it occurs when the bank is landed in a chronic situation of not able to meet its obligation. This type of risk gives the ultimate impression that the bank has failed. Other Risks – there are some other categories of risks also such as compliance risk, tax risk etc. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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WHY RISK MANAGEMENT IS GAINING SIGNIFICANCE: Risk Management is not new to bank, as banking has always been associated with risk. But risk environment that was prevalent in pre- reform period was much different than what it is today. The emphasis then was on achieving â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;reasonableâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; level of profits instead of maximizing profits and share holder value. In other words, risks in the normal course of business were taken by banks, but without much emphasis on managing them. Interest rates then were totally administered; credit ceilings were in place and allocation of credit was done as per the directives. All these practically ensured that the banks had no incentives whatsoever in risk management. However the ongoing financial sector reforms have changed the ball game of banking today. As compared to the practice of focusing only on achieving higher deposit growth, in the current context the need for proper management of assets and liabilities has gained importance, heightened by the need for containment of non â&#x20AC;&#x201C; performing assets and attendant provisioning. Generating internal surplus has assumed critical importance as meeting the prescribed capital, standard has become inevitable. This calls for allocating the resources optimally and managing the attendant risk suitably. Here lies the major change in the risk environment for banks. With tighter prudential accounting norms and higher capital standards, banks have to reckon the risks they are assuming and returns there on. In other words, while funding costs will have to be APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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reduced by sourcing funds at the lowest cost, income has to be maximized by allocating the resources optimally between various assets depending upon the risk return trade off and taking into account the constraints in maintaining and improving the capital standard. In other words, the sources and uses of funds will have to be seen in a holistic manner and not in isolation as hitherto. Besides, the paradigm shifts, in the operating environment, the major and minor banking failures during the last decade, has brought into sharp focus the need for risk management. The east Asian melt down has especially proved that banks have to per se relate their profitability to risks

being assumed and managed by them and sustain a prescribed level of capital standard. The focus has further shifted to generating adequate level of profits, so that it will ensure not only future growth but also lead to increase in capital which is critical in ensuring the confidence of depositors and other stake holders. In essence, the foundation of risk management lie in the following â&#x20AC;&#x201C; -

Banks should exercise control on their assets and liabilities, on the return and costs, to achieve the desired goal.

-

Such controls in turn, should be coordinated and integrated so as to accommodate attendant priorities and risks and should help in maximizing interest rate spread.

-

Cost and yield arise from both the sides of the balance sheet and our policies should be to maximize the spread and minimize the burden.

Management of risk and profitability are therefore inextricably linked. As various risks are interdependent, an integrated approach to all the risks faced by a bank is considered most appropriate. Initiatives by Reserve bank of India APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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In a view of the important role banks play in the economy and in the payment and settlement system, banks are always subject to more regulation by the Central Bank. RBI has taken various supervisory initiatives to induce better operating standards in banks, greater transparency and sensitivity towards risk management. Various guidelines, on the subject matter are outlined below: •

Guidelines on Asset Liability Management in banks which includes

February 1999

• •

Liquidity and Interest Rate Risk Guidelines on Risk Management Systems in Banks Guidelines Notes on Credit Risks and Market Risks

October 1999 March 2002

• •

Discussion paper on ‘Move towards Risk Based Supervision’ Detailed risk profile template to assist banks in undertaking self

October 2002 August 2001 July 2002

assessment of risks. Guidelines on Risk based Internal Audit

December 2002

Action points include : -

Identifying gaps in existing risk management practices and procedures and chart out policies and strategies and road map for addressing the gaps.

-

Putting in place required Organization Structure.

-

Articulate “Risk Management philosophy, policy and risk limits.

-

Put in place robust credit rating system covering all risk issues for rating the borrower.

-

Inter Bank limits and exposures.

-

Country and transfer risk management.

-

System to measure and monitor liquidity and interest rate risk.

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-

Policy and limits for operational risks. Develop internal processes and expertise in risk aggregation and capital allocation.

-

Develop methodology for estimating and maintaining economic capital.

RBI is closely monitoring the progress in implementation of risk management systems in banks through periodical review, individual assessment, meetings with management etc.

Credit Risk Lending involves a number of risks. In relation to the risks related to credit worthiness of the counter party, the banks are also exposed to interest rate, forex and country risks. What is credit risk? Credit Risk is the possibility of losses associated with changes in the credit profile of the borrowers or counter parties. These losses could take the form of outright default or alternatively, losses from changes in portfolio value arising from actual or perceived deterioration in credit quality, short of default. Credit Risk of a bank has two distinct facts i.e. risk inherent to the individual business unit/loan account and risk from macro credit portfolio perspective. Credit Risk emanates from banks dealings with an individual, corporate, bank, financial institution or a sovereign. Credit Risk may take the following forms: ď&#x201A;§

In the case of direct lending : principal/and or interest amount may not be repaid;

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In the case of guarantees or letters of credit : funds may not be forth coming from the constituents upon crystallization of the liability;

In the case of treasury operations : the payments or series of payments due from the counter parties under the respective contracts may not be forthcoming or cease;

In the case of securities trading business : funds/securities settlement may not be effected;

In the case of cross – border exposure : the availability and free transfer of foreign currency funds may either cease or restrictions may be imposed by the sovereign.

How to quantify Credit Risk? Credit Risk has got two components : ‘quantity of risk’ which is nothing but the outstanding loan balance as on the date of default and the ‘quality of risk’ i.e. “severity of losses” which is defined by both default probability and the receivers that could be effected in the event of default.

Credit Risk is therefore, a combined outcome of – Default Risk – it is the probability of the event of default i.e. missing a payment obligation. In today’s parlance, payment default is declared when a scheduled payment has not been made within regulatory time from laid down. Exposure Risk – the outstanding balances at the time of default are not known in advances particularly under facilities like committed lines of credit, ODs, project financing, off balance sheet items like guarantees/LC facilities etc. this uncertainty prevailing with future amounts at risk, generates exposure risk. Recovery Risk – the losses in case of default is the amount outstanding at default time less recovery. Normally, once a borrower defaults, banks resort to enforcement of security. But APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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recoveries are not predictable as they depend upon the type of default, availability of risk mitigators like guarantors, collaterals etc. and their nature/worth besides the prevailing legal system. It thus involves great amount of uncertainties. These uncertainties can be traced to : Value of Collateral Security : Recovery risk depends on the nature of charged assets, their location and possession, marketability/appeal, legal status etc. At times, the economic value of assets charged may erode over a period and may even go below the value of outstanding debt. Contrarily, where collaterals are of high value and are capable of generating buyer’s interest may even cancel the loss. Guarantor’s value : the net worth of guarantors and in turn their ability to discharge liabilities upon invocation of guarantee may undergo changes affecting the ultimate realization amount. Enforceability of Securities : the very ability of a bank to access the securities/collaterals charged to a bank in order to dispose them off may itself be doubtful. Secondly, enforcement of securities/contracts is also defined by the prevailing legal system. In view of this, it becomes difficult to predict the recoverable amount in advance. The combine outcome of all three elements ultimately defines the credit risk of a bank. Once these estimates are made, the loss in case of default can be measured by using the formula – EL= PD × EAR × LGD Where, EL= Expected Loss PD= Probability of Default EAR= Exposure at Risk LGD= Loss Given Default i.e. (1-Recovery Rate) APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Now the moot question is how to assign values to the formulae and that is where ‘risk’ identification and measurement assumes greater significance.

What is Credit Risk Management? Credit Risk Management covers the systems and processes in place to •

Identify and measure the risk involved both at the individual transaction level and portfolio level.

Evaluate the impact of exposure on Banks balance sheet/profit.

Assess the capacity of risk – mitigators.

Design an appropriate strategy to arrest risk – mitigators leading to deterioration in credit quality/default risk.

It is to be emphasized that Credit Risk Management is not NPA management. NPAs are a legacy of the past in the present. Credit Risk management is action in present for the future. In APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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an NPA account, the Credit Risk has crystallized. Credit Risk Management is more concerned with quality of credit portfolio before default. The Credit Risk approach monitors worsening credit quality by tracking migration of assets down the rating ladder, with each rating downgrade representing a higher Credit Risk. This approach enables bank management to take timely action to stem deterioration in credit portfolio quality much before actual default, which is the last step in the rating ladder. Credit Risk Management is also not merely credit management. Credit Management, as is understood conventionally, is confined to selection, limitation, and diversification and includes management of NPAs also. In selection i.e. granting a loan or making an investment, borrowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s financial condition, profitability, cash flows, nature of borrowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s industry, his competitive position therein, quality of management, presences of collaterals etc. are assessed to ascertain the repaying capacity. Limitation ensures that individual or group borrower concentrations are not very large and is within the prescribed exposure limit. Diversification is related to limitation and is based on the age-old principle of not putting all the eggs in one basket. This age-old concept of Credit Management is necessary and would continue to hold good but it is not proving adequate for management of credit risk in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deregulated environment. It may be appreciated that the traditional Credit Management focuses on probability of repayment. Credit Risk Management, on the other hand, focuses on probability of default. It is more sophisticated than the simple credit management techniques. Some of the differences in the existing Credit Management approach and the Credit Risk management. Approach as envisaged by RBI are given in the following table:

CREDIT MANAGEMENT It is based on Asset-by-Asset or Stand-alone

CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT It is based on Portfolio approach to risk.

approach to credit management. The risks in the portfolio as a whole are not captured. Expected Loss [EL] and Unexpected Loss

Measurement of EL and UL is carried out as an

[UL] are not measured. Losses are recognized

integral credit risk management process.

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in the accounting sense or as per the regulatory guidelines. The concentration risks are identified on the

The concentration of risks are measured in

basis of owned funds/industry/geographical

terms of additional portfolio risk arising on

area etc.

account of increased exposure to a borrower/group of correlated borrowers. The correlations among constituent assets are

The strategy under this approach is to originate

captured to arrive at a measure of Portfolio. Credit risk management techniques allow

The loan and hold the loan till maturity.

active credit risk through securitization/credit derivatives etc.

RBI in its Guidelines of 1999 and the subsequent Guidelines Note on Credit risk management has outlined the broad framework on various facets of Risk Management. It includes, in main, the framework of following instruments of Credit Risk Management: 1. Organizational Structure 2. Credit Risk Measurement that includes appraisal, rating and pricing. 3. Appropriate Credit Administration 4. Limit Structure 5. Documentation Standards APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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6. Loan Review Mechanism 7. Portfolio Management and System Infrastructure

GENERAL PROCEDURE TO COMPILE A CREDIT REPORT

While compiling a credit report there are certain things one has to include, which are very necessary for any bank to process a loan or advance. Every bank requires the borrower to submit all the legal documents with the report, this makes the banks work considerably easy, in order to process a loan. The following are the steps required to file a credit report;

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1. Take the party’s letter head. 2. Take the visiting card of the person is interviewed. 3. Constitution : Whether it is a worthy partnership or proprietorship. Date of being established – at which place ♦ Any changes thereafter due to entry/exit Of some partners. 4. Capital : Authorized Capital : Paid-up Capital : Reserve & Surplus : 5. Partners /Directors : Name : Address Residential : Bio-data in brief. 6. Establishment : Name & Address of Head Office or Registered Office. Also of branches/ offices, if any. 7. Banking with which branch. Limits enjoyed. Address of that branch. Materials required : Name of the materials and policy of purchase. 8. Nature of Business : Credit given to buyers for how many days – credit received for how many days. 9. Factory : Location/ Address Household /Freehold – Ownership in whose name APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Rent / Outgoing paid (amount and to whom) 10. Associate concern 11. Residential details : Address – Area – ownership/rental details in whose name – any other property. 12. Godown : Details address – Area – ownership/rental – keys with 13. Other bankers details : Name – address – limits enjoyed at present 14. Bio-data of partners: They are partners/director in other companies/firms, if any and qualifications – educational, previous experience. 15. Market opinion 16. Capital reserve – (advance tax paid on asset side, miscellaneous exp.) 17. Balance Sheet : Latest completed year- should be audited, , if not provisional. Amount Paid to directors/partners. 18. Profit & Loss : stock, purchase, gross profit, closing stock, sales. 19. Observations on final Accs : Capital loan to/from sister concerns – interlocking of funds – major items of expenses 20. Income declared/ assessed. 21. Wealth Tax: Copy sheet of wealth of partners – also assessment orders of WTO (1)Exempted (2)Taxable (3)Total 22. Enclosures 1) Final Accs (audited) 2) Assessment orders of income of firm/partners and of wealth of partners APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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3) Sales/ purchases monthly figures of latest years. 4) Copies of Challan of income tax/ wealth tax. 23. Information given by whom? 24. Reference given by whom? 25. Mention what specifically could not be obtained to help forming or compiling the credit report.

The procedure relating to submission of data is explained below: A) TIME DEPOSITS INCLUDING CUMULATIVE DEPOSITS For submission of data relating to time deposits Union bank Branches have been classified into following categories: TYPES OF BRANCHES

a) PBA BRANCHES WHERE TERM

PROCESS

The ALM program which has been supplied by

DEPOSIT PACKAGE IS RUNNING

the central accounts department facilitates

LIVE AND TBA BRANCHES

transfer of data directly from the deposit package to ALM system. Therefore, branches are only required to transfer the data to ALM system at the month end and forward the same to their RCCs by email latest by 5th working

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day of the next month. Branches where cumulative deposit is not line on the deposit package should update the details relating to these in ALM data entry module and forward the relevant (soft copy) to RCC. b) PBA BRANCHES WHERE TERM DEPOSIT PACKAGE IS NOT LIVE

These branches would continue to update the ALM

data through the data entry program supplied by central accounts department. Ideally, details of deposits accepted, renewed and closed should update on the daily basis to avoid delay in reporting. The data base should be forwarded to respective RCC by e-mail latest by 5th working day of the next month.

c) MANUAL BRANCHES

These branches are not required to update the data base on monthly basis. Therefore, RCC would continue to generate turn around statements for these branches on a quarterly basis. The turnaround sheets will be updated by these branches and submitted to RCCs on a quarterly basis.

B) TERM LOANS FOR SUBMISSION OF ALM DATA RELATING TO TERM LOANS, BRANCHES HAVE BEEN CLASSIFIED AS UNDER: TYPES OF BRANCHES APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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PROCESS


a) PBA/TBA BRANCHES

The data entry packages for term loans has already been installed at these branches by RCCs. The data base has been created for all loans as of 31st march, 2001. Therefore, these branches are only required for new accounts and pre payments, if any, in the system. The accounts which have been adjusted are also required to be updated in the system.

b) MANUAL BRANCHES

These branches are not required to update the data base on monthly basis. Therefore, RCC would continue to generate turn around statements for these branches on a quarterly basis. The turnaround statements will be updated by these branches and submitted to RCCs on quarterly basis.

C) MATURITY PROFILE OF BILLS Maturity profile of bills will continue to be worked out branches on quarterly basis. D) MATURITY PROFILE OF BORROWINGS This statement will also be submitted at quarterly intervals by the branches which are controlling the refinance from SIDBI and RBI.

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SOURCES OF INFORMATION 1. CUSTOMERS OF THE BANK

2. BUYERS/SELLERS OF THE BORROWERS

3. COMPETITORS

4. OTHER BANKS

5. NON BANKING FINANCE COMPANIES (BLACK LISTING BY LEASING ASSOCIATION)

6. INDUSTRY/TRADE ASSOCIATIONS

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7. GOVERNMENT CELLS/DEPARTMENTS i.e. DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY ETC.

8. NEWSPAPERS/PRESS REPORTS AND FINANCIAL JOURNALS

9. ANNUAL REPORTS/ FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

10. DATA BASE/ CLIPPING AGENCIES

11. CREDIT AGENCIES (EG. CRISIL), Cybercline 2000 etc.

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CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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OBJECTIVE : •

The basic objective behind joining UBIs Credit department was to learn about how retail loans are sanctioned.

The process behind every small and big loan

The credit rating system and the methodologies applied.

The way balance sheet and other financial techniques are used in deciding whether or not to approve the loan.

The other important aspects apart from the financial techniques which are of equal importance.

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ASSET LIABILITY MANAGEMENT

 ALM can be defined as the management of Net Interest Margin (NIM is ratio of net interest income or spread to total earnings) to ensure that its level and riskiness are compatible with the risk – return objective of the institutions.  ALM is more than just managing asset and liability categories. It is an integrated approach to financial assets and liabilities both mix and volume with the complexities of the financial markets in which the institution operates.  ALM function informs the management as to what the current market risk profile of the bank is and the impact that various alternate business decisions would have on the future risk profile.

Assume that the structure of the existing assets and liabilities is such that at the aggregate, the maturity of assets is longer than the maturity of liabilities. This would expose the bank to interest rate risk as the interest rate can increase or decrease. Thus the interest income can suffer in the process. This has to be set right either by reducing the maturity of assets or increasing the maturity of the liabilities.

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Importance of ALM in the present scenario: Prior to introduction of financial sector reforms all activities undertaken by the bank were subjected to RBI regulations, which included,, minimum lending rates, regulated deposit interest rates etc. The products available to the users were also limited and banks had wide spreads. The introduction of reform process however brought phased deregulation, new market players with new products at competitive rates. With all these came a number of risks which include credit risk, liquidity risk, foreign exchange risk, market risk etc. in view of these developments necessity was felt to develop some system which should help achieve the organizational objectives while effectively managing the assets and liabilities. ALM is that system to take care of the above. ALM Process:  Data is the key raw material for ALM and hence the system should be able to provide accurate and reliable information.  ALM is a comprehensive and dynamic frame work for (a) measuring (b) monitoring and (c) managing the market risk which is required to be built around a foundation of sound methodology, human and technological infrastructure and risk philosophy.  ALM has to be closely integrated with the bank’s business strategy as this affects the future risk profile of the bank. Constituents of a sound ALM system:  ALM information system  ALM organization (ALCO, Board and ALM desk)  ALM process i.e. risk parameters, risk identification, risk management, risk measurement, risk policies and tolerance levels.

