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October - November 2013

 Holistic Approach to Plastic Waste Management in India

 Regulatory Framework Governing Plastic Use and Recycling in India  Planet, People, Profit. Three Pillars for Sustainability


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The Economic Times

CONTENTS

vol. 14, Issue 4 COVER STORY

Three Pillers of Sustainability

Education and awareness of the consumers in use and disposal of the pack is equally important if innovative packaging is to be used for improving sustainability. Vijay Merchant, Polycraft, Mumbai

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FOCUS

Holistic Approach to Plastic Waste Management in India

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Simple steps can provide the opportunity of efficiently transforming ‘waste into wealth’ and achieving the overarching goal of sustainable growth. Ishan N. Meswani, Student, Dhirubhai Ambani International School, Mumbai

Regulatory Framework Governing Plastic use and Recycling in India

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These head space samplers are simple and reliable tools for the determination of residual solvents in food packaging and for the extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from food simulants.

Regarding the use of recycled plastic material, recycled as per specific process - for food contact applications - modifications in the existing regulations are required so as to be in line with prevailing practice adopted in developed countries. T. K. Bandopadhyay, ICPE Secretariat, Mumbai

Catalysts for Plastic Waste Management

Catalytic materials should address the value addition to the waste plastic streams, avoid the environmental damage (soil, air and water) from the non-biodegradable plastics due to toxic / corrosive halogenated components added to plastics. Thallada Bhaskar, Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Dehradun

CO2: A New Raw Material for Polymers

Andrea Bonsanto, Market Development Manager Petro & Chemical Sceinces Chiara Abate, Application Specialist

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DANI Instruments SpA, Italy

AUTOMOTIVE

Plastics: Solving Challenges of the Automotive Industry 27

CO2 is no longer seen as a discarded waste with dangerous environmental effects, but will soon become a valuable feedstock for chemicals, fuel and polymers. Morten Lundquist, Research Director, Norner AS, Norway

EVENT

Big Interest in K 2013, Düsseldorf

TECHNOLOGY

Food Packaging Analysis: New Approach 33 to Increase Sensitivity and Decrease Time

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Marked increase in demand for exhibition space / exhibitors from India. Xavier Rebello, Executive Director, Messe Düsseldorf India Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai

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The net result is not just a part made with engineering plastics where a metal was once used. It is a new system that can weigh up to 50 per cent less and cost up to 30 per cent less than its metal counterpart.

Diane H. Gulyas, President, DuPont Performance Polymers, USA I N D U S T R Y speaks

Synthetic Latex Polymers: Building Globally 39 China now claims a quarter of global SLP consumption, but it is the comparatively smaller markets of India and the Middle East that are gaining significantly greater importance and rank among the fastest growing.

Nikola Matic, Industry Manager for the Chemicals & Materials Kline & Company, Czech Republic

A nd M ore . . .

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THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

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CMYK

C OFOREWORD VER STORY

S. K. Ray

Sr. Executive Vice President (Polymers) Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai

S

ustainability has emerged as a defining theme of this century. While the world population has crossed 7 billion, nearly 20% of people do not have access to clean water or electricity. One in every ten people on this earth still go hungry. These are major challenges. The quest for equity is already putting tremendous pressure on land, water, energy and material resources. The problem would get further compounded as the population crosses the 9 billion mark by middle of this century.

EDITOR Jitesh Pillai EDITORIAL ADVISOR S. K. Ray EDITORial Co-ordinator Manish Chawla manish@custage.com PROJECT CO-ORDINATION The Times of India Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd. Times Tower, 3rd Floor, Response, Kamala Mills Compound, Senapati Bapat Marg, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai - 400 013. Tel : 022-30988309 Response office contacts AHMEDABAD Chandresh Saijani +91 9925026681 chandresh.saijani@timesgroup.com BENGALURU Mahesh Talkad +91 9886084460 mahesh.talkad@timesgroup.com CHANDIGARH Bipin Kumar +91 9915095100 bipin.kumar@timesgroup.com CHENNAI Vijay Menon +91 8939659385 vijay.menon@timesgroup.com COIMBATORE D. Suresh +91 9994719861 suresh.d1@timesgroup.com HYDERABAD Pradeep M. +91 9848024076 pradeep.m@timesgroup.com KOLKATA Rajeev Bhatia +91 9830427702 rajeev.bhatia@timesgroup.com MUMBAI Indrajit Chakrabarti +91 9892223069 indrajit.chakrabarti@timesgroup.com NEW DELHI Ajay Parashar + 91 9811556765 ajay.parashar@timesgroup.com PUNE Amita Kapoor +91 9823283130 amita.kapoor@timesgroup.com RAJKOT Jaideep Udani +91 9898590009 jaideep.udani@timesgroup.com

It is in this context that sustainability acquires extreme urgency. The world would not only need to provide for the basic necessities to people who do not have these, but also find additional resources to cater to the needs of 2 billion more people that would get added during this period. Plastics are made with hydrocarbon feedstock derived from oil and gases. While the known reserves of crude oil and gases are finite, the demand for energy products is rapidly growing. This calls for more innovative and efficient use of these precious resources. A small fraction of crude oil and natural gases is used for production of polymers. These synthetic materials require relatively less energy as compared to metal and glass that they replace, supplement and compliment in various applications. Plastics also leave lower environmental footprints as compared to paper. There is a wide range of plastics and they are extremely versatile. Besides good environmental performance during production of plastics, major savings are realised in their usage, as these materials are light, corrosion resistant, highly energy efficient and have excellent design flexibility. Due to these properties, Carbon Life Cycle Analysis (cLCA) study conducted by the global chemical industry, supported by McKinsey & Co., found that amongst top ten potential Green House Gas (GHG) emission saving products, four are from plastics, like insulating products, plastic packaging, automotive plastics and plastic piping. Some of these potential gains are, however, lost on sustainability parameters due to the finite reserve of hydrocarbon sources and the post-use handling and disposal inefficiencies. While the industry explores alternative sources of feedstock, greater efficiency in use, handling and disposal of plastic products can make a major difference in industry’s quest for sustainable growth. It is in this context that the present issue of ET Polymers is relevant. This edition contains articles on plastic waste handling and disposal; extensively covering the technologies, socio-economic issues and policies that can help achieve sustainable growth. There is also a feature article on the great international plastic exposition, K 2013, at Düsseldorf, Germany. This is rated as the largest exposition in the world showcasing developments in the field of materials, converting technology and markets for polymers. Visitors to the event have an opportunity to update both, knowledge and contacts with industry peers. The editorial team hopes that this issue of ET Polymers would help clear few myths and assess the contribution made by plastic products for sustainable growth of the economy and the society, at large.

Vadodara Bhavesh Shenai + 91 9898499966 bhavesh.shenai@timesgroup.com

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b2bedit@timesgroup.com


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COVER S TORY

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limate change, optimal use of resources and energy conservation have been major challenges facing the entire world. Governments, planners, policy makers, business and industry heads, scientist and researchers all seem to have agreed to address these by uniting for this common cause, sharing ideas and responsibilities to sincerely work towards protecting our planet in this century.

Education and awareness of the

Whether it is Davos or Rio, the UNEP in Africa or G-20 or ASEAN, the heads of governments and captains of business and industry have been spending considerable time discussing ‘sustainable development’. This is primarily because all nations have realised that our resources are finite, but the world population keeps growing year

after year. We would be 9 billion people by 2050. How do we feed the billions and cut huge wastages from farm to fork or from the producer to the consumer. Every nation strives for better quality of life for its citizens, but with finite resources every responsible state has to think ahead and address challenges of sustainability.

consumers in use and disposal of the pack is equally important if innovative packaging is to be used for improving sustainability.

Vijay Merchant Polycraft, Mumbai

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Economists, business leaders and policy experts have finally come to the conclusion that there can never be a completely sustainable package for all times, ‘sustainability is a journey’.

‘How can we do more with less?’ While meeting needs of people across nations, rich or poor, how can we avoid wastage in transit or storage, cut transport emissions with lighter and compact packs and with better packaging that extend product life? With increased momentum towards free trade and openness of economics, we see goods are now moving across continents for thousands of kilometers and this has added to the huge importance of packaging.

In Comes Plastics in Packaging In the second half of the last century, the world has found a new versatile and a unique medium for packaging which is broadly called ‘plastics’. It can be tailored to have various properties which are unique. This material has, in several hundreds of applications, replaced traditional materials like glass, cloth, paper, leather, wood, tin and aluminum, sometimes, due to economics i.e. costs, sometimes due to convenience and appeal at other times due to strength and better protection. From water to whisky, from wafers to watches, pickles to pastries, from medicines to magazines we see unique forms of plastic packaging being introduced in the markets every year.

Planet – People – Profit The three pillars of sustainability are Planet, People and Profit, which means one needs to take care of the impact ecologically, socially and economically to decide how sustainable could plastic packaging be in today’s time in varied applications and markets. Planet To assess its impact ecologically and to help determine which pack is a better sustainable

option, a tool called Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is used that helps designers and all involved in the packaging chain make a good objective comparative assessment of their packaging. With LCA, pack designers can compare carbon footprints and environment impact from cradle to grave of alternative packs and minimise environmental burden on mother earth sensibly. People Considering the ‘Social’ aspect in sustainability, the consumer’s concern is that they should be able to use the entire content in the pack without having to see product wastage at the consuming point or loss of flavour or potency or freshness before consuming the products. Packaging should ensure that health and safety aspects of the product are taken care of by proper protection and that the pack should also be secure till consumers open it for use. There is also a growing demand from people that the pack should either be reusable or recyclable in some way and that design and material selection should be done keeping this in mind so that at the end, the packaging material does not go to dumps or landfills. Profit As regards economics, due to intense competition, cost of the package has become another priority for the producers, packers and the brand owners. Hence, the material and design of the pack has to be such that it ensures longer product life and safety and it should also cost the least to the packer. The pack should also ensure that there is minimal damage or spoilage in storage, display or dispensing ultimately, besides of course making the pack attractive to the buyer on the store shelf so that it sells well.

How Sustainable is Plastic Packaging? The ultimate objective of any packaging would be to convey the product packed from the producer to the ultimate user i.e. (the consumer) in a safe and fresh condition, but due to market forces and competition, also do so at the lowest cost. During the last two decades, the consumers, broadly the well informed 6

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citizens, have added one more element to consider. The customers now want that the packaging offered should have minimal impact on the environment ultimately. (The Greens have become demanding!) This additional new priority in the market, has in several places, offered plastic packaging suppliers many more opportunities and challenges. However, simultaneously as plastics are derived from hydrocarbons be it naptha or gases which are limited in supply, there are questions asked whether plastic packaging is ecofriendly and sustainable. Besides this, since plastics from hydrocarbons are seen as nonbiodegradable, citizens also see waste after the packs are used; they question ‘is this sustainable’. Very often what is overlooked is the huge savings offered by the plastic package which is avoiding loss of much more valuable product and produce wastage that went in the pack and also the overall weight reduction of the pack which is an added bonus. A very exhaustive objective study conducted by the ‘German Society for Research in the Packaging Market’ shows that if plastics packaging were replaced with other materials, the weight and volume of disposables would increase approximately by a factor of 4 and 2.5 respectively, along with twice the level of energy consumption and double the cost of packaging. This would in fact have a negative impact on sustainability, besides increase in carbon footprint and costs to those who switch away from plastic packs to alternatives in this modern world. Economists, business leaders and policy experts have finally come to the conclusion that there can never be a completely sustainable package for all times, ‘sustainability is a journey’. People connected with the packaging sector will keep innovating new materials, new processes, new technologies and designs will keep appearing (in view of market demands) from different parts of the world which can and will help make newer packs more environmentally friendly and more sustainable. Recently, Mr. Magdi Batato, Group Technical Director at Nestlé UK, made a very apt observation. He says sustainability is about transformation. ‘Your suppliers are a part of it’, he continues, adding that long-term partnerships are needed to help suppliers change the way they work. Producers cannot bring about sustainability single handedly.

The director of one of the largest consumer product companies of the world makes it clear that it has to be team work amongst all stakeholders to improve the package sustainability. Unfortunately, plastic packaging is unfairly blamed as the villain when local bodies and policy makers discuss solid waste problems without examining all aspects of the packaging holistically. In several countries and the West where sensible packaging waste collection and recovery laws are in place and responsibilities clearly specified, plastic packaging does not cause the resentment amongst citizens.

Myths about Plastics Packaging What is completely overlooked by critics is that material is a cost and both, consumer product and industrial product packers continuously strive to bring it down and the plastic industry has been helping reducing material content year after year. However, as packaging is visible and being offered in attractive colours and designs, when plastic packaging which does not melt away or disappear from garbage dumps, and is seen as litter, it becomes an easy target. However, if one were to see this objectively, this problem is primarily due to three factors: Poor or inadequate waste management with insufficient rules in place by authorities.

l

In terms of sustainability, packaging materials - be it plastic, glass, paper board composites or metals cannot be classified as good or bad. Each has its advantages and short comings, depending on the objectives of the packer (i.e. the product producer) and trade - offs are an inherent part of pursuing sustainability.

Inadequate waste collection infrastructure for recovery-bins and disposal facilities.

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Poor behaviour of citizens and age old habits not corrected over time to match the advancement in materials we use for a better quality of life.

