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A PROJECT REPORT ON TO ACCESS THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF HLL PRODUCTS & SERVICE ISSUES IN BHOPAL CITY

SUBMITTED BY: MANOJ SHRIVASTAVA M.B.A. (Full Time) III SEMESTER

MAHARISHI CENTRE FOR EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE MAHARISHI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL SESSION (2004 – 2006)


A PROJECT REPORT ON TO ACCESS THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF HLL PRODUCTS & SERVICE ISSUES IN BHOPAL CITY.

SUBMITTED BY: MANOJ SHRIVASTAVA M.B.A. III(Full Time) SEMESTER

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. MUKESH PORWAL

MAHARISHI CENTRE FOR EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE MAHARISHI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL SESSION (2004 – 2006) i


DECLARATION I, MANOJ SHRIVASTAVA a student of M.B.A. (full Time) III semesters of “MAHARISHI CENTRE FOR EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE, MAHARISHI INSTITUE OF MANAGEMENT, Bhopal (2004-2006), hereby declare that the following project report titled “TO ACCESS THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF HLL PRODUCTS & SERVICE ISSUES IN BHOPAL CITY” is an authentic work done by me. The project was undertaken as the part of course curriculum of MBA programme, Barkatulla University, Bhopal. This has not been submitted to any other examination body earlier.

DATE:

MANOJ SHRIVASTAVA

iii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to place on record my grateful thanks and sincere gratitude to Dr. (Col.) Rajesh Malhotra , who gave me valuable advise and input for my study. I am immensely grateful to my esteemed guide Prof. Mukesh Porwal, whose continued and invaluable guidance can never be forgotten by me but for whom; this study could not have got present shape. Last but not least, I would like to express my thanks to my friends and family members who inspired me to put best efforts for the survey report

MANOJ SHRIVASTAVA

iv


PREFACE The training provides an opportunity to a student to demonstrate application of his knowledge, skill and competencies required during the technical session. Training also helps the student to devote his skill to analyze the problem to suggest alternative solutions, to evaluate them and to provide feasible recommendations on the provided data. The project report is on the topic of “TO ACCESS THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF HLL PRODUCTS & SERVICE ISSUES IN BHOPAL CITY� Although I have tried my level best to prepare this report an error free report every effort has been made to offer the most authenticate position with accuracy.

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CONTENTS Chapter-1

Chapter-II

Introduction -

Background of the study

-

Identification Of Problem Area

-

Justification/ Relevance of the Study

Objectives of the Study

Chapter-III Review of Literature Chapter-IV Scope & Research Methodology -

Scope of Study

-

Research Design

-

Type of Study

-

Area of the study

-

Period of the study

-

Sample Design

-

Tools of analysis

-

Limitations of Study

Chapter-V

Data Analysis & Interpretation

Chapter-VI

Observations & Findings

Chapter-VII Conclusions & Suggestions Bibliography Annexure -

Questionnaire

-

curriculum vitae


LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.

TITLE

TABLE 5.1 TABLE 5.2 TABLE 5.3 TABLE 5.4 TABLE 5.5 TABLE 5.6 TABLE 5.7 TABLE 5.8 TABLE 5.9 TABLE 5.10

SOURCE OF AWARENESS AWARENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT BEST MEDIUM OF ADVERTISEMENT REASON FOR USING HLL PRODUCTS FACTORS FOR PURCHASING SATISFACTION LEVEL PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS BRANDS WHICH OFFER ATTRACTIVE SCHEMES BRAND IMAGE OF HLL PRODUCTS

PAGE NO.


LIST OF GRAPHS GRAPH NO.

TITLE

GRAPH V.1 GRAPH V.2 GRAPH V.3 GRAPH V.4 GRAPH V.5 GRAPH V.6 GRAPH V.7 GRAPH V.8 GRAPH V.9 GRAPH V.10

SOURCE OF AWARENESS AWARENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT BEST MEDIUM OF ADVERTISEMENT REASON FOR USING HLL PRODUCTS FACTORS FOR PURCHASING SATISFACTION LEVEL PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS BRANDS WHICH OFFER ATTRACTIVE SCHEMES BRAND IMAGE OF HLL PRODUCTS

PAGE NO.


CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) is India's largest fast moving consumer goods company, with leadership in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. HLL's brands spread across 20 distinct consumer categories, touch the lives of two out of three Indians. They endow the company with a scale of combined volumes of about 4 million tonnes and sales of Rs.10,000 crores. The leading business magazine, Forbes Global, has rated Hindustan Lever as the best consumer household products company. Far Eastern Economic Review has rated HLL as India’s most respected company. Asiamoney has rated HLL as one of India’s best managed companies. Leading national publications, like The Economic Times, Business World, and Business Today have also rated HLL as one of India’s most respected companies and the number one in Market Value Added and EVA.The vision that inspires HLL's 32,400 employees (40,000 including Group Companies), including about 1,425 managers, is to “meet everyday needs of people everywhere - to anticipate the aspirations of our consumers and customers and to respond creatively and competitively with branded products and services which raise the quality of life.” This objective is achieved through the brands that the company markets.It is an ethos HLL shares with its parent company, Unilever, which holds 51.55% of the equity. A Fortune 500 transnational, Unilever sells Foods and Home and Personal Care brands through 300 subsidiary companies in about 100 countries worldwide with products on sale in a further 50.


BUSINESS NATURE HLL is India's largest marketer of Soaps, Detergents and Home Care products. It has the country’s largest Personal Products business, leading in Shampoos, Skin Care Products, Colour Cosmetics,and Deodorants. HLL is also the market leader in Tea, Processed Coffee, branded Wheat Flour,Tomato Products, Ice cream, Soups, Jams and Squashes.HLL is also one of the country's biggest exporters and has been recognised as a Golden Super StarTrading House by the Government of India; it is a net foreign exchange earner. HLL is India's largest exporter of branded fast moving consumer goods. The company's Exports portfolio includes HLL's brands of Soaps and Detergents, Personal Products, Home Care Products, Tea and Coffee.HLL is also driving exports in chosen areas where India has a competitive advantage – Marine Products, Basmati Rice, Castor Oil and its Derivatives. It is India's largest exporter of Marine Products, and one of the largest global players in castor.


MARKET LEADING BRANDS

HLL’s brands have become household names. The company’s strategy is to concentrate its resources on 30 national power brands, and 10 other brands which are strong in certain


regions.The top five brands together account for sales of over Rs.3000 crores. Each of these mega brands has a potential scale of Rs.1000 crores in the foreseeable future. Some of the big brands in Soaps and Detergents are Lifebuoy, Lux, Liril, Hamam, Breeze, Dove,(all soaps), Surf Excel, Surf, Rin, Wheel (the number one detergent brand in India, and HLL's largest), 501, Sunlight (all detergents). HLL also markets the Vim and Domex range of Home Care Products.In the Personal Products business, HLL's Hair Care franchises are Clinic, Sunsilk and Lux shampoos; the company markets Nihar oil. In Oral Care, the portfolio comprises Close-up and Pepsodent toothpastes and toothbrushes. In Skin Care, HLL markets Fair & Lovely Skin Cream and Lotion, the largest selling Skin Care Product in India; a brand developed in India, it is now exported to over 30 countries. It has been extended as an Ayurvedic cream, an under-eye cream, a soap and a talc, in line with the strategy to take brands across relevant categories. The other major Skin Care franchises are Pond’s, Vaseline, Lakme and Pears. In Colour Cosmetics, HLL markets the Lakme and Elle-18 ranges. In Deodorants, the key brands are Rexona, Axe, Denim and Pond's, while the Talc brands are Pond's, Liril, Fair & Lovely, Vaseline and Lifebuoy. Axe and Denim are HLL’s franchises for Men’s toiletries. HLL has recently launched Lever Ayush Ayurvedic Health & Personal Care Products. Health Care is among the new businesses HLL has chosen to enter. The product range comprises Cough Naashak Syrup, Headache Naashak Roll-on, Dandruff Naashak Shampoo, Hair Rakshak Oil and Body Rakshak Soap. The purity of the Ayurvedic ingredients in Lever Ayush is endorsed by the renowned Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (AVP) of Coimbatore. It is for the first time that rigorous testing procedures of the pharmaceutical industry have been applied to Ayurvedic products. That is why the brand seal is ‘Truth of Ayurveda; Proof of Science’.HLL has started franchised Lakme Beauty Salons, offering standardised services, in line with the strategy to add a service dimension to relevant brands. The company has set up the Hindustan Lever Network, a direct selling channel, offering the Lever Home range of Laundry and Home Care products and the Aviance Personal Care range.The company has also begun an e-tailing service, called Sangam, which can homedeliver on order by phone or through the Net, a diverse range of about 5000 branded and unbranded products. The service is now available in select areas of Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, besides Thane.HLL is one of the world’s largest packet Tea marketer. Its Tea brands – Taj Mahal, Red Label,Taaza, A1, 3Roses - are among the top brands in the country;