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ASSET LIABILITY MANAGEMENT IN UNION BANK: The Asset Liability Management system in the bank has fairly stabilized. Union Bank is one of the few public sector banks who are leading in implementation of ALM and risk management guide lines of reserve bank of India. Apart from the regulatory requirements, ALM information is frequently used by the top management and Assets and Liability Committee (ALCO) for taking strategic decisions with regard to pricing of assets liabilities , investments, funding etc. We describe below some of the major functions of ALCO. The decisions of ALCO are based on data furnished by branches with regard to maturity profile of major items of assets and liabilities like term deposits, term loans, bills etc.

Functions of ALCO •

Fixation of interest rates on deposits and advances

Strategy for business growth and desired maturity profile of such incremental assets and liabilities

Funding plan including source and mix of such funds

Hedging of ALM gaps based on interest rate view.

At present the following details are captured from branches under the ALM information

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c) Maturity profile of bills d) Maturity profile of borrowings

METHODOLOGY FOR COMPUTATIONS OF “NET WORTH” OR “MEANS” OF VARIOUS TYPES OF BORROWERS

TYPE OF BORROWER 1. Individual/Proprietary Concern Following factors may be taken into account for computing the “Net Worth” or “Means” a) Capital investment in the business including investment in other partnership firms b) Moveable assets such as Bank Deposits, Gold Ornaments/ Jeweleries, Investment in shares/ debentures/Securities, Company Deposits etc. c) Personal unencumbered immovable properties ♦ Self – acquired properties of an individual ♦ The share in the ancestral properties acquired on division of HUF 2. Partnership Firms/ Joint Hindu family Concerns: Following factors may be taken into account for computing the “Net Worth” or “Means” ♦ Capital invested in the business by all the partners (figures to be obtained from Balance Sheet of the firm) APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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♦ Undivided profits ♦ Drawing by the partners ♦ Investment in subsidiary firms ♦ Accumulated losses Net estimated worth of the firm will be :Total of (a) & (b) less total of (c), (d) & (e). 3. Limited Liabilities Companies Following factors may be taken into account for computing the “Net Worth” or “Means” a) Paid-up capital b) Free Reserve (including balance in share premium account, capital and other debenture redemption reserves and any other reserves not being one created for repayment of any future liability or for depreciation in assets or for bad debts or a reserve created by revaluation of the assets) c) Accumulated balance of loss, balance of deferred revenue expenditure as also other intangible assets d) Investments in subsidiary or branch companies and loans/advances due from subsidiary companies/affiliates, other than those of a trading nature. Net estimated worth of the company will be:Total of (a) & (b) less total of (c) & (d).

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COMPLIANCE WITH ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

Accounting as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;language of businessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; communicates the financial results of an enterprise to various interested users by means of financial statements. Financial statements summarize the financial results and activities of an enterprise during an accounting period. Financial activities should be presented in such a manner so that there is an optimum flow of information. Therefore, how to present it in financial statements is a significant issue at a point of time. In APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s complex business environment, the measurement and presentation of financial information is critical. Like any other language, accounting has its own set of rules that have been developed on the basis of general acceptance and experience of the users of the financial statements. Accounting standards are formulated with a view to bring uniformity in the treatment of various accounting policies and practices existing for the preparation and presentation of the financial statements. The objective of accounting standards Is to make financial statements of different enterprises comparable to provide meaningful information to various users of financial statements. Accounting standards make the information provided by the financial statements useful, transparent and comparable for the users if the financial statements. In our country, the Institute of chartered Accountants of India [ICAI] issues the accounting standards to harmonize the diverse accounting policies and practices at present use in India. The ICAI constituted the Accounting Standards Board [ASB], the composition of which is broad based with a view to ensuring wider participation of all interest groups in the standard setting process. It needs to be understood that the Accounting standards cannot be absolutely rigid like those of the physical sciences. These rules, accordingly, should provide a reasonable degree of flexibility in line with the requirements and technological developments. It may also be noted that the treatment as specified by the Accounting standards.

Every business enterprise needs money constantly for its operations and such money is provided by the owners themselves, the gap, if any, being bridged by outsiders, viz., creditors. These funds are constantly in movement, involved in various financial transactions, thus continuously altering their form and content. A periodical assurance about their safety is, therefore, required by both the owners and the creditors. Further, if the enterprise happens to be limited companyAPOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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the owners are the shareholders who do not exercise any direct control over the day-to-day affairs or administration of the Company, this being entrusted to the Board of Directors or the Management team. The management is, therefore, bound by law as well as contractual obligations to use such funds in accordance with the mandate of the purveyors of funds and produce evidence of having done so at periodical intervals. Financial Accounting is the manner of recording all financial transactions so as to enable extraction of the evidence mentioned above. Financial Accounting is the â&#x20AC;&#x153;art of recording, classifying and summarizing, in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events, which are, in part at least, of a financial character and interpreting the results thereof. Financial Accounting, therefore produces a significant summary of all recorded financial operations for the purpose of interpreting the endresult of such operations. Such a summary is called the Financial Statements, which comprise the Balance Sheet and the Profit and Loss Statement. American Institute of Public Accounts describes Financial Statements as under: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Financial Statements are prepared for the purpose of presenting a periodical review or report on the progress by the Management. They deal with the status of investment in the business as also with the results achieved during the period. They reflect a combination of recorded facts, accounting conventions and personal judgments. And, the judgments and conventions applied affect them materially. The soundness of judgment necessarily depends upon the competence and integrity of those who make them and on their adherence to generally accepted accounting principles and conventions.â&#x20AC;? This definition is very appropriate as it succinctly but nonetheless effectively brings out the characteristic features of Financial Statements, their strengths and weaknesses and their reliability and limitations. This understanding is very important to us since the reliability or authenticity of the Analysis of the Financial Statements would, it will be appreciated, be just as

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much as that of the Financial Statements themselves. This definition indicates the following characteristic features of the Financial Statements: I)

They are periodical review of the status of investment and progress made by the

Management ii)

They contain facts recorded on the basis of accounting conventions and exercise

of personal judgments. iii) Integrity and competence of accountants who prepare them have a vital bearing on the ultimate results furnished by them. A major weakness of Financial Statements is its lack of objectivity, being influenced largely by subjective exercise of judgments. For instance, in the hands of unscrupulous management with fraudulent intentions, manipulations are possible, which could distort, to a large extent, the ultimate results, thus camouflaging the real picture. Nevertheless, if the accountant compiles the statements diligently and without personal bias and on the basis of established and generally accepted accounting conventions, the Financial Statements do reflect the financial conditions of the limited companies to examine, among others, the accounting practices, and procedures and comment on whether the Financial Statements give a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;true and fair viewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the state of affairs and the net result. The Auditorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Report is, therefore, an independent professional guarantee for compliance with the generally accepted accounting principles and to that extent, takes care of lack of objectivity, and an intelligent scrutiny of the Annual Report is bound to bring out Auditors reservations, if any, on this subject.

To ensure the genuineness of the financial statements and that of the signatures of the chartered accountants therein, in case of large borrowers, viz. borrowers whose fund based limits are Rs.1 cr and above, a confirmation is to be obtained by sending a letter by Post/ e-mail regarding certification of financial statements from the Chartered Accountant who has signed the balance sheet / financial statements of the borrowers and this confirmation will be kept with the files of correspondence pertaining to the borrower. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Balance Sheet Analysis Balance Sheet, as the name indicates, is a statement of balances, depicting the state of affairs or position of a business enterprise. Since it is an aggregation of balances, it pertains obviously to a particular date. As on the date of reckoning, it discloses to the user of the statement of the investment of funds made by the enterprise on various classes or categories of assets and the various sources from which funds have been drawn to enable such investment. It would be useful to visualize a Balance Sheet essentially in terms of the resources of an enterprise and claims held against such resources provided to it. Clearly every person or organization providing funds to the enterprise (either directly as investors and lenders or indirectly by providing credit or deferring payments due to them) will have claims against the assets or resources of the enterprise and will expect such claims to be met at appropriate times, inevitably there is a cost attached to claims, which needs to be reimbursed to all outsiders either in a Lump sum at the time of repayment of the principal amount of the claim or in installments at the option of the providers of funds. Thus, it behaves of the manager of the enterprise to conduct the affairs of the business in such a way that the following objectives are met i)

the funds provided to the manager by the owners/shareholders and lenders/other creditors are judiciously invested to create certain assets,

ii)

the assets so created should be capable, through their operation and use by the manager, of yielding the highest return in terms of the net income after meeting all expenses and charges incurred in earning that income.

iii)

the net income so earned should be adequate to service the cost of funds, viz, interest on loans and dividend on capital, in addition to redemption of the capital funds (principal) where stipulated, and to leave a surplus for future growth.

iv)

the surplus funds should be so invested as to enable their prompt and ready encashment to meet maturing claims against the enterprise.

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The Balance Sheet of an enterprise is basically analysed to test the above hypotheses and can, therefore, be deemed to reflect the financial condition of the enterprise. It was for this reason that some of the U.S. accountants and business organisations refer to Balance Sheet as ‘ A Statement of Financial Condition’. While this is so, the Balance Sheet has certain limitations and cannot be treated as the sole indicator of financial position of a unit. Format of Balance Sheet: The Balance Sheet can be presented either in a ‘ T’ form or in a vertical order, beginning with assets. While the Companies Act, 1956, prescribes the form in which the Balance Sheet has to be presented by the limited liability corporations, there is no such standard form for noncorporate organisations. Schedule VI Companies Act, 1956 contains the format in which limited companies should present the Balance Sheet to the shareholders. The format has been devised by the framers of the Act, keeping essentially the interests of the shareholders in view, though there are provisions in the Act to protect the interests of all classes of persons or organisations who transact business with the Company. The grouping of the various assets and liabilities in Schedule VI follows the familiar dictum that assets and liabilities should be detailed in their order of permanence. For instance, assets start from fixed assets-the near permanent assets - and go down to current assets, loans and advances which are regarded as being closest to cash in terms of their convertibility to cash within a short period. Similarly, the liabilities start with share capital - the near permanent source of funds to an enterprise - and travel through long term loans down to current liabilities and provisions, the last-mentioned items requiring layout of funds by the enterprises at short notice. In accountant’s parlance, current assets, could, therefore, be converted into cash within a period of 12 months and current liabilities are those liabilities that mature for payment within 12 months. Thus “advances to staff and group companies” for instance can be a current asset, if they satisfy the test of conversion to cash within one year. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Balance Sheet: Format As Per Schedule VI Of Companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Act, 1956 For Corporate Entities LIABILITIES

ASSETS

1 SHARE CAPITAL

1 FIXED ASSETS

-

Authorized Capital (Preference and

-

Gross Block

Equity Separately )

-

Less: Depreciation

-

Issued Capital

-

Subscribed Capital

-

Capital working in progress

-

Paid- up capital

-

Distinguishing as far as possible

-

Less: Calls Unpaid

between various items of

Add: Forfeited Shares

expenditure i.e. goodwill, land and

(Only Paid-up Capital is added into

building etc.

the total of the liabilities) Add: Share Application Money

Net Block

2 INVESTMENTS -

2 RESERVES AND SURPLUSES -

General reserves

-

Share Premium Amount

-

Other reserves

-

Sinking Funds

-

Retained Profits

3 SECURED LOANS

Investment in Govt. or trustee securities

-

Investment in shares/debentures of subsidiary companies

-

Investment of capital of partnership firms

3 CURRENT ASSETS -

Cash and Bank Balances

-

Cash Credits

-

Stock

-

Term loans

-

Sundry Debtors

-

Debentures

4 UNSECURED LOANS -

Loans from Associates and

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a) O/s for a period exceeding 6 months b) Other debts


Subsidiaries

4 LOANS AND ADVANCES

-

Fixed Deposits

-

Advances for capital goods

-

Other Loans and Advances

-

Advances to staff

-

Loans to sister concern

5 CURRENT LIABILITIES AND PROVISIONS

5 MISCELLANEOUS EXPENDITURE

-

Acceptance

-

Preliminary expenses

-

Sundry Creditors

-

Expenses including commission,

-

Unclaimed dividends

-

Subsidiary Companies

-

Discount on shares and debentures

-

Interest Accrued but not due

-

Interest paid out of capital during

brokerage etc.

PROVISIONS -

For Taxations

-

For Providend Funds

-

For Proposed Dividend

-

For Contingencies

-

For Other Provisions

TOTAL

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construction -

Development expenditure not adjusted

6 PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT -

Debit balance of profit and loss account carried forward

TOTAL


FOR OF BALANCE SHEET (FOR NON - CORPORATE) TRADING ENTITIES Name of Entity/Entities Balance Sheet as at Figures for

Capital and

Figures for

Figures for

Properties

Figures For

Previous year

liabilities

Current year

Previous year

and Assets

Current Year

1. CAPITAL (In case of partnership, these

1. FIXED ASSETS

particulars to be given separately for each

Under each head the original cost the

partner and if possible the fixed capital

addition thereto, deductions three from

accounts may be segregated from the

the year and the total depreciation

current accounts) as at the beginning

written off or provided up to the end of the

of the year.

Year to be stated. Where the assets have been revalued, the

Add/ Deduct net profit /Net Loss during

revalued figures to be shown. Each balance

the year.

Sheet for the first five years. Subsequent

to Interest on Capital

the date of revaluation to state the amount

Drawings

of revaluation.

Any other items (give details)

distinguishing as far as possible between

Expenditure upon. a) Goodwill b) Land c) Building d) Leasehold e) Railway sidings f) Plant and machinery g) Furniture and fittings APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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h) Development of property i) Patents, trademarks and designs j) Livestock k) Vehicles etc. 1. Cost 2. Less : depreciation 2 RESERVES (give details under each head) Capital reserves (if any)

2 ADVANCES AND DEPOSITS ON CAPITAL ACCOUNT

1. Other reserves (including retained profits To the extent not already added to the Capital, given details )

3 LOANS AND BORROWINGS Interest accrued and due on each category To be shown separately. In case of secured

3 INVESTMENTS Investments in shares, debentures or bonds (Note: Investments in concerns wherein

Loans the bature of security to be specified.

Proprietor, partner or their relatives are

Amounts due for payments within one year

interested to be shown separately)

From the balance sheet date to be shown

Immovable properties

Separately. Loan from partners, relatives of

Investments in the capital of partnership

The proprietor or partners to be shown separately

firms.

Loans from financial institutions.

Other Investemnts.

Loans and borrowings from banks (specify the Name of the nature of the borrowing e.g. cash Credit term-loans, overdraft, packing credit etc.) Fixed deposits (from public and others) Others (give details) 5 CURRENT ASSETS a) Investories APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Stock in trade. Supplies and sundries (if the trading Organization is also involved in any processing activity/ies other categories of inventories e.g. raw material and work in progress should be separately disclosed. b) Recievables Debts due and outstanding for a period exceeding six months Installments of deferred recievables due within one year to be shown separately. Amount

due

from

proprietors,

partners or associated concerns On account of sales deferred payment basis. On account of exports Others. Total receivables Less : provision for bad and doubtful debts c) Bills of exchange d) Advances on current Account Advances of suppliers of raw material stores/spares/consumables; Advance payment of taxes Pre-paid expenses APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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and


Others e) Cash and bank balance Fixed deposit account Current and saving account Cash in hand f) Miscellaneous expenditure To the extent not written off or adjusted g) Accumulated losses If any before depreciation Depreciation. TOTAL RUPEES

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PROFORMA OF PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT FOR A TRADING ENTITY Name of the entity Profit & Loss Account for the year ending…… Last year Rs. 1. SALES (NET OF SALES TAX) (income for services may be shown separately) 2. Cost of goods sold I) Opening stock Add: Purchases (less returns) Less: Closing stock II) Other Direct expenses 3. Gross Profit (1-2) 4. sales and administrative expenses 5. Other Income expenses* net (+) 6. interest 7. Profit before depreciation and tax [item 3 minus item (4+5+6)] 8. Depreciation 9. Taxation (for example for registered firms) 10. Profit after depreciation & taxation item minus item (8+9)

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Rs.


NOTE: Any item which forms a significant proportion, say 5% or more of the total sales or has special significance otherwise should be shown separately under appropriate heads for example (I) salary (II) commission (III) perquisites and money value thereof. **registered firms are subject to tax, before the profit is apportioned amongst partners.

CLASSIFICATION OF CURRENT ASSETS & LIABILITIES APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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ASSETS CURRENT ASSETS: Also called Liquid Assets/ Circulating Assets/ Floating Assets/ Gross Working Capital Definition: those assets which are reasonably expected to be converted into cash during the operating cycle of the business. Assets however liquid which do not form a part of operating cycle are not classified as current assets by bankers. Three categories:  Inventories (stock in trade)  Receivables (trade debtors)  Other current assets Examples: Inventory: a) Stock of raw materials on hand-indigenous, imported b) Stock of work-in-process (semi finished goods) c) Stock of finished goods on hand d) Goods at stores and spares – indigenous and imported Receivables: a) Sundry debtors (trade debts/book debts) b) Bills receivables (bills accepted by sundry debtors) -

Inland bills up to 6 months, including deferred receivables maturing within one year.