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Some Examples

Milk: Another consumer packaging which can be evaluated for sustainability could be the one litre milk pack where the packaging weight of the traditional glass bottle was 454 gms in (1970) and today, a 1 litre milk is packed in co-extruded polythene pouch weighing only 3.5 to 4 gms.

It is quite interesting to review some of the changes seen in the market place both, for consumer products and industrial packaging using the 3 pillars – planets, people and profits as evaluating yardsticks for sustainability. Consumer Products

Once again, the huge material reduction has benefited the planet, both by way of lower quantum of material also enabling many more one litre packs of milk to be transported in every truck, reducing CO2 emission and fuel consumption of the fleet. People have benefited by much easier handling, product safety from sealed pouches, lesser refrigeration cost when storing the milk in the fridge versus the glass bottles. Profits have been realised by the dairies due to a much lower cost of packs - Rs. 3 to 3.50 for a glass bottle versus 35 to 40 paise for a milk pouch.

Beverages - ‘Nescafe Coffee Powder’: Over the last 2 decades, one has seen the Nescafe Pack which was originally marketed in a 500 gm glass jar, move to 130 gm tin plate container and it is today seen in 12 gm plastic laminated pouch. The benefits of the planet would be the huge reduction in the material used for packaging 500 gms of coffee powder. The benefit to the people would be the safe shatter proof and light weight pack and the profit would be across the chain from the reduced packing cost to the manufacturer, reduced breakage losses to the trade and ultimately reduction in the cost of overall product being passed on to the consumer with a cheaper, but efficient pack.

Pickles: For generations, pickles were being packed in glass jars as some of the ingredients such as oil, spices and the vegetables needed to be preserved for months from moisture, oxygen and the atmosphere. The thick glass jars were in the last decade replaced by PET bottles and now multilayer laminates have made it possible to market pickles in extremely light weight flexible stand up pouches. This has also enabled Indian pickles to be exported safely across the world at affordable transport and packing costs.

Industrial Products

as wastage by way of breakages of glass bottles are avoided, plastics have helped pharmaceutical companies to continuously improve their sustainable objectives using the versatility of plastic as a material for packaging medicines, eliminating the corrugated sleeves / cartons necessary for glass packs and trimming costs and offering functional PET amber bottles for liquid or blisters for tablets and multilayer flexi pouches for powders and re-hydration salts.

Some of the sustainability successes of industrial packaging with plastics are highlighted here. l

8

Medicines and Drugs: Finally, complete transformation has taken place in packaging of medicines and drugs. Capsules which needed to be packed in moisture resistant crush proof glass vials in the 60’s & 70’s are now dispensed in blister & strip packs weighing barely 2 gms carrying 10 capsule dosage. The cost savings and convenience across all segments of society becomes quite apparent today. Consumer’s have benefited enormously

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

Socially, this has also helped people in rural areas and economically disadvantaged, to receive their


medicines safely and at a lower pack cost. In fact, capsules and tablets are now dispensed by the chemists cutting one or two tablets from the strip and selling, unlike in the past when minimum 10 or 12 tablets had to be bought together in one glass bottle. Due to tailormade properties of the materials (plastics), processors now offer moisture resistance, oxygen barriers, UV safe stability, puncture resistance etc. as each drug or medicine may need for the sustainable pack. Organic Food: One of the remarkable ways plastic packaging has served the new growing demand for organic food (where chemical a d d i t i v e s are to be kept out but product life needs to be prolonged) is innovative barrier options with plastic multilayered packs. Plastics now offer flavour and aroma retention, oxygen or CO2 moderation as need be, gas retention etc. which helps organic food suppliers (who do not use chemical preservatives in products) with wider markets and affordable options by innovative plastic packaging so that longer shelf-life is possible.

Conclusion

Drums and Pails: Over the years, in several 100’s of applications packing chemicals, paints, syrups and adhesives, the 200 litre steel drum weighing almost 21 kilos has been replaced by HDPE drums weighing less than 9 kilos. The planet has benefited by use of a much lesser energy intensive packing medium, lesser GHG of the material and use of much lighter pack thereby also enabling each truck to carry more drums and save on fuel cost per drum delivered and reduction in CO2 emissions. HDPE drums do not dent or

buckle-in even when dropped like metal drums. They cost much less, resulting in savings for all users. The shelves of hardware stores in India have a range of colourful plastic paint pails with locking seals and dry offset print as decoration, now which supplement the marketing efforts of paint companies and are an added attraction for retailing.

One can say, packaging must be put into perspective by understanding its role in the full product supply chain. In terms of sustainability, packaging materials - be it plastic, glass, paper board composites or metals cannot be classified as good or bad. Each has its advantages and short comings, depending on the objectives of the packer (i.e. the product producer) and trade - offs are an inherent part of pursuing sustainability. Merely because plastics, which are inherently strong and do not degrade in landfills, one cannot blame the pack. The state and all the stakeholders in the marketing chain 10

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need to work in partnership and put in place systems and infrastructure that would ensure packing waste collection and recycling for the ultimate common good of the entire society to reach higher sustainability goals. Education and awareness of the consumers in use and disposal of the pack is equally important if innovative packaging is to be used for improving sustainability. In view of innovations in plastic materials and processing techniques, there is and will be considerable scope in future for plastic packaging to assist producers and packers to improve their sustainability score cards.


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FOCUS

P

lastics are used in an extremely diverse range of fields and the global annual plastic consumption is estimated at more than 210 million tonnes. Demand for plastic is growing at a rapid pace, higher than the rate of growth of global GDP. The plastic industry is still relatively young, and it continues to grow rapidly in the developing world despite having reached a level of maturity in more economically developed countries. Plastics play a key role in society. Some of the most common types of plastics are Polythene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and Polystyrene (PS). These are known as commodity plastics, and they account for almost 85% of total consumption. The remainder is composed of engineering

Simple steps can provide the opportunity of efficiently transforming ‘waste into wealth’ and achieving the overarching goal of sustainable growth. plastics, thermosets and speciality polymers.

Ishan N. Meswani

Student Dhirubhai Ambani International School, Mumbai

Plastics have several highly valued qualities such as low weight, low permeability to water vapour and various gases, and resistance to corrosion and microbial degradation. Such properties make them indispensable and integral to the industry. Plastics are relatively

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

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safer to transport, handle and use than many metal or glass products. Processing of plastic products is easier and requires less energy than processing of alternative materials such as metal and glass.

Plastics Processing and Consumption Plastics are employed extensively to manufacture housewares, furniture, automotive components and appliances. When manufacturing appliances, automobile parts and furniture, plastics are used in collaboration with other materials such as metal and glass. However, plastics are primarily employed in product packaging, which accounts for roughly half of total plastic consumption. Plastic packaging protects the product and in the case of fast-moving consumer goods, it increases the shelf-life of both, food and nonfood products. When it comes to disposal of waste, however, some of the favourable properties of plastics become liabilities. As it is nonbiodegradable under normal environmental conditions, plastic waste accumulates rapidly and thus poses a major challenge for civic authorities. In India, the problem of waste disposal is even more severe due to littering habit of the public and the lack of infrastructure to segregate and handle plastic waste. Yet, there is wide range of technologies available to use plastic waste advantageously to manufacture useful products. These technologies help create wealth from waste, and help the economy move towards sustainable growth with greater emphasis on green technology.

A wide range of products are made by the industry from recycled granules, including films for waterproofing of low-cost shelters, gardening products and low-cost household utility products.

India’s per capita usage of plastics is a mere 8 kg per year, one of the lowest worldwide (the average global consumption of plastics is 30 kg per capita). India’s total plastic consumption is currently estimated at 10 million tonnes, annually; however, demand is expected to reach 16.5 million tonnes in the next 5 years. This rapid growth is due to the versatility, low

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Automobiles

Appliances

Fibres and Filaments Infrastructure

Housing Plastics

Housewares Agriculture

Packaging

Spacecrafts Healthcare Bulk Packaging

cost and other beneficial properties of plastics. As even this anticipated rate of consumption will be well below the global average, there will still be significant potential for future growth as plastics continue to satisfy everyday needs such as clothing, shelter and other day-to-day goods. Processing of plastics is a relatively simple operation and is carried out at much lower temperatures compared with alternative materials. The above processes also allow for moulding of complex parts, thereby reducing subsequent assembly operations. India has an estimated 30,000 plastic processing industrial units spread across the country and over 3 million workers are employed in this sector, both directly and indirectly. Plastics have become indispensable in modern society due to the virtually limitless application of plastic products in diverse fields. The property profiles and versatilities of plastic products enable them to be used in agriculture, healthcare, industry and households.

Application of Plastics In many functions, plastics have long-term applications. In automobiles, for example, plastics are used for body parts, interior and exterior lighting systems, and select underbonnet applications. Plastics are employed in these instances primarily to reduce weight, improve aerodynamics and mileage and


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1%

encompass the ‘Four ‘R’s’: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recover.

8%

3%

The First ‘R’ - Reduce The first ‘R’ aims to reduce waste by conserving resources. Reusing the product also helps in reducing waste. Once the waste is generated, however, it can still effectively be recycled or the energy content of the waste can be recovered.

10%

11%

52%

15% Packaging Consumer Goods

Infrastructure

Agriculture

Automotive

Healthcare

Others

Figure 1: End uses of plastics in India.

enhance safety, as plastic is both, lightweight and strong. In household appliances as washing machines, refrigerators and beverage makers, plastics are employed for insulation, safety and resistance to corrosion. A diverse range of housewares and healthcare products are also made from plastics because of the beneficial properties mentioned above. Plastic products have also found application in the high-tech sectors of space exploration and aviation. Plastic products have long-term usage in all of these fields; even so, plastic waste is eventually generated when such products complete their life cycles. Such waste is handled mainly by the process of mechanical recycling.

Plastic recycling is simple and environment friendly as it consumes very little energy and does not create any pollution. All plastics can be recycled efficiently when they are in a clean and segregated form. Plastic waste that is generated at the factory, where products are made, is almost completely recycled at the factory itself or in an industrial unit. Typically, the volume and value of such waste is high, and hence it is efficiently recycled. The major generators of waste are postuse waste from industrial users and postconsumption waste. The key challenge is the increasing rate of waste generation. Unless the disposal rate matches the generation rate, waste accumulates, resulting in increasing pressure on landfills. Conservation of our finite natural resources is a major global concern due to the environmental impact on sustainability caused by depleting resources. Therefore, plastic waste management primarily attempts to reduce wastage. Plastics have the ability to perform a function with minimal resource deployment, hence their outstanding performance in the context of resource conservation.

In order to gradually phase out the use of non-biodegradable and non-reusable plastic products, the Indian government has banned the use of plastic bags thinner than 40 microns.

Use of plastics in different sectors in India is as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 clearly shows that majority of plastics are used in packaging. Plastic helps extend the shelf-life of products and has been found to offer great functionality and cost effectiveness. As packaging, plastics perform far better than alternative materials such as glass, paper and metal. Their growing use though, will lead to a larger quantity of post-consumer plastic waste. Carbon neutral biodegradable plastic could offer a viable alternative - they are more costly to an individual, but less expensive to society. Unfortunately, however, an individual will almost always take an opportunity to save money for himself even when doing so creates a much greater social cost.

Principles of Plastic Waste Management The plastic waste management principles

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Plastic Waste at Different Locations 6

Disposal Site Street Dumping

9

Vegetable Market

5.74

Commercial Complex

6.98

Low Income Group

7.09

Middle Income Group

9.58

High Income Group

Plastics have very high calorific values. It is a common practice to burn polymers (with or without other components) to generate steam, electricity or other forms of energy.

13.73 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Plastic Waste in % Figure 2: Plastic at different waste streams in Mumbai.