it also markets Lipton Ice Tea.HLL and Pepsi have formed an alliance to distribute a full range of tea and coffee and soft beverages through vending machines; HLL already has a base of around 15000 such machines. The coffee business comprises Bru Instant Coffee and Deluxe Green Label Roast & Ground Coffee. The Kissan and Knorr Foods range comprises Spreads & Jams, Biscuit Sticks, Soups, Squashes,Tomato Ketchup, Sauces, Puree, and Cooking Aids.Popular Foods, like Wheat Flour and Iodized Edible Salt, under the Knorr Annapurna brand name,have met with remarkable success. The range has been expanded with ready-to-eat 10-second chapatis. The innovative offerings are changing consumer habits into using processed, hygienic,healthy and convenient products.The Kwality-Wall's Ice Cream range comprises exotic Sundaes, Viennetta Desserts, popular ‘Impulse’ segment products like Max, Cornetto and Feast, and Cornetto Ripple Softies. Max was extended in 2001 as sugar confectioneries, because children are a key consumer segment in confectioneries too. This is among the new businesses HLL has chosen to enter. HLL has acquired Modern Food Industries (India) Limited, entering the bread market. Modern Foods was the first Public Sector Undertaking to be disinvested. Besides upgrading the existing Modern products, HLL has launched new products, among them biscuits.HLL is liberating its brands from their existing category mindset. Historically, brands originated and stayed within a category format. HLL sees its Power Brands as being able to occupy a unique position in the consumer's mind and therefore being able to stretch into other product formats and categories. All such initiatives have had a promising start, and there are more to come.


BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Hindustan Lever Limited Hi • 42,000 employees • 1425 managers • 80 company factories • 150 outsourcing units • 2000 suppliers & associates


OVER 100 YEARS’ LINK WITH INDIA The expertise and commitment of HLL's employees, coupled with Lever's more than 100 years' link with India, gives the company a formidable competitive advantage. The first Unilever product came to India in 1888, when Sunlight soap was introduced through imports. Lifebuoy was introduced in 1895 and other famous brands like Pears, Lux and Vim followed. Vanaspati was launched in 1918 and the famous Dalda brand came to the market in 1937.In 1931, Unilever set up its first Indian subsidiary, Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company, followed by Lever Brothers India Limited (1933) and United Traders Limited (1935). These three companies merged to form HLL in November 1956; HLL offered 10% of its equity to the Indian public, being the first among the foreign subsidiaries to do so. Unilever, which gradually divested its stake in HLL, now holds 51.55% equity in the company. The rest of the shareholding is distributed among about 380,000 individual shareholders and financial institutions. The erstwhile Brooke Bond's presence in India dates back to 1900. By 1903, the company had launched Red Label tea in the country. In 1912, Brooke Bond & Co. India Limited was formed.Brooke Bond joined the Unilever fold in 1984 through an international acquisition.The erstwhile Lipton's links with India were forged in 1898. Unilever acquired Lipton in 1972, and in 1977 Lipton Tea (India) Limited was incorporated. Pond’s (India) Limited had been present in India since 1947. It joined the Unilever fold through an International acquisition of Chesebrough Pond’s USA in 1986. Since the very early years, HLL has vigorously responded to the stimulus of economic growth. The growth process has been accompanied by judicious diversification, always in line with Indian opinions and aspirations.


Unparalleled Distribution Un  Nationwide distribution with 7000 stockists  Directly covers  Entire urban population through 1 million outlets  50,000 villages

Power Brands HLL has identified 30 power brands out of its 110 portfolio. These 30 brands, covering key product segments contribute to over 75% of profits. In 2001, company concentrated on these profitable brands and has defocused on the others. Power brands registered a 6.5% yoy growth in 2001, as against a 1.1% degrowth in other brands. Overall, net sales grew by 3.5% yoy. Operating profit on power brands was higher by 9.7% as against a 8.1% growth in operating profit of other brands. The main power brand of HLL is given as follows: Surf

Clinic

Modern

Rin

Sunsilk

Knorr

Wheel

Nihar

Kwality Walls

Vim

Fair & Lovely

Brooke Bond

Lux

Ponds

Taj Mahal

Pears

Lakme

A1

Breeze

Pepsodent

3 Roses

Lifebuoy

Closeup

Lipton Taaza

Liril

Kissan

Bru

Rexona

Annapurna

Dalda

Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestments •

74 % equity stake in Modern Foods was acquired in Jan 2000, the balance 26% stake would be acquired in 2002 at an approx cost of Rs450mn.


Rossell Industries became a subsidiary of HLL, post acquisition of 59% stake by 100% subsidiary Lipton India Exports.

Bestfoods India, acquired through global acquisition of Bestfoods Inc by Unilever was merged into HLL in 2001.

100% subsidiary Aviance was merged into HLL. Also the assets and liabilities of the color cosmetics, fragrances and personal care business of subsidiary Lakme Lever Ltd were acquired by HLL.

AFS business through subsidiary Gold Mohur Foods was divested to Godrej Agrovet in two tranches (74% in Jan 2001, 26% in Sep 2001)

Adhesive and Nickel Catalyst business divested to ICI. JV formed for Quest Flavors and Fragrances business.

A new JV – Toc Disinfectants has been formed with SC Johnson wherein the disinfectant business of erstwhile Lever Johnson has been transferred. Over a period of time, HLL will assume control over the disinfectant company – Toc, while SC Johnson will completely take over other businesses of insect control and air care..

New ventures HLL has launched confectionery under the well know Children brand Max in 2001. HLL is the first Unilever subsidiary to have entered the Confectionery business and forms part of the initiative to leverage global brands to create local businesses. An entry into the Healthcare segment is being considered and test marketing will be undertaken in 2002. An e-tailing initiative Sangam Direct, to meet bulk grocery needs of consumers (through website/ call centers) has been undertaken Royalty HLL entered into a 24-year royalty payment agreement with its parent Unilever in F12/98 under which HLL pays a 1% royalty on net ex-factory sales, in lieu of technology support provided by the parent. No royalty is paid on turnover from oral care products, laundry soaps, hair oil, staple foods, specialty chemicals, animal feed and dairy products. Earnings sensitivity factors •

Volume growth in personal products (skin care, oral acre, hair care, and cosmetics), and ability to protect market share


Competition activity, in particular the pricing and advertising strategies of main competitors.

Success of new launches and improving profitability of the foods business, which has been identified as the thrust area.

Raw material (oil, soda ash, LAB etc) prices, as cost increases cannot be passed on fully, in a competitive scenario.

Background Three Unilever companies were merged in 1956 to form HLL. These companies were Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company -edible oil (established in 1931), Lever Brothers India Limited- soaps (1933) and United Traders-personal products (1935). About 10% of the equity was offered to the public by way of an IPO in 1956. To comply with FERA, Unilever's stake was further diluted to 51% in the late 70's. To retain 51% foreign holding, HLL complied with stringent export and other stipulations imposed by the government, and diversified into businesses such as chemicals, fertilizers and exports. Ponds joined the Unilver fold through a global acquisition in 1986. In the last decade, HLL has expanded its operations by the merger and takeover route. It acquired TOMCO - an ailing Tata group company (1993), merged Unilever group companies Brooke Bond Limited (1996) and Ponds' India (1998), and has acquired cosmetic business of another Tata group company Lakme (1998). Shareholding pattern Unilever

51.55 %

Mutual Funds and UTI

3.78 %

Banks, Financial Institutions, Insurance Companies, other institutions

10.09 %

Foreign Institutional Investors

12.83 %

Indian public

21.57 % COMMODITISATION OF BRANDS

The Indian Market Place: Let us see what is happening. Lakme Moisturisers (60 ml Bottle) free with Lipton Green Label Tea, Rs. 35 off on buying Gillette series Deo Body Spray, Kaun Banega Crorepati Britannia offer, Pears soap free with every 200-ml Lakme Moisturisers, 150 gm Palmolive extra care worth Rs. 27 on buying 250 gm Colgate Dental Cream, 200 gm Kissan Tom-Tom free with every % Kg pack of Kissan Fortified Atta, 500 grams of Kissan


Annapurna Iodised Salt free with One kg of Kissan Annapurna fortified Atta, 15% off on Bombay Dying clothing‌Oh a very long-unending list. Am I really talking about one of the most successful brands in the Indian marketplace. Aren't a brand is the sum of expectations that a stakeholder or customer has when purchasing a product or dealing with an organization, or is the mental image generated when exposed to a product or company name. Why brands are important for customers, whether they work for customers, or they simplify everyday choices or they reduce the risk of complicated buying decisions or they provide emotional benefits or they offer a sense of community. Well the obvious answer Yes but after looking at these offers I can only say "I guess so". Why am I saying that company's are increasingly relying on a variety of sales promotion offers and because of that customer is getting trained to buy on price, in effect the world is turning back to hundred years to the time when commodities, not brands, filled the shopping basket. Commodities are undifferentiated and are sold on price competition. Many brand managers seem to aim for a "me-to" position reflecting their desire to be all things to all people. Lack of uniqueness is commoditisation, and it makes a brand vulnerable. But why is that happening, all these tactics given above used by the companies to increase their market share results in lack of uniqueness of a brand, which is commoditisation. So what do we need to do, The industry needs a "common change language" regardless of channel or segment. We must address and resolve the burning issues for long-term survival. The real issues that retailers and manufacturers must confront and resolve is that most branded companies are working to maintain and build consumption demand not brand/shareholder equity. The "commoditisation" of categories and products is forcing suppliers to shift financial resources to support cost reductions in manufacturing and existing product formulations (therefore impacting quality) in an effort to lower prices and maintain desired margins and market share. Less support for brands and new product development is a dangerous sign of commoditisation, where costs and price, not "value-added" products or services, drive decision-making.