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c) Export OTHER CURRENT ASSETS a) Cash & Bank balance b) Investment -

In government and trustee securities

-

Investment in fixed deposits with banks/MMFS/CPS/CD

Investment in quoted securities c) Advance Tax Payment after adjusting reserves for taxation d) Advance given to suppliers e) Advance recoverable in cash or kind f) Advance accrued on investment g) Pre-paid expenses h) Cash margin on LG/LC OTHER NON CURRENT ASSETS These assets cannot be included in Current assets as they are slow moving or as they are not acquired for normal business purpose. 1) Dead inventory – slow moving inventory – obsolete items/slow – moving items not readily realizable. 2) Deferred receivables – other than those maturing beyond/after one year 3) Amounts due from Associates/subsidiaries/affiliates APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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4) Other loans and advances 5) Security deposits- balance/deposit with govt. Dept./Statutory Bodies/Tender deposit irrespective of their maturity period. 6) Receivables not related to tradea) Advances given to staff members b) Advances given to directors, partners. c) Advances given to companies not connected with business d) Advances for purchase of fixed assets or advance to supplier or contractor for capital expenses. e) Investments in companies not related to trade. 7) Unquoted investments/ gratuity funds/ sinking funds for long term purpose. 8) Other Miscellaneous assets/CD etc.

FIXED ASSETS Also known as block assets/capital asset/Capital goods/Productive assets/tolls of business. Definition: Assets which are acquired for long term use and are not meant for sale in the normal course of business. They are least liquid. Examples: 1) Land 2) Building 3) Plant and machinery APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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4) Furniture, fixtures & vehicles etc. 5) Construction – awaiting completion 6) Other assets of long term nature 7) Other fixed assets Gross Block- The total value of all fixed assets before depreciation. Net Block- Value of fixed assets after depreciation. Net Block= Gross block – Depreciation Valuation of fixed assets = Fixed assets are valued at original cost less depreciation. Revaluation – Where assets have been revalued the increase in their value due to revaluation should be set off with revaluation reserve to make comparisons meaningful. Depreciation – A company is free to charge depreciation on straight line method or written down value method or any other method. The depreciation amount in straight-line method is higher compared to that in W.D.V. method. The income tax liability of the company is calculated after providing depreciation in W.D.V. method at rates given in the I.T. act INTANGIBLE ASSETS (FICTITIOUS ASSETS) Definition: Assets which have no tangible existence or certain fictitious assets which are in fact capitalized expenses are classified as intangible assets. Examples: Good Will (value of reputation associated to a business) Copyright (amount paid to the author to obtain copy right of a book) Patents (amount paid towards obtaining patent over a new product) Trade Mark APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Franchise (amount paid towards getting exclusive right for using a brand) Preliminary expenses (company formation expenses capitalized) Deferred Revenue Expenditure Debit Balance in profit and loss account (adverse profit & loss account) Drawings by partners (withdrawal of capital) in partnership firm Bad & Doubtful debts not provided for Pre – operative expenses/developments expenses etc. to the extent not written off. Nature of these assets – A banker presumes that these assets are a drain on the capital. The assets are not available for payment of debts as long as the business runs and they are not realizable at the time of liquidation. LIABILITIES RECLASSIFIED INTO 3 GROUPS •

Net Worth

Term Liability

Current liability

Net worth - Also known as Share holders, funds or owners equity. Items are almost permanent source of fund (need not be paid back as long as the business runs) Items represent the amount of funds (resource) given (or not drawn) by the owner (share holders) of the business. They are permanent source of funds. They represent the owners’ stake in the business. They do not carry any fixed charge by way of interest. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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They are not outside liabilities. NETWORTH ARE THREE CATEGORIES:

Paid up capital [equity & preference] Free Reserve Surplus Examples: Ordinary share capital [paid up] General Reserves Revaluation reserves Share premium amount Balance of profit Preference share capital maturity after 12 years Other reserves TERM LIABILITY â&#x20AC;&#x201C; also known as long term liability or Deferred Liability Definition: Liabilities which mature for payment after a period of one year from the date of balance sheet are called term/deferred liabilities. Examples : Term loan from financial institutions, bank [excluding installment payable within one year] Debentures payable after one year [not maturing within one year but maturing within 12 years] Deferred payments credits[excluding installments payable within one year] Term deposits payable after one year. Preference Share redeemable after one year but before 12 years Working Capital Term Loan Deposits from dealers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which are refundable only on termination of dealership are to be treated as term liability. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Other term liability [including ECB/ADR/GDR/FCNR, loans etc.] Debentures CURRENT LIBILITY: Definitions: liabilities payable in short term (within a year) from the date of balance sheet are classified as current liabilities. They represent short term source of fund and should be utilized for financing current assets. Examples: Short term bank borrowing against stock, stores etc. (cash credits, overdrafts) Sundry creditors for trade (creditors on account of supply of raw materials) Advance/ progress payment from customers for supply of finished goods. Sundry creditors for expenses Bills payable (bill accepted on account of sundry creditors) Outstanding/Accrued expenses (expenses like rent, insurance due/accrued but not paid) Provisions (made towards payment of taxed, bonus etc.) Dividend payable within one year of provision Deposits from dealers (not accepted with a condition to be repayable on cancellation of dealership or agency) Other statutory liability like PF dues etc. Installment of term loan, debentures, deferred payment, deposits or preference share capital, DPG/DEB/RP shares/ECB/ADR/GDR due within one year. Working capital term loan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; term liability Unsecured borrowings from the bank including bills discounted. Unsecured borrowings from others, where no period of repayment is mentioned. Deposits maturing within one year. Interest and other charges accrued but not due for payment. Other current liability/provision, such as gratuity liability due within one year of provision. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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TOTAL OUTSIDE LIABILITY = CURRENT LIABILITIES + LONG TERM LIABILITIES TOTAL TANGIBLE ASSETS = CURRENT ASSETS + FIXED ASSETS + OTHER NONCURRENT ASSETS NET WORKING CAPITAL = CURRENT ASSETS – CURRENT LIABILITIES TANGIBLE NET WORTH = NET WORTH – INTANGIBLE ASSETS

Limitations of a Balance Sheet While the above analysis of the Unit’s Balance Sheet does disclose certain important indicators to the analyst, he will do well to remember that conclusions based purely on the Balance Sheet may quite be misleading, due to its inherent limitations. The Balance Sheet is often likened to a snapshot of a moving train and hence reveals just as much about the financial condition as the photograph does of the moving train, capturing only a particular position. Hence, any undue reliance on Balance Sheet is fraught with risks. The limitations of balance sheets are four-fold.

i) Exactness owing to personal bias of the accountant in exercise of his judgment:

e.g.

valuation of stocks, provision for bad debts etc. ii) Non-recognition of diminishing value of rupee and treating all assets only in terms of their recorded rupee value: inflation accounting is the answer iii) Exclusion of all non-monetary transactions and factors, howsoever important they may be. iv) Pertains to a date and hence liable to abuse like window-dressing. In order to eliminate at least some of these limitations, the analyst could examine a series of balance sheets and discern a trend of the various financial and performance indicators. Such a comparison could be internal i.e. with past performance or external i.e., with those of similar APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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units. A Balance Sheet analysis, it will be appreciated, is only the first step in the whole analysis, an indicator ordering a further probe, but definitely not the final conclusion.

PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENT ANALYSIS

Importance of the Profit and Loss Statement The profit and loss statement summarises the transactions which together result in a profit (or loss) for a specific period of time. This profit or loss is shown on the balance sheet as an increase or decrease in ownersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; equity. People who invest in securities believe that a study of the profit and loss statement of a business enterprise will give them information regarding future expectations of profits and dividends. It is in this context that the profit and loss statement has gained importance. The profit and loss statement reports the results of operations and indicates areas contributing to profitability or otherwise of the business enterprise. Analysis of profit and loss

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statements for several years may reveal desirable or undesirable trends in the profit earning capacity of a business enterprise. Revenues, Expenses and Changes in Owners’ Equity Defined more precisely, revenues are increases in owners’ equity that result from operations of a business enterprise while decreases in owners’ equity are expenses. Revenues take the form of an inflow of assets like cash and sundry debtors from customers or clients to whom products have been sold or services rendered. Revenues might also be earned from investments, for instance, interest on Govt. securities or dividends. It should be noted that revenues are not the only source for increase in owners’ equity. An inflow of capital funds invested by owners increases owners’ equity but it is not revenue. Expenses connote “sacrifice made”, “cost of services or benefits received”, or ’resources consumed’ during a specified period. Expenses are costs incurred for generating revenue and are therefore related to the operations of a business enterprise. As stated earlier, expenses decrease owners’ equity, however they are incurred in the expectation that the revenues generated will more than offset the decrease in owners’ equity. The excess of earned revenues over the incurred expenses in a specific period is called profit or income. If expenses exceed revenues the difference is called a loss resulting in net decrease in owners’ equity.

The Format of the Profit and Loss Statement can be seen from the Exhibit A furnished below: Exhibit ‘A’ DHRUPAD COMPANY Profit and Loss Statement for the year ended March 31, 2006 Rs. Sales of goods and service Cost of goods sold APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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1,44,73,526 79,88,956


Gross Profit

64,84,570

Operating Expenses Staff Expenses

31,64,830

Sales and Administration Expenses

18,64,390

Depreciation

3,56,971

Managerial remuneration

Operating Profit Other Income

80,169

10,18,210 4,35,326

Net Profit before taxes

14,53,536

Provision for Taxes

7,90,000

Net Profit after Taxes taken to General Reserves

6,63.536

Exhibit A’ is a profit and loss statement for Dhrupad Company. The statement shows the results (in Rupees) of operations of this company for the year ended March 31,2006. As seen from the exhibit “A”, Dhrupad Company made a profit of Rs.6,63,536. This profit will be included as a net increase under ‘general reserve’ in owners’ equity section of the balance sheet of Dhrupad Company.

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Instead of the format outlined in Exhibit ‘A’, some published annual statements in India follow the practice of listing revenues on the right hand and expenses on the left hand side of the profit and loss statement. This format is an outcome of the practice to represent the profit and loss account as it appears in the detailed accounting records (ledgers). Generally, additional schedules giving details of cost of goods sold and operating expenses are appended to a published profit and loss statement. Generally the format given in the exhibit facilitates easy analysis of the profit and loss statement. Comparison of results of operations for several years and calculation of ratios and percentages is easily done if the vertical format is followed. The first item on the profit and loss statement in Exhibit “A” is sales of goods and services. This item represents the revenues from operations for Dhrupad Company. Revenue might also be derived from exchange or sale of assets, interest on dividends from ‘other investments’. The usual practice however is to distinguish the two kinds of revenues. Revenue arising out of normal operations is designated as sales revenue whereas revenue arising out of investments and sale or exchange of assets is called ‘other income’ The second item of the profit and loss statement is cost of goods sold. Cost of goods sold is an item of expense and results in a decrease in owners’ equity. The difference between ‘sales and cost of goods sold’ is called ‘gross profit’ which in our case amounts to Rs.64,84,570. From gross profit several other items of expenses called operating expenses are deducted, the difference between gross profit and operating expenses is called operating profit. The operating profit figure is very important since it discloses the profitability and operating efficiencies of Dhrupad Company. The next item on the profit and loss statement is ‘other income.’ Other income is a net figure and includes interest on investment and securities paid or received, and profit or loss on sale and exchange of assets, etc. The total of operating profit plus other income gives the figure of net profit before taxes. Provision for taxes calculated according to income tax rules is deducted leaving a figure for net profit after taxes. Net profit after taxes represents the net increase in owners’ equity for Dhrupad Company during the year ended March 31, 2006. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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The accounting period: The profit and loss statement illustrated in Exhibit ‘A’ pertains to one year’s operations of Dhrupad Company. Ideally, an exact measurement of the net profit or loss of a business enterprise can only be made after the enterprise has ceased doing business and sold all its assets and paid off its liabilities. Management however cannot wait until the business operations have ended to determine the profit or loss from operations. In practice, therefore, accountants attempt to determine profits or losses for intervals of time shorter than the total life of a business entity. Accounting transactions that have occurred during a specified period of time are collected, summarised and a report is made of all the material changes in owners’ equity during this specific period. This specific period which is chosen to report profits or losses is called the Accounting period. Although published statements for reporting to owners and outside agencies are prepared at annual intervals (quarterly performance reports should be furnished to stock exchange by the listed companies), management often needs interim profit and loss statements prepared for shorter intervals of time. This interval might be a quarter, a month, a week or even daily. Over the life of a business enterprise, a profit and loss statement and balance sheet are prepared at the end of each accounting period. The profit and loss statement presents the results of operations during an accounting period. It might also be said that a profit and loss statement covers the period between two balance sheet dates and explains the changes in owners’ equity during the accounting period. Sales Cost of Goods Sold and Operation Expenses: Profit and loss statement will give the figure of gross sales. Net sales is arrived at by deducting from gross sales, sale returns and allowances and sales discounts, excise duly and Sales tax. Gross Sales

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Gross Sales is total sales revenue measured by multiplying goods delivered into unit price per item. State and local sales taxes and octroi and excise duties charged to a consumer are to be excluded from net sales as they are not revenue for the unit but are collected by a business enterprise on behalf of the Central, State and Local authorities. Until such time as they are passed on to the government, they represent a liability of the business enterprise to Government. Sales returns are part of goods sold to customers but returned by them to the business because the goods are not of a kind of quality ordered by a customer. Goods returned are called sales returns. Instead of returning the goods customers may sometimes claim an allowance on the price. In such a case, the allowance on price is called sales allowance. Sales discounts are deductions from sale price allowed to customers to induce them to pay promptly. For example, a business may sell goods on terms 2/15, n/45 which means that customer will get a 2 percent deduction from the billed amount if payment is made within 15 days, after 15 days no discount will be given but the customer will be required to pay the billed amount within 45 days. Since sales discounts reduce the revenues received from sales it is deducted directly from gross sales instead of being shown as an expense item. Another kind of discount, trade discount does not appear on the profit and loss statement at all, trade discount is the amount deductible from published or catalogue price in order to arrive at actual sales price. Sales Revenue and the Realisation concept The realisation concept is one of the most important concepts influencing modern day accounting practices. This concept states that as a general rule, sales revenue is recognised in the accounting period in which revenue is realised. Realisation occurs when goods are shipped or delivered to the customers. For services, revenue is recognised in the period in which services are rendered. It is important to emphasise that revenue recognition occurs not when a sales order is received, not when a contract is signed but when the goods are shipped or delivered. Payment for goods shipped or services rendered may be made immediately or after a period of time, the timing of payment is quite immaterial to the realisation concept. The crux of revenue

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recognition is performance of the contractual obligation through shipment or delivery of goods or rendering of services. Cost of Goods Sold and Operating Expenses At the same time as owners equity is increased by the sales value of goods shipped or delivered or services rendered it is also reduced by the cost of goods sold and operating expenses. In this section we shall explain how cost of goods sold and operating expenses are measured but before we do so it should be emphasised that cost of goods and operating expenses are both expenses and have the same effect on ownersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; equity, a decrease. But a distinction is made between these two items since gross profit (difference between sales revenue and cost of goods sold or services rendered) constitutes very important and useful information to management and other users of financial statements. Published statements are required to state all three items, that is, sales revenue, cost of goods sold and gross profit. Measuring Cost of Goods Sold The problem of measuring cost of goods sold arises because a business does not sell all the goods that it purchases during an accounting period. For example, a business may purchase 10,000 units of a product at Rs.5 per unit during an accounting period. If 5,000 units are sold during the accounting period at Rs.6 per unit, what is the cost of goods sold? The problem can be explained as follows: The purchase of 10,000 units can be regarded as inventory of Rs.50,000, an asset available for sale during the accounting period. Since only 5,000 units were sold, the cost of goods sold is Rs.25.000 (5,000 units x Rs.5 per unit), the balance of 5,000 is inventory available for sale during the next accounting period. If during the next accounting period another 3,000 units were purchased at Rs.5 per unit and 7,000 units were sold at Rs. 6 per unit partial profit and loss statements and balance sheets for operations for the two accounting periods would be Profit and Loss statement

Balance Sheet at the end

for Account Period 1

of Accounting Period 1

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Sales

30,000

Assets

Cost of Goods sold

25,000

Current Assets

______ Gross Profit

5,000

Inventories

25,000

_____

Profit and Loss Statement

Balance Sheet at the end

for Accounting Period 2

of Accounting Period 2

Sales

42,000

Assets

Cost of Goods sold

Current Assets

Opening

Inventories

Inventory

25,000

Purchases

15,000

Goods available for sales

40,000

Less Closing Inventory

5,000

Goods sold

35.000

Gross Profit

7,000

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5,000


During the two accounting periods, a total of 13,000 units were purchased at Rs.5 per unit of which 12,000 units were sold leaving a balance of 1,000 units at the end of the second accounting period. The cost of this inventory which is the closing inventory is Rs.5,000. In the above example, we were concerned with measuring cost of goods sold in a business which was primarily engaged in buying and selling goods without any processing. In manufacturing businesses, where materials are processed and converted into finished goods before sale, the measurement of cost of goods sold is slightly more complicated. There are two distinct methods of calculating cost of goods sold. The first method called the perpetual inventory method is commonly used by businesses which are buying and selling high unit price, low volume items (like refrigerators and air conditioners.) In such businesses, a record is kept of the cost of each item sold, and cost of goods sold is determined by simply adding up the cost associated with individual items sold. The total cost of goods sold is subtracted from the asset inventory so that at all times the asset inventory represents cost of goods still available for sale. The other method called the physical inventory method is generally used by businesses engaged in buying and selling high volume low unit price items (like provision stores). In this case, no track is kept of costs associated with each item that has been sold, but a physical inventory of goods remaining unsold is taken at the end of each accounting period. Costs are associated with the physical inventory on hand which results in the value of inventory not yet sold. The cost of goods sold is then determined through a process of deduction. To the inventory available for sale at the beginning of an accounting period (or remaining unsold at the end of the previous accounting period) is added the value of purchases made during the accounting period for which the profit and loss statement is being prepared. From this, the value of physical inventory not yet sold is deducted, giving the cost of goods sold during the current accounting period. Until now the figure used for â&#x20AC;&#x153;purchasesâ&#x20AC;? represented the gross value of purchases. To determine the net purchases during an accounting period certain adjustments to gross purchases are necessary. A part of the purchase may be returned to the supplier because the goods supplied APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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were not of the kind or quality ordered. Purchases returns will thus be deducted from gross purchases. Similarly, where an allowance on purchase price is claimed for non-standard goods, purchase allowance is also deducted from gross purchases. Purchase discount is next deducted from gross purchases. If any freight charges are incurred on the purchases of goods, this is added to gross purchases. To summarise by using an example, cost of goods sold for an accounting period will be calculated thus, Opening Inventory

Rs. 500

Purchases

Rs. 300

Add :

Rs.