Over 50% of the total plastic waste consists of packaging materials. The average EU citizen generated 164 kg of plastic waste in 2008. The developed countries have strict regulations regarding plastic usage and waste disposal. For instance, Germany’s aggressive recycling policy has caused its recycling industry to grow as legislation demands that 80% of consumer packaging materials must be recovered, of which a further 80% has to be recycled. A serious challenge for plastic waste management in India is posed by household waste. Among the difficulties are the high costs and challenges of collection and segregation of waste. The quantity of waste generated varies for different cities and households. For example, in Mumbai, a study conducted by the Indian Centre for Plastics and Environment (ICPE) found that plastic constitutes 10 - 14% of total household waste. Of this, only half the quantity reaches the disposal site. Most of the waste is picked up en route by waste collectors. Figure 2

details the percentage of waste that is plastic at various waste-producing locations. Post-consumption, waste poses a major challenge to the industry due to its heterogeneous nature. Recycling is costly and inefficient when it requires an elaborate segregation process. The informal sector, consisting of waste collectors, dealers and recyclers, take care of most of the plastic waste, applying some degree of sorting before recycling. Another ICPE study observed that most of the 6.9% of plastic waste that reaches the dump yard is collected, while only 0.3% is left behind. This indicates a good value for the plastic waste even after overcoming the collection difficulties and costs, as shown in Figure 3. Plastic waste management involves five distinct, but complementary techniques. The Second ‘R’ - Reuse Much emphasis is currently placed on the reuse of products as this approach helps reduce overall generation of waste. ‘Reuse’ has become a mantra of environmentally responsible resource use and is a key component of integrated waste management strategies, worldwide. Reuse entails simply reusing the product again without altering its composition or structure in any way. The Third ‘R’ - Recycle Recycling involves converting plastic waste into granules or monomers for use in different applications. In recycling, segregated plastic waste is converted into plastic granules that

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Table 1: Status of the Plastic Recycling Industry in India Number of Organised Recycling Units

3500

Number of Un-organised Recycling Units

4000

Total Number of Recycling Units

7500

Manpower (Thousands)

Direct

600

Indirect

1,000

Total

1,600

Plastic Recycled / Year (Million Tonnes)

3.6

can be used for manufacturing products. In India, an estimated 3.6 million tonnes of plastic is recycled each year. Recycling of plastic waste is the most preferred option, and landfilling of plastic should be used only as the last resort. In order to gradually phase out the use of non-biodegradable and non-reusable plastic products, the Indian government has banned the use of plastic bags thinner than 40 microns. This is an important step, as these bags are nonrecyclable. Taking this action signifies a shift towards a greener, more sustainable culture and technology. Mechanical recycling is the most widely used process for plastic waste handling. In this process, plastic is extracted from the waste stream by waste collectors and sold

to scrap dealers, who in turn, sell it directly to a wholesaler. The dealer or wholesaler aggregates the scrap and sells it to a recycling plant where the waste is cleaned, sorted and converted into flakes or granules for further processing into finished products. If properly sorted into the individual types (PE, PP, PVC and PS), all plastic waste can be efficiently recycled. India has a fairly large recycling industry, as seen in Table 1. Recycling continues to be the most commonly used method of handling plastic waste. A wide range of products are made by the industry from recycled granules, including films for waterproofing of low-cost shelters, gardening products and low-cost household utility products. Plastics have very high calorific values. It is a common practice to burn polymers (with or without other components) to generate steam, electricity or other forms of energy. Energy is recovered from burning plastic waste in cement kilns, and an experiment conducted by ICPE and ACC in India has resulted in significant use of plastics in cement kilns in India. The challenge is to make available large quantities of plastic waste at a reasonable cost at the cement kilns. Plastic waste is also beginning to be used as a reducing agent in the blast furnaces of steel plants, thereby reducing the use of coke for such applications. However, incineration should be the last resort before landfilling, due to the high amount of CO2 emissions.

Use of plastic waste improves the quality and performance of asphalted roads and has been widely used in the southern part of India.

Characterisation of Total Waste Plastics 6.9% Non-Plastics 4.3% 345 kg (6.6%) for Recycling Dry Waste 11.2%

18 kg (0.3%) remains in the Landfill

Inert Waste 26.8%

Wet Waste 62% Figure 3: Characterisation of different waste at landfill.

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Mechanical Recycling

ISO 15270:2008

Feedstock Recycling

Material Recovery

Most Adopted

Monomer

l

Fuel

l

Reducing Agent in Blast Furnace

l

Biological Recycling

Plastic Waste

Energy Recovery

Gasification

l

l

Co-Processing in Cement Kilns

l

Heat & Power Generation

Figure 4: Plastic waste management protocol.

Plastic waste containing PE and PP has a significantly higher calorific value as compared with coal. The economics become favourable when the cost of plastic waste delivered to the plant equals that of coal in calorific value. Theoretically, at a price of Rs. 4.5/kg, the plastic waste delivered at the site becomes economically viable since the cost of delivered coal works out to approximately Rs.3/kg. One major advantage of the use of plastic waste in these areas is the elimination of the segregation process. These alternatives can use contaminated and hazardous plastic waste since the high temperature employed in cement kilns destroys all harmful ingredients in the waste. In German cement kilns, 60% of coal has been replaced with plastic waste.

Plastics have the ability to perform a function with minimal resource deployment, hence their outstanding performance in the context of resource conservation.

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As the origin of plastic waste is

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hydrocarbon, there are chemical processes by which plastic waste can be converted to its original building blocks. Pyrolysis, also called chemical recycling, is a process in which polymers are converted into monomers, oil or petrochemical feed stocks. This method is particularly useful for mixed plastic waste comprising commodity plastics such as PE, PP, PVC and PS. There is no single solution to plastic waste management; it is a problem that must be approached holistically. Various methods of plastic waste management are as charted in Figure 4. Being a high molecular hydrocarbon product, mixed plastic waste is also used for road construction as a supplement to bitumen. In India, this application has been approved by the Central Road Research Institute. Use of plastic waste improves the quality and performance of asphalted roads and has been widely used in the southern part of India. It is possible to use mixed plastic waste in road construction. The economic challenge is to deliver good quality plastic waste at a reasonable cost to the construction site. It is estimated that 1 tonne of plastic in combination with 9 tonnes of bitumen can be used for a kilometer of road that is 7 ft. wide. As India has the second-largest road network in the world, there is tremendous opportunity surrounding the use of plastic waste for construction and maintenance of asphalted roads. All waste can be useful and can be integrated into a closed loop for resource conservation. An efficient system ensures


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Resources Disintegration

process of recycling at all. A manual workforce must, therefore, be employed to subdivide the dry waste. Production

For this model to work efficiently, an entrepreneur needs to establish a supply chain. The Storage Disposal transport costs would depend on the location of the factory and its distance from the waste source. The waste currently Recycle Transport retails at between Rs. 12 and Rs. 35 per kg, depending on the type of plastic waste Reuse Usage and how segregated it is. If waste is sorted at the source itself, however, there would be no Figure 5: The use and reuse of plastics. additional cost of segregation, and the resources for production, use and conversion price of the sorted waste would drop. of waste into new resources, multiple times. For a recycling endeavour to be Plastic can be recycled many times before successful, the plant should have a capacity it disintegrates and loses its desirable of 1500 kg/hour or approximately 11,000 properties. tonnes per year with the plant running at 90% capacity. If the cost of the segregated Segregation of Waste plastic waste is below Rs. 23,000/MT and Due to India’s inefficient waste-handling the selling price of the goods is above Rs. system, collection and segregation of waste 37,000/MT, the enterprise will be profitable, is a herculean task and the recycling process perhaps exceptionally so. Launching a is consequentially inefficient as well. Since the successful recycling operation in India waste-handling infrastructure in India is very would require an estimated investment of rudimentary in nature, all the waste gets mixed Rs. 24 crores. Many small-scale recycling together resulting in a high cost of segregation units currently operate with these economic or no segregation at all.

Conservation of our finite natural resources is a major global concern due to the environmental impact on sustainability caused by depleting resources.

In the developed countries, waste is typically segregated at the source in different bins to aid recycling. Compulsive littering habits and the absence of a bin culture make recycling all the more difficult in India. Developing a successful business model around plastic waste recycling in India would require a significant change in the attitude of the basic household unit. When waste is segregated at its source into wet waste and dry waste, recycling becomes economically viable, as the subsequent steps of collection and sorting becomes substantially more efficient. It would undoubtedly be more convenient, if dry waste could be further subdivided into categories as well; but this may require too big a leap for Indian households at this time, as they are currently not familiar with the

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be very efficiently recycled. There are many reliable technologies available for conversion of plastic waste into useful products. Depending on the nature of the waste, an appropriate technology for recycling can often be adopted, with mechanical recycling being the most functional and environment friendly option. This is, today, the most widely used option for deriving value out of reasonably well segregated plastic waste. India has a fairly large recycling sector that recycles plastics and converts these to low-cost utility products.

principles, indicating that a large-scale plant has great potential to succeed.

India has an estimated 30,000 plastic processing industrial units spread across the country and over 3 million workers are employed in this sector, both directly and indirectly.

Why are entrepreneurs not taking advantage of the abundant opportunities in India for plastic waste recycling? The primary reason is that such recycling processes are currently dominated by the informal sector. The government has neglected to introduce special incentives or subsidies to encourage entrepreneurial activity in this field. As waste is a resource, waste management should be expressed as resource management. This massive quantity of recyclable materials cannot be left as waste. The government needs to take more proactive positive steps, including mandating and promoting segregation of waste at source, encouraging waste collectors for door-to-door collection and incentivising large-scale investment in the recycling industry through tax breaks and subsidised utilities. These measures should encourage entrepreneurs to launch recycling ventures, thereby reducing the waste in landfill sites. The government’s recent corporate social responsibility legislation ensures that municipal bodies are aided by large corporate houses in establishing plastic waste collection centres.

To Summarise Plastics are such useful materials that demand for plastics will continue to grow. Such growth will also result in an increasing quantity of plastic waste that will pose a major challenge, but also present an opportunity to derive value. All 18

segregated

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

plastic

waste

can

Management of mixed plastic waste from households and from street collection poses a major challenge. Due to inadequate solid waste handling infrastructure and widespread littering habits, cost collection and segregation of plastic waste often becomes prohibitive for recycling. In these circumstances, alternative technologies allow plastic waste to be converted to fuel for use in cement kilns and blast furnaces in steel plants. In these technologies, the energy contained in the plastic waste is recovered. As an industrial fuel source, plastic waste can replace coal and hence, the economy of its use is determined by the cost of collection of plastic waste. As the calorific value of plastics (primarily, PE and PP) is twice that of coal, use of waste plastic instead of coal becomes economically viable when delivered cost remains within two times the delivered cost of high-grade coal. A product of hydrocarbon origin, mixed plastic waste can also be used as a bitumen replacement in roads. This application improves the longevity and performance of roads, roughly 10% of which can be composed of plastic waste. The technology has been approved by the Central Road Research Institute. India is growing, and there is massive demand for infrastructure — estimates suggest that 20,000 – 25,000 km of road needs to be built in India. Managing plastic waste, thus, need not be a major challenge if civic authorities are able to provide adequate infrastructure for its collection in a segregated form and the society is able to eliminate indiscriminate littering of solid waste that makes collection and segregation extremely inefficient. These simple steps can provide the opportunity of efficiently transforming ‘waste into wealth’ and achieving the overarching goal of sustainable growth.


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P

lastics are employed in innumerable applications where they actually conserve natural resources, save energy, emit least amount of volatile organic compounds in air and leave least carbon footprint in the earth’s environment. However, there are some issues which have been surrounding the material ever since its consumption increased in the last quarter of the last century. Apart from the main issue relating to management of waste created by plastics products after its use, mostly in the packaging applications; there are issues relating to health, safety and toxicities of certain types of plastic products. Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) compounded with certain types of phthalate plasticisers and baby feeding bottles made of Poly Carbonate (PC) are the plastics materials, which have drawn

Regarding the use of recycled plastic material, recycled as per specific process - for food contact applications - modifications in the existing regulations are required so as to be in line with prevailing

T. K. Bandopadhyay ICPE Secretariat Mumbai

practice adopted in developed countries. the attention of policy makers. In India, regulations, standards and specifications governing use of plastics

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in different applications are framed by concerned authorities depending on the area of application. Purpose of framing such regulations and standards remains the same - safeguard the health and safety of human, animals and all other living beings and the environment of the planet earth. Main authorities are The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) under the Ministry of Food and Consumer Affairs and other Government Departments. Plastic waste management relates mainly to the waste generated by packaging – the single largest application sector for plastics. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has framed regulations for the use of plastics mainly in some types of packaging applications and for the plastic waste management in the country.

All plastic raw materials are essentially required to adhere to BIS Specifications and are also required to declare the same, especially for food contact and medical applications.

MoEF Regulations: The Regulatory System in India before 2011 Several committees and expert groups were formed by MoEF since the 90’s to deal with the issues on use of plastics. In 1997, a Task Force was constituted under the chairmanship of Shri Dilip Biswas, Former Chairman, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to formulate a strategy and action programme for management of plastic waste. Several recommendations were made by the Committee and the first regulation on the use of plastics was brought in 1999 when MoEF Notified the Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999. This Notification had set the minimum thickness for plastic carry bags at 20 microns and also prohibited use of recycled plastics for storing, carrying and dispensing food products. On the issue of plastic waste management, the Rule asked the Plastics Industry Association, and their member units, to undertake self-regulatory measures. Later through an amendment, viz Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Amendment Rules, 2002; restriction on minimum size of plastic carry bags was also imposed. Thereafter, in 2002, the Justice Ranganath Mishra Committee examined the environmental hazards posed by the indiscriminate littering and disposal of plastic wastes and made recommendations on methods of collection, segregation, treatment and disposal of plastic waste. In 2003 (17th June) MoEF brought out yet

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another amendment to the Rule of 1999. This time, for more transparency, a clear definition of plastic carry bags was provided and also described the methodology to determine the right thickness of bags as specified in the Rule. The Notification also made it mandatory for all recycling units to register with the authorities. Some states have enacted more stringent rules that further limit the use of plastic bags. The states of Goa, Punjab, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya and West Bengal have also prescribed norms for the permissible thickness of plastic bags varying from 30 to 50 microns. Further, the states of Gujarat, Orissa and Goa have banned the use of plastic bags in certain religious and tourist canters like Ambaji, Dakor, Somnath in Gujarat and municipal area of Puri and Konark in Orissa, Victoria Memorial in Kolkata etc. Over the last couple of years, Chandigarh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan have instituted bans on use of plastic bags.