The advertising Guru David Ogilvy has said in 1986 in New York on the occasion of 50th anniversary of Advertising Research Foundation "Any damn fool can put on a deal, but it takes a genius, faith and perseverance to create a brand." He has addressed the problem and its solution in one of his speech in 1955, also he said, "The time has come to sound an alarm! To warn what is going to happen to brands if so much is spent on deals that there is no money left to advertise them." "Deals don't build the kind of indestructible image which is the only thing that can make your brand part of the fabric of a persons life". "The manufacturer who dedicate their advertising to building a favourable image, the most sharply defined personality for their brand, are the ones who will get the largest share of market at the highest profits." To sum it up with a real life story let me elaborate the fight between an FMCG giant HLL's Fair & Lovely and a new entrant CavinKare Limited's (CKL) Fairever fairness cream. Fair & Lovely has dominated the fairness beauty cream market since its launch in 1975, it has a market share of 90% in 1998, when CKL has launched its Fairever cream in January 1998, with a unique proposition of "Saffron", which has quietly got the customer's attention, who was looking for a new product since years. Fairever even after being priced higher then F&L was catching the market-share. HLL attacked with its promotional offers of price cut and extra cream but the rise in Fairever remain continued and today it has market share of 15%. It is surprising to know that Fairever is just a me-too brand of F&L with similar formulation. So why was HLL loosing the market share. F&L was just like a commodity brand and when Fairever has offered value of Saffron, customers tend to accept that and HLL lost, even with its promotional offers. The bottom-line is Brands are products that are distinguished from others. Brands constantly evolve. Successful brand proprietors manage to anticipate market shifts and reposition and develop their brands accordingly.


HINDUSTAN LEVER LTD - STILL THE BEST OR GLORY DAYS OVER For the motion - A must for every portfolio, says The Bull Still the best stock, says the Bull. Hindustan Lever has underperformed despite almost no change in fundamentals. This is the best time to buy. Against the motion - Yesterday's hero, tomorrow's ???, says The Bear The Bear begs to differ. It is an excellent company, agreed. But the market has changed. Your views on the topic Hindustan Lever- A must for every portfolio The largest FMCG player with a presence in almost every FMCG product category; market leadership or #2 position in most of these categories, a strong brand portfolio, unmatched distribution network; a business with a vast growth potential - given India's population size & current per capita consumption levels; and the most respected management in the country What more can you ask for? Hindustan Lever Ltd (HLL) - the largest personal products company in the country with a 63% market share in toilet soaps, 38% share in detergent powders, 48% in detergent bars, 60% share in dish cleaning segment, 72% share in shampoo, 60% share in skin care and 37% share in oral care. In the foods business also, where the focus has increased in last few years, HLL has established a significant presence in all segments. Market share figures for major foods businesses are Packet Tea (41%), Coffee (45%), Jams (75%), Ketchup (38%), Vanaspati (28%), Staple foods (20%). Average sales CAGR in the last ten years has been 29.5%, driven partly by successful acquisitions like Kwality, Dollops, TOMCO, BrookeBond and Lakme. But even sans the mergers, HLL would have maintained an average of 18% yoy growth pa. Net profit has grown at a compounded rate of 37% during the same period


The company has constantly improved return on capital employed as well as returns to shareholders. Infact, the Indian subsidiary has been Unilever's largest success story in any Asian country. HLL's key strength in a vast country such as ours has been its unmatched distribution reach through a stockist network of 7000 and a retail reach of over 1mn outlets. It is the only company which distributes its products to more than 50000 villages. Innovative programmes like Project Bharat have been undertaken which aim to make available to every consumer in the remotest corner of the country, products that meet his day to day requirements. Also the management is well known for its marketing savvy. It has over the years studied and understood the Indian markets as no other MNC player has. It has adapted its products to suit the Indian tastes. A lot of wars have been played and won on the price front, acknowledging that the Indian consumer is extremely price sensitive. The financial strength to cross subsidize new initiatives with existing profitable businesses has enabled the company to achieve its zeal of being the dominating player in all markets that it enters into. While the personal products business has been the revenue driver during the last few years, growth rates in the category (specially like detergents and toilet soaps) are likely to taper off once certain penetration levels are reached. The company has been therefore consiously building up an extended product range which are at various stages of the growth cycle. As Mr Dadi Seth emphasizes, "The building of the personal products business was started 10 years ago, and the benefits are being reaped now. Similarly we are investing in the foods business today - as that will be the revenue driver in the future." Although profitability in the foods business may still be a few years away, once the branded foods market really matures, the potential for volume growth in the business are enormous. Nor has the company ever given loyal shareholders a reason to be unhappy about its performance in the bourses. The stock market performance has year after year been more than satisfactory. Just look at the comparison of annualized returns earned by major food and personal products companies viz a viz Sensex returns in the last ten years. Market MNC's

Indian

Sensex HLL

Britannia Colgate Nestle

Dabur

Nirma

Marico

Dec-90

46.4

39.4

1.2

43.8

16.9

-

-

-

Dec-91

82.1

70.7

131.0

79.0

81.4

-

-

-


Dec-92

37.0

124.2

(1.0)

60.0

50.0

-

-

-

Dec-93

27.9

55.4

50.0

112.8

13.2

-

-

-

Dec-94

17.4

2.6

(9.7)

(7.9)

12.7

(7.5)

74.4

-

Dec-95

(20.8)

5.8

(51.4)

(36.0)

(24.8)

(37.3)

(22.4)

-

Dec-96

(0.8)

29.5

45.6

(12.7)

5.0

6.9

(32.2)

(16.8)

Dec-97

18.6

71.3

75.5

9.3

29.1

(17.3)

31.0

8.9

Dec-98

(16.5)

20.2

116.0

(23.6)

68.0

107.8

(18.4)

36.8

Dec-99

63.8

35.2

18.6

9.2

(5.9)

177.0

132.6

(5.4)

year 21.5

41.6

25.9

15.2

20.7

19.8

14.7

4.0

10

CAGR Only one company has had no red marks (negative returns) in any single year. Even when market as a whole plunged by 21% in 1995, investments in HLL earned investors 6% returns. And the average return over the last ten years has been 41.6%. Compare this with the average market return of 21.5%. A Rs100 investment made in the Sensex in Dec '90 would have grown to Rs699 by Dec '99. The same investment made in Hindustan Lever would have grown to Rs3247 in the same period! HLL – yesterday’s best, tomorrow’s???? My friend, the Bull has given a data heavy argument for buying HLL. I have one big problem - it is all historical. Agreed that it was the bluest of blue chips and loyal shareholders have made a lot of money in it. But I ask you, is there no change in the environment which makes HLL unattractive now? We take a look at some such changes •

Emergence of alternatives: Two years back, most funds had two stocks accounting for more than 30% of the value- HLL and ITC. Ask the fund manager and he would saythere is no other large and liquid stock worth buying with earnings growth, high ROCE and good management. Well, their complaints have been answered with the emergence of companies like Infosys, NIIT, Zee , Hughes, etc. The funds have responded by switching stocks very fast. And why should they return as long as exciting stocks keep coming up?

Cost push will squeeze margins- It is common knowledge that the FMCG sector picks the tail of a recession and we are close to that stage. The last year has probably been


the worst in terms of consumer demand. Currently, indications are that the industrial sector is picking up which would signal a revival in consumer demand in the next year or so. But this time could also be the worst for FMCG companies because increasing commodity prices will push costs while price increases have to be low. Margins will be squeezed. •

The big leap is over- I remember the stock being rerated in 1997 when it jumped from Rs 700 to almost Rs1600 (it was a big jump during those times) and the primary driver was the leap in ROCE from 46% to 61%. A similar jump will not happen in the next three- five years. So, where is the kick in the stock?

HLL is not attracting the best people anymore. Globalisation has meant that dollar salaries and stock options are luring the brightest in campuses. Though HLL is still amongst the top, it is not the same. And it also affecting the middle and top rung management.