Freight in

30

Rs. 330 Less :

Purchases Return and allowances.

Rs.

50

Less :

Purchase Discounts

Rs.

20

Add :

Net purchases

Rs. 260

As. 260

Goods available for Sales

Rs. 760

Less :

Rs. 250

Closing Inventory

Cost of goods sold

Rs. 510

It should be noted that under the physical inventory method, we are assuming that if goods are not found in physical inventory at the end of an accounting period, they must have been sold. This is perhaps an erroneous assumption, since goods might have been pilfered or lost instead of being sold. Unless steps are taken to determine such shrinkages in physical inventory, the cost of goods sold calculation might be misleading. On the other hand, in the perpetual inventory

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method an actual count of inventory on hand can be made to check the accuracy of perpetual inventory records. Measuring Operating Expenses Earlier in this note, we defined expenses as ‘sacrifice made’, ‘cost of services or benefits received’, or ‘resources consumed’ during a specific accounting period. It might now be useful to distinguish between expenditures and expenses. An expenditure takes place when an asset, resource or service is acquired in exchange for cash, another asset or by incurring a liability. Expense is incurred only when the asset, resource or reserves is used or consumed. During the total life of a business all expenditures must become expenses. Within a single accounting period however, there is no necessary correspondence between expenditures and expenses. The relationship between expenditures and expenses is illustrated with examples in the next few paragraphs. Expenditure incurred during an ‘accounting period’ which become expenses in the same ‘accounting period.’ If a resource, service or asset is acquired and consumed during the same accounting period, it is both an expenditure and expenses for that accounting period. There is an exact correspondence between expenditure and expense in the current accounting period in so far such items are concerned. Illustration:

In Dec 2005, goods worth Rs.5,000 were purchased for cash. There was thus an

expenditure of Rs. 5,000. One asset ‘inventory’ or ‘stocks’ being acquired in exchange for another asset ‘cash’. Out of this amount of Rs 5,000, how would be accounted for as expense for the year ended 31 March 2006? If all these goods were sold before 31 Mar 2006, there was an expense of Rs.5,000 in the year 2005-06. If none of the goods were sold in 2005-06, there was no expense in 2005-06. If the goods were sold subsequently in April 2006, there was an expense of Rs.5,000 in the year ending 31 March 2007. If only Rs,3,000 worth of goods were sold in 2005-06, there was an expense of only Rs.3,000 in 2005-06. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Expenditure incurred during an accounting period that become expenses in that same accounting period are the simplest types of accounting transactions. However, as can be seen from the next three sections, not all expenditures become expenses in the same accounting period in which they are incurred, Expenditures incurred in previous accounting periods that will become expenses in ‘current accounting period’. In the last part of the previous illustration we saw that out of an expenditure of Rs.5,000 in 2005-06 only Rs.3,000 became an expense during the same year. What happened to the difference of Rs. 2,000? The expenditure of Rs.2,000 would have been shown as an asset on the balance sheet as on March 31, 2006 and may be used up and transformed into expenses in 200607 in or future years. Three major types of such assets are described below: Current assets include inventories of products which have not been sold at the end of the previous accounting period- these will become expenses in the ‘current accounting period if the products are sold in this period. Another kind of asset is prepaid expenses and deferred charges. These assets represent cost of services purchased in previous accounting periods but not used up until the commencement of the current accounting period. Such assets become expenses in the period in which they are used up or consumed. Insurance premium provides an example of prepaid expense. Premiums on most insurance policies are payable in advance and the amount paid as premium remain as assets until the accounting period in which the protection becomes effective at which time the proportionate premium is treated as expense.

Illustration: - A company paid Ps,3,000 for rent in advance for 3 years on March 31, 2006. The balance sheet prepared on March 31, 2006, should show an asset ‘prepaid rent’. However, in the next three years, one-third of the prepaid rent, that is, Rs.1,000 would be regarded as an expense each year.. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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The third type of assets that become expenses are Long-lived assets. Fixed assets are acquired by a business enterprise in the expectation that they would be used in generating revenue over a period of time. Fixed assets would therefore, become expenses in future accounting periods when the assets are used. The conversion of fixed assets into expenses parallels the examples of insurance premium. One important difference is that in case of insurance premium the life of the policy is definite whereas in case of fixed assets, like plant and machinery, the asset life has to be estimated. Because of the estimation involved, the process of determining the portion of the plant and machinery cost that will be regarded as an expense for the current accounting period is quite a difficult task. Although difficult, the concept of depreciation has been devised to estimate the expense for each accounting period. Expenditure incurred in “current accounting period” that are not yet expenses In the preceding section, it was described how assets become expenses in the current accounting period. Using the current accounting period as our reference point, there are some expenditures incurred in the “current accounting period” which are not expenses in the “current accounting period” but will become so in future accounting periods when the assets or resources are consumed or used up. Such expenditures include not only assets that are purchased for future use but also expenditures on the manufacture or purchase of products that are to be sold in future accounting periods. Thus using the illustration from the preceding section, the expenditure of Rs.3,000 in March 2006 on insurance premium, is an expenditure that is not yet an expense in the accounting period for the year ended March 2006. Expense for ‘current accounting period’ that will be paid for in subsequent accounting periods: This category of operating expense is called accrued expense. The characteristic of accrued expense is that although services might have been used or benefits received in the current accounting period, payment for these services or benefits will be made in future accounting period. Owners’ equity is reduced when these expenses are incurred. Subsequent payment of the liability does not affect ‘owners’ equity’

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An example, of this type of expense is wages and salaries that are earned by employees but have not yet been paid. Some firms follow the practice of paying wages and salaries for a month in the first week of the following month, that is, wages and salaries for March 2006 are paid by the first week of April 2006. So far as the accounting period for the year ending March 2006 is concerned, wages and salaries for March 2006 are expenses for the period, although they will be paid only in April 2006. Another example of accrued expense is interest expense. Interest is the cost of borrowed money and is an expense for the accounting period in which borrowed money is used. Quite often, interest is payable quarterly. If the annual accounting period ends on March 31, interest for the period Jan to March 31 has been incurred, although the obligations to pay will arise only in April. The obligation to pay interest is shown as a liability in the balance sheet prepared on March 31. For all expenses of this type, transactions involved are essentially the same, the expense is shown as operating expense in the accounting period in which the services were used or benefits received. The obligation which results from this expense is shown as a liability in the balance sheet at the end of the current accounting period. The ‘Accrual concept’ - Cash Versus Accrual Accounting The essence of the accrual concept is that net profit (or net loss) arises from revenue and expenses transactions during an accounting period and that net profit (or net loss) is not synonymous with cash increase or cash decrease. Earlier we have seen that the process of revenue recognition is not necessarily associated with the collection of cash. For example when products or services are sold on credit the increase in revenue leads to a corresponding increase in the asset, sundry debtors. At a later date when cash is collected from customers, increase in asset ‘cash’ is offset by decrease in the asset ‘sundry debtors’, revenue is not increased at the time of collection but rather at the time when the products or services were delivered and billed on credit terms. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Occasionally, customers make advance payments for products or services to be delivered or sold in future years. Revenue is not recognised at the time of receipt of advance payment, although a liability to sell products or render services in future periods has been created at the time of advance payment. Revenue will be recognised only when products or services are actually delivered and billed. The liability would be removed at the time when revenue is recognised. In a like manner, expenses are not necessarily represented by cash transactions. Expenses occur when benefit is received from or use is made of an expenditure or asset. The payment for the expenditure or asset may be in quite a different period than the one in which the expense is recognised. For example when supplies are purchased on credit, an asset account is created and liability to the creditor is recorded. Expense is recognised in the accounting period in which these supplies are used or consumed. When payment is made to the creditor, the liability is reduced but it does not affect expense recognition. It is extremely important to recognise that net profit or loss is associated with changes in ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s equity through revenue and expense transactions and that net profit or loss is not necessarily synonymous with cash increase or decrease. Generally speaking, the larger the net profit, the better off are the owners. An increase in cash, however, is no indication that the owners are better off. The increase in cash may merely be offset by a decrease in another asset or by an increase in a liability, with no effect on equity at all. Net profit will exactly correspond with net cash increase only if the following four conditions are met a)

All sales are made for cash during the current accounting period.

b)

Any sales made on credit terms during the current accounting period are realised in cash in the current accounting period itself.

c)

All cash expenditures become expenses during the current accounting period, and

d)

All expenditures made on credit terms are paid off during the current accounting period, such expenditures being transformed into expenses during the current accounting period.

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In short, for net profit to be synonymous with net cash increase, there must be complete correspondence between sales revenue and cash receipts, between cash payments and expenditures and between expenditures and expenses. It is rare indeed for all the four conditions to be fulfilled in any business enterprise. Accrual accounting based on the accrual concept ignores the timing of cash receipts and payments in determining net income for an accounting period, the timing of revenue realisation and expense incurrence is the fundamental basis of accrual accounting. Matching Expenses with Revenues An accurate measurement of net profit or net loss during an accounting period depends considerably on the proper matching of expenses with revenues. The matching concept means that in determining net profit for an accounting period, all expenses associated with revenue generation should properly be regarded as expenses for that period. If revenue is recognised on the billing and delivery of a particular product, then the cost of products sold should include all expenses associated with the sale of that product. Similarly costs incurred for manufacturing a product that has not been sold but remains as closing stock at the end of the accounting period should not be included in operating expenses. Quite often the expenses to be matched with revenues need to be estimated. For example, products are sometime sold under a repair and service guarantee scheme. The concept of matching expenses with revenues gives rise to the problem of estimating the portion of the future repair and service guarantee costs. Sometimes the expenses needed to earn revenues are quite certain, but the likely revenues are uncertain. Taking another example, a company might spend a considerable sum of money on development of a new product to be launched. Over how many years should the cost of development be spread? This would depend amongst other factors on product life and its ability to generate revenues over a number of years. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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For practical reasons, accountants are sometimes forced to relax the concept of matching expenses with revenues. One reason is that a very exact matching of revenues and expenses may not be significantly useful and also the work and cost involved in achieving accuracy may not justify the results achieved. The profit and loss appropriation statement The profit and loss appropriation account shows how the net profit for the current accounting period has been disposed of. The statement starts with the balance in the P&L appropriation account at the end of the previous period, to which is added the net profit of the current accounting period. From this sum any dividends that might have been declared or any specific appropriations from the P&L appropriation account are deducted and any excess left over is added to the general reserves. Sometimes the net profit in an accounting period might be less than the profits required for declaration of dividends. In such a case the general reserve available at the end of the previous accounting period is used to cover the deficit between declared dividends and net profit. The profit and loss appropriation statement would then show general reserve available at the end of the previous accounting period., to which is added the net profit for the current accounting period. In other words there would be a reduction in the general reserves by an amount equal to the deficit between dividends and net profit. The profit and loss appropriation statement forms the link between the profit and loss statement and the balance sheet. This is done through the process of additions to and subtractions from general reserves. The profit and loss statement and the accounting equation

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It must be emphasized that all transactions shown on the profit and loss statement can be represented in terms of the accounting equation. When revenue from sales is received, owners’ equity increases by the amount of revenue from sales, this increase is offset by an increase either in cash or sundry debtors or some other asset. Similarly when an expenditure is incurred on purchase of products for sale and asset stock increases this increase is offset either by a decrease in cash or by an increase in liability to a creditor. When the products are sold owner’s equity decreases to the extent of the use of products for sale and stock of products for sale decreases correspondingly. You will therefore see that revenues and expenses result in increase and decrease in owner’s equity and that such increase and decrease is accompanied by a corresponding change in another asset or liability item. So far as the balance sheet is concerned one could directly record the revenue and expense transactions in terms of their effect on owner’s equity, however, for management information purpose it is quite useful to separate the increases and decreases in the owner’s equity in the form of revenues and expenses. In some cases business enterprises report to owners a net profit figure which is quite different from the one reported for tax purposes. There is nothing unethical about this practice since income tax regulations might in some cases prescribe a treatment for certain revenues and expenses which is quite different from that justified by sound business management policies. For example, income-tax regulations require companies to use the Written Down method of depreciation for tax reporting purposes. However, the Companies Act and Accounting Standards permit companies to choose either the written down method or the straight line method of depreciation for purposes of reporting to owners. In fact, some companies do follow straight line method of depreciation resulting in different net profit figures for tax returns and reporting to owners.

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Almost every business enterprise attempts to pay the least amount of tax on its taxable profit both in the short and long runs. A company will hire experts to advise management in how best to comply with tax laws, and pay the least amount of tax. This aspect of management policy may be more properly designated as tax avoidance rather than tax evasion. Tax avoidance is perfectly legal and ethical provided it is done in compliance with tax laws. In actual practice, several companies pattern their accounting policies for reporting to owners on the same line as the tax provisions. This is a very convenient procedure since it obviates the necessity of having separate accounting records for the two purposes. However, complete dependence on tax regulations for reporting to owners might result in serious distortion of financial reports presented to them. Tax regulations should not be substituted for clear and sound thinking on profit reporting practices.

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COMMON WINDOW DRESSING PRACTICES •

Date of Balance Sheet - If coinciding with end of season, the balance sheet size and liabilities may be smaller than during peak season.

Indicating Current expenses as Capital in Balance Sheet.

Resorting to heavy billing of sales on date of Balance Sheet – leading to increased sales & increased profit.

Preparing Balance Sheet on different dates for associate concerns. (making it difficult to ascertain the extent of interlocking of funds/stocks)

Temporary reduction in CL (for a day or so); Setting off CL against CA, Issuing cheques in payment of CL but not despatching them (reduces

S.Crs. and shows a better current ratio)

Maximising collection of receivables on Balance Sheet date thus showing a large cash balance (including cheques yet to be realised)

Resorting to heavy billing of sales on the date of Balance Sheet, leading to increased sales and profits

Changing the method of Valuation of Stocks (In an inflationary situation change from weighted average cost of current assets to First in First out method (FIFO) leads to increase in profit).

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â&#x20AC;˘

Changing the method of Depreciation - particularly with retrospective effect

â&#x20AC;˘

Booking unrealised income as revenue.

RATIO ANALYSIS Ratio is the relationship between two variables. It can be expressed as ratio or as a percentage or so many times. The purpose of ratio analysis is to facilitate comparisons with reference to time periods or with the average of industry. An investor who is intending to invest money in a company may like to know the risk and returns associated with the investment. As this involves future activity, a doubt may arise as to how the analysis of the statements based on past performance will be useful. However, past performance and trend do play a part, rather a significant part in the future performance also. The various ratios may be grouped under the following categories: Liquidity Ratios Activity or Efficiency Ratio Leverage or Stability Ratio Profitability Ratio Although it is possible to calculate a number of ratios under each category, we shall discuss only some of the important ratios both from the management and bankers. Liquidity Ratios: 1) Current Ratio = Current Asset/ Current Liability APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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In a balance sheet it Is very important that the assets and liabilities be correctly identified. It is necessary that current assets should be sufficient to meet the current liabilities. Another question is whether a current ratio of 1:1 is adequate. Here it is to be seen that the value given to the assets in the balance sheet is matter of estimate. Although the current assets valued at the realizable cost unlike fixed assets, it is possible that the estimates may go wrong and the realizable value may be less than the estimated one. It is therefore, desirable that CA are more than CL to keep a good margin of safety for the current creditors. Another question may arise, namely , what is the need to have more CA in relation to CL as long as total assets are more than the total outside liabilities. This can be easily answered considering the fact that fixed assets are intended for long term use in business and if companies were to pay its current creditors from the sale proceeds of fixed assets, it will be virtually in a state of bankruptcy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; liquidation. Commercial solvency of the company depends upon the adequacy of current assets in relation to current liabilities. To what extent CA should exceed CL depends on the operating cycle of the company. If it has a faster turnover, it may be able to manage with a high margin of safety. Bankers now insist that current ratio should be at least 1.33:1. However, a very high current ratio also does not indicate a very healthy management pattern. Ways of improving current ratios Sale of fixed assets to pay CL Sale of fixed assets for investments in CA Long term borrowing to pay CL Long term borrowing to invest CA 2) Quick Ratio or Acid test Ratio = CA- Inventory/ CL- Short term bank borrowing It has to be recognized that some assets are more liquid than others. Inventory is the most illiquid of the CA because it might have to be firstly, converted into receivables. It APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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is therefore, deducted from the CA. Similarly, short term bank borrowings though legally payable on demand, are generally renewed if the company is doing alright and hence is treated as long term liability. The acid test ratio will indicate whether liquid current assets are adequate to meet current liabilities. Here again, the duration of the operation cycle is a crucial factor to examine the magnitude of the standard ratio which is 1:1.