New Rule Framed in 2011 In April 2009, The Ministry of Environment and Forests notified the draft ‘Plastics (Manufacture, Usage and Waste Management) Rules, 2009’ to replace the Recycled Plastic Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999 (as amended in 2003). The draft rules were widely published for public comments. An expert committee was constituted by the (MoEF) to examine these comments and suggest economic instruments to address the issue. The restriction in the ambit of the rules was imposed for two principle reasons. First, it was recognised that plastics are used in many different processes of production and in various types of consumer goods. This makes the process of arriving at appropriate rules for all types of plastics technically demanding and difficult to accomplish. Second, plastic bags and multilayered plastics pose serious problems of littering in both, urban and rural areas and were the primary concern of the 1999, 2003 and the 2009 draft rules of MoEF. It was thought prudent to maintain the same domain of coverage because


attractive to collect plastic waste. Committees were set up to ensure appropriate recycling processes are followed. Regarding multilayered and laminated plastics, recycling of which are difficult in normal mechanical recycling process, the Regulatory Guideline is mainly focused on employing special recycling techniques under the ambit of Extended Producer Responsibility. comments had been invited and received on the 2009 draft rules. Moreover, there is also littering, inadequate segregation and waste collection infrastructure and lack of awareness. However, the committee agreed that there is a need to address plastic waste in the long run, and the rules were, therefore, made in a template form that could subsequently include other kinds of plastic wastes. The committee further agreed that it would not explicitly include size and thickness restrictions on plastic containers or multilayered plastics because of the enormous range of products that fall into these categories. It was decided that the title of the new rules be changed to the Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2010 (modified to 2011) to reflect this focus. It was agreed that the principles on which the new rules are based should also guide the formation of rules for other types of plastics and that the Ministry may start the process of formulating these rules in the future.

India is yet to evolve regulations to address the issue of packaging waste effectively.

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The Committee recognised that lack of organised system for segregation, collection of plastic waste is a matter of concern and that without proper waste management, the objectives of the Rules would not be achieved. Such a system has to take into account the entire lifecycle of plastic and requires cooperation of municipalities, manufacturers, retailers and consumers of plastic products. It agreed to preserve the size and thickness provisions as in the 2009 draft rules and suggested that the terminology ‘compostable’ may be used in place of ‘biodegradable’. The Committee further, inter alia, recommended a system of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for recycling plastic waste, requiring state and central fiscal policies to explicitly account for the plastic waste, introducing ‘explicit pricing’ for all plastic carry bags sold and creation of a system such as a state level advisory body that would monitor and evaluate the performance of different regions with regard to implementing the rules. The role of industries in financing the cost of these activities was made explicit. To ensure effective recycling, collection centres would have to pay prices that would make it

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

Standards and Specifications Bureau of Indian Standards under the Food and Consumer Affairs Ministry formulates necessary specifications and standards relating to, apart from others, use of plastics materials in contact with foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and drinking water as well as various other applications which should be safe for using in different non-food, yet critical applications. The specifications laid down in the BIS are considered as regulations in technical aspects of all materials including plastics. All plastic raw materials are essentially required to adhere to BIS Specifications and are also required to declare the same, especially for food contact and medical applications. Pigments used in plastics for use in contact with food items are required to be as per specific BIS Standard. There are guidelines on plastic recycling in designated BIS Standard. Emphasis has been given on following the norms regarding cleaning and processing (recycling). The standard provides for proper labelling on the recycled products cautioning the user for not using the same in contact with food items.

Looking Forward While appropriate standards and specifications are well in place for regulating the plastic products for various applications in India, there are inadequacies in matters of waste management. In many countries there are regulations for treating all packaging materials made of plastics, paper, glass, metals etc. under the purview of Packaging Regulatory Rules; India is yet to evolve such regulations to address the issue of packaging waste effectively. It is expected that such rules and regulations would be framed in the near future. Also regarding the use of recycled plastic material, recycled as per specific process, for food contact applications, modifications in the existing regulations are required so as to be in line with prevailing practice adopted in developed countries.

Note The author was a member of the Expert Committee of the MoEF. Excerpts from the Expert Committee Report have been included in the article.


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Introduction Worldwide plastic industry witnessed a steady growth in recent years, which reflected in the increased consumption of all types of plastic materials. Worldwide, the plastics and polymer consumption will have an average growth rate of 5% and may touch a figure of 227 million tonnes by 2015. In today’s modern world, plastics make a fundamental contribution to all activities such as agriculture, automobile industry, electricity and electronics, building materials, packaging and so on. This is primarily because of the substitution of other materials with plastics as well as their applications in new areas, and

Catalytic materials should address the value addition to the waste plastic streams, avoid the environmental damage (soil, air and water) from the non-biodegradable

Thallada Bhaskar

Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Dehradun

plastics due to toxic / corrosive halogenated components added to plastics. •

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Deployment of catalysts ensure lower operating temperatures and/ or pressures and a higher selectivity to the target product with a resultant reduction in fuel usage and waste production.

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material’s durability and versatility. The share of plastics in e-waste and municipal waste has seen a phenomenal increase in the recent years. Rapid growth in plastics consumption is increasing and subsequently plastic waste is accumulated, thus requiring attention.

produces low value products. Hence, role of catalysts and catalytic process are of immense importance in producing very high value hydrocarbons from waste plastics in an environment friendly manner.

Recovery can be classified as material recycling (mechanical and feedstock) and energy recovery (gasification and combustion). Mechanical recycling is limited solely on single polymer thermoplastic waste and not applicable to thermosets. Incineration of plastic waste to produce heat may be a possibility, but its organic content would totally be destroyed and converted into greenhouse gas (CO2) and H2O. Due to the world’s limited reserves of coal, crude oil and natural gases; it becomes very urgent to preserve the existing nonrenewable materials and to find other carbon sources (biomass) as feedstock materials or as fuels.

Catalysis is an interdisciplinary science and technology. It is an integral component in any green processing technology, serving as an important tool to support sustainable development. Sustainable development is essential to deal with the challenges of a fast changing world where demands on natural resources, the needs of growing population and the accumulation of waste will inevitably impose restriction upon how bussiness operate. Where a manufacturing process is energy intensive, a controlled recycle / reuse is an effective means of decreasing the overall negative environmental impacts.

Pyrolysis is one of the best methods to recover the material and energy from polymer waste, as only about ca. 10% of the energy content of the waste plastic is used to convert the scrap into valuable hydrocarbons. This is obtained by breaking down polymers at high temperatures into petrochemical feedstock components from which they originate. The main drawback to thermal degradation is the requisite high temperatures (process is highly endothermic) that results in a range of products, which requires severe reaction conditions and

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Catalysts for Plastics Pyrolysis

The catalytic reactions take place in the solid-gas or solid-liquid interface. The amazingly wide range of chemical transformations in petroleum refining is based mainly on two types of catalytic transformation: Hydro-dehydrogenation

l

Acidic hydrocarbon catalysis

l

The first type controls the distribution of hydrogen among hydrocarbon products while the second type; the acid catalyst, controls the carbon number and boiling range, the skeletal structure as well as the


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types of hydrocarbons produced. Today’s advanced catalysts combine these two catalytic functions with highly specific catalyst structure features, called shape selectivity, which control the size and other chemical features of molecules produced. Deployment of catalysts ensure lower operating temperatures and/or pressures and a higher selectivity to the target product with a resultant reduction in fuel usage and waste production. A catalytic approach to waste polymer reprocessing has the following positive features, among others: Lower operating temperatures (relative to pyrolysis), non-oxidative process with lower energy requirements and no directly associated NOx/SOx emissions; faster reaction rate; selectivity increased towards similar type of compounds

Condensation polymers, which include such materials as polyamides, polyesters and nylon can be ‘depolymerised’ via reversible synthesis to the starting diacids and diols or diamines. The solid catalysts (existing and newly developed) can provide solutions to the first class of polymers (polyolefins) for effective conversion. The novel and hybrid solvents have to be developed for the depolymerisation (for monomers and oligomers) of condensation polymers. In both these cases, presence of additives and new combinations will create complications for the development of catalysts and solvents.

Development of low cost materials for the specific targeted production (light olefins, aromatics) from waste plastics is highly desirable.

l

Absence of thermally-induced free radical reactions that can lead to toxic intermediates

l

Possibility of selective Cl and Br removal (in the case of Chlorine and Bromine containing polymers) with concomitant polymer degradation to a target recyclable product

l

Operability in a closed system with no toxic emissions

l

Plastics can be divided into two groups: Condensation polymers

l

Addition polymers (polyolefins)

l

Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) contains plastics and metals in it. In 2009, India generated approximately 330,000 tonnes of e-waste. E-waste contains hazardous (lead, mercury, cadmium etc.) and precious material (gold, silver, copper etc.). An average PC approximately weighing 31.5 kg contains 7.24 kg of plastics, 1.98 kg of Pb, 0.693 g of Hg, 0.409 g of As, 2.961 g of Cd, 1.98 g of Cr, 9.92 g of Ba and 4.94 g of Be. In about 315 million computers, about 550 X 106 kg of Pb, 900,000 kg of Cd, 180,000 kg of Hg and 0.5 X 106 kg of Cr IV are present. It also has 1800 X 106 kg of plastic and at least 159 X 106 kg of brominated flame retardants from monitors. With this present situation, development of new catalysts, reactors and processes are highly desirable to address this important issue.

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Present Status There has been a plethora of research work in the conversion of waste plastics into fuels and chemicals. The fundamental investigations and mechanistic investigations of thermal decomposition of polymers have been published by Madorsky. Kaminsky et al reported that plastic waste and tires can be converted into fuel and chemicals. The initial catalytic cracking research primarily focused on polyolefin feedstocks because these polymers are the most abundant in plastic waste. In one of the first polymer catalytic cracking studies using noble metals on silica-alumina, Uemichi and co-workers reported the use of silica alumina, activated carbon, Pt/silica–alumina and Pt/alumina catalysts for poly(ethylene) (PE) cracking, Ayame et al produced the branched polyethylene by catalytic degradationisomerisation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) using silica-alumina catalyst. The comparative studies with the acidic and nonacidic catalysts and mesoporous materials have been studied to show the effect of acidity on the cracking of polyolefins. In the mixed waste streams, halogenated plastics cannot be avoided and poses several problems in the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis in the presence of various catalysts.

Role of catalysts and catalytic process are of immense importance in producing very high value hydrocarbons from waste plastics in an environment friendly manner.

Dehydrochlorination of plastic mixtures was studied by Bockhorn and others to provide the base for understanding the decomposition mechanism of PVC containing mixed plastic waste, which has become the base for the development of catalyst / sorbents for the production of halogen free hydrocarbons from the commingled waste plastics. Yoshioka et al showed the mechanistic pathways for the two stage decomposition of PVC and PVDC plastics for effective dehalogenation of PVC mixed plastics into halogen free hydrocarbons and Kamo et al described the effect of pressure on the degradation of PVC. The effect of HIPSBr (e-waste plastic) in the mixed streams on the products distribution and dehalogenation processes with the carbon composite catalysts is known. Serrano et al showed the effectiveness of new generation catalysts such as hierarchical zeolites for the pyrolysis of plastics. Various above mentioned catalysts have been used for commercial processes for the conversion of waste plastics with certain limitations. Due to the limitations and economics, alternatives for the costly catalytic materials has been looked by various groups and Fujimoto et al developed and utilised the disposable catalysts for commercial processes.

Challenges Catalysts are a class of compounds specially 26

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selected, designed and optimised for influencing the reaction mechanism and subsequently, the high-value products. Catalyst activity, selectivity and stability are major considerations. Theoretically, waste plastics have excellent fuel value, quite comparable to that of gas oil, when only polyolefins are considered. Introducing hetero-atoms, such as oxygen, nitrogen or chlorine reduces the heating value. The major hetero-atoms appearing in polymers are oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine and fluorine. After plastics pyrolysis, these elements either appear as intermediate organic compounds still incorporating the hetero-element, or as stable inorganic compounds, i.e. water, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and bromine or hydrogen fluoride. Most of these are hazardous and corrosive components that require careful selection of catalysts / sorbents for their effective removal / processing, as well as methods to neutralise or inhibit their effect. A major problem in pyrolysis is in the rather unpredictable specifications of both feedstocks (diffusion / steric hindrances of bulky molecules), if it is a mix of plastics and products. Hydrogenating conditions lead to the elimination of hetero-atoms and yield more saturated products as well, an important consideration regarding the marketing of pyrolysis products. Little is known on the effect of fillers or coke precursors (styrene, butadiene etc.) on catalytic activity and catalyst fouling, coking or clogging. Another area of interest is the effect of catalyst addition on the thermal decomposition in the liquid phase. It seems unlikely that the macromolecules can contact the internal catalyst surface in a productive fashion. Some additives may also influence the product distribution by modifying the cracking mechanism and hence, product distribution. Regeneration and life of the activity of catalysts is an issue. Development of low cost materials for the specific targeted production (light olefins, aromatics) from waste plastics is highly desirable. Robust and stable catalytic materials are useful for effective conversion of halogenated mixed plastic waste to produce valuable hydrocarbons while recovering the valuable halogen content. The non-renewable and very precious metals present in the e-waste should be processed to recover both fractions (metallic and plastics). The energy efficient and environment friendly methods for the closed loop systems and materials for the waste plastics conversion to avoid any waste (residue) are highly desirable and challenging.