The reducing power of brands- If you have visited supermarkets, you will realise that lower priced generics are making headway. And they are not of bad quality also. It is again a question of alternatives. Indians are known to be probably the most value conscious consumers and it is inevitable that the price premium enjoyed by brands will come down. Another revolution is of course internet. P&G US has already started a new website in which you input your hair colour, texture, your income, etc. It then designs, manufactures and delivers a custom made shampoo with even your name on it. Such a concept is a direct attack on creating brands and the competitive advantage arising out of those brands. Over the years, product quality will be the only deciding factor- packaging and communication will lose relevance.

Well, I could give ten more reasons why it is still not late to exit the stock, but I’ll leave that to some other time. I have the highest regard for the company and its people. But times are a changing. Hindustan Lever Ltd HLL's profit growth in Q4 F12/04 was significantly below our expectations, largely due to unanticipated write off's for Modern Foods and discontinued confectionery business (cumulatively ~ Rs1.2bn). Sales registered a decline of 2.1% yoy at Rs99.3bn during the year. Net profit recording a huge degrowth of 32.4% yoy to Rs12bn as margins dipped


500bps. Lower treasury income and increased interest burden further depressed profitability. Continuing sales increased marginally by 0.3% yoy due to sharp 7.4% yoy degrowth in foods segment. Sales from HPC segment grew by 2.2% yoy to Rs68.8bn. Exports for the year grew by 2% yoy to Rs12.5bn. The management of HLL held its analyst meet to discuss Q4 F12/04 and F12/04 performance and the outlook for the industry and the company in the years to come. The key takeaways from the meet were as follows: HPC HPC segment grew by 4.9% in volume and 3.4% yoy in value terms to Rs18.3bn during the quarter under review. While, for the full year sales from HPC segment increased by 2.2% yoy to Rs68.8bn.

•

Laundry and Personal Wash (44.4% of sales, 44.5% of profit)

Soaps & detergent sales grew 2.1% yoy to Rs44.7bn in F12/04. In Q4, HLL’s laundry segment registered more than 8% growth in value and volume terms. Rin, Surf and Wheel all have registered a good growth. Laundry market share has improved in volume terms and maintained in value terms during the year.


In the personal wash category, Lifebuoy achieved good sales growth with highest market share however, revenues from Lux declined in Q4. HLL launched Petalsoft soap during the year. The company has lost over 2.3% market share during the year.

•

Personal products (24.6% of sales, 46.4% of profit)

Personal products sales grew by 2.6% yoy to Rs24.7bn in F12/04. In Q4 F12/04, sales grew by 1.2% yoy to Rs7bn while, volumes increased sharply by 8.7%.


i) Skin: The company managed to maintain its growth rate of 8%+ in the skin care category on a larger base. HLL’s all brands have recorded good growth and increase in market share. ii) Toothpaste

The company was able to increase its market share and sales in the toothpaste category despite stiff competition from low priced brands. iii) Shampoo The shampoo volumes were marginally lower while, the value share decreased to 47.1% during Q4 F12/04.

•

Beverages (12% of sales, 13.7% of profits)

Beverages sales increased marginally by 0.9% yoy to Rs11.9bn in F12/04. However in Q4, sales grew by 7.1% yoy to Rs3.3bn aided by strong 15.5% growth in Brooke Bond, which gained 4.5% market share during the year. Lipton recorded a strong double-digit growth during the year. Tea market share has risen from 29% to 30.2%. Coffee value market share has declined to 41.2% in Q4 FY04, but has improved share during the year.


• •

Processed foods (2.8% of sales, loss of Rs818mn)

Processed food revenues dropped by 52.7% yoy to Rs2.9bn in F12/04. While, during Q4, revenues declined by 42.4% to Rs622mn due to phased stock reduction, withdrawal of ’03 innovation and defocusing of Atta in unviable geographies. The company was able to maintain market share of jams, ketchup and salt categories. The company has completed the restructuring of the foods segment and expects the food business to move into a positive growth trajectory in the future.

Financial Highlights Period to

12/04

12/03

Growth

12/04

12/03

Growth

(Rs mn)

(3)

(3)

(%)

(12)

(12)

(%)


Sales

26,008

25,835

0.7

99,270

101,384

(2.1)

Expenditure

(21,809)

(19,732)

10.5

(84,896)

(81,617)

4.0

Operating profit

4,199

6,103

(31.2)

14,374

19,767

(27.3)

Other income

916

1,011

(9.4)

3,188

4,598

(30.7)

Interest

(323)

(323)

0.0

(1,300)

(668)

94.7

Depreciation

(331)

(329)

0.5

(1,209)

(1,248)

(3.1)

PBT

4,461

6,461

(31.0)

15,053

22,449

(32.9)

Tax

(886)

(838)

5.7

(3,060)

(4,406)

(30.5)

PAT

3,575

5,623

(36.4)

11,993

18,043

(33.5)

Extraordinary items

(238)

(676)

(64.7)

(19)

(325)

(94.1)

APAT

3,337

4,947

(32.6)

11,974

17,718

(32.4)

OPM (%)

16.1

23.6

-

14.5

19.5

-

Equity

2,201

2,201

-

2,201

2,201

-

EPS (Rs) Annualized 6.1

9.0

-

5.4

8.0

-

P/E

-

27

-

24


Mirror mirror on the wall which product makes me fairest of all! Years of British rule have made Indians obsessed with white skin and so has been the preoccupation with fair skin and the desire to have it. This obsession coupled with the increasing awareness among the Indian women towards skin protection has resulted in the spurt in the fairness products market. Be it a fairness cream or a soap or a tablet, every product in this segment is witnessing growth larger than the overall personal care product category. The fairness cream market has been galloping at 25% p.a. as compared to the overall cosmetic market growth of 15% p.a. Background In the past, the market for fairness products was not at all developed as people used homemade products only viz. besan, multani mitti, etc. because we Indians have been under a strong influence of herbal products and have habit of using "desi nuskhe". The companies used to sell their fairness products under the categories of sunscreen lotions, vanishing creams, cold creams etc. Usage of Talcum powder for fairness purposes was quite prevalent in earlier days. The Fairness products market over the years It was in1975 when HLL launched its first fairness cream under the Fair and Lovely (F&L) brand. With launch of F&L, the market, which was dominated by Ponds and Lakme started undergoing a change. The dominance of HLL's F&L continued till 1998 when for the first time CavinCare launched its Fairever cream pitted directly against F&L. Fairever too proved to be a big success capturing more than 6% of market share within six months of its launch. The success of Fairever has prompted many more players to test waters and they too have proved to be successful. Today there are 7 main brands in the fairness product market available across the country and there would be many more in the regional market but the market seems to have a place for everybody.


Table 1: Major players Players

Brand

Product category

HLL

Fair & Lovely

Cream, soap

Emami

Naturally Fair

Cream

Cavin Care

Fairever

Cream

Paras

Freshia

Cream

Godrej

Fair Glow

Soap, Cream

Ponds Lakme

Ponds

fairness

cream,

SunScreen

lotion,

Ponds cold cream Lakme

Lakme sunscreen cream Source: India Infoline

Cream, Lotion Cream, Lotion

The strong growth in the demand and success of new players in the market has prompted existing players to venture into cross categorization. Ponds did attempt cross categorization when it launched its Fairness cream under the same brand as its vanishing and cold cream but it failed to do big. The market however continued to be dominated by F&L with more than 80% share. Cross Categorization ‌ A rising trend During FY00, Godrej Soaps came out with a new product category, fairness soaps. Till then the concept of fairness products was limited to something that is supposed to be applied to the skin, something that forms a layer on the skin. The company launched its Fair Glow brand of fairness soap at a discount price of Rs10/- per cake. The product was a tremendous success and it registered a sale of more than Rs700mn in the first year of its launch. The brand is still growing in double digits, which is much more than the growth rate of 3-4% of the entire soap market. Seeing the success of this new product Godrej soaps also tried cross categorization and launched a fairness cream under the same brand, Fair Glow. This product is also selling like hot cakes in the market. Add to this, the company's strategy of launching smaller SKUs in the market. This has made the entire Fair Glow brand to develop strong equity in just one year. The success story of Fair Glow along with aggressiveness of other fairness creams in the market led to threat of erosion F&L's market share. In order to restrict this erosion of share


HLL introduced discount schemes on F&L purchases, which failed to create the desired euphoria. Finally in March'01 HLL decided to leverage the brand equity of its F&L brand and launched its F&L fairness soap. With so many success stories in cross categorization and new product in the fairness cream market, the success of F&L soap too seems likely and I think other players would also follow to increase their share in this market. Though most of these fairness products are based on one simple formula of controlling dispersion of Melanin (the pigment that controls the skin colour), different companies are adding a number of other additives to position themselves differently from others and it is this positioning that makes the difference. As of now, the scenario is encouraging for a number of players who have the opportunity to cash on. The market is not restricted to an HLL or a Godrej alone. What is important is their positioning and the style of their appeal for "making consumers fairest of all" that will make the difference.