Activity Ratios: 1) Inventory Turnover Ratio = cost of goods sold/ Average inventory Inventory comprises of raw material, work-in-progress, finished goods and consumable stores and packaging materials. Inventory turnover ratio indicates how fast production cycle operates. If the ratio is high, it indicates higher volume of sales per rupee invested in inventory. If for example, this ratio is going down, it means that the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s production operation is being lengthened and inventory is getting accumulate. In such a situation, it is necessary to examine the portfolio further. If there is accumulation of finished goods, it required a careful analysis of the reasons for this build up. It may be the result of a decline in the demand for the product of the firm resulting from price, competition, availability of substitute or changes in tastes, fashions, etc. the situation may not be so alarming if it is arising from the buildup of raw materials inventory unless it is obsolete. Inventory buildup entails several costs-interested, rent, insurance, salaries and loss due to obsolescence and pilferage. All these costs can be avoided if there is no inventory. However, business cannot run without a minimum of inventory. To ensure uninterrupted production and sales, a reasonable amount of inventory has to be maintained. The inventory turnover further is sub-divided into the three following categories with a different pattern. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Raw Material Storage Period:Average Inventory of R.M./R.M. consumption x 365 This will indicate, on an average, how many days consumption of raw material is held by the company. Work in progress period: Average work in progress/cost of production x 365 This will indicate the amount of money involved in the semi finished goods by giving the number of days inventory is held in the form of semi finished goods. Finished goods storage period: Average inventory of finished/cost of sales x 365 This ratio maybe used to find out the period for which the company before sale holds finished goods. 2) Accounts Receivable (Debtors) Turnover Ratio = Total sundry debtor + bills Receivable + Bills Discounted outstanding/Credit sales x 3665 The accounts receivable turnover ratio indicates at what interval the debtors of the company pay the amounts due by them to the company. If a company is extending credit for sixty days against the industry average of 30 days, it may imply anyone of the following: The company has liberal credit policies to increase its sales. Its customers are not having high credit rating and hence are not prompt in meeting their obligations. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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The realization department of the company is not efficient to realize the debts in time. The companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s products are inferior so that they are forced to extend credit to buyers. The company is facing customers who can dictate terms to the company. The age of the debts is also a significant consideration. The older the age of the debt, farther it will be from being realized and hence the profits of the company may be eroded. 3) Payables or Creditors Turnover Ratio = Bills Payable + Sundry Creditors for purchases x 365 This ratio indicates the time taken by the company to pay off the creditors. If the credit period increases it means that the company is taking longer time to pay the creditors. It may be strength of the company. If it is a strong and reputed company, many may be willing to extend credit longer and therefore, the company is enjoying the cost free finance for a longer period. On the other hand, it may be a weakness of company. The longer period of credit may be owing to the inability of the company to meet its obligations at the appropriate time because of liquidity problems. Specially, if the current ratio is poor and the debtors and inventory period is declining. This situation may arise following the investment of current funds for acquisition of fixed and non-current assets. 4) Assets Turnover Ratio = Sales/ Net Operating Assets The assets turnover ratio will indicate the efficiency with which the assets are used. If the ratio is increasing, it will mean increasing efficiency and vice versa. An enterprise invests in assets with a view to increase the turnover. In case of growth of turnover to

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less than marginal increase in assets, the ratio will come down which will indicate that the performance has been less than budgeted 5) Expense Ratio Another measure for efficiency of an enterprise may be the way various expenses are behaving. The following may be more pertinent: Raw material to cost of production: This will indicate the efficiency of raw material usage. If it is increasing it may be either because of more wastage, rejection etc. or because of a rise in raw material price. In the former case, there is a decline in efficiency. Cost of production to sales: This will indicate the overall production efficiency. Selling and distribution expenses to sales: This will indicate the efficiency of the selling and marketing wing of the enterprise. Administrative expenses to sales: The will indicate the efficiency of general administration. 6) Leverage Ratios 1] Debt /Equity Ratio = Debt / Tangible net worth Debt represents the long term liabilities and preference share capital due for payment Within the next 12 years. Another concept of debt is both short term and long term debt. Equity on the other hand, refers to the tangible net worth. The ratio indicates the proportion in which the financing of the company has been done. If it works to 2:1, it means that the long term creditors have provided Rs.200 for every Rs.100 of the owners contribution. If a company has more of debt and less of capital, it May face problems with regard to repayments of installments and payments if interest when it does not have enough profits. On the other hand, if the entire amount is in the form of equity the return (dividend) to shareholders will be on the basis of profits. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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However, by borrowing a part the funds, the shareholders stand to gain if the rate of return in the business is higher than the rate of interest on borrowings. 2] Fixed Assets Coverage Ratio = net fixed assets/ long term debt secured by fixed assets The fixed assets coverage ratio indicates to what extent the funds of the long term Creditors secured by fixed assets. If it is 2:1, it means that even if the fixed assets are sold for half their book value. 3] Debt service coverage ratio = interest + PAT + Depreciation + Other non-cash Expenses/ interest + installment of term loan If an enterprise has borrowed funds, it is required to repay the same and also pay the Interest . For this, the company has opening profits; in addition, it also has funds from Depreciation and other non-cash expenses, which are not cash outflows. Some Authorities exclude depreciation from the numerator arguing that, after all, it is an Expense for fixed assets and should not be included here. The above formula is based On the concept that while interest rate is an admissible deduction, principle repayment will be done only after payments of tax. The ratio therefore shows to what extent the profits of the company will be adequate to meet the fixed charges of the interest and repayment of the borrowed funds. If this ratio works out to 2:1, it will mean that even if there is 50% fall in profits, the company will still be able to meet its commitments. However, if it were very near to 1:1, then even a slight fall in profits may result in the Inability of the company to meet the obligations. Before comparing the debt service coverage ratio, the various items should be consolidated into aggregates as under:

Net Funds Generated

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1st Year

2nd Year

3rd Year……… etc.


(a)

Net profit after Tax

(b)

Interest on Term Loans

(c)

Depreciation Charged Net Funds Generated (a+b+c)

Term Debt Obligations:

1st Year

2nd Year

3rd Year.. .. .. etc.

SBI Others Total SBI Others Total SBI Others Total (a) Term Instalments

Loan

(b )

under

Instalments DPGs

(c) Interest on Term Loans/ DPGs Total Obligations

Term

(a+b+c)

Debt Service Coverage Ratio (Gross DSCR):

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1st Year A

Net Funds Generated

B

Maturing term obligations

2nd Year

3rd Year………. etc.

Gross DSCR ( ‘A’ divided by ‘B’ )

A debt service coverage ratio (Gross DSCR) of 1.75 is taken as the bench mark.

Net Debt service coverage ratio (Net DSCR): 1st Year A

2nd Year

3rd Year………. etc.

Net Funds Generated less Interest on term debt

B

Maturing term obligations Less interest on term debt Net DSCR

( ‘A’ divided by ‘B’ )

An ideal position would be a uniform pattern of the net debt service coverage ratio of 2 : 1 during the entire repayment period. A ratio more than 2 :1 will indicate surplus servicing cushion available. The level of the ratio between 1.7 5 : 1 to 2 : 1 will be the moderate risk range. The level of the ratio below 1.75 : 1 will indicate that the element of risk is on the high side. Finally, comment on the pattern of the debt service coverage ratios available during the repayment period as worked out above and state whether the margin of safety and the extent of APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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risk coverage available in the debt servicing capacity of the project are satisfactory and acceptable.

7) Profitability Ratio 1] Gross profit ratio = gross Profit / sales x 100 It is an indicator of the production efficiency as discussed earlier with slight difference. In the production efficiency, we had taken the percentage of cost of production to sales Whereas share we have deducted from the sales the cost of sales to arrive to gross profit. q A low ratio may high manufacturing expenses, low price or inability to push up sales. An increasing ratio, on the other hand may indicate a higher sales volume, low manufacturing expenses or ability to increase the selling price. 2] Operating Ratio (Net Sales Margin) = PAT/ Net Sales x 100 This ratio indicates the net margin on sales after taking into account all expenses, except financial expenses (interest) and taxes. A higher margin will indicate that the company has higher percentage of profit on sales to meet the payment of interest, dividends and other corporate needs 3] Return on investment (ROI) = Return/ Investment x 100

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This is the most widely used ratio to measure the profitability of a company specially by The management and creditors. Here the return is not profit before tax, interest on term Loan and interest on debenture and investment means net worth of the shareholders and term liabilities. Return on Tangible net worth : Return on owners fund Net Profit After taxes/ Net worth of share holders funds x 100

BREAK – EVEN ANALYSIS

Definition of BEP Break – even point is the amount of sales at which a unit makes no profit no loss. In other words it is the level of sale at which sales revenue is equal to the costs of units sold. A unit can earn profit only if its level of sale is above the break – even point. Why is BEP calculated? A term loan should be serviced out of profits. If the unit functions at a level of sale at which there is no profit, it is natural that it cannot repay the term loan installments. This brings the necessity for calculating the level of sale above which profits are earned by the unit. In other words we need to calculate Break – even point. Once the BEP is calculated, the sale projection made at the profitability statement is compared with BEP sale. In case the difference between the projected sale and BEP sale is very low, it is

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risky to finance the project. A minor deviation in some elements of projected cost may result in a loss and thus non â&#x20AC;&#x201C; payment of the term loan. On the other hand, where the projected sale is appreciably higher than the BEP, the probability of earning some profit is still there even if there are some deviations in projections. A unit with comparatively low BEP is generally preferred for finance. The difference between projected sale and BEP sale is known as margin of safety. Banks for finance generally prefer a unit with higher Margin of Safety.

Step by step procedure for calculating BEP Optimum Capacity Where projected profitability statements for many years are given, one should chose the first year of optimum capacity utilization for calculating BEP. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Classification of costs All costs relevant to this year should be taken into consideration and they should be classified into FIXED COSTS AND VARIABLE COSTS. Fixed Cost: is one which is incurred irrespective of the level of production. It is there, even if there is no production or sale. It is a sort of PERIOD COST – a cost be compulsorily incurred Whether there is sale or no sale. Examples of fixed cost are depreciation, rent, manager’s salary, interest on term loan etc. Variable Cost: it is one with directly varies with Sales/ Production. Sales / production increases thus cost also increases. If there is NIL Sales/Production then cost should also be NIL. Examples of variable cost are raw material, wages, fuel, interest on working capital etc. Semi variable cost: there are certain costs which cannot be classified strictly as fixed or as variable cost. They increase with increase in volume of sales/production increase is not directly proportional to the increase in sales/production. Examples, semi variable costs are – telephone charges, selling expenses, power/electricity etc. For banks consider Semi- variables costs as fixed costs. Items of fixed and variable cost Raw material – Variable Consumable stores – variable Power and Fuel – Consumption Generally varies with output however minimum charges on power consumption should be treated as fixed cost. Labor and Supervision Cost- Normally labor is a variable expense. But distinction is to be made APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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as regards permanent direct labor and other workers whose number varies with production. Repairs and maintenance – Semi variable / fixed Salaries and wages – fixed Interest – A distinction would require that while interest on term borrowings and bank borrowings for core working capital should be treated as fixed cost, Interest on working capital borrowing which varies with production should be variable cost. Depreciation – Fixed Selling Expenses, sales commission etc related to unit of sale is variable but expenses like advertising, sales promotion etc. may semi variable or fixed. Contribution After classifying the cost one should find out the contribution which is done by deducting the total variable cost from sales. Contribution = Sales – Variable Cost Contribution per unit is calculated by deducting variable cost per unit from sales per unit. Contribution per unit of product = Sale price per unit – Variable cost per unit Contribution (as the name suggests) means the surplus left from sales, revenue meeting variable Cost and which is contributed towards the recovery of fixed cost. [Note: contribution increases as sale increases and falls down as sale fails. At zero of sale, the amount of loss is equal to fixed cost as there is no contribution.] Calculating of BEP BEP can be expressed in three ways: 1) In terms of number of units of sale 2) In terms of amount of sale in rupees 3) In terms of capacity utilization Depending upon the requirement in which BEP is to be expressed, different formulae are used for calculating BEP. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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BEP in units of sale: Anyone of the three formulae can be used depending on the availability of data. (I)BEP in units =

Fixed cost

or

Contribution per unit BEP in units =

Fixed Cost

or

Sale price per unit – Variable cost per unit (II) BEP in rupees: Any one of the following two formulae can be used. BEP in rupees = BEP in units X sales Price per unit BEP in rupees =

Fixed Cost

X Total sale in Rs.

Total contribution (III) BEP in terms of capacity utilization BEP in capacity = No. of units at BEP X 100 Total Capacity Calculation of BEP when PV ratio is given PV ratio [profit volume ratio] is equal to

Total contribution Total sales

Break Even point = Fixed Cost P/V Ratio

Margin of safety = actual Sale – BEP (Sales)

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It is the measure of cushion available in the given level sale. More the margin of safety, stronger is the unit. Where the margin of safety is low, the possibility of the unit coming to loss is quite high and banks avoid financing such units. Margin of safety is also calculated in the form of ratio as given below Margin of safety = Actual sale – BEP (sale) X 100 Actual sale Uses of Break Even Point Analysis To study the viability of the project – (projects having BEP above 75% of capacity utilization should not be accepted for finance) To decide the optimum product mix, products with higher contribution should be chosen. To decide the required level of production in order to attend a desired level of profit.

Cash – Break Even Point It is the point of sale at which the unit does not incur cash loss or cash profit. While calculating costs non cash expenses like depreciation are not taken into account. Significance of BEP One of the tools of profitability analysis along with DSCR. Determines the lowest production and price levels at which the project would cover all its costs. Helps at realistic fixation of repayment schedule. Tells how sensitive is the project towards adverse situations like decline in sales/profit /capacity utilization. Utilized to determine the volume of sale, necessary to achieve the target profit. Determines ‘product mix’ and ‘make or buy’ decision.

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Limitations of BEP Based on many unrealistic assumptions. It assumes that volume of sales and volume of production are equal. In reality this situation seldom happens. It assumes that all revenues are perfectly variable with the physical volume of production. It assumes that all the costs are neither perfectly variable or absolutely fixed over the entire range of volume of production.

FUND FLOW ANALYSIS According to Roy A. Foulka, Funds Flow Statement is “a statement of the sources and application of funds, is a technical device designed to highlight the changes in the financial condition of a business enterprise between two dates”. In India, the funds flow analysis, in its present form, was not extensively used by the commercial banks for their working capital appraisal, until late sixties, when the National Credit Council Study Group No.11, popularly known as Dehejia Committee came out with its report.. This committee, asked to determine “to what extent credit needs of the industry are likely to be inflated”, pointed out that the banks did not seek to link credit with industrial output, with the result that end-use of bank credit was not property followed up. As a sequel to this the commercial banks and RBI started looking into their appraisal procedures and thus the funds flow statement came to be regarded as an important component of appraisal for working capital advances. Stated simply, a funds flow statement captures movement of funds to and from the company’s coffers. Thus, sources include cash generated by the business after meeting the expenses, APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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increase in owners’ equity, contracting of additional debt, sale of assets or reduction thereof. Increase in assets, liquidation of loans/other liabilities and reduction in owners’ equity denote uses. As a management tool for decision making, it discloses to the management, at a glance, as to what its committed outlays are in a given period of time and what the funds availability is for meeting such outlays. It is quite essential for the management to have an idea of the funds flow as, without which, management of capital expenditure and operational expenditure will become a haphazard exercise, leading to defaults in payment obligations of the business or sub – optimal utilisation of funds. It is pertinent to mention here about the confusion that may arise about profit and liquidity. Many presume that adequacy of profit is tantamount to an automatic liquidity and vice versa. Nothing can be farther from reality. If maximisation of profit is the corporate goal or objective, the consistency of flow of funds into the system can be regarded as a precondition for reaching the goal. While profit generates additional funds, optimum deployment of funds forms the nucleus of the operating cycle in a business which generates additional profits. Despite good amount of profits, a situation of disequilibria can still arise due to wrong financial management decisions affecting the inflow and outflow of funds. A surfeit of this liquidity (funds) affects also the profitability, no doubt, due to non-utilisation, but if the ‘funds tank’ gets dry, it leads to potential dangers, which, in turn, are capable of forcing the business eventually to insolvency. Thus, sound or prudent management principles dictate measures aimed at optimising profit, but simultaneously, they also enjoin upon the management to properly use the funds such that sufficient liquidity is available to the unit to meet its creditors in time, with neither an overdose of liquidity nor a depletion thereof with all the attendant difficulties. What are funds? Very broadly, funds are described as total resources. However, most commonly funds are defined as working capital or cash. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Working capital [here refers to] = Current Assets – Current liabilities FUNDS FLOW STATEMENT – TOTAL RESOURCE BASIS The preparation of funds flow statement on total resource basis is fairly simple. The successive balance sheets are compared and changes in each of the balance sheet items are noted and classified as sources of funds. SOURCES Increase in owner’s equity Increase in a liability Increase in an asset

USES Decrease in owner’s equity Decrease in liability Decrease in an asset

Funds flow on total resource basis is prepared on two parts – part A shows the changes under various balance sheet items & part B classifies these changes into sources of funds and uses of funds. It may be noted that when funds are defined as total resources, the sources of funds are equal to the use of funds due to the double entry principle of book keeping. It may also be appreciated that under the total resources method, only the successive balance sheets are used and the income statements/ profit and loss account are not put to use. Amplified Funds flow The statement of sources and use of funds shown in the above table may be amplified, drawing on the information contained in income statement. The amplification consists of providing details of underlying changes in (I) reserves and surplus and (II) net fixed assets. This is done as follows: Changes in reserves and surplus is essentially out of retained earnings as shown below :-\ Profit before tax and interest -

Interest

-

Taxes

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-

Dividends

Now, profit before tax and interest is shown as source of funds while taxes, interest and dividends are shown as use s of funds.