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T

oday’s global challenge for the petrochemical companies is to find alternative materials which are cheaper and meet the increasing requirements and specifications of today’s modern packaging and piping applications. Further, these new products will also be open for new applications.

CO2 is no longer seen as a

Innovation as defined by The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) comprises of 4 types as given here.

chemicals, fuel and polymers.

Product Innovation This involves a good or service that is new or significantly improved. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, incorporated software, user friendliness or other functional

discarded waste with dangerous environmental effects, but will soon become a valuable feedstock for

characteristics. In the education sector, a product innovation can be a new or significantly improved curriculum, a new educational software etc.

Morten Lundquist Research Director Norner AS, Norway

Process Innovation Process innovation involves a new or significantly improved production or

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delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/ or software. In education, this can, for example, be a new or significantly improved pedagogy. Marketing Innovation Marketing innovation involves a new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing. In education, this can, for example, be a new way of pricing the education service or a new admission strategy. Organisational Innovation

One key issue for a successful commer¬cial technology is the development of a robust catalyst system that provides high activity, good selectivity (avoiding side products) and has a cost efficient preparation.

Organisational innovation involves introducing a new organisational method in the firm’s business practices, workplace organisation or external relations. In education, this can, for example, be a new way of organisation of work between teachers, or organisational changes in the administrative area. Innovation as defined by the National Innovation Council (NIC) India is a much wider spectrum. It states, ‘Innovation involves thinking differently, creatively and insightfully to enable solutions / inventions that has social and economic impact. Innovation should fulfill unmet needs not met by conventional products / processes and institutional forms. It is moving beyond R&D to identify new applications of old technologies, new processes, structures, organisational creativity and more.

Carbon Dioxide: Raw Material of the Future A new era is going to start for the petrochemical industry - the evolution of CO2 based innovation will certainly change the petrochemicals’ value chain and economy. According to this vision, CO2 is no longer seen as a discarded waste with dangerous environmental effects, but will soon become

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a valuable feedstock for chemicals, fuel and polymers. This innovation has been gaining momentum and is now emerging from the research laboratories as a serious valuable alternative source to develop value added polyolefin new grades (PE, PP and PC). Presently R&D and innovation companies are conducting research and establishing new recipes and products which can meet new requirements like high barrier properties, higher shelf-life as well as higher temperature and pressure in tougher industrial conditions. Also, some new products have given hope that we will achieve a higher standard of living with new developments made of new polymer grades made out of CO2. Industrial processes that use carbon dioxide as a raw material sound attractive: CO 2 is in abundance, cheap and environmentally benign. Besides, nature uses it every day for making polymers. However, to date, polymerisation schemes that use CO 2 have suffered from catalysts that are not sufficiently efficient to be economical and products that cannot compete with existing ones on grounds of their properties; although, recent research has gained access to development of IV th and V th generation catalysts which yield more polymers at a very


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Poly (alkylene carbonates)

CO2

Polymers 30-50 wt% CO2

Thermoplastics Flexible packaging Rigid packaging

+ O Thermosets R Ethylene oxide (EO) Propylene oxide (PO) Cyclohexene oxide (CHO)

Polyols 30-50 wt% CO2

Coatings, Foams Elastomers Polyure thanes

Figure 1.

good pace. This new development has led to higher catalyst activities, with commercially viable products in the offering. Leading petrochemical companies today, look for new sustainable chemical processes and technologies. One such route is to utilise CO2 as a raw material for making chemicals, fuel and polymers. The market has now developed extensive technical knowhow and competence related to the catalytic conversion of CO2 to useful materials like polycarbonates and polyurethanes. These polymer materials contain up to 50 % CO2 by weight. The resulting products will find widely diversified applications, from flexible and rigid packaging to coatings, foams and elastomers. The chemistry and resulting products can be seen from Figure 1. One key issue for a successful commerÂŹcial technology is the development of a robust catalyst system that provides high activity, good selectivity (avoiding side products) and has a cost efficient preparation. There are three ways to reduce CO2 to

the atmosphere. First is to capture CO2 and dispose it in large offshore sand layers (CCS). The second way is to bring in new ways of producing energy (power from windmills, tide water etc). The third way is to consider CO2 as a chemical, making plastics from it. This is an emerging technology, getting more and more interest, globally.

Synthesis of Polycarbonates using CO2 As CO2 is incorporated in the final product, there is a green aspect of the business. Benefits of using CO2 are reduced usage of fossil fuel and CO2 sequestration. Globally, there is an increased demand for energy and bulk commodities which place an ever growing burden on natural resources, such as petroleum feedstock. The forthcoming scarcity of these resources has inspired the exploration of renewable materials for sustainable production of commodities and intermediates. One interesting option in this respect is the chemical conversion of carbon dioxide, the cheapest and one of the most abundant sources of carbon available. It is now possible...copolymerisation of carbon dioxide with propylene oxide.

Innovation involves thinking differently, creatively and insightfully to enable solutions / inventions that has social and economic impact.

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The Road Ahead Presently, there is need of extensive knowledge re¬lated to key process technology steps among the industry. One of these is the purification of the polymer and the thermal properties of the polycarbonates with development of higher grade catalysts. The market today, is able to produce larger amounts of polymers for development of end use applications. Such achievements may need industrial and potential partners for a joint development with the aim to further develop and commercialise technology that would take polymer production using CO2 as raw material to increase production scale. With continuous research and development, today there is capability in the market for, l

Developing new catalysts, processes,

products and applications for the polymer industry. Developing technology for utilising CO2 as a raw material for plastics in new green and sustainable industry.

l

Additive optimisation and procurement strategies for cost reduction and improved logistics.

l

Product and application development for plant upgrading to value added products.

l

Advanced testing of materials at elevated conditions (pressure, temperature), chemical environment for material development in oil and gas explorations, drilling, production and maintenances.

l

All this and more is what the industry could well utilise.

Technical Contributions We solicit your Technical Editorial Contributions by the way of Case Studies associated with a unique application, project or set-up. Adaptation to a new technology or process could also be the basis of your article. Please send in your articles, which could be considered for publication after evaluation. We request you to send it in duplicate along with detailed diagrams, photographs, sketches, tables etc. Kindly send us a soft copy for the text matter. The Economic Times Polymers The Times of India, Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd., Times Tower, 3rd Floor, Response, Kamala Mills Compound, Senapati Bapat Marg, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai - 400013 Tel : 022-3098 8315 • E-mail: edit.etpolymer@timesgroup.com

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THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013


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EVENT

K

2013 is continuing where the thoroughly successful 2010 fair left off, for it is obvious that all big-name companies of the international plastics and rubber industry will be taking part in their flagship fair in October, 2013. The demand for stand space has risen sharply, and numerous exhibitors will make a bigger impact at the fair. All 19 halls of Düsseldorf’s fairgrounds will be fully occupied. For, Werner M. Dornscheidt, President and CEO, Messe Düsseldorf; the big interest from the entire sector confirms K Düsseldorf’s outstanding status. ‘K 2013 will give us a complete overview of the changing world market, and we can look forward to a multitude of impressive innovations. We know that many

Marked increase in demand for exhibition space / exhibitors from India. of our exhibitors are already working on their new products and presentations. Düsseldorf will be a powerful source of inspiration for the plastics and rubber world’.

Xavier Rebello

Executive Director Messe Düsseldorf India Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai

Some 3,000 exhibiting companies will be participating in K 2013 between 16th and 23rd October and presenting their offers from the fields of: Machinery and equipment for the plastics and rubber industry

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31


l l

Raw materials, auxiliaries Semi-finished products, technical parts and reinforced plastics to the global trade attendees.

K is synonymous with the greatest variety and highest innovation density, worldwide. An assurance of the world-class quality of all the market segments covered is the number and internationality of exhibitors. Among the companies from almost 60 countries, suppliers from Europe and especially from Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland and France are again out in strength. At the same time, the changes on the world market are clearly reflected at K. The number and booked floor space of companies from Asia has increased considerably over the last K in 2010. The net exhibition space of Asia’s five biggest exhibiting nations alone – China, Taiwan, India, Japan and South Korea – has grown by good third. The exhibitors from South

Korea alone will present their products and services on a net exhibition space of nearly 1,800 square metres; 1,000 up over three years ago. After the industry’s crisis years, it is also very encouraging to see that US exhibitors are again putting in a highly representative appearance. ‘K makes the difference’ – the motto of the upcoming event says it all. K Düsseldorf is a trend barometer and innovation forum for the entire sector, with the latest developments and optimised technologies being premiered here every three years. Company exhibits will be supplemented by a special show entitled, ‘Plastics move the world’. This is where aspects of the theme of mobility will be taken up – everything from lightweight design in the construction of vehicles, aircraft and ships, and electromobility to individual mobility and modern leisure behaviour.

Technical Contributions We solicit your Technical Editorial Contributions by the way of Case Studies associated with a unique application, project or set-up. Adaptation to a new technology or process could also be the basis of your article. Please send in your articles, which could be considered for publication after evaluation. We request you to send it in duplicate along with detailed diagrams, photographs, sketches, tables etc. Kindly send us a soft copy for the text matter. The Economic Times Polymers The Times of India, Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd., Times Tower, 3rd Floor, Response, Kamala Mills Compound, Senapati Bapat Marg, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai - 400013 Tel : 022-3098 8315 • E-mail: edit.etpolymer@timesgroup.com

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THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013


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TECHNOLOGY

T

he contamination caused by contact of packaging with foodstuff is a concrete risk for human health and can affect the quality of foodstuff themselves. Two aspects can be considered on this subject. The first one is the presence of residual solvents in flexible packaging from printing operations; the second one is the migration of the constituents of materials like plastic to foodstuffs, caused by their contact during common use.

Headspace Sampling Static and Dynamic headspace sampling offers great advantages in the cases described above, as it can be used with both

These head space samplers are simple and reliable

Andrea Bonsanto

Market Development Manager Petro & Chemical Sceinces

Chiara Abate

tools for the determination

Application Specialist DANI Instruments SpA, Italy

of residual solvents in food packaging and for the extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from food simulants. •

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33


the GC or GC/MS (Mass Spectrometer) system. Meanwhile, in the Static Head Space Sampler, the vial is heated. After incubation and pressurization, the gas sample is injected in the GC or GCMS by a heated transfer line.

Figure 1: Head Space Sampling – GC – TOF MS System.

These head space samplers are simple and reliable tools for the determination of residual solvents in food packaging and for the extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from food simulants. They guarantee higher sensitivity relative to other techniques but equivalent quality performances in terms of repeatability and linearity. Additionally, they come with facilities that fully automate all operation steps, including standard additions and incubation.

liquid or solid samples and is considered as a preferable technique for the extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from water or oil, that are usually used as food simulants. In this article, the use of a Headspace Sampler coupled to a capillary Gas Chromatograph (GC) for the food packaging analysis is presented.

Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer The Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFMS) is the only kind of system capable of providing high speed acquisition rate to collect a sufficient information (15 20 points/peak), enabling an accurate recognition and quantification of unknown and co-eluting peaks typically present in these types of sample.

In a Dynamic Headspace Sampler, the sample, put in a standard 20 ml vial and eventually heated, is first purged with a flow of inert gas for a defined time; the inert gas sweeps the sample and carries the volatile compounds. The purged gas, enriched in VOCs, passes through a cold focusing trap where the compounds are concentrated. Finally, the trap is heated up in backflush. The desorbed gas passes through the ‘Dew Stop’, a device especially designed to remove humidity before entering into

By adopting a fast gas chromatographic approach, the analysis time has been drastically reduced, while the Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer guarantees distinguishable signals for compounds,

6

10

20

34

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

34,1 2-Ethoxyethylacetate 16

31,1 2-Methoxyethylacetate 15 30

Time Figure 2: Traditional analysis with column 60m; 0.25mm; 1µm

27,0 Toluene 14

14.9 1-Propanol 5

17,6 2-Butanone 6 18,0 Ethylacetate 7

7

11,7 2Propanol 3 12,2 Acetone 4

8

10,0 Ethanol 2

9

7.7 Methann 1

Voltage

10

23,5 -Propylacelate 11 24,1 2-Ethoxyethanol 12 25,2 4-Methyl-2-Pentanone 13

11

20,4 Isopropylacetate 8 20,7 n-Butanol 9 21,6 1-Methoxy-2-Propanol 10

[mV]

40

[mn.]


0

34,1 2-Ethoxyethylacetate 16

31,1 2-Methoxyethylacetate 15

27,0 Toluene 14

14.9 1-Propanol 5

17,6 2-Butanone 6 18,0 Ethylacetate 7

7

11,7 2Propanol 3 12,2 Acetone 4

8

10,0 Ethanol 2

9

7.7 Methann 1

Voltage

10

23,5 -Propylacelate 11 24,1 2-Ethoxyethanol 12 25,2 4-Methyl-2-Pentanone 13

11

20,4 Isopropylacetate 8 20,7 n-Butanol 9 21,6 1-Methoxy-2-Propanol 10

[mV]

10

5

15

Time

[mn.]

Figure 3: Fast analysis with fast column 20m; 0.18mm; 1 Âľm.

thereby providing their identification and allowing their quantification. The precision and accuracy of the proposed method has been investigated.

exploits the advantageous peak compression effect with a definitive improvement in sensitivity in full scan over the entire mass range.