THE CHANGING FACE OF FMCG MARKETING FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) marketing is no more going to be the same again! The changing consumer mindset thanks to more knowledgeable and discerning customers coupled with changing competition and saturated market is giving a tough time to the FMCG marketers. The changed scenario not only demands a new game plan with a sharp and decisive strategy but also a lot of creativity and insight. Some of the players in Indian FMCG industry have already taken a lead and are smartly moving to chart a success story for their brands. Some brands that reaped magnificent dividend from adopting a new strategy are Fairever, Ujala, Ghadi detergent, Chik, and Dandi namak. If we analyze the success story of these brands, it will be self evident that their marketing strategy is not a jargon filled new model of marketing. It is more of common sense marketing. But then, common sense is not so common! Razor Sharp Focus A common thread that binds the strategy adopted by these brands is razor sharp focus. They clearly see their target market. They know their customers well. They are not targeting consumers who already have built-in perceptions. They are reaching out to untapped market within a well known product category. Their primary focus is on millions of lower middle class families in small towns and rural segment. They are doing what legendry management guru C K Prahlad advocates when he says in his published paper, "Raising the Bottom of the Pyramid: Strategies for Sustainable Growth" that the greatest challenge for managers is to visualize an active market when what exists is abject poverty. These successful brands are just doing that- focusing on untapped markets. Take the example of Dandi namak. Who would have advised them to enter the branded salt market when Tata and HLL virtually share the whole market among them? But they entered this category when conventional wisdom said no. And they became a success story overnight. How? The answer is focus. They entered the market not to compete with Tata and HLL, but with the focus to take branded salt to rural and semi-urban areas. With this narrow focus, they not only captured a large rural and semiurban market but also got some share of the urban market due to rub off effect.


Moreover, these small players fully realize that in today’s world, marketing needs money. So they don’t shy away from investing in marketing. Again take the example of Dandi namak. They splashed out money on their lengthy TV commercials to ensure that the message gets ingrained in the mind of the prospect. Fairever and Ujala adopted the same strategy. Of course they don’t spend as much as the MNCs do but they do spend enough to get attraction. The best part is when they get attention and a little success, MNC Goliaths retaliate back with huge spending and these little Davids piggyback on that! Communicating 2 Consumers One of the important aspects of the strategy being adopted is effective communication about product. These wannabe marketers are sending just the right message to the consumers. If the advertisements of these brands are analyzed, it will be evident that they don’t go for blitz but instead try to relate themselves with their target customers. To achieve this object, they are not shying away from being unconventional. Take the case of Dandi namak. The TV advertisement was bland and uninteresting. However, without any glitz, it was able to connect to its target customers because it talked in the language of its target customers. These brands send a powerful message to their target customers that they are made for each other. Dandi namak, Ujala, Ghadi detergent, and Chik, projected that they belonged to the lower middle class! And this worked wonders. Selecting a narrow terrain to fight! The stratagem of this new breed of marketing is deciding the opponent to fight! In case of most of these brands, it is seen that they fight their marketing battle by selecting a particular company and in many cases a particular brand, which often is the market leader! Then they deploy their entire marketing arsenal on this selected competitor. Ujala applied this tactic to full advantage against Robin Blue and now it commands nearly three-fourth of the Rs2bn ultra marine blue market, Fairever did the same to Fair & Lovely, Ghadi detergent is doing it now to Nirma and Wheel, and Chik is going shoulder to shoulder with Clinic Plus, the market


leader in shampoo. The case of Dandi namak is different only in the sense that it selected its battlefield instead of opponent. The battlefield, rural and semi-urban market, was such that no major marketing war was fought on it before. Even the advertising strategy is designed with an eye on its opponent. This hurts the big companies badly. They wake up from their complacent sleep to realize that they are being brutally attacked. And by the time they retaliate, it’s too late and they only succeed in helping these brands get more attention. HLL realized that it’s brand Fair & Lovely was in danger only after Fairever had garnered a healthy market share within months of its launch. Retaliatory advertising by Fair & Lovely only helped Fairever gain more attention! The way these homegrown marketers are inducing insomnia to Kotler fed B-school grads is really amazing. By their ability to be flexible, innovative, and being close to their customers, they are conquering Indian market, which many MNCs find a tough nut to crack. The secret of their success is not hard to guess. It is connecting with the heart and soul of India- the lower middle class and the rural consumers. Are the FMCG giants listening?

IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM AREA

If we look at the market ,we find majority of brands are homogenous, little in differentiation there are no more value proposition.


Almost every country is trying hard to differentiate their image both tangibility & intangibility.

In this Report the main intention is to analyze the consumer behavior in HLL Infos.

Lack of consumer awareness about HLL

The advertisement of HLL is satisfactory but it is not widely. It need more advertising.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY Although faced with the limitations mentioned a sincere effort was made to minimize these limitations. I have tried my best to accomplish the primary objective as well as the secondary objective of my study. My report remained within the framework of scientific


study as I opted sample method for my project. I made use of questionnaire method for collecting the data. Field investigation and interviews were done personally. As regards to the study the questionnaire was formulated systematically and in scientific manner so as to cover all aspects of the subject and to obtain accurate data from the respondents. The analysis were made on the data's given by the consumer whom when contacted were ready to give their response and other valuable information. Thus the interpretation and analysis of the data will fully justify the report prepared and the same can be considered as a genuine one. This report Helped me to increase my practical knowledge of the management field and help in my summer training project


CHAPTER – II OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The are mainly two objectives namely Primary objectives & Secondary objectives Primary objectives To study the various series of Hindustan lever limited in market. Secondary objectives To find out the factors that would increase the efficiency and strength of H.L.L. product. To know the problems confronted by the customers. Main Objectives The main objective behind this report was to get insight into the marketing related activities.  To know about the various activities of company.  To know the consumer behavior while purchasing the product.  To know the problem confronted by the company to beat the competition.  Examine the taste of consumer that what they want in the product of H.L.L.  Examine the satisfaction level of the consumer with product of H.L.L.  To know the market share and mind share of the customer.  To know actually what is a market.


CHAPTER – III REVIEW OF LITERATURE


REVIEW OF LITERATURE I. REVIEW OF BOOKS 1.

Sharma,D.D(2002):’Marketing Research’,Sultan Chand Sons, New Delhi

The customer market consists of all the individuals and householders who can buy or acquire goods and service for personal consumption. Customers are tremendously in age, income, education level, mobility pattern and taste. Marketers find it useful to distinguish different customer groups and to develop products and services tailored to their need. The areas of customer perception in marketing research are important because about 80% of national income are constituted by expenditure incurred by the customer. The study of the customer behaviour is a part of sociology economics and politics. Marketing is Concerned with the inter exchange of goods and services between the producer and customer. Customer behavior constitutes at least in part environment in which the producer operates. And in which the management has to make decision and implement them. Basically the research follows a truism, the customer are always bright therefore the needs of the customer are of prime importance and must be investigated the customer and reports on his habits, his likes and dislikes, to the manufacturer or to the advertiser. 2.

Kotler, Philip. (1999):’Marketing Management’ Prentice Hall Of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

A customer is a person who brings his wants, whether the customer is perception after purchase depends on the offers performance in relation to the customer’s expectation.

Is a person feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance or outcomes in relation to his or her expectations. As


definition make clear perception is a function of perceived performance and expectations if performance falls short of expectations the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance are perception or delighted. Perception is a persons feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing product perceived performance in relation to his or her expectations. Perception is a function of perceived performance and expectations. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is perception. If the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly perception or delighted. The customers play a vital role in the health of the economy. Thus, we see that the customers play a vital role and hence the markets should aim to manage customer perception.


3.

Chabbra, T.N. (2004):’Marketing Management’ Dhanpat Rai & Co. (Pvt) Ltd., New Delhi

Customer perception is a function of customer expectations of the products perceived performance. If the product matches up to the expectations the customer is perception, it is exceeds then he is highly perception, if it falls short then the customer is dissatisfied. A service is any act or performance that one party can offer To another that is essentially intangible and does not result .In the ownership of any thing. Its production may or may not be tied to a physical product.

Services have four major characteristics that greatly affect the design of marketing programs: Intangibility,Inseparability,Variability,Perishability Customers form their expectation on the basis of messages and claims sent out by the seller and other communication sources. If the seller makes exaggerated claims for the product, the customer experience disconfirmed expectation, which lead to dissatisfaction. The amount of dissatisfaction depends upon the size of difference between expectations and performance contrast theory says that the amount of dissatisfaction well be large then the performance gap. Cognitive dissonance theory says that the amount of dissatisfaction will be less because customer will try to reduce the dissonance by imputing higher performance. Some sellers even understand performance levels so that the customers will experience higher than expected perception from the product. If the purchased brad fails to deliver the expected perception to the buyers, the buyers will revise downwards his attitude towards the brand. On the other hand, a perception experience will tend to strengthen the buyers brand preference. Customer behaviour is an interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on how and why customers behave as they do. Its objective is to understand, explain, and predict customer actions. The study of customer behaviour is the study of now individuals makes decisions to spend their available resources.