Now the funds flow statement on a working capital basis presents 1) Sources of working capital 2) Uses of working capital 3) The net change in working capital These can be depicted as under SOURCES

USES

OPERATIONS

DIVIDEND PAYMENT TAX, INTEREST

ISSUE OF SHARE CAPITAL

REPAYMENT OF LONGTERM BORROWINGS

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LONG TERM BORROWING SALE OF NON CURRENT ASSETS

PURCHASE OF NONCURRETN ASSSETS


Sources of Working Capital 1.

Operations The operations of the business generates revenues and entail expenses. While revenues augment working capital, expenses other depreciation and other amortization decreases working capital. Hence, the working capital increases on account of operations is equivalent to: Net Income + Depreciation

2. Issue of share capital As issue of share capital results in an inflow of working capital because it brings a cash inflow. 3. Long â&#x20AC;&#x201C; term Borrowings When a long term loan is taken, there is an increase in working capital because of cash inflow. The short term loan, however, does not have any effect on working capital. The reason being a short term loan increases a current asset (cash) and a current liability (short term loan) by the same amount, leaving the working capital position unchanged. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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4. Sale of Non-current asset When a fixed asset or a long term investment or any other long term asset is sold, there is working capital inflow represented by cash or short term receivables.

Uses Of Working Capital I)

Payment of taxes, dividends, interest etc. These transactions result in cash (working capital) outflow.

II) Repayment of long term Liability The repayment of long term loan, debentures and other long term liabilities involves cash outflows and hence a use of working capital. The repayment of a current liability, it may be noted does not affect the working capital position because It entails an equal reduction in current liabilities and current assets. III) Purchase of non-current assets When a firm purchases fixed assets, long term investments or other non-current assets; it pays cash or incurs a short term debt. Hence, working capital decreases. The funds flow statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; on working capital basis shown at the above table Part A shows the sources, uses and net change in working capital and Part B shows the changes in the internal content of working capital. Funds Flow Statement : Cash Basis shows, APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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a) Sources of cash b) Uses of cash and c) Net change in cash. The sources of cash are the sources of working capital plus changes within the working capital account which augment the cash resources of the business. The change in working capital which augment the cash flow of the business are accounted for by decrease in current assets other than cash. The uses of cash are changes that use working capital plus, changes within the working capital account, which depletes the cash resources of the business. These latter changes are simply increase in current assets other than cash. These sources and uses of cash are illustrated below: Sources of cash -

Operations net income, depreciation

-

Issue of share capital

-

Long term borrowings

-

Sale of non-current asset

-

Increase in current liabilities

-

Decrease in current assets other than cash Uses of cash

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- Decrease in current liabilities - Increase in current assets other than cash The net effects of the movements of funds is easily discernible in each of the three methods under which funds flow statements have been prepared. The funds flow system in a business is often likened to a hydraulic system. The concept of flows implies an inflow, an outflow and storage where the level is determined by the rate of inflow and outflow. To summaries, the funds flow statement we observe, is very closely related to the financial statements, the balance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; sheets and profit and loss accounts, the funds flow statement is related to a time span say one year or six months as the case may be. Thirdly, the funds flow analysis is very closely related to the normal decision making process in the business â&#x20AC;&#x201C; decisions relating to investment, operations and finance. Projected Fund Flow Statement A fund flow statement can be prepared either on the basis of the past data or for a future period of time provided the time span is specified. All the questions for which the answers are sought on the basis of past data can also be answered for future period of time provided the projections are based on realistic assumptions. In fact, projected funds flow statement is of great practical relevance to bankers, as some of the important questions pertaining to the financial position, profitability and servicing of working capital/ term loan etc. extended by banks can be answered with a fair degree of reliability. This to a great extent relives the banker of his anxiety as to whether a credit decision to be taken at present is worth while from a commercial point of view. As bankers funds flow analysis is used mainly to find answers to: a) How the long term and short term resources will be raised and used? b) When and how much finance the unit will require? c) When and how the business will repay the loans? APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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d) Are the financial policies followed by the unit proper and financial planning acceptable? e) What is the dividend policy of the company? f) What is the contribution of funds provided by internal sources to the growth of business? (in the past and in future) A funds flow statement as a third financial statement in addition to the balance sheet and profit and loss account has a distinct role to play in evaluating the use of resources and the pattern of financing them.

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CASH FLOW STATEMENTS

The following I the text of the revised Accounting Standard (AS) 3, ‘Cash Flow Statements’, issued by the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. This standard supersedes Accounting Standard (AS) 3, Changes in financial position’, issued in June, 1981. In the initial years, this accounting standard will be recommendatory in character. During this period, this standard is recommended for use by companies listed on a recognized stock exchange and other commercial, industrial and business enterprises in the public and private sectors.

Objectives Information about the cash flows of an enterprise is useful in providing users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the enterprise to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the enterprise to utilize those cash flows. The economic decisions that are taken by the users require an evaluation of the ability of an enterprise to generate cash and cash equivalents and the timing and certainty of their generation. The statement deals with the provision of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an enterprise by means of a cash flow statement, which classifies cash flows during the period from operating, investing and financing activities.

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An enterprise should prepare a cash flow statement and should present it for each period for which financial statements are presented.

Users of an enterprise’s financial statement are interested in how the enterprise generates and uses cash and cash equivalents. This is the case regardless of the nature of the nature of the enterprise’s activities and irrespective of whether cash can be viewed as the product of the enterprise, as may be the case with financial enterprise. Enterprises need cash for essentially the same reasons, however different their principal revenue producing activities might be. They need cxash to conduct their operations, to pay their obligations , and to provide returns to their investors.

Benefits of Cash Flow Information A cash flow statement in conjunction with other financial statements provides information that enables users to evaluate the changes in net assets of an enterprise, its financial structure and its ability to affect the amounts and timing of cash flows in order to adapt to changing circumstances and opportunities. Cash flow information is useful in assessing the ability of the enterprise to generate cash and cash equivalents. It also enhances the comparability of the reporting of operating performance by different enterprises because it eliminates the effects of using different accounting treatments for the same transactions and events. Historical cash flow information is often used as an indicator of the amount, timing and certainty of future cash flows. It is also useful in checking the accuracy of past assessments of future cash flows and in examining the relationship between profitability and net cash flow and the impact of changing prices.

Definitions The following statements are used in this statement with the meanings specified: Cash comprises of cash in hand and demand deposits with the bank. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Cash equivalents are short term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value. Cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash equivalents. Operating activities are the principal revenue â&#x20AC;&#x201C; producing activities of the enterprise and other activities that are not investing or financing activities. Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long term assets and other investments not included in each equivalents. Financing activities are activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capital (including preference share capital in the case of a company) and borrowings of the enterprise.

Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short term cash commitments rather than for investments and other purposes. For an investment to qualify as a cash equivalent, it must be readily convertible to a known amount of cash and be subject to an insignificant risk of changes in the value . Therefore, an investment normally qualifies as a cash equivalent only when it has short term maturity of, say, three months or less from the date of acquisition. Investments in shares are excluded from cash equivalents unless they are, in substance, cash equivalents; for example, preference shares of a company acquired shortly before their specified redemption date (provided there is only an insignificant risk of failure of the company to repay the amount at maturity). Cash flows exclude movements between items that constitute cash or cash equivalents because these components are part of the cash management of an enterprise rather than part of its operating, investing and financing activities. Cash management included in the investment of excess cash in cash equivalents.

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The cash flow statement should report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financing activities.

An enterprise presents its cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities in a manner which is most appropriate to its business. Classification by activity provides information that allows users to assess the impact of those activities on the financial position of the enterprise and the amount of its cash and cash equivalents. This information may also be used to evaluate the relationships among those activities. A single transaction may include cash flows that are classified differently. For example, when the installment paid in respect of a fixed asset acquired on deferred payment basis includes both interest and loan, the interest element is classified under financing activities and the loan element is classified under investing activities.

Operating Activities The amount of cash flows arising from operating activities is a key indicator of the extent to which the operations of the enterprises have generated sufficient cash flows to maintain the operating capability of the enterprise, pay dividends, repay loans and make new investments without recourse to external sources of financing. Information about the specific components of historical operating cash flows is useful, in conjunction with other information, in forecasting future operating cash flows. Cash flows from operating activities are primarily derived from the principal revenue producing activities of the enterprises. Therefore, they generally result from the transaction and other events that enter into the determination of net profit or loss. Examples of cash flows from operating activities are; â&#x20AC;˘

Cash receipt from sale of goods and the rendering of services;

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Cash receipts from royalties, fees, commissions and services;

Cash payments to suppliers for goods and services;

Cash payments to and on behalf of employees

Cash receipts and cash payments of an insurance enterprise for premiums and claims, annuities, and other policy benefits;

Cash refunds or payments of income taxes unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities; and

Cash receipts and payments relating to futures contract, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes.

Some transactions, such as the sale of an item of plant, may give rise to gain or loss which is included in the determination of net profit or loss. However, the cash flows relating to such transactions are cash flows from investing activities. An enterprise may hold securities and loans for dealing on trading purposes, in which case they are similar to inventory acquired specifically for resale. Therefore, cash flows arising from the purchase and sale of dealing or trading securities are classified as operating activities. Similarly, cash advances and loans by financial enterprises are usually classified as operating activities since they relate to the main revenue – producing activity of that enterprise.

Investing Activities The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from investing activities is important because the cash flows represent the extent to which expenditures have been made for resources intended to generate future income and cash flows. Examples of cash flows arising from investing activities are:

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a) Cash payments to acquire fixed assets (including intangibles). These payments include those relating to capitalized research and developing costs and self â&#x20AC;&#x201C; constructed fixed asset. b) Cash receipts from disposal of fixed assets (including intangibles); c) Cash payments to acquire shares, warrants or debt instruments of other enterprises and interests in joint ventures (other than payments for those instruments considered to be cash equivalents and those held for dealing or trading purposes) ; d) Cash receipts from disposal of shares, warrants or debt instruments of other enterprises and interests in joint ventures (other than receipts from those instruments considered to be cash equivalents and those held for dealing or trading purposes); e) Cash advances and loans made to third parties (other than advances and loans made by a financial enterprise); f) Cash payments for future contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the payments are classified as financing activities; and g) Cash receipts from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the receipts are classified as financing activities; and h) Cash receipts from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the receipts are classified as financing activities. When the contract Is accounted for as an hedge of an identifiable position, the cash flows of the contracts are classified in the same manner as the cash flows of the position being hedged.

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The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from financing activities is important because it is useful in predicting claims on future cash flows by providers of funds (both capital and borrowing) to the enterprise.

Reporting Cash Flows from Operating Activities An enterprise should report cash flows from operating activities using either; •

The direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed; or

The indirect method, whereby net profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature, and deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments, and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing casgh flows.

The direct method provides information which may be useful in estimating future cash flows and which is not available under the indirect method and is, therefore, information about major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments may be obtained either. a) From the accounting records of the enterprise; or b) Bu adjusting sales, cost of sales, (interest and similar income and interest expense and similar charges for a financial enterprise) and other items in the statement of profit and loss for: •

Changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;

Other non-cash items; and

Other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.

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Under the indirect method, the net cash flow from operating activities is determined by adjusting net profit or loss for the effects of: a) Changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables; b) Non â&#x20AC;&#x201C; cash items such as depreciation, provision, deferred taxes, and unrealized foreign exchange gains and losses; and c) All other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows. Alternatively, the net cash flow from operating activities may be presented under the indirect method by showing the operating revenues and expenses excluding non â&#x20AC;&#x201C; cash items disclosed in the statement of profit and loss and the changes during the period in inventories an doperating receivables and payables.

Reporting Cash Flows from Investing and Financing Activities An enterprise should report separately major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments arising from investing and financing activities, except to the extent that cash flows described above are reported on a net basis.

Reporting Cash Flows on a Net Basis Cash flows arising from the following operating, investing or financing activities may be reported on a net basis. a) Cash receipts and payments on behalf of customers when the cash flows reflect and the activities of the customer rather than those of the enterprise; and b) Cash receipts and payments for items in which the turnover is quick, the amounts are large, and the maturities are short.

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Examples of cash receipts and payments referred to in above are: a) The acceptance and repayments of demand deposits by bank; b) Funds held for customers by an investment enterprise; and rents collected on behalf of, and paid over to, the owners of properties

Examples of cash receipts and payments referred to in above paragraph are advances made for, and the repayments of: a) Principal amounts relating to credit card customers; b) The purchase and sale of investments; and c) Other short â&#x20AC;&#x201C; term borrowings, for example, those which have a maturity period of three months or less.

Cash flows arising from each of the following activities of a financial enterprise may be reported on a net basis: a) Cash receipts and payments for the acceptance and repayment of deposits with a fixed maturity date; APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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b) The placement of deposits with and withdrawal of deposits from other financial enterprises; and c) Cash advances and loans made to customers and the repayment of those advances and loans. Thus, along with fund flow, the cash flow statements gives us a very broad and explicit idea of the state of an enterprise.

TERM LOAN ASSESSMENT COST OF PROJECT

Funds required for –  Acquisition of land and its development  Constitution of building  Acquisition and erection plant & machinery  Acquisition of other assets  Preliminary & pre – operative expenses  Margin for working capital Project cost – sources  Own funds (capital and reserve)  Unsecured long term loans from friends, relatives and others  Term loans from banks and financial institution  Subsidies from government if any APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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ANALYSIS OF COST OF PROJECT & SOURCES OF FINANCE Land: 

Is the location suitable for the project?

How land is acquired?

Is it adequate for the project?

Is it planned for future expansion?

How is it valued, excessive or reasonable?

In case of loan the cost to be released along with the borrowers margin

Is it developed or to be developed; if so, whether cost properly assessed?

Whether required infrastructure available or not?

Buildings: 

Are the buildings needed for the actual productions justified?

Are there any unnecessary constructions like guest houses?

Are the estimates enclosed from an authorized architect?

Does the cost assessed is reasonable and justified?

Plant and machinery: 

Are these really needed for actual production?

Are they brand new or second hand?

Are all quotations given for new machineries which are latest and relevant

If second hand, any competent authority assessed the value?

Are the prices reasonable and realizable with similar types?

If the technical knowhow is to be acquired from outside is the cost included in quotations?

Margin is normally @ 25%

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Miscellaneous Assets: 

What are included miscellaneous assets?

Do these items are genuinely required or provided for future contingencies?

Are quotations given or these are assessed approximately?

Are all electrical fittings and fixtures properly and reasonably assessed with relevant quotations?

Preliminary / pre- operative expenses: 

What are they?

Are they properly classified?

Whether all these are justified?

Is interest cost during construction period arranged for by borrower?

What is their accounting system to capitalize/ absorb the expenditure?

Margin for working capital: 

Is it properly assessed?

Is there enough NWC in the system as on date and on projected basis?

What are the sources? Are they really on long term basis or arranged or on short term basis?

Whether undertakings can be obtained from contributors that they shall not be withdrawn during currency of banks finance?

Sources of finance: 

Capital – is it properly arrived at?

Whether personal balance sheets are given to know actual capital contribution?

Whether the capital investment in the project is correctly related to the credit reports of the individuals?

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Are the unsecured loans properly planned?

Is there any interest and at what rate and interest?

Management Appraisal: 

Proprietary concern – one man show

Partnership firm – more than one person could be at the helm of the affairs

Joint stock companies – public or private

Board of directors

Managing directors

Committee of board of directors

Middle level officers

Line officers

Functional Management

Planning

Organizing

Directing

Coordinating

Controlling

Reviewing

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Other things to be kept in mind are that there are certain factors to judge integrity, managerial capacity, and judgment of borrowersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; vision and mission. This is a very crucial factor and one should always keep in mind the role that they play and their importance. The diagram below will help in throwing light over the issue;

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POINTS OF STUDY IN TECHNICAL APPRAISAL

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1) LOCATION : The location of a project is highly relevant to its technical feasibility and hence special attention will have to be paid to this feature. Projects whose technical requirements could have been well taken care of in one location sometimes fail because they are established in another place where conditions are less favourable. One project was located near a river to facilitate easy transportation by barge but lower water level in certain seasons made essential transportation almost impossible. Too many projects have become uneconomical because sufficient care had not been taken in the location of the project, e.g. a woollen scouring and spinning mill needed large quantities of good water but was located in a place which lacked ordinary supplies of water and the limited water supply available also required expensive softening treatment. The accessibility to the various resources has meaning only with reference to location. Inadequate transport facilities or lack of sufficient power or water for instance, can adversely affect an otherwise sound industrial project 2) INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITY: confirm that the needed infrastructure facilities are available in the area. Power, water , fuel required are available or not. Sources of water etc.

3) LAND AND BUILDINGS: whether owned or rented or leased. Scope of future expansion, is the building adequate, is it well protected etc.

4) MANUFACTURING PROCESS: study the flow chart and identify the critical process on which quality of finished products rely. Duration of the process, input and output, is it mechanized or labor intensive? Etc.

5) TECHNICAL KNOW HOW: important feature of the feasibility relates to the type of

technology to be adopted for the project. A new technology will have to be fully examined and tried before it is adopted. It is equally important to avoid adopting APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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equipment or processes which are obsolete or likely to become outdated soon. The principle underlying the technological selection is that “a developing country cannot afford to be the first to adopt the new nor yet the last to cast the old aside”. Is it indigenous or imported? Can it be easily adopted?