Benefits

The benefit of a faster acquisition rate is also demonstrated with more powerful deconvolution capabilities, required for a correct identification and quantification despite peaks co-elution, likely present in a fast GC separation of complex mixtures.

In particular, the availability of a smaller, cheaper and more performing Time of Flight MS technology, allows approaching and taking advantage from faster GC separation for faster sample screening. A fast GC separation through shorter and narrow bore columns not only leads to an overall improved laboratory productivity and efficiency, but enhances peak shapes with higher S/N ratio. The high speed of acquisition of the Time of Flight MS better

Summary The proposed system can give highly accurate data, using (Dynamic/Static Head Space Sampling) GC-TOF and de-convolution software.

NEWS

Say where it matters the most. Send us news related to your new business activities, unique achievements, corporate happenings and performance briefs (approx. 250 words) The Economic Times Polymers The Times of India, Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd., Times Tower, 3rd Floor, Response, Kamala Mills Compound, Senapati Bapat Marg, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai - 400013 Tel : 022-3098 8315 l E-mail : edit.etpolymer@timesgroup.com

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AUTOMOTIVE

I

n the automotive industry, a few critical facts have captured the world’s attention:

The net result is not just a

In the next 20 years, 380 million vehicles are predicted to be on the road in India, according to industry consultant, McKinsey & Company.

plastics where a metal was

l

part made with engineering

By 2015, forecasting group LMC Automotive predicts that India will be the third largest light vehicle market in the world.

once used. It is a new system

People in India are expected to see continued increases in purchasing power.

cent less and cost up to 30

l

l

The Challenge With greater mobility comes even more

that can weigh up to 50 per

Diane H. Gulyas

President DuPont Performance Polymers, USA

per cent less than its metal counterpart. •

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congestion – not only in the streets, but also in the air. The pressure to deliver vehicles that use less fossil fuel, emit fewer greenhouse gases; yet remain safe, appealing and affordable is a challenge capturing automakers in India and the world.

While engineering plastics are inherently lighter than metals, simply using plastic in a component designed for metal could help the fueleconomy and the cost-savings benefit.

There are many strategies to reduce emissions and conserve fuel – hybrid and electric vehicles, efficiency improving technologies for gasoline and diesel engines – but the common theme across all is the need to reduce vehicle weight.

Engineered Solutions with Plastics Vehicle weight relates directly to fuel consumption. On an average, laws of physics show that if you decrease a vehicle’s weight by 10 per cent, you will increase fuel economy by about 3 per cent. While engineering plastics are inherently lighter than metals, simply using plastic in a component designed for metal could help the fuel-economy and the costsavings benefit. We need to design components for engineering plastics to secure the full light-weighting, performance and cost benefits. Take a look at the vehicle’s powertrain, for example. Small, compact engine compartments pose a challenge for engineers. Lightweight, flexible materials that can take the heat, pressure and chemical exposure of an underhood environment are key to creating more efficient and affordable systems. With plastic and elastomer materials, design engineers can create components and air-flow

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THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

systems that fit neatly in tight underhood spaces. Component designers can also eliminate many clamps and fasteners, improve air flow and, in many cases, integrate the functions into other components, such as integrating noise-damping resonators into air ducts. The net result is not just a part made with engineering plastics where a metal was once used. It is a new system that can weigh up to 50 per cent less and cost up to 30 per cent less than its metal counterpart. Most importantly, the consumer gets better fuel economy without compromising performance safety or affordability. That is only the beginning of the opportunity. It is estimated that if we use an engineering plastic like nylon instead of metal in just the known engine applications, we can easily eliminate 11 kilograms per vehicle. Apply that weight savings to the 83 million engines scheduled for production in 2013, and we can eliminate the need for 275 million gallons of gas – or almost 10 million barrels of crude oil. What will it take to get to the next level of reducing weight? We believe that large scale adoption of light weighting technologies that significantly reduce vehicle weight will require a number of breakthroughs best achieved through collaborative efforts throughout the value chain.


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INDUSTRY SPEAKS

C

onsisting of a 10 million dry tonne, USD 30 billion+ market, the global synthetic latex polymers (SLP) market is a sizeable one. Although the North America and European markets remain the largest consumers of synthetic latex polymers, claiming some 56% of global volume, strong shifts are being seen in markets as diverse as China, India and the Middle East, according to recent findings within the Synthetic Latex Polymers Global Series: Business Analysis and Opportunities report by international market research and management consulting firm, Kline & Company. Nikola Matic, Kline’s Chemicals & Materials Practice Industry Manager notes, ‘With growth notably outpacing mature markets, China now

China now claims a quarter of global SLP consumption, but it is the comparatively smaller markets of India and the Middle East that are gaining significantly greater importance and rank among the fastest growing.

Nikola Matic

Industry Manager for the Chemicals & Materials Kline & Company Czech Republic

claims a quarter of global SLP consumption, but it is the comparatively smaller markets of India and the Middle East that are gaining significantly greater importance and rank

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among the fastest growing’. While global SLP consumption is expected to grow 2.3% through to 2017 – while the United States and Europe anticipate growth of less than 2%; China, India and the Middle East are forecast to comfortably exceed this average by growing 7.1%, 12.4% and 5.4%, respectively. Although buffeted by the sluggish economies of North America and Europe, China’s domestic reorientation, increasing standards of living and infrastructure investment has seen it consume 2.4 million dry tonnes of synthetic latex polymers, with an estimated value of USD 7.2 billion. With an increasing level of competition and subsequent decreasing profit margin for the majority of synthetic latex polymers, acquisitions with a view to drive economies of scale have been a notable market trend within the Chinese market.

The leading five suppliers of synthetic latex polymers in India claim over 60% market share.

India and the Middle East India’s SLP market is particularly notable for the strength of its domestic manufacturers. The leading five suppliers of synthetic latex polymers in India claim over 60% market share, with the top three players in the market being Indian, competing with significant success against large multinational companies, such as Dow Chemical, BASF and Wacker. While China and India afford impressive potential, it is the Middle East that is becoming a particular area of interest for a growing number of notably European suppliers given

the region’s proximity. As elaborated within Kline’s Synthetic Latex Polymers: Middle East Market Analysis and Opportunities, the Middle East represents a singular region, both in terms of consumption and supply of SLP. SLP consumption differs here in comparison to many regions, with, as an example, the consumption of styrene butadiene latex being exceptionally low given the near non-existent paper industry within the region. Another Middle Eastern regional singularity can be sourced to the large share of building construction and its related applications (notably paints and coatings, as well as adhesives and sealants). After the construction boom of the last decade, and its large slow-down after the global crisis, the industry (notably in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia) is recovering and stimulating the growth of SLP consumption. Claiming a total of 87% of the region’s demand; Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are the major markets within the Middle East. The supplier landscape is also noteworthy within the Middle East, with a mix of strong local companies competing with multinational concerns. Despite the threat of geopolitical volatility within this region possibly crimping growth potential, SLP consumption is still expected to see a far above-average growth rate of 5.4% growth until 2017 with acrylics and VA copolymers being the fastest growing products, and the paints and coatings application sector is expected to enjoy growth of 7.7%.

Product Write-ups

Reach out to the right audience. Send in your latest product information (approx. 150 words), a colour photograph or transparency along with your contact address. The Economic Times Polymers The Times of India, Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd., Times Tower, 3rd Floor, Response, Kamala Mills Compound, Senapati Bapat Marg, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai - 400013 Tel : 022-3098 8315 • E-mail: edit.etpolymer@timesgroup.com

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THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013


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Products

New Glass Fibre-Reinforced VICTREX® PEEK – Durable Material Alternative for Food Contact Applications

V

ictrex Polymer Solutions has introduced a new glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic, VICTREX PEEK 90GL30BLK EU for direct food contact applications. The newest product of Polyaryletherketone (PAEK) polymers meets the current requirements of both, American and European regulatory authorities, including the EU Commission Regulation10/2011 (Plastics Implementation Measure, PIM) which will be fully implemented by end 2015. The PAEK family, which also includes VICTREX PEEK, features many excellent properties and offers manufacturers a safe and durable alternative to materials such as metals or other plastics. In the production of food and beverages – but also with kitchen equipment or beverage dispensers at home, in hotels or in restaurants – contamination and taste variation must be avoided. Manufacturers and consumers benefit from the use of the new VICTREX PEEK 90GL30BLK EU, because of its ability to satisfy very demanding requirements, delivering consistent long term performance. Unlike polymers such as PEI, PPS or PPA, the excellent wear resistance, great chemical and hydrolysis resistance, good creep properties, dimensional stability and outstanding strength of VICTREX PEEK make it the material of choice for components subjected to high pressure (up to 19 bar) steam. ‘That makes it possible for our polymer 90GL30BLK EU to help extend service life of components. And equally important, the

taste stays the same’, explains Phil Pritchard, Product Development Manager, Victrex Polymer Solutions. VICTREX PEEK is characterised by high resistance to chemicals, aggressive cleaning and disinfectant agents, high temperatures and steam. ‘And the use of PEEK can also deliver significant cost savings to the manufacturer. Compared with metals, the high-performance thermoplastic affords greater design flexibility and makes it possible to create more complex components, meeting the challenging design needs of a variety of applications’, explains Pritchard further. Moreover, components made from VICTREX PEEK can be produced inexpensively by means of injection moulding, eliminating the costly post-production work required for metals. That is one of the reasons why VICTREX PEEK polymers have already been successfully used in food processing or domestic appliances. For further details please contact: Victrex Manufacturing Limited, UK Web: www.victrex.com

Serac Unveils Combox H2F, its New Blow Moulding-filling-capping Solution for the Dairy Market

T

he Serac group unveils its new ultra-clean blow moulding- filling- capping line. It is specifically designed for dairy bottles production below 12,000 bottles per hour. This innovation opens new perspectives for lower speed dairy products manufacturers, as they are able to blow mould bottles inhouse. The fully integrated solution, branded Combox, incorporates the H2F (Highly Hygienic) filler that meets the hygiene requirements of cold chain dairy products. The focus during the machine design phase was to integrate the company’s latest aseptic filling innovations and to control cost. As a result, its competitive advantages can be acquired at a reasonable price.

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Mid-sized dairy products manufacturers had until now a limited choice of integrated packaging lines, on one side cartons for low speed packaging, on the other side complete blow moulding-filling-capping lines that were often oversized. With the Combox H2F, Serac gives them the appropriate equipment to blow mould in-house. For further details please contact: Serac Group, France Web: www.serac-group.com

Italy’s Sintea Plustek Launches Domino Spinal Implants made of Solvay’s Zeniva PEEK

S

intea Plustek S.r.l., based in Milan, Italy has launched the new DOMINO cervical fusion cage implant made of Zeniva® polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin from Solvay Specialty Polymers. The fusion cage implant – available in Italy and throughout Europe – has earned the CE (Conformité Européenne) mark which demonstrates compliance with numerous EC directives, enabling the product to be sold throughout the European region. ‘Sintea Plustek selected Zeniva® PEEK – part of Solvay’s line of Solviva® Biomaterials – because of its modulus of elasticity which is very close to that of bone, thus allowing better load transfer. The thermoplastic biomaterial also has radiolucent properties which permit x-ray procedures and meets the requirements of ASTM F2026-12 for surgical implant applications’, says Laura Dell’Orto, Technical Marketing Manager, Sintea Plustek.

