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REBRANDINGDETROIT

BENVGTC 7 // Sustainable Urban Development and Transport: Project in Urban Sustainability Group 1 // Evgenia Batmanova, Magdalini Giannakidi, Alexandra Milne, Sandra Perez Becerril, Aikaterini Sfyra


TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 BACKGROUND

1-2

02 ANALYSIS & SWOT

1-2

03 VISION

1-2

04 URBAN FORM

1-2

05 STRATEGIES

1-2

06 IMPLEMENTATION

1-2

07 CONCLUSION

1-2

08 BIBLIOGRAPHY

1-2

5.1 Culture, Heritage & Built Form 5.2 Industry 5.3 Agriculture 5.4 Education 5.5 Transport

6.1 Phasing 6.2 Connections between strategies


BACKGROUND


Location, History & Context D

etroit is the largest city in the state of Michigan, USA, and was founded in 1701. Currently it is a major cultural, financial, and transportation centre in the Metro Detroit Area that serves as the main port of the Detroit River, and connects the Great Lakes the Saint Lawrence Seaway system. The population of the city is slightly more than 710,000 and is continually decreasing. Detroit city covers an area of 370 km2. It is now only the 18th most populous city in the country despite the fact that in the middle of 20th century it was the 4th biggest in the USA. The development of Detroit has spanned over 3 centuries, due in large part to technical progress initiated by the founding of the Ford Motor Company in the beginning of the 20th century and other automotive pioneers (William C. Durant, the Dodge brothers, Packard, and Walter Chrysler). Successful industry and innovation allowed the economy of the city to boom, reinforcing Detroit’s status as the automotive capital of the world. It is both the symbol of the American automobile industry and a significant source of popular music legacies. The brightest period of the city’s history drew thousands of new residents, particularly from the South, which ignited racial tensions. The gasoline crises of 1973 and 1979 impacted the U.S. auto industry and dramatically affected the economy of the city.

Figure 1.1 Detroit: Motor City Flickr, 2009

During 1990s the trend of businesses leaving Downtown Detroit created huge unemployment rates and led city to bankruptcy by 2012. 01 BACKGROUND PROJECT IN URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

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ANALYSIS & SWOT


SWOT O

ur review of Detroit’s socio-economic activities reveals positive and negative points:

HISTORY & CULTURAL HERITAGE

LACK OF FUNDS AND NEW INVESTMENT

EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE

CITY HAS NEGATIVE IMAGE

LOCATION

LOW EDUCATION RATE

S W O T

AVAILABILITY OF SKILLED INDUSTRIAL LABOUR

SEVERE DEPOPULATION

CHEAP LAND

WEAK, ONE-DIMENSIONAL ECONOMY

SOME AREAS DO HAVE STABILITY & STRONG COMMUNITIES

COST OF CITY MAINTENANCE IS TOO HIGH

Figure 2.1 SWOT Analysis

Strengths

The city’s long history and cultural heritage (featuring skyscrapers and industrial buildings), an exceptional existing infrastructure and industrial culture and a unique location (Great Lakes and the Canada border) are the main points of strength.

Weaknesses

A low education rate, lack of funds and new investments (Detroit is heading for bankruptcy by May 2012) and a negative image of the city as centre of a larger metropolitan area are the main points of weakness.

Opportunities

Despite that, Detroit can rely on positive factors as skilled industrial labour, availability of land for agriculture and new innovative industries, as well as pockets of strong and sustainable communities.

Threats

Main threats for Detroit are severe depopulation, causing land use and transport system inefficiencies; a onedimensional economy with little prospects for growth, amplifying the effect of economic cycles and high maintenance costs of public infrastructure