6) PLANT AND MACHINERY: is it appropriate to the production process? Condition of machinery, installation process, servicing etc.

7) LICENSES AND PERMITS: are they current and valid? Any restrictions imposed, if yes then why?

8) PRODUCTIVITY CAPACITY: licensed capacity, installed capacity, any expansion undertaken etc.

9) TYPE OF PRODUCT: product and its uses, who are going to use it, is it in demand etc.

10) RAW MATERIALS: what are the raw material? Their availability, supply, time needed for arranging supply, payment terms etc.

11) STORAGE FACILITIES: has provision been made for future or not?

12) MARKETTING ARRANGEMENTS: by whom is it done? Any permanent arrangements, is their any volatility in their prices etc.

13) MANAGEMENT /LABOR ARRANGEMENTS: who manages it, are they qualified, is

it labor oriented, any unresolved problem till now etc. The labour requirements of a APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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project, need to be assessed with special care. Though labour in terms of unemployed persons is abundant in the country, there is shortage of trained personnel. The quality of labour required and the training facilities made available to the unit will have to be taken into account.

14) COSTING AND PROFITABILITY: how well the profitability has been assessed based on the cost.

15) OTHERS: specific benefits available like in the case of 100% EOU, units located in EPZ.

PROJECT REPORT ANALYSIS

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SOURCE OF FINANCE PROMOTERS ECONOMIC VIABILITY TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY SURPLUS GENERATION/PROFITABILITY PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE CAPACITY TO SERVICE THE DEBT Payback Method The method determines the period needed to recover the initial cash investment through annual cash flows estimated to be generated. Payback period = Cash investment/ Annual cash inflow Cash Inflow = net PAT + Depreciation + Other non-cash write offs (intangible) Term Loan Appraisal Term loan characteristics •

For acquiring assets

Repayable in installments

Repayment out of profits

Term loan appraisal Term loans can be granted for: •

Working capital/ fixed assets under schematic finance

Bank’s branded loan products

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â&#x20AC;˘

Industry or any other projects

Schematic Loans Appraisal Appraisal of term loan in schematic finance and our products is purely depending on DSCR and the repaying capacity respectively. Economics is required to be prepared for viability study in cases other than the bankâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s brand products. Quantum Quantum of loan is the cost of asset less margin subject to repaying capacity. Repayment Schedule Repayment schedule may be planned considering DSCR. Repayment period Repayment period may be decreased in case of high DSCR and increased in deserving cases Where DSCR is below 1.5 subject to maximum period permitted in the scheme after keeping a cushion for delay/default for reason beyond control. Repayment should start immediately after cahs generation. Delay in starting of repayment will affect adversely. Appraisal of term loans in cases of an industry or a project is long term investment decision. It requires detailed study/appraisal.

Project Appraisal Assessment of project APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Study of project report

Feasibility study

Financial viability

Cost of project

Sources of finance

Project Report 

Cost of the project

Sources of finance

Proforma balance sheet and projections

Financial highlights with ratios

Cash flow and fund flow statements

Project implementation schedule

Debt service coverage ratio

Cost of production and profitability

Technical report

Feasibility Study Generally the entrepreneurs submit a project report & it is duty of appraising officer to cross check the reliability of assumptions made in the project report. 

Managerial Competence

Technical Feasibility

Commercial Viability

Ecological Analysis

Managerial Competence

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Capability of the entrepreneur in implementing & managing the project. Technical Feasibility Study of aspects relevant to production of finished goods of proper quality like permits, machinery, availability of spare parts, infrastructure facility, power, water, fuel etc. Commercial Viability Whether the goods can be sold in the quantity and prices as projected. Projection and forecasting, capacity utilization, price levels etc. Ecological Analysis 

Environmental damage

Restoration measures

Sources of finance 

Capital / equity

Reserves/ subsidies

Unsecured loans

Term loans from financial institution

Cost of project 

Land and site development

Building

Plant and machinery

Miscellaneous assets

Consultancy fees

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Contingencies

Financial Viability 

Financial projections

Fund flow and cash flow statements

Ratio Analysis

BEP

Non discounted cash flow technique

Discounted cash flow technique

Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) DSCR = NPAT +Intt on TL + Depreciation/ Intt on TL + installment of TL Ideal DSCR is 2:1 For SSI it is 1.5:1 Repayment period can be reduced where DSCR is high. Repayment period can be increased up to permissible limit where DSCR is low. Average Rate of Return ARR = Average profit after tax/Average book value of investment x 100 It is comparable with the rate of return in market in other investments Discounted Cash Flow Techniques Net Present Value [NPV] Cost Benefit Ratio [CBR] Internal Rate of Return [IRR] APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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NPV •

The entire cash inflow is discounted at the rate of interest to arrive at present value of return.

NPV = present value of cash inflow minus present value of cash outflow.

The project Is accepted if NPV is positive and rejected if NPV is negative.

BCR •

The entire cash inflow is discounted at the rate of interest to arrive at present value of return.

BCR = Present worth of benefit/ Present worth of costs

The project is accepted if BCR is more than one and rejected if less than one.

IRR is the rate of discount at which present value of cash inflows is equal to the present

IRR value of cash outflows. •

The project is accepted if IRR is more than the expected rate of return.

Higher the IRR, better is acceptability of the project.

Working Capital Assessment Working capital, also known as net working capital, is a financial metric which represents operating liquidity available to a business. Along with fixed assets such as plant and equipment, working capital is considered a part of operating capital. It is calculated as current assets minus

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current liabilities. If current assets are less than current liabilities, an entity has a working capital deficiency, also called a working capital deficit. A company can be endowed with assets and profitability but short of liquidity if its assets cannot readily be converted into cash. Positive working capital is required to ensure that a firm is able to continue its operations and that it has sufficient funds to satisfy both maturing shortterm debt and upcoming operational expenses. The management of working capital involves managing inventories, accounts receivable and payable and cash. Current assets and current liabilities include three accounts which are of special importance. These accounts represent the areas of the business where managers have the most direct impact: â&#x20AC;˘

accounts receivable (current asset)

â&#x20AC;˘

inventory (current assets), and

â&#x20AC;˘

accounts payable (current liability)

The current portion of debt (payable within 12 months) is critical, because it represents a shortterm claim to current assets and is often secured by long term assets. Common types of shortterm debt are bank loans and lines of credit. An increase in working capital indicates that the business has either increased current assets (that is received cash, or other current assets) or has decreased current liabilities, for example has paid off some short-term creditors.

Implications on M&A: The common commercial definition of working capital for the purpose of a working capital adjustment in an M&A transaction (ie for a working capital adjustment mechanism in a sale and purchase agreement) is equal to: APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Current Assets - Current Liabilities excluding deferred tax assets/liabilities, excess cash, surplus assets and/or deposit balances. Cash balance items often attract a one-for-one purchase price adjustment. Decisions relating to working capital and short term financing are referred to as working capital management. These involve managing the relationship between a firm's short-term assets and its short-term liabilities. The goal of working capital management is to ensure that the firm is able to continue its operations and that it has sufficient cash flow to satisfy both maturing shortterm debt and upcoming operational expenses.

CONCEPTS FOR WORKING CAPITAL ASSESSEMENT Gross Working Capital [GWC] = Total of Current Assets Net Working Capital [NWC] = CA - CL Working Capital Gap [WCG] = [CA â&#x20AC;&#x201C;CL {Excl STBB}] Permissible Bank Finance [PBF] = WCG â&#x20AC;&#x201C; [Higher of stipulated NWC or available NWC] METHODS OF ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER METHOD : under this method, the WC limit shall be computed at 20% of the projected sales turnover accepted by the Bank. 5% of projected sales should be available as margin. In the case of SSI borrowers seeking/enjoying fund based working capital facilities up to Rs. 5 Lacs, the limits shall be assessed on the basis of turnover method. FLEXIBLE BANK FINANCE METHOD: it is an extension of Maximum Permissible Bank Finance [MPBF] with customer friendly approach in as much as the scope of current assets is made broad based and for evaluating projected liquidity, acceptable level of current ratio is APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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taken at 1.17:1 against benchmark of 1.33:1. this method is applicable for accounts with credit limits of more than Rs. 5 crores. CASH BUDGET METHOD : this method may be adopted in case of specific Industries/Seasonal activities such as software, construction, film, sugar, fertilizers etc. the required finance is arrived at from the projected cash flows and not from the projected values of assets and liabilities. NET OWNED FUNDS METHOD: the credit needs of NBFCs shall be assessed based on this method, rescribed by the RBI. Dangers of inadequate Working Capital 1. It stagnates growth 2. Fixed assets remain underutilized 3. operating inefficiencies creeps in 4. Difficulty in achieving targets of business for production and profit 5. Business reputation at stake 6. Situation of tight credit terms 7. Difficulty in meeting payment commitments

Letter of Credit

The customers in the course of their business, to run business transactions smoothly, have to make efforts like participation in tenders for expanding market, deposit security deposits for APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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participation in tenders, give guarantees for their capacity to perform contracts, avail concessions in duty on imports when tagged to some exports obligations etc. These business requirements for goods and services can be met by them with the help of non-fund based facility known as ‘guarantees’ given/issued by the banks. Sec. 126 of Indian Contract Act, 1872 defines guarantees as a contract to perform the promise or discharge the liability of a third person in case of his default. During the course of business, banks are often required to furnish guarantee on behalf of their own customers in lieu of their obligations, performance or engagement. The parties involved: •

Beneficiary, creditor, lendor

Borrower, debtor

Guarantor, surety

There are different types of guarantees, depending upon the kind of financial favor the customer is asking from the bank. But certaing issues should be kept in mind, precaution should be taken while accepting a guarantee or guaranteeing on some other parties behalf. Expiry of guarantee should be kept in mind and accordingly the acknowledgement should be given. In a letter of guarantee clarity should be maintained, as far as the amount and dates are concerned, the name of the customer etc.

Letter of Guarantee

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Traders are required to acquire fixed assets and purchase different types of raw materials and finished goods or make payments for services availed in the course of business. Some of the purchases of goods and services are possible only if the buyer makes payment in advance. However, the suppliers in such circumstances also allow the buyers to make purchases with the help of letter of credit issued by the banker. The letter of credit is a commercial instrument of assured payment and widely used by the business community for its various advantages. All parties to credit deal only with the documents and not the goods. It is an instrument by which a bank undertakes to pay a seller for his goods, provided he complies with the conditions laid down in the credit. The credit specifies as to when payment is to be made which maybe either when the documents are presented to the paying bank or at some future date, depending upon the use of draft as stipulated in the creit. There are different types of credit like revocable an irrevocable credits, transferable, back to back, red clause, standby etc. and the letter of credit proves to be a very useful and helpful facility for the customers.

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CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

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The whole project is based on the process of advancing loans to a company or an organization, which has now become a very crucial part of every bank. I had learned how to advance loans of various kinds, right from comfort loans, vehicle loans, housing loans, education loans etc. to corporate lending. Corporate lending play important role because these are huge lending and so they need to be taken care of. As in, when a company or an organization asks for loan then the bank needs to check a number of things. There is a long process, at the end of which the bank decides whether to lend the money or not. In this chapter, I would like to analyze the complete process with the help of a case study. Taking a hypothetical company and its balance sheet as used by the bank, I would like to analyze whether or not the company should be given the loan or not. BRIEF BACKGROUND: The firm was established in 1991 by the proprietor Mr. G H Pal. The unit is engaged in processing of cotton seed oil and trading of soyabean, groundnut and various grains according to season. Initially, the unit was started with three oil expellers. Thereafter they installed three more oil expellers in the year 2004. Again they installed six more high capacity machines in 2006. Therefore, presently they are working with 12 expellers/machines. Now they proposed to install 12 new machines in the newly constructing building. However, they proposed to sell the oldest six machines within very short time. Mr. Sumit Pal S/o Shri G H Pal has recently completed MBA and looking after financial matters of the firm. The account was taken over in August 2003 from XYZ Bank where they were enjoying credit facilities at lower level.

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FINANCIAL INDICATORS

:

( Rs. In Lac)

Year Ending Paid up Capital

31.3.05

31.3.06

(Aud.)

(Aud.)

31.3.07

31.3.08

(Aud.)

(Aud.)

31.3.08

31.3.09 (Est.)

(Proj.)

31.63

33.19

37.09

47.54

66.50

161.01

Reserves & Surplus

-

-

-

-

-

-

Intangible Assets

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tangible Net Worth

31.63

33.19

37.09

47.54

66.50

161.01

Long Term Liabilities

81.87

85.48

121.10

89.45

137.00

230.00

113.50

118.67

158.19

136.99

203.50

391.01

Net Block

16.15

18.93

33.70

33.34

26.64

220.00

Investments

6.47

7.61

13.70

15.10

10.00

15.10

Non Current Assets

11.35

3.01

4.37

5.92

9.37

8.83

Net Working Capital

79.53

89.12

106.42

82.63

157.49

147.08

Current Assets

206.38

267.52

571.58

573.98

712.49

684.08

Current Liabilities

126.85

178.40

465.16

491.35

555.00

537.00

Current Ratio

1.63

1.50

1.23

1.17

1.28

1.27

D E Ratio (TL/TNW)

1.12

3.23

3.26

1.89

2.96

1.43

DER (TOL/TNW)

6.58

7.95

15.81

12.22

10.40

4.76

Capital Employed

DER (TOL/TNW) Excl. U/sec. loans as quasicapital

1.50

Net Sales APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

200.99

182

600.46

3.28 1720.71

2.56

3.59 2097.75

2500.0

2600.00


Other Income

0.43

0.52

1.28

3.19

1.00

8.00

Net Profit Before tax

1.72

2.67

4.73

11.01

12.22

40.78

Net Profit After Tax

1.71

2.67

4.02

9.35

10.72

29.80

Depreciation

2.17

2.06

4.60

4.28

3.75

9.70

Cash Accruals

3.88

4.73

8.62

13.63

14.47

39.50

 Capital of the firm is showing increasing trend due to retention of part of net profits in the system. The proprietor has infused additional funds of Rs. 3.45 lacs as capital apart from balance net profits of Rs. 7.00 lacs as of 31.03.2008, which resulted it has increased from Rs. 37.09 lacs as of 31.03.07 to Rs. 47.54 lacs as of 31.03.08. The proprietor has estimated to induct Rs. 100.00 lacs additional funds apart from plough back of profit to raise the capital to Rs. 161.01 lacs as of 31.03.2009.  Unsecured loans are continuously increased year after year. The same are mainly raised from family members/relatives. An undertaking from the party should be obtained that these unsecured loans will be retained in the system till currency of bank finance, as NWC and DER are depend upon these loans.  NWC in the system as of 31.03.08 stands at Rs. 82.63 lacs, which provide the margin (25%) for availing the fund based limit upto Rs. 380.00 lacs.  CR of 1.17 as of 31.03.08 has come down from 1.23 as of 31.03.07, which is due to repayment of T/L and reduction in unsecured loans i.e. short term sources are used for long term uses, which is internal diversion of funds and should be avoided by the firm. Though it is still within the acceptable level.  DER in normal condition is above the bench mark level, showing the firm’s high dependency on outside liabilities. The firm should reduce the outside liabilities or raise capital/family deposits. However, if unsecured loans raised from family members/relatives are taken as quasi-capital, the DER as of 31.03.08 is worked out to 3.59, which is within acceptable level. An undertaking from the party to be obtained that these unsecured loans will be retained in the system till currency of bank finance. APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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 Sales turnover of the firm has increased substantially from Rs. 600.46 lacs as of 31.03.06 to Rs. 1741.28 lacs (190%) as of 31.03.2007 and Rs. 2097.75 lacs (21.91%) as of 31.03.08 reflecting the good progress of the unit during last two years. The same are estimated at Rs. 2600.00 lacs as of 31.03.09 with the growth of 24%, which looking to their past performance, can be considered achievable.  The firm is earning net profits continuously. As of 31.03.08 the firm has registered 132% growth in net profit as against 21.91% growth in net sales over the last year. The firm has estimated much improved profit margin due to reduction in manufacturing/power expenses on account of installation of new plant & machinery.  Cash accruals are sufficient to service the interest on WC.

Overall financials can be considered as satisfactory as of 31.03.2006.

COMMENTS ON ASSESSMENT OF LIMITS

:

a) PROJECTED LEVEL OF SALES:

PARTICULAR

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SALES (IN LACS)

MAR-05

200.99

MAR-06

600.46

184


MAR-07

1720.71

MARCH 2008

2097.75

Sales turnover of the firm is showing increasing trend. The firm has achieved sales turnover of Rs. 2097.75 lacs against projected sales of Rs. 2500.00 lacs i.e. 84%. The firm has achieved 22% growth in sales from Rs. 1720.71 lacs to Rs. 2097.75 lacs as of 31.03.08. During this fiscal, the firm has projected sales of Rs. 2600.00 lacs. From April to September 08, the firm has registered sales of Rs. 595.25 lacs, which is slightly decreased by 3.2% as compared to last year correspondence period sales of Rs. 614.90 lacs. However, it is marginal difference, which can be filled during peak season starting from October to May. Looking to their last 3 years performance and proposed expansion of unit, we may consider sales of Rs. 2500.00 lacs during 2008-09 achievable with about 20% growth over the previous year.

b) INVENTORY & RECEIVABLE NORMS

The major raw material of the unit is cotton seeds, soya seeds, etc., which are processed and converted into oil. These raw materials are purchased from Mandi and Cotton Ginning & Processing Mills. During last 3 years, the actual stock holding & receivables level remained as under: Particulars Total Inventory Receivables Sundry Creditors APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

185

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

173.22

356.69

447.13

91.97

183.25

92.93

108.61

236.61

88.85


The level of stock holding and debtors as of March 2006, March 2007 and March 2008 indicate working capital cycle of peak season of 8 months. In view of the fact that it is a seasonal unit and the firm is required to make bulk purchases of cotton/soya seeds during the crop season to ensure regular production/working of the unit, the holding can be considered reasonable. Looking to the situation, it is required to make Peak Level and Non-Peak level limits i.e. during the peak season & off-season of the crop.

c) WORKING CAPITAL ASSESSMENT

Based on projected sales of Rs. 2500.00 lacs for 2008-09, the WC requirement of the party as per turnover method can be worked out as under:  Projected Sales achievable during 2008-09

:

2500.00

 25% of Sales

:

625.00

 5% of sales as margin

:

125.00

 Available margin (NWC) o MPBF

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: :

500.00

82.63


Further, based on FBF method of assessment, the WC requirement is worked out as under: (Rs. in lacs)

MAR-07

MAR-08

Total Current Assets.