The DOMINO cervical plate-cage system allows cervical interbody fusion and disc height restoration by an anterior fixation. The implant system consists of an intersomatic cage made of 16-mm diameter machined Zeniva® PEEK rod which is integrated with an anterior fixation plate made of titanium alloy. The implant is available in three sizes which allows for perfect adaptation to the patient’s anatomy. The cage has a convex shape on its superior face to fit perfectly in the intervertebral space and it is centrally opened to allow bone graft insertion which 42

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

promotes fusion. The primary stability of the system, guaranteed by the anterior plate, is enhanced by the presence of notches on the superior and inferior surfaces. Zeniva® PEEK offers numerous advantages over metals such as titanium for spinal implants. The material offers many important benefits including biocompatibility, chemical inertness and a modulus of elasticity that is close to that of a bone. Based on biocompatibility testing, Zeniva® PEEK demonstrates no evidence of cytotoxicity, sensitisation, irritation or acute systemic toxicity. It also boasts high strength and stiffness. Sintea Plustek uses Zeniva® PEEK rod stock and performs highprecision machining to produce a full range of sizes. Sintea Plustek plans to sell the cervical fusion cage system globally and has already submitted technical documentation to regulatory bodies in various countries outside of Europe. For further details please contact: Solvay Plastics, USA Web: www.solvayplastics.com

Teijin’s High-performance Polyester Enhances Comfort of High-quality Bedding in ANA’s First and Business Classes

T

he Teijin Group’s high-performance polyester materials, including NANOFRONT high-strength ultra-fine nanofibre, have been selected for use in high-quality comforters and pillows that All Nippon Airways will offer to first- and business-class customers on selected flights beginning 1 st September, 2013. ANA’s first- and business-class passengers flying between Japan and either Europe or the U.S., excluding Honolulu and codesharing flights by other airlines, will enjoy the restful comfort of these high-quality bedding items. In first class, ANA will offer an ultralightweight comforter made with Teijin’s NANOFRONT high-strength polyester nanofibre measuring just 700 nanometers


CMYK

in thickness. The next-generation comforter features special polyester batting that demonstrates excellent heat-insulating and heat-retaining properties. In business class, passengers will slumber under a warm, thin, anti-static quilting comforter. Teijin’s modified crosssection fibre made with high-quality recycled polyester is used for the batting. The pillow, which offers superb softness, shaping and cushioning is constructed with Teijin’s hollow polyester fibre made with recycled polyester fibre and incorporates advanced technologies from Nishikawa Sangyo Co., Ltd., Japan’s leading bedding manufacturer. The high-quality bedding was codeveloped by Teijin Frontier Co. Ltd., opening a new window, the Teijin Group’s fibre-product converting company, Texet Ltd., a group company engaged in the design and sales of interior and bedding products, and Nishikawa Sangyo. For further details please contact: Teijin Limited, Tokyo Web: www.teijin.co.jp

Polyamide 6.6 for Intricate Automotive Parts from Teknor Apex

A

new toughened polyamide 6.6 compound for injection moulding provides good flow properties for intricate or multi-cavity parts, along with flexural strength and low-temperature impact resistance for demanding automotive applications, is being introduced by Teknor Apex Company at K 2013. The flexural and impact strength of Chemlon® 104 polyamide enables components such as automotive fuel line fasteners to withstand the stresses of assembly and end use and endure exposure to cold, according to Peter Verhooren, Transportation Market Manager for the Engineering Thermoplastics Division, Teknor Apex. ‘When

un-reinforced

polyamide

6.6

provides insufficient flexibility or toughness for an application, Chemlon 104 compound can often fill in the gap’, says Mr. Verhooren. ‘This is a new alternative for automotive manufacturers and is available at a price that is very competitive with toughened polyamides already in the market’. Teknor Apex can supply identical formulations of Chemlon 104 compound worldwide from production facilities in Europe, the U.S. and Singapore. The material is available in natural, black or any colour specified by the customer. For further details please contact: Teknor Apex Company, USA Web: www.teknorapex.com

Attractive and Gastight: Weidenhammer Presents Versatile Convenience Packaging

T

he Weidenhammer Packaging Group (WPG) now presents its complete portfolio of rigid, attractively-labelled cardboard and plastic consumer packaging. The company focuses on custom-designed convenience packaging that optimally protects food and other consumer goods from external influences and stands out with its attractive design. Composite cans with Peel-off Top closure and PermaSafe®, a plastic solution specially developed for heat-sterilised food is among their key products. PermaSafe® plastic solutions from Weidenhammer Plastic Packaging (WPP), the Weidenhammer plastics division, also have great potential. Two new PermaSafe® p r o d u c t s will soon be introduced to the market: Mr. Fix, a readyto-serve meal from Eifler Fleischwaren, and pickled herring in brine from JSC Brivais Vilnis. These products demonstrate once again the versatile form and design of the ‘reinvention of the can’, as well as its maximum product protection and convenience. The ready-to-serve meal by Eifler is packaged in a round decorated container that attracts attention at the point of sale with its photorealistic illustrations, for example of a meat and rice dish. This is made possible by in-mould labelling, which integrates packaging production and

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labelling into a single process. The product, which is sold in the market in five varieties, can also be quickly and simply heated in a microwave. JSC Brivais Vilnis uses the same packaging solution with a completely different design. The 70-mm high and attractively labelled PermaSafe® container has a ‘porthole’ that makes the packaging more transparent. This gives the consumer a good view of the product inside. This is the first Weidenhammer plastic packaging specifically produced for the Latvian market. ‘The Eastern European market offers a lot of potential, especially in the fish and seafood sector’, explains Andreas Rothschink, Sales Director, WPP. ‘We are already holding very promising talks and FachPack offers us the opportunity to meet with potential customers’. For further details please contact: Weidenhammer Packaging Group, Germany Web: www.weidenhammer.de

WITTMANN BATTENFELD Offers Ultramodern MacroPower Hybrid Technology and Innovative IML System

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ne of WITTMANN BATTENFELD’s product presentation highlights at this year’s K 2013 is the demonstration of a MacroPower E Hybrid machine combined with a high-speed IML system. The MacroPower E 450/2250 consists of a modern, servo-hydraulic 2-platen clamping unit which has been combined with an all-electric, high-performance injection unit. This has made it possible to build an extremely compact large machine with a minimal footprint, which simultaneously offers maximum precision and energy efficiency together with high injection speeds of up to 450 mm/sec.

In the MacroPower E Hybrid, the clamping and nozzle movements are powered by a servo-hydraulic drive. The ServoPower unit, which has been optimised to meet the power requirements of the clamping unit, consists of a highly dynamic servo motor and an electrically adjustable axial piston pump with variable displacement. In this system, the delivery is controlled by the motor speed and the pivoting angle of the hydraulic pump. In this way, the optimal relationship between the pump’s degree of efficiency and the motor speed is calculated for every operating point and provided by the machine’s control system. This enables substantial energy savings compared to conventional drive systems. The ejection movement is also powered by a servo-electric drive in this machine, so that extremely precise, sensitive settings can be achieved as well as highly dynamic movements. The injection side of the MacroPower E Hybrid features an allelectric, high performance injection unit with injection speeds of up to 450 mm/sec. Extreme dynamism, precision and energy efficiency – the MacroPower E Hybrid reaches Euromap class 60 energy values of 9+ – enable the production of highprecision plastic parts with minimal energy consumption. This makes the machine the ideal choice for moulds with high numbers of cavities from the packaging and electronics sectors, as well as for thin-walled, highprecision technical parts. The functionality of this system will be demonstrated at the K 2013 by the production of a 13-litre bucket with a weight of 450 g from PP supplied by Borealis (Austria) with IML decoration. For this purpose, a single-cavity, high-performance mould with 24 cooling circuits from ABATE (Italy) will be used. The IML equipment supplied by WITTMANN is a W842 HS top-entry system, optimally designed for minimal operation times inside the mould as well as for stacking of the finished buckets. The IML robot equipped with high-speed servo motors takes banderole labels from a vertical label dispenser and inserts them into the cavity on the fixed mould half with the help of a dummy core. To minimise the cycle time, removal of the finished buckets and insertion of the labels are carried out simultaneously. For further details please contact: WITTMANN BATTENFELD GmbH, Kottingbrunn Web: www.wittmann-group.com

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NEWS

Borouge Awarded International Responsible Care Certification

new BOPP capacitor base film line. The key demanding requirements included:

n line with its commitment to sustainability and the responsible production of innovative, value creating plastics solutions, Borouge has been awarded the Responsible Care® RC 14001:2008 certification for its international operations spanning seven countries across the Middle East and Asia. This includes Borouge’s head office and production plant in Abu Dhabi, compounding manufacturing plant in China and all its marketing and sales commercial operations.

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‘It is with great pride that Borouge has received Responsible Care® 14001 certification’, says Abdulaziz Alhajri, CEO, Abu Dhabi Polymers Company (Borouge), at a ceremony held on 30th September, 2013 in Abu Dhabi. ‘We are particularly proud to be the first Company in the Gulf to have its entire international operations certified and to join our colleagues in the industry who have already obtained this certification, reinforcing our mutual commitment to advancing sustainability in the industry’. ‘This highly recognised industry certification represents our commitment to ensuring that we have a company-wide integrated, structured approach to continuously improve its health, safety, environmental (HSE) and security performance by focusing on environment protection, health and safety, process safety, community awareness and emergency response, distribution, product stewardship and security’, adds Wim Roels, CEO, Marketing & Sales, Borouge. The external audit to nominate Borouge for the RC 14001:2008 certification was conducted by DQS-UL Group, one of the leading international certification bodies for management systems worldwide. Responsible Care is the chemical industry’s unique global initiative that drives continuous improvement in HSE performance and promotes open and transparent communication with stakeholders.

Brückner Capacitor Film Technology for Foshan

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oshan Plastics Group, supplier of a large variety of first class speciality film, has expanded their plastics film business with a

High yield, low energy consumption and minimised production costs Line layout for thinnest gauges

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Smooth and reliable project execution allowing them a fast ROI

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To fulfill these needs, Foshan finalised for the latest state-of-the-art, flexible 5.8 m wide high performance Brückner line. The main specifications included: Film thickness: 2 – 12 µm

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Line speed: 350 m/min

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Output: 500 kg/h (3,750 t/year)

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With this, Foshan further strengthen their business as a supplier of a variety of speciality film.

Celanese to Introduce Fortron ICE PPS at K 2013

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elanese Corporation, the technology and speciality materials company, introduces the next generation of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) — Fortron® ICE (Improved Crystallisation Evolution) with improved productivity and properties at K 2013 in Düsseldorf, Germany. ‘These innovative ICE grades from Celanese provide all the known performance benefits of Fortron PPS plus unmatched processability, which opens up significant and new design spaces’, says Barry Daggs, Global Business Line Director, Celanese. ‘Now, Fortron PPS can reach full crystallinity in moulding without hot oil technology, while maintaining its excellent property profile. This exciting development opens new business and end-use application opportunities’, adds Daggs. The new Fortron ICE grades use an innovative platform technology developed by Celanese material scientists that delivers material properties that are equivalent to or better than standard injection moulding Fortron PPS grades and significantly improves the processing characteristics. ‘Successful field trials and tests, using a variety of equipment for injection moulding diverse part shapes, demonstrate that new Fortron ICE grades can help customers stay competitive by reducing cycle times, scrap rates and overall production costs, as well as improve flatness and enable easier demoulding’, says Daggs. Fortron PPS offers excellent chemical and

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thermal resistance, high hardness, rigidity and dimensional stability, and low creep and moisture absorption. This speciality semicrystalline polymer is often used to replace metals and thermosets in various automotive, electrical / electronics, aerospace, fluid handling and industrial / consumer applications.

Dow Facilities to Propel Adhesive Technologies for Packaging

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ow Packaging and Specialty Plastics, a business unit of The Dow Chemical Company planned improvements to its West Alexandria, Ohio, and Ringwood, Ill., facilities. ‘Dow sees immense opportunities and value in the laminating adhesives industry and is excited to work with our customers to improve packaging that people use every day’, states Courtney Fretz, North American Product Director, Dow Adhesives and Functional Materials. ‘Updating vital assets to create state-of-the-art facilities further strengthens our industry-leading innovation pipeline. Whether our customers need blemish-free surfaces for condiment packages or they need to create tough flexible packages and laminates for industrial use, these timely facility improvements will allow us to provide customers with reliable, cutting-edge technologies’, adds Courtney. The new offerings improve a variety of applications that span from industrial applications to food and snack packages for meat, cheese, chips, coffee, snacks, sauces and more.

DuPont Named to Thomson Reuters 2013 World’s Top 100 Most Innovative Organisations

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uPont is proud to be included in Thomson Reuters 2013 World’s Top 100 Most Innovative Organisations. This is the third consecutive year, DuPont has been featured on this list, which focuses on how patent activity, protection of intellectual property, new technologies and increased research and development (R&D) investment drive business growth and profitability. ‘Throughout DuPont’s 211-year history, our R&D has delivered a strong pipeline of new products that have responded to the needs of the marketplace’, says Thomas M. Connelly, Executive Vice President and Chief Innovation Officer. ‘We are honoured to be named to the list again this year; it recognises the efforts of our scientists and engineers who continue to invent, innovate and use our unique integrated science capabilities to serve our global customers’. 46

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

DuPont R&D investment increased by 8 per cent to a record $2.1 billion in the last year. The 2013 World’s Top 100 Global Innovators list honours the 100 corporations and institutions around the world that are at the heart of innovation as measured by a series of proprietary patent-related metrics.

LANXESS - Plastic to Become the New ‘Metal’ of the Future

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uel efficiency is the most important factor that influences the decision to buy a car in India. However, we often tend to oversee the fact that roughly 50% of the fuel consumed is used to move the weight of the car. This means that if we reduce the weight of the car by 10% it becomes 5% more fuel efficient. LANXESS has taken the lead in developing Durethan and Pocan grades of high performance plastics, which are replacing metal parts used in cars, making them lighter, safer and more fuel-efficient. This transition from metal to plastic-metal hybrid parts has also helped increase production efficiency. Today, most car parts including door handles, mirror assemblies, bumpers, headlamps, ashtrays and even engine parts (like intake manifolds, fuel rails, radiator tanks, cylinder head covers, etc.) are made of Durethan or Pocan. For instance, LANXESS introduced front-end modules (FEM) with plastic-metal hybrid (PMH) technology, which enabled higher integration, cost reduction (20% less), weight reduction (40% less), high dimensional accuracy and lower investment costs (up to 50% less). Today, over 25 million cars of 55 different models are running on FEM with PMH technology. Recently, LANXESS developed small structural inserts referred to as Composite Body Solutions (CBS) that comprise metal, thermoplastic and high-density structural foam. LANXESS plastic Durethan® BKV 35 H2.0, a glass fiber-reinforced polyamide 6, was used as the thermoplastic for this application. It meets almost all the required specifications of the car such as compliance with more stringent crash requirements, improvement in safety and processing and reduction of the weight and cost of the vehicles. Around nine CBS body reinforcement components placed in various sections of a car could reduce the weight of the vehicle by up to 12 kg.