(Money, time, effort) on consumption related items. It includes the study of what the customers buy, why they buy it and how often they buy it, where they buy it and how often they buy it Although this text focus on how and why customers make decisions to buy goods and services, customers make decisions to buy goods and service, customers behaviour. Research also considers the uses customer make of the goods they buy and their evaluations of these goods after use. The study of customer behaviour holds great interest for the customers also. The customers need insight into their own consumption related decisions what is buy, why to buy and how to buy. The study of customer behaviour makes them aware of that product or services. It is important for the markets to recognize why and how individuals make their consumption decisions so that we make better strategic decisions. Without doubt, marketers who understand customer behaviour have a great competitive advantage in the market place. What are customers seeking? The customer market buys products and service to perception a variety of needs physiological, social, psychological and spiritual. Economics say that customers are a utility maxi miser that is they will use their limited resources to aquire a bundle of goods that will put them on the highest utility curve. In considering a particular good, the customer will see it as a bundle of attributes reflecting what he or she is seeking. Thus each brand offers the customers a certain total utility at a certain price. The consigner will choose the brand that maximiser the value to cost ratio. The task of understanding customer buying behaviour is enormously complex. Here we will attempts to present the main concepts and findings it is present here in the course of answering four questions: 1. what are the major factors influencing the customers buying decisions?(Buying influence ) 2. what is the role played by the type of buying situation?(Buying situation) 3. what sub decisions are involved in the buying decision?(buying process) 4. what is the buying process through which the buyer process(buying process)


In short, customer market is the ultimate market for which economic activities are organized, it consist of the whole population and it is important for the marketer to research age distribution, family size, income, education levels, mobility patterns and tastes. The customer market buys objects that can be classified according to their tangibility and according to how the customers go about buying them. The timing of customer purchases it’s influenced by family size, seasonal factors and economic conditions. The purchase decision is influenced by various parties playing various roles (Initior, Influencer, decider, buyer, and user) Behaviors of the customer in the market is of great importance to the manufactures, distributors and small business etc. because it is this customer behaviour and his expenditure pattern helps them to exist and expand their business in the market. The customers are the backbone of the market. Hence it is necessary to know how the customers will respond to the different offers made by the producers. For this the customer’s needs, desires and preference and income and expenditure.

BASIC CONCEPT Today’s customers face or vast array of product and brand choices, prices and suppliers. The question is how do customers make their choices ? Customers estimate which offer will deliver the most value. Customer are value-maximizers, within the bounds of search costs and limited knowledge mobility and income. They form an expectation of value and art on it. Then they learn whether the offer lived upto the value expectation and thus affects their perception and their repurchase probability. Customer value is the bundle of benefits customers expect from a given product or service. Customer delivered value is the difference between total customer value and total customer cost. Customer value consists of things like the product value, services value personnel value and also the image value. Customer cost, monetary price first of all, the time cost, wasted, customer will consider the energy cost and psychic cost. VALUE DELIVERY SYSTEM


The firm also needs to look for competitive advantages beyond its own value chain into the value chain of its suppliers, distributors and ultimately customers. More companies today are turning to partnership with the other members of the supply chain to improve the performance of the customer value-delivery system. Example : Proctor & Gamble has assigned twenty of its employees to live and work at Walmart’s headquarters to improve the speed and reduce the cost of supplying Proctor & Gamble goods to Walmart’s branch stores. As companies struggle become more competitive, they are turning to practicing more cooperation. Today companies no longer view their distributors as cost centres or adversaries. But are trying to work out mutually profitable strategies. In structuring customer value delivery systems, the new competition is no longer between individual competitors but between the relative affectiveness of competing value delivery system 47ecognizi by the competitors. Thus it a company builds a more potent value delivery system 47ecognizi by the competitors. Thus it a company builds more potent value delivery system then its competitor, it will win more share and profit in this market place. Marketing can no longer be thought of as only a selling department but marketing is that it is responsible for designing and managing a superior value delivery system to reach target customer segments.

RETAINING CUSTOMERS Today companies an intent on developing stronger bonds and loyalty with their ultimate customers. Before the producer did not mind much about perception the customer, he could lose customer and gain new, but today there is a lot of competition a company has to perception his customer properly to keep him and to get new ones. THE COST OF LOST CUSTOMER Today’s companies need to pay closer attention to their customer defection rate and try to reduce it. There are four steps – first, company must define and measure its retention rate. Second, the company must distinguish the various causes of customer attribution and identify those that can be managed better. Third, the company needs to estimate how much profit it


loses when it loses customers unnecessarily. Fourth, the company needs to figure outs how much it would cost to reduce the defection rate. As long as the cost is les then the lost profit, the company should spend that amount. NEED FOR CUSTOMER RETENTION Today’s companies are going all out to retain their customers offensive marketing typically cost more then defensive marketing because it requires much effort and cost to induce perception customers to switch away from their current suppliers. More companies are 48ecognizing the importance of retaining current customers. According to Reichheld and Sasser, “Companies are improve profits anywhere from 25% to 85% by reducing customer defection by 5%.” WHAT SPECIFIED MARKETING TOOLS A COMPANY CAN USE TO DEVELOP STRONGER CUSTOMER BONDING AND PERCEPTION Berry and Parasuraman have distinguished three customer value building approaches. First relies primarily on adding financial benefits to the customer relationship. Thus Airlines give frequent flyer award programme, hotels give upgrades to their frequent guest super markets give patronage refunds and so on. Second, approach is add social benefits as well as financial benefits. Here company personnel work or increasing their social bonds with customers by learning their individual needs, wants and individualizing and personalizing their services. They turn their customers into clients.


II. REVIEW OF JOURNALS 1.

The study by Zeithaml et al and our as well also showed that customers assessed service of the firm on the following five parameters:

1)

Tangibles, or the appearance of the physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication material

2)

Reliability, or the ability to perform the desired service dependably and accurately

3)

Responsiveness, or the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service

4)

Assurance as measured by the competence of the firm in delivering the promised service, courtesy extended to customer, the firm’s credibility ( or trustworthiness, believability and honesty of the service provider)& the extent to which the customer feels secure.

5)

Empathy or the caring, individualized attention that the firm provides to its customers.

Our research showed that Indian customers perceived reliability, assurance, tangibility, responsiveness and empathy, in that order, as determining the service quality of the firm. This is different from Zeithaml’s as their’s showed that reliability, assurance responsiveness, and empathy were rated higher by customers than tangible dimension of service. Perhaps the reason is that in India firms have yet to incorporate state- of- the- art technology in their products and services. They still have a long way to go in terms of improving their atmospherics and communications. Hence the customer believes that the company should show higher priority in upgrading its facilities, equipment & communication. Once all firms are at par on this dimension may be the Indian customer too will be like his or her western counterpart, placing least weightage on the tangible factor.


2.

Oliver, Richard L. (1993a). —A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Service Perception: Compatible Goals, Different Concepts,“ Research and Practice, Vol. 2, Teresa A. Swartz, David E. Bowen, and Stephen W. Brown (Eds.). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press

The concept of perception can be divided into four categories. First, perception is viewed as a cognitive concept to be rewarded for the consumers‘ payment. Secondly, it is regarded as an evaluation on the accord of prior expectation with alternatives of the selection. Third, perception is defined as an affective response after purchase. Fourth, consumer perception demonstrates that perception judgments are influenced by both emotional responses and cognitive disconfirmation. Another approach to define the concept of perception derives from two factors; `outcome‘ and ”process‘. The former approach emphasizes the results from the consuming experience. The latter one extended to the notion that perception involves states that are not limited to mere satiation and can be described as a process. The customer perception research has been performed, based on two points of view. The first view is the transaction-specific customer perception, which judges perception by comparing the performance and expectation of each transaction. The second view is the cumulative customer perception, which determines perception by the comprehensive evaluation on the cumulative experience of the specific transaction. From these several points of view, customer perception with a retail establishment may be viewed as an individual‘s emotional and cognitive reaction to his or her evaluation of the total set of experiences realized from patronizing the retailer. The varied customer experiences in connection with retail patronage may be usefully categorized into two broad types: (1) experiences related to consuming the products and services obtained from the retailer and (2) experiences related to being in the store itself and dealing with the organization. Customers derive perception both from the experiences in the store and use of each product and service purchased from the store.


CHAPTER – IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research approach for this study was conclusive research. Conclusive research is designed to help executives to choose among various possible alternatives to make a viable business decision. Further this research on perception was of descriptive type, which is an offshoot of conclusive research. This research was designed to describe prospect of customer perception of HLL. This was undertaken and data was collected to find actual perception of HLL.