581.26

712.49

Less: Current Liabilities

241.90

150.00

Working Capital Gap

339.36

571.86

NWC

95.21

157.49

Flexible Bank Balance (FBF)

244.15

414.37

Net Sales

1741.28

2500.00

NWC to TCA %

16%

22%

Flexible Bank Finance to TCA %

42%

58%

Sundry Creditors to TCA %

40%

21%

(Other than Bank Borrowings)

Therefore, C.C.(Hyp) limit of Rs. 380.00 lacs as recommended by the branch, can be considered. However, looking to past trend and seasonal business – crop season from October to May, it will be justified to renew Peak-Season & Non-Peak Season limits at 25% margin as under:  Rs. 380.00 lacs – From October to May.  Rs. 135.00 lacs – From June to September

d) TERM LOAN ASSESSMENT APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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The firm was sanctioned T/L of Rs. 17.90 lacs for purchase/installation of 6 jumbo expellers to expand the capacity of the unit in June 2006. Presently they are working with 12 expellers/machines. Also they proposed to sell the oldest six machines within very short time. Expected sale proceeds of six old machines about Rs. 18.00 lacs will be utilized for adjustment of existing Term Loan and other long term uses.

The firm has now proposed to construct new building shed and to install advanced technology 12 new oil expellers alongwith remaining 6 existing expellers out of 12. Therefore, the firm intend to work with total 18 expellers to increase the production with improved quality at reduced cost.

The cost of project & means of finance as per Technical Inspection Report dated 30.09.2008 are as under:

Cost of project Land & Site development owned by the firm. Construction cost of shed& building Electric Installation Plant & Machinery Misc./Sundry exp. TOTAL

LAND:

CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING:

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Means of funding 0.00 Promoterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contribution 106.28 Term Loan from Bank 14.62 58.52 0.38 179.80 TOTAL

61.00 118.80

179.80


The firm has obtained construction permission from the competent authority. Out of own contribution, the firm has already started/completed construction of building & civil works as under: Particulars

Construction area

Works completed till 19.09.2008

(In sq.ft.) Oil Mill Shed

4300

90%

Raw Material godown

4300

90%

Finished material godown

4300

90%

Shed for overhead tank

2800

60%

Platform No.1

10500

25%

Platform No. 2

10500

25%

As per abstract dtd. 21.04.08 & 23.04.08 obtained from M/s abc, Chartered Engineer, xyz city, estimated construction cost are given as under:  Oil Mill Shed

:

 Overhead Water Tank

:

Rs. 2589800

Rs. 917500

 Khal Godown Shed

:

Rs. 2109800

 Sarki Godown Shed

:

Rs. 2109800

 Cotton Seed drying platform No.1

:

Rs. 1450600

 Cotton Seed drying platform No.2

:

Rs. 1450600

:

Rs. 10628100 (Say Rs. 106.28 lacs)

TOTAL

As per certificate of Chartered Engineer, xyz city, the construction works of around Rs.85.75 lacs are already completed. The technical inspecting officials have also confirmed the above

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stage of completion. The construction cost is varied from Rs. 150/- to Rs. 600/- depending upon the works, which is considered reasonable and justified. ELECTRIC INSTALLATION Electric installation is mainly consisting of 14 TEFC Motors, 36 pieces Start Delta starter, main switch, other accessories, etc. These items will cost Rs. 10.20 lacs as per quotation obtained from Allied Electric Stores, xyz city. Transformer of 500 KVA costing Rs. 4.42 lacs as per quotation of M.P. Transformer Pvt. Ltd. is to be installed for smooth and adequate supply of power.

PLANT & MACHINERY The firm has been working with 12 oil expellers with about 100% capacity utilization. To improve the quality and enhance the capacity, they have decided to purchase 12 new expellers and install them alongwith existing 6 out of 12 expellers in a new building adjacent to existing one. Particulars of P&M, cost & manufacturers/suppliers are proposed as under: (Rs. in lacs) PARTICULARS

Manufacturer/Supplier

No.

Rate

Total Cost

M/s xyz 1

12

2.50

30.00

Chainlink convear with M/s xyz 2

1

6.65

6.65

1

1.05

1.05

Filter with pump

1

1.65

1.65

Elevator 30’

1

1.05

1.05

‘Sona’ Oil Expellers

gearbox & chin fitting Wash Tank 7 ton with 3 HP Motor

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190


Dicordicator

complete

1

7.50

7.50

Underground tank with

1

0.40

0.40

10

0.264

2.64

automatic plants

cover & partition Storage tank Motor

stand

(6

no.),

0.56

foundation bolt (6 no.) & pipe fitting, VAT

2.68

Expeller Spare parts

Xyz 3

-

-

TOTAL

4.34 58.52

12 pieces of are to be purchased from @ Rs. 2.50 lacs each total costing Rs. 30.00 lacs as per their quotation dated 14.04.2008. Other supporting items like, wash tank, filter, elevator, dicordicator complete automatic plant, etc. are proposed to be purchased from.

Keeping in view the volume of project, projected misc./sundry expenses of Rs. 0.38 lac are reasonable. Therefore, total cost of project Rs. 179.80 lacs is acceptable.

The firm has proposed to contribute 40% margin towards construction of building and 25% margin for plant & machinery.

As per technical report, the firm has acquired 6 new machines, elevator and conveyor and these machines are installed in new mill shed alongwith 12 old machines. When in near future 6 more APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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new machines are supplied, old 6 machines will be sent back to the supplier under buyback arrangement. The other items are also expected to receive very soon. With the installation and implementation of all the plant & machinery as proposed herein above, the quality and capacity of the unit are expected to increase. The capacity will be increased from 80000 quintal to 129000 quintals per season i.e. 540 quintals per day for 240 days working in 2 shifts of 12 hrs. During the current year i.e. 2008-09, capacity utilization is projected at 75% i.e. 90000 quintals with working of 18 oil expellers (12 new & 6 existing).

The firm has requested for Term Loan of Rs. 130.00 lacs for the above project. But due to totaling mistake in one quotation and repeatation of some electrical parts & machineries, total project cost has been assessed at reduced level of Rs. 179.80 lacs instead of Rs.194.63 as per technical report dated 30.09.2008. Accordingly, the term loan of Rs. 118.80 lacs can be taken for financial assistance. The loan is proposed in 6 years after moratorium period upto March 2009. The following details & analysis are given as per the project report submitted by the Society:

PROFITABILITY DETAILS:

Actual 2007-08

Est.

PROJECTED

08-09

09-10

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

14-15

2097.75

2600

2725

2850

2975

3100

3225

3300

1937.16

2388. 03

PARTICULARS RECEIPTS Net Sales

(Rs. in lacs)

EXPENDITURE Raw material consumption APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

192

3025 2500

2615

2725

2840

2955


Purchase & Processing exp

87.95 95.00

Selling & Admn. Exp.

97.00

100.0 0

103.0 0

107.0 0

110.0 110.00 0

9.69

21.00 15.00

2034.8

16.00

17.00

18.00

19.00

20.00

2498. 03

2613

2732

2846

2966

3085

106.9 7

117.0 0

123.0 0

134.0 0

139.0 0

145.0 149.00 0

6.19

13.09

10.61

8.16

5.71

3.26

38.33

40.00

40.00

40.00

40.00

42.00

44.00

Existing T/L

1.91

132

0

0

0

0

0

Intt. to others

10.62

10.50

10.50

10.50

10.50

10.50

10.50

Total Interest

50.86

58.01

63.59

61.11

58.66

58.21

57.76

4.22

9.70

16.46

15.71

14.14

12.72

11.45

55.08

67.71

80.05

76.82

72.8

70.93

69.21

Profit Before Tax

5.77

12.04

15.95

21.18

30.20

39.07

45.79

Income Tax Provn.

-1.25

-1.99

-2.34

-3.11

-4.45

-5.78

-6.78

4.52

10.05

13.61

18.07

25.75

33.29

39.01

Total Expenditure Profit Before Dep. Int. & Tax

62.95

Interest on Proposed T/L @ 12% Interest on CC

Depreciation

Profit After Tax

3156

Interest calculated @ 12% p.a. As per IC 8088 dtd. 26.08.08 interest rate for food & agro based processing units with investment in plant & machinery upto Rs. 10.00 crores for the amount of advance above Rs. 1.00 crore with CR-5 will be applicable @ BPLR-1.75% i.e. 12.25% at present.

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CALCULATION OF DSCR(Rs. in lacs) Year

08-09

PAT Depreciation Interest Sub total (A)

Interest Installments Sub total (B)

DSCR

09-10

10-11

13-14

13.61

18.07

25.75

33.29

39.01

9.70

16.46

15.71

14.14

12.72

11.45

58.01

63.59

61.11

58.66

58.21

57.76

77.76

93.66

94.89

98.55

104.22

108.22

58.01

63.59

61.11

58.66

58.21

57.76

0

19.80

19.80

19.80

19.80

19.80

58.01

83.39

80.91

78.46

78.01

77.56

1.34

1.12

1.17

1.26

1.34

1.39

e) ASSESSEMENT OF NON-FUND LIMITS N. A.

f) CONSORTIUM ARRANGEMENT N. A.

194

12-13

10.05

Average DSCR

APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

11-12


g) ANY OTHER MATTER CREDIT RATING : a) Year

Previous yr.

Current yr.

Total score obtained

72%

71%

Grade

CR-5

CR-5

b) Parameters

Marks obtained Previous yr.

Current yr.

Max.

Obtained

Max.

Obtained

Borrower rating

67

48

46

34

Facility rating

21

16

29

22

Risk Mitigators

5

5

20

12

Business aspects

4

1

5

3

Total Marks with grade

97

70

100

71

As per Rating Model-II, the firm has secured 71% marks, which comes under investment grade with acceptable risk. Thus we can see, that in terms of financial assessment this is what is done in a broad scale. Although banks use many different models and ways to assess a borrower. Another important thing to keep in mind is that credit appraisal consists of many different kinds of appraisal that is the borrowers market worth and the like, which are also very crucial part.

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CHAPTER V

FINDINGS :â&#x20AC;˘

That the banks have their own credit rating system and that they try to update it with the latest method available.

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The ratios have a very important role to play; a thorough understanding of them leads one to the future prospects of the borrower and also tells a lot about its financial soundness.

Another important thing is the balance sheet, its break up and the study of it, tells a lot about any organization.

Retail loan sector in india has a long way to go, a steady growth is projected in the coming years.

LIMITATIONS :•

The time given for the summer internship i.e. 8 weeks, was not sufficient enough to study and understand the retail loans approval process of the Union bank of India.

The banks have their own confidential information and it was very difficult to make the project and analyze it on the basis of hypothetical information.

SUGGESTIONS :•

UBI has this time ranked 5th among all the Nationalized banks. The reason for its ranking was the number of NPAs it had. It was found that a number of retail loans ended

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up in NPAs . UBI needs to develop a competitive edge and the managers and the assistants need to keep a tab on the loans given. •

Usually the managers would only fulfill their required target and then would forget about more borrowers. They need to have more borrowers both for small and big loans.

Many times they pass a loan without the proper appraisal, i.e. the client may lack either the projected and estimated balance sheet or the proper documents. In such cases there should be a strict protocol followed.

CONCLUSION :As discussed in the project above, Credit Appraisal appears to be the back bone of the banking institution. It is equally important and dangerous, as there is always the chance of default or some other risk. After dealing with almost every aspect of loans and advances one can summarize that with a little bit of strict measures and a keen eye and understanding of a company’s balance sheet one can very well save the institute the risk other than the default risk. Even the default risk can be to a certain limit mitigated, if we before sanctioning the amount check the profile of the customer. Industry Report, bank’s own experiences and the ability of the borrower to run his enterprise professionally are certain things one can check.

A very crucial aspect of credit appraisal is the credit rating, Union bank has introduced their own Internal Rating system of all borrowers enjoying/seeking credit limits above Rs. 2 lacs. The rating grades range from CR1 to CR8. Credit ratings up to CR5 are investment grade. CR6 to CR8 are non-investment grade as per the loan policy of the bank. Migration in credit rating, especially downward migration should be discussed in detail and road map to improve the credit rating has to be drawn up/implemented. A lot of times for some reasons, credit report is not submitted and the submission of the proposal and its sanctioning is done without it, while APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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keeping in mind other necessary factors. It is to be seen and made mandatory that the credit report must accompany the proposal as it gives a very clean and clear picture of the borrowers credit worthiness.

In order to potential NPAs it is significant to have a fair understanding of the borrowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s financial health. Thus, at least last three years balance sheet and Profit and loss accounts should be obtained, in addition to projections of next 2 years. Now, most of the time customers to prove their credit worthiness make the estimated balance sheets unrealistic, such areas should be stressed and it should be checked whether the borrower has the ability to go as per the projected Balance Sheet. The important factors which should be given special consideration are trend in sales, both quantity and quality, it should be positive with the industry trend. Disparities in the sales pattern should be analyzed properly. Profitability should be critically analysed, it should be checked with the existing norms of the balance sheet. The distribution of profits and its impact at the reserve and surplus along with the tangible net worth should be seen. Increase/decrease in the term liabilities and its effect on capital employed should be scrutinized too. Increase or decrease in the investments of the borrower also needs to be looked at, it should be seen that the investments that the borrower is making should yield some income. The non â&#x20AC;&#x201C; current assets is another important aspect, it should be seen and commented upon. The debt equity ratio should be seen, if the debts are increasing and equity decreasing then such case should be discussed. Working Capital and its assessment should be done before taking a decision about the borrower. Credit rating is a very important step in deciding whether to sanction or decline a proposal. All the stages should be vetted and the necessary action should be taken while making any decision. The other important things to be kept in mind is the security offered, the documents submitted and the market reputation of the borrower.

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It is true that the fear of NPAs looms large whenever a borrower new or old comes for the loan, but if the all the steps are properly followed and all the aspects looked at, then the banks should not have any problem in giving out loans and advances of any kind.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bessis Joel, ‘Risk Management in Banking’

RBI guidance notes on Credit Risk Management.

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Credit Risk Models and Management, 2nd edition by David Shimko.

Credit scoring and its applications by Lync.Thomas, David B. Ederman and Jonathan N. Crook.

Credit Risk Valuation: Methods, Models and applications by Manuel Ammann.

M.Y.Khan’s, Corporate Finance and its basic usage.

Credit Appraisal, Risk Analysis And Decision Making book, by DD Mukherjee

Banking Strategy, Credit Appraisal and Lending Decisions: A Risk-Return Framework. By Bhattacharya, Hrishikesh

Financial Statement Analysis: A Practitioner's - by Martin S Fridson, Fernando Alvarez

Analysis of Financial Statements - by Leopold A Bernstein, John J Wild

Financial Analysis: Tools and Techniques a ... - by Erich A Helfert

Credit Risk Management & Basel II - An Implementation Guide. . Mohan Bhatia.

Credit Risk Management by Andrew Fight

The Essentials of Risk Management by Michel Crouhy, Dan Galai, Robert Mark

Framework for Credit Risk Management: Credit by Alastair Graham, Brian Coyle

 Risk management and capital adequacy by Reto R. Gallati 

The risk management process: business strategy and tactics by Christopher L. Culp

Credit and collection principles and practice by Albert Franklin Chapin, George E.Hassett

The Appraisal journal by American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers, Appraisal Institute (U.S.)

Financial statement analysis: a practitioner's guide by Martin S. Fridson, Fernando Álvarez –

APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Finance and accounting for nonfinancial managersby William G. Droms

Corporate Finance by Scott B Smart, William L Megginson

The analysis of financial statements by Harry George Guthmann, Harry Lewis

Financial statement analysis: a new approach by Baruch Lev

Principles of corporate finance by Richard A. Brealey, Stewart C. Myers

Sites Referred: 

www.defaultrisk.com

www.cmie.com

www.crisil.com

www.unionbankofindia.com

www.unionbankofindia/aboutus.co.in

www.unionbankofindia/retailloans/unionshare.co.in

www.unionbankofindia/retailoans/unioncomfort.co.in

www.unionbankofindia/retailloans/unionsmile.co.in

www.unionbankofindia/retailloans/unionhealth.co.in

www.unionbankofindia/retailloans/unioneducation.co.in

www.unionbankofindia/retailloans/unionvehicle.co.in

www.wikipedia.com

www.google.com

www.amazon.com

Inter – office and Intra- Office Circulars.

APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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APOORVA GHOSH 4108024024 MBF 2008-2010

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Analysis of Credit Appraisal at Union Bank of India  

UNDER THE ESTEEMED GUIDANCE OF BY Mr. Ramesh Vege 4108024024 MBF 2008­2010 Senior Manager, UBI, Bhopal at

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