CMYK

With the development of easy flow resins, polyamide compounds with up to 60% glass fibre reinforcement are available (an example is Durethan DP BKV 60 H2 EF). These high modulus grades mould easily and are currently used for metal replacement in various applications. Hence plastic usage per car in India is likely to grow from 77 kg/car now to 120 kg/car in 2015, with LANXESS continuing to be a major partner for the auto industry.

Biocompatible Technology for Creating Antibacterial Plastic from Prax Plastics

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recently invented technology allows the creation of polymers/plastics that inhibit a biocompatible solution to provide a highly effective antibacterial property. The technology offers a safe and non-toxic alternative to the presently available solutions such as nanosilver or triclosan. The effectiveness can reach as high as 9899% after 24 hours following the ISO 22196 testing guidelines and works effectively against Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia Coli, MRSA and for example Clostridium Difficile. Unlike presently available solutions, the technology offered by Parx Plastics cause only bacteria to lyse and die as it is exclusively targeting bacteria cells. Human cells are untouched. The incorporated technology is not cytotoxic and is fully safe in contact with humans and nature. Furthermore, the technology proves to be suitable for plastics that come in contact with foodstuff or materials for other regulated applications, as it presents no increased migration and it uses only allowed substances. ‘As we are able to apply the technology to any existing polymer without changing the original characteristics of the material, it truly offers groundbreaking possibilities’, says Michael van der Jagt, Co-founder, Parx Plastics. ‘The antibacterial property can be included in products that to date could not incorporate this functionality because of guidelines, limitations or compromised characteristics’. The BPA-free copolyester Tritan EX401 of Eastman has been one of the first materials proving a successful incorporation of the antibacterial property with results of 98.7% for Gram- and 98% for Gram+ bacteria. This material is targeted at infant care products and now can, with the aid of the Parx Plastics technology, incorporate an antibacterial property, which opens up a new array of possibilities for companies in this field.

The main characteristics associated with the technology are: Biocompatible

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No nano-silver and no chemicals such as triclosan

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No nanoparticles, no nano dimension

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Truly incorporated in the polymer, no coating

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Only allowed substances such as natural trace elements

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Does not degrade, lasts a lifetime

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Unaffected by light, temperature or shape

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Applicable to any polymer or co-polymer

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Perstorp Investing in the Dynamic Plastic Materials Market

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he Perstorp Group, a world leader in specialty chemicals, will be presenting four new products for the plastic materials market at K Fair, 2013. Key issues related to plastics, such as safety, reduction of waste and sustainable chemical solutions are key innovation drivers for the Perstorp Group. The recent major strategic investments in new sustainable products for the plastics industry will help Perstorp meet its goal of being a top 3 player across 85% of its product portfolio by 2015. Each of these new products provides sustainable solutions for consumers. The four new products are being released under the Capa™, Charmor™, Pevalen™ and Akestra™ brand names. Capa™ for bioplastics – this exciting product is a highly biodegradable plastic offering a more sustainable solution to a wide range of products. The caprolactone chemistry is established and its use as a key component in biodegradable plastics has increased significantly. Charmor™ for intumescent systems in plastics – this halogen-free product is a rich carbon source for phosphorous/nitrogen based systems and significantly reduces the release of smoke and heat in the event of a fire. Pevalen™ – non-phthalate plasticiser for sensitive applications. It is perfect for close contact PVC applications, such as flooring, coated fabrics, plastisols, toys and moulded parts Akestra™ a new thermoplastic material – as a result of a strategic partnership with Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, Perstorp is launching a new co-polyester alternative in Europe called Akestra™. This new generation of plastics with

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its unique properties makes it an important alternative to polycarbonate, polystyrene and glass. All these four exciting products address safety and sustainability to society today without compromising performance.

PolyOne at K 2013: Teaming Up with Customers and Showcasing Innovative Solutions

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olyOne Corporation will highlight collaborative efforts with customers and recent innovations in Hall 8a / Stand J13 between 16th and 23rd October at K 2013, the plastics industry’s largest trade show. ‘PolyOne experts from around the globe will engage and collaborate with customers at K show, and we invite all visitors to bring their toughest material, manufacturing, colourant and design challenges to our stand’, commented Holger Kronimus, Vice President Europe and General Manager, Specialty Engineered Materials, Europe at PolyOne. During the tradeshow, interactive displays at the PolyOne stand will highlight marketleading solutions that help manufacturers address trends and solve challenges across multiple end-use industries: Authentication solutions

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(anti-counterfeiting)

Colour and design services, including 3D printing and prototyping

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Metal-to-polymer conversions

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Bio-based solutions

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Vibration damping applications

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Lightweight foaming technology

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Ballistic protection solutions

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In addition, PolyOne will be hosting a series of technical seminars on metal-topolymer conversion, along with technical forums that highlight innovative use of liquid colourants. Scheduled topics include polymer alternatives to metal in heat management, electro-static discharge, high stiffness / strength applications, as well as solutions that achieve the density, appearance and feel of metal. PolyOne experts are also presenting at several key events during K 2013. ‘Whether attending these conferences, participating in our clinics and seminars, or visiting our stand in Hall 8a, visitors to the K show will find innovative ideas and an opportunity to solve the material challenges facing their businesses with 48

THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

an emphasis on improving profitability’, adds Kronimus.

Corbion Purac at K 2013: Unveiling PLA Partnerships for New Bioplastic Applications

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orbion Purac bioplastics will be exhibiting at the K trade fair in Dusseldorf under the theme ‘partnering for bioplastics growth’. To highlight the most recent developments in PLA (Poly Lactic Acid), Corbion Purac will be exhibiting a number of bio-based applications resulting from numerous strategic partnerships. Corbion Purac has teamed up with esteemed partners in a number of industries, including packaging, automotive, home interiors and sporting goods. They will be showcasing the resulting applications in Hall 5, Stand 5B22. In addition to final PLA articles, Corbion Purac will also be displaying a distributor’s corner, intended to provide a platform for interested parties to come into direct contact with their local PLA resin partner. To this end, Corbion Purac leverages its strategic partnerships to drive PLA innovation and stimulate increased bioplastic adoption throughout the value chain. The breakthrough in high performance, biobased lactide monomers for PLA opens up a wealth of possibilities for bioplastic applications which have - until now - been limited to oil-based plastics. Combining high biocontent with a low carbon footprint, PLA is a great replacement for PS, PP and ABS. This offers brandowners a unique opportunity to be a sustainability frontrunner in their field, whether it is in terms of product packaging or primary product materials. Corbion Purac’s understanding of key sustainability drivers provides a strong basis for brandowner collaborations. PLA is an extremely adaptable material that can often be processed on existing equipment, with commercially acceptable cycle times. Corbion Purac welcomes converters and compounders who are interested in learning more about PLA processing. The technical team will be on hand at the fair to discuss and exchange PLA processing experience, from sheet extrusion and thermoforming, to injection moulding and foaming.


CMYK

EVENTS

K 2013

P ROPAK INDONESIA 2013

The International trade fair plastics and rubber from machinery and equipment manufacturing to production of raw materials and auxiliaries as well as manufacturing of semi-finished products and technical parts made of plastics and rubber.

The 25th International series of exhibitions for the processing, packaging and end-line printing industries. 20th – 23rd November, 2013 Jakarta International Expo Kemayoran, Jakarta, Indonesia

16th – 23rd October, 2013 Dusseldorf, Germany

N ile Plast Expo 2013 I SFR 2013 The International Symposium on Feedstock Recycling of Polymeric Materials (ISFR) aims at bringing together scientists, engineers and other industrial experts from the world to brainstorm on the recent developments in the field of waste plastic, e-waste and biomass conversion processes. 23rd – 26th October, 2013 India Habitat Centre, New Delhi

P lastic Industry Show The Plastic Industry Show gives you access to effective relationship-marketing tools to connect with the plastics industry, reinforce your position as a key market player, meet and choose your future partners as well as organise your public relations activities on the show. 28th – 31st October 2013 Expocentre Fairgrounds, Moscow

P LASTEX SIBERIA 2013 PLASTEX SIBERIA 2013 is an international trade exhibition for raw materials, equipment, plastic and rubber production and processing technologies. 29th October – 1st November, 2013 ITE-Siberian Fair, Novosibirsk, Russia

M yanmar International Plastics and Rubber Industry Exhibition This event is mainly about plastic bending machinery, blow moulding machines, extruding machines, plastic compounding equipment, plastic cutting machines and cutters, die cutting and casting machines, plastic dryers and mould heaters, injection moulding equipment, plastic and rubber raw material and auxiliaries. 15th – 18th November, 2013 Myanmar Convention Centre (MCC), Yangon, Myanmar

The 6th international exhibition for plastic industries and technology is a distinguished meeting and business platform for the plastic and rubber industries in Africa and Middle East. 2nd – 5th December, 2013 Khartoum International Fair Ground, Sudan

P last Eurasia Istanbul 2013 The 23rd International Istanbul Plastics Industry Fair will provide a business environment where all products and technologies of the plastics industry will be exhibited together. 5th – 8th December, 2013 Tuyap Fair Convention & Congress Centre, Istanbul, Turkey

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Plastivision India 2013

Organised by All India Plastics Manufacturers Association (AIPMA), the 9th edition of Plastivision India is the International plastics exhibition and conference will be an exhibition every businessman from the plastics industry would be looking forward to. 12th – 16th December, 2013 Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai, India

S wiss Plastics Swiss Plastics will help the plastic industry to overcome the four main tasks: adapt concepts and strategies to rapidly changing markets, be extremely innovative, provide good marketing and improved image of the industry. Swiss Plastics will assist solve these problems and provide knowledge and the right partner for innovation in the plastics industry. 21st – 23rd January, 2014 Messe Luzern, Lucerne, Switzerland

I nterplastica 2014 The 17th International Trade Fair on Plastics and Rubber offers a range of innovative products and services in the areas of machines and equipment, raw material production and processing. 28th – 31st January, 2014 ZAO EXPOCENTR Exhibition Centre, Krasnaya Presnya, Moscow, Russia

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S audi Plastics & Petrochem 2014

P ropak East Africa 2014

Saudi Plastics & Petrochem 2014, the 11 international edition of the business-to-business trade fair for the plastic and petrochemical industries, will showcase brand new products, services and technologies, offering buyers a global view of the dynamic market.

Propak East Africa is a brand new event in Kenya for the manufacturing industry of East Africa. Brought by the organisers of Propak Africa, the largest packaging, printing and plastics exhibition in Africa, will be the first truly international platform for suppliers of the industry to promote their products and services to the international audience.

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16th – 19th February, 2014 RICEC - Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

I PF 2014 IPF 2014, is the 9th Bangladesh international plastics, packaging and printing industry exhibition. 20th – 23rd February, 2014 Bangabandhu International Conference Centre (BICC), Dhaka, Bangladesh

1st – 3rd April, 2014 Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

P last Show 2014 The trade fair for the plastic processing industry aims to present the latest technological developments in the field of plastic. 1st – 4th April, 2014 Expo Centre Norte, Sao Paulo, Brazil

P lastivision Arabia 2014 P lastics & Rubber Vietnam 2014 The 5th edition of the International Plastics & Rubber Technologies & Materials Exhibition will showcase latest innovations, stateof-the art machinery and cost-effective solutions. Concurrent to the event is the 9th International Processing, Filling and Packaging Exhibition and Conference. 4th – 6th March, 2014 SECC- Saigon Exhibition & Convention Centre, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Plastivision Arabia is all set to revolutionise the plastic and polymer industry in UAE. It will bring chief suppliers, traders and manufacturers from across the world to display their latest product offerings and services before a wide range of target customers. 7th – 10th April, 2014 Expo Centre, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

P LASTIC Japan

The trade exhibition PLAST Bulgaria is a unique B2B exhibition in Bulgaria and CEE region for the plastic and rubber industry.

PLASTIC Japan is a comprehensive show that gathers all kinds of plastic related technologies from highly-functional plastic and CFRP forming / processing to material technologies. It will be a gathering of advanced key technologies for weight reduction and metal-alternative as well as environmentalfriendly materials.

5th – 7th March, 2014 Inter Expo Centre (IEC), Bulgaria, Sofia

16th – 18th April, 2014 Tokyo Big Sight, Japan

P LAST Bulgaria

C hinaplas 2014 E xpo Plasticos 2014 The 10th edition of the international exhibition of technology and plastic solutions for the industry, in general. 25th – 28th March, 2014 Expo Guadalajara, Mexico

Chinaplas 2014, the 28th international exhibition is the largest plastics and rubber fair in the Asia Pacific region and an ideal platform for all related exhibitors to show their latest technologies and products. 23rd – 26th April, 2014 Shanghai, China

E xpo Plast Peru 2014

P last Alger 2014 Algeria’s 3rd international plastics, rubber and composites trade fair is being held along with the 4th international printing and packaging technology exhibition.

The 6th international fair for the plastic industry and related the industries of Peru, will be one of the most important meeting place for the plastic industry in South Pacific and Latin America.

31st March – 2nd April, 2014 Palais des Expositions d’Alger-Safex, Algiers

7th – 10th May, 2014 Jockey Exposition Centre, Lima, Peru

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THE ECONOMIC TIMES POLYMERS OCTOBER - NOVEMBER, 2013

October november, 2013  

Polymers

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