The problem for this research was non-operating in nature i.e. special situation peculiar to particular company's marketing department. The data both primary and secondary data, the source was one hundred respondents. For the proper analysis of data simple statistical techniques such as percentage were use. It helped in making more accurate generalization from the data available. The data, which was collected from a sample of population, was assumed to be representing entire population was interest. Demographic factors like age, income and educational background was used for the classification purpose.


SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study is made to determine the degree of perception felt by the customers of HLL. To know their attitude towards the problem related to HLL and to understand the perception or disperception of the customers. The students are highly benefited as the purpose if this research is to get acquainted with the practical side of marketing research, in addition to the theoretical studies in course of the academic year. This research also gives a chance for application and testing of the theoretical study on the real work situation. The students got the lessons of experience by meeting various sections of people conducting on interview knowing opinion of people tabulating interpreting and analyzing the data collected and this will help the researcher in. future for career building. The study also provided a great significance to the company find out how much the customers are satisfied with the product. The suggestions that were given by the customers are great help to the company to look the real drawback of the product. The study helps the customers to evaluate the perception level on the product. They got a chance to suggest for the improvement of the product. The project is written with an aim to draw forth the intelligence and problem solving activities within oneself by exposure to real work situation.


TYPES OF STUDY The study conducted is a conclusive descriptive statistical study. Conclusive because after conducting the study, the researcher comes to a decision which is precise and rational. The study is descriptive because it is in the descriptive study, that the data is collected for a definite purpose and here the purpose is definite i.e. the data is collected, to find out the perception of the customers with the brand. The study is conclusive because after doing the study the researcher comes to a conclusion regarding the position of the brand in the minds of respondents of different age groups. The study is statistical because throughout the study all the similar samples are selected and grouped together (similarity of ages thus forming a group). All the similar responses are taken together as one and their percentages are calculated.

Thus, this, conclusive descriptive statistical study is the best study for this purpose as it provides the necessary information which is utilized to arrive at a concrete decision.


AREA OF THE STUDY This study was based on the customer satisfaction of HLL hence I have done the survey of 100 respondents in Bhopal city. The areas which we have studied are • Karod chauraha • Nehru nagar • Kotra thana • Coach factory •

DIG

Super bazaar

PERIOD OF THE STUDY The period of study was 60 days.


TOOLS OF ANALYSIS To know the response, I have used the questionnaire method in sample survey. If one wishes to find what people think or know, the logical procedure is to ask them. This has led marketing researchers to use the questionnaire technique for collecting data more than any other method. In this method questionnaire were distributed to the respondents and they were asked to answer questions in the questionnaire. The questionnaires were structured non-disguised questionnaire because the questions, which the questionnaire contained, were arranged in a specific order besides every question asked was logical for the study; no question can be termed as irrelevant. The questionnaire, were non-disguised because the questionnaire were constructed so that the objective is clear to the respondent. The respondents were aware of the objective. They knew why they were asked to fill the questionnaire.


SAMPLE DESIGN Bhopal has a population of approximately 15 lakhs. For carrying out any research or study on any subject it is very difficult to cover even 10% of the population. Therefore the sample size has to be decided for a meaningful conclusion. For designing the sample size, it was thought proper to cover a very small percentage of population in various age groups.

The method used for sample technique was non probability convenience sampling method. This method was used because it was not known previously as to whether a particular person will be asked to fill the questionnaire. Convenient sampling is used because only those people were asked to fill the questionnaires that were easily accessible and available to the researcher. Considering the constraints, it was decided to conduct the study based on sample size of 100 people in specific age groups. Scientific method was not adopted in this study because of financial constraints and also because of lack of time, also the basic aim of doing the research was academic, hence most convenient way was selected.


LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

Precautions used in comparative Method: 1.

Physical verification of material of study:

It should also be kept in mind that, unnecessary facts are not collected and only those facts should be adopted, which is useful in comparative method. 2.

Assessing the existing and non-existing factors:

The existing and non-existing factors pertaining to the subject of comparative study should be noted down. It should not be that only existing factors are taken note of and non-existing factors are ignored. 3.

Deriving Conclusions:

Due care should be taken in drawing conclusions. If the comparison is faulty there is every chance of arriving at faulty conclusions. 4.

Study Reports:

It is necessary to prepare a report of the comparative study. This will enable, the reader to know the exact nature of the comparative study. 5.

Difficulties faced by Research worker:

The comparative method appears to be an easy method of study but actually is very difficult. No conclusion can be drawn very easily from the data and details collected by this method. Varied conclusions can be drawn in a study of one and the same group, community and circumstances and if the groups, communities are different the results are bound to differ.


HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY H0

-

Options Quality Price Brand Image Offers Others

Respondents use HLL Products because of Quality No. of Respondents 18 8 16 5 3

The above table shows that the hypothesis is approved.


H1

-

Options Brand Image Brand Loyalty Price Others

Brand image of HLL makes the customer to buy HLL products No. of Respondents 18 8 16 8

The above table shows that the above hypothesis is approved.


H2

-

Most of the respondents were satisfied with HLL Products

Options Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied

No. of Respondents 35 10 5

The above table shows that the hypothesis is approved.


CHAPTER – V DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION


DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Q1.

How do you come to know about the HLL Products ?

a.

Advertisement

b.

Friends

c.

Colleagues

d.

Neighbours

e.

Others TABLE 5.1 : SOURCE OF AWARENESS

Option Advertisement Friends Colleagues Neighbours Others

No. of Respondents 5 10 6 15 14

Interpretation : 15 respondents come to know about HLL Products through their neighbours, 10 respondents come to know through their friends.


GRAPH – V.1 : SOURCE OF AWARENESS 16

14

12 10

8

6 4

2 0 Advertisement

Friends

Colleagues

Neighbours

Others


Q2.

Have you seen the advertisement of HLL Products ?

a. Yes b. No TABLE 5.2 : AWARENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT Options Yes No

No. of Respondents 35 15

Interpretation : 70% of the respondents have seen the advertisement of HLL Products.


GRAPH – V.I : ADVERTISEMENT AWARENESS

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0 Yes

No

North


Q3.Have you seen the advertisement of HLL Products, If yes then in which media : a. Television b. Newspaper c. Magazines d. Banners / Hoarding e. Road Show TABLE 5.3 : BEST MEDIUM OF ADVERTISEMENT Options Television Newspapers Magazines Banners/ Hoarding Road Show

No. of Respondents 18 0 2 15 2

Interpretation: 18 respondents have seen the advertisement on Television, 15 on Banners / Hoardings.


GRAPH – 3 : BEST MEDIUM OF ADVERTISEMENT

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Television

Newspapers

Magazines

Banners/ Hoarding

Road Show


Q4.

Why you are using the HLL Products ?

a. Quality b. Price c. Brand Image d. Offers e. Others TABLE 5.4 : REASON FOR USING HLL PRODUCTS Options Quality Price Brand Image Offers Others

No. of Respondents 18 8 16 5 3

Interpretation: 18 respondents are using HLL Products for its quality, 16 respondents are using HLL Products for its brand image.


GRAPH – V.4 : REASON FOR USING HLL PRODUCTS

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Quality

Price

Brand Image

Offers

Others


Q5.

What factors do you consider before purchasing these product ?

a. Brand Image b. Brand Loyalty c. Price d. Others TABLE 5.5 : FACTORS FOR PURCHASING Options Brand Image Brand Loyalty Price Others

No. of Respondents 18 8 16 8

Percentage 36 16 32 16

Interpretation : 36% of the respondents consider Brand Image, 16% of the respondents consider price before purchasing these products.


GRAPH – V.5 : FACTORS FOR PURCHASING

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Brand Image

Brand Loyalty

Price

Others


Q6.

How did you felt after purchasing it ?

a. Highly satisfied b. Satisfied c. Dissatisfied TABLE 5.6 : SATISFACTION LEVEL Options Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied

No. of Respondents 35 10 5

Percentage 70 20 10

Interpretation : 70% of the respondents are Highly Satisfied,10 respondents are satisfied, 5% are dissatisfied.


GRAPH V.6 : SATISFACTION LEVEL

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0 Highly Satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied


Q7.

According to your perception, what characteristics it has better than other Alternatives

brands available in the market. a. Brand Image b. Price c. Quality d. Others TABLE 5.7 : PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS Options Brand Image Price Quality Others

No. of Respondents 5 15 20 10

Percentage 10 30 40 20

Interpretation : 40% say its quality is best, 10% say its prices are less.


GRAPH V.7 : PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS 20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Brand Image

Price

Quality

Others


Q8. Which Brand offers you the value for your money ? a. HLL b. P&G c. Ajanta Health d. Others TABLE 5.8 : PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS Options Ajanta Health/ Oral Care HLL P&G Others

No. of Respondents 8 16 12 14

Interpretation : 16 respondents say HLL gives value for money.


GRAPH – V.8 : PERCEPTION AS COMPARED TO OTHER BRANDS 16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Ajanta Health/ Oral Care

HLL

P&G

Others


Q9.

Which brand offers you the more attractive schemes ?

a. HLL b. P&G c. Ajanta Health/ Oral Care d. Others TABLE 5.9 : BRANDS WHICH OFFER ATTRACTIVE SCHEMES Options Ajanta Health/ Oral Care HLL P&G Others

No. of Respondents 6 20 10 14

Interpretation : 40% respondents HLL brand offers attractive schemes, 28% respondents says others provide attractive schemes.


GRAPH – V.9 : BRANDS WHICH OFFER ATTRACTIVE SCHEMES 20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Ajanta Health/ Oral Care

HLL

P&G

Others


Q10 What do you think about the brand image of HLL Products. a.

Excellent

b.

Good

c.

Average

d.

Poor

e.

Can’t Say TABLE 5.10 : BRAND IMAGE OF HLL PRODUCTS

Options

No. of Respondents

Excellent Good Average Poor Can’t Say

21 10 12 6 1

Interpretation : 42% respondents say Brand image of HLL is excellent.


GRAPH –V.10 : BRAND IMAGE OF HLL PRODUCTS

25

20

15

10

5

0 Excellent

Good

Average

Poor

Can’t Say


Q11. Your suggestions to improve the brands image of HLL Products ? a. Advertisement b. Quality c. Competitive Prices d. Others Options

No. of Respondents

Advertisement Quality Competitive Prices Others

10 15 16 9

Interpretation : 32% of the respondents say HLL must reduce the prices.


Graph – 11

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Advertisement

Quality

Competitive Prices

Others


Q12. Who in your family would decide about purchasing a particular brand? a. Father b. Mother c. Brother d. Yourself e. Don’t Know Options

No. of Respondents

Father Mother Brother Yourself Don’t Know

10 15 2 10 13

Interpretation : 26% respondents don’t give any reason.


GRAPH -12

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Father

Mother Brother Yourself

Don’t Know


CHAPTER – VI OBSERVATIONS & FINDINGS


OBSERVATIONS & FINDINGS

This project report is a partial fulfillment of our studies M.B.A has helped me tremendously in knowing how marketing activities are carried out in a real situation. In classroom lectures, I was able to understand only the theoretical work I have the practical experience about the marketing activities. Marketing is more an art than science. Successful decision making in marketing depends upon the skills and judgement of the individual involved and cannot be reduced to an organized body of principles. The decision making mainly depends upon the experience of the people, but if the manager finds it difficult to make decision on certain points, he make use of research they are applying the methods of science tot he art of marketing. As far as my study on marketing on consumer's perception of HLL Products. I feel I was more on art than a science, although scientific techniques and tools were made use for the collection of data. Inspite of some limitations like less samples, less time and finance I could accomplish my objectives. The analysis of the data collected vividly states that the consumers are satisfied with the product. As every position has some opposition. The sample feels that this product also has some problems as nothing is perfect.


CHAPTER – VII CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS


CONCLUSION This quotation is very important for every business organization and every one should keep in mind this thing. The route of all companies wishing to survive and prosper into the Millennium should be ‘onwards and upwards’. Some companies may however have lost the way and adopted a ‘wait and see’ strategy. Companies most likely to survive increasingly competitive markets must be flexible, adaptive and prepared to plan for the future. These factors suggest some key strategic actions which should be taken to improve business performance and the competitive position of individual firms and the sector as a whole. These strategic actions include: • The preparation of a Mission Statement and formal Business, Marketing and Training Plans for executives. • The establishment of Objectives and Targets and a Monitoring System. • The acquisition of in-depth knowledge about Customers and Competitors. • Further enhancements in relationships with Suppliers. • A review of all business activities which might be outsourced. • The creation and continuous improvements in Customer-Care programmes. • The building of good relationships with customers. • Keeping eye on the activities of competitors action and quickly react on that action. Customers are giving a very good response to HLL Products and they are fully satisfied with the products of HLL

SUGGESTIONS


REPRESENTATIVES •

Visit at each and every retail shop.

Regular visits every week should be there.

RESEARCH/ SURVEY •

More emphasis on research and survey

Better understanding of market demand

More emphasis on product diversification

No. of new inventions in detergent category should be there.

PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES •

Promotional activities for sale should be increased i.e. gift items should be provided to consumers.

Promotional activities like posters, dangler, and hoardings should be enhanced.

Hindustan Level Ltd. Have to advertise well their products as the Proctor & Gamble is doing.

T.V. advertisements should be increased.

Local newspaper advertisement should be there i.e. advertisement in Dainik Bhaskar, Nav Bharat etc.

Some gift items and gift coupon should be given to the retailer for achieving maximum sales target of Surf detergent brand.

SERVICES •

Service is not so good and fast, so HLL should improve it, like product should be easily available in each shop.

Damaged product should be taken care of efficiently and seriously.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY Books:• Kotler,

Philip

(1996):

‘Marketing

Management’

Analysis,

Planning,

Implementation &Control. 8th edition, prentice hall of India, New Delhi. • Kothari.C.R. (1994): ‘Research Methodology’ Wishwa prakashan. • Kaynak, E & Savitt.R (1984): ‘Comparative Marketing Systems’. Praegar, New York. • Neil Wearne& Alison M (1996): ‘Hospitality Marketing’. ButterworthHinmenn Ltd, Oxford. • Page Limited, London. • Zeithaml, V.A (1996): ‘Service Marketing’ McGraw Hill New York. Websites: • www.google.com • www.hll.com • www.indiainfoline.com


ANNEXURES


QUESTIONNAIRE Name

:

______________________________________________

Address

:

______________________________________________

Q1.

How do you come to know about the HLL Products ?

f.

Advertisement

g.

Friends

h.

Colleagues

i.

Neighbours

j.

Others

Q2.

Have you seen the advertisement of HLL Products ?

c. Yes d. No Q3.Have you seen the advertisement of HLL Products, If yes then in which media : f. Television g. Newspaper h. Magazines i. Banners / Hoarding j. Road Show Q4.

Why you are using the HLL Products ?

f. Quality g. Price h. Brand Image i. Offers j. Others


Q5.

What factors do you consider before purchasing these product ?

e. Brand Image f. Brand Loyalty g. Price h. Others Q6.

How did you felt after purchasing it ?

d. Highly satisfied e. Satisfied f. Dissatisfied Q7.

According to your perception, what characteristics it has better than other Alternatives

brands available in the market. e. Brand Image f. Price g. Quality h. Others Q8. Which Brand offers you the value for your money ? e. HLL f. P&G g. Ajanta Health h. Others Q9.

Which brand offers you the more attractive schemes ?

e. HLL f. P&G g. Ajanta Health/ Oral Care h. Others


Q10 What do you think about the brand image of HLL Products. f.

Excellent

g.

Good

h.

Average

i.

Poor

j.

Can’t Say

Q11. Your suggestions to improve the brands image of HLL Products ? e. Advertisement f. Quality g. Competitive Prices h. Others Q12. Who in your family would decide about purchasing a particular brand? f. Father g. Mother h. Brother i. Yourself j. Don’t Know


CURRICULUM VITAE MANOJ SHRIVASTAVA

Room no.107,MIM Boy’s Hostel

MCEE-MIM, Berasia Road Lambakheda, Bhopal (M.P) Mobile No. 9827745860 e-mail:manoj_xy02@yahoo.co.in

OBJECTIVE To make a purposeful contribution to the potent field of marketing and to achieve new heights through innovation and creativity

Professional Qualification Pursuing MBA(III Sem) from Maharishi Centre for Educational Excellence , Maharishi Institute of Management Bhopal, Affiliated to Barakatullah university Bhopal (M.P) Likely to passout in June 2006.

Specialization : Marketing Management Educational Qualification •

B.S C. from Thakur Ranmant Singh Autonomous College affiliated to A.P.S. University Rewa (M.P) in the year 2003 and Secure70%.

12th (biology) from C.B.S.E Board, Panna in the year 2000

10th from C.B.S.E Board, Rewa in the year 1998.


Computer Proficiency MS Office & Working Knowledge of Internet

Project details I have done my project from HLL & my topic is To Assess the customer percepton towards the product of HLL & service issue in Bhopal city.

PERSONAL DETAILS Father’s Name

:

Mr.Shiv Charan lal Shrivastava

Date of Birth

:

11th Jan 1983

Sex

:

Male

Nationality

:

Indian

Permanent Address

:

Mr.Pankaj Shrivastava N.C.C School Ford Road Nipaniya

Distt. - Rewa (M.P.) Pin-486001 Phone

:

(07662) 220905 Mobile-9827745860

Hobby

:

Making New Friends & Watching Criket

Date : Place :

(MANOJ SHRIVASTAVA)


A PROJECT REPORT ON TO ACCESS THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF HLL PRODUCTS & SERVICE ISSUES IN BHOPAL  

MAHARISHI CENTRE FOR EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE MAHARISHI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL SESSION (2004 – 2006) SUBMITTED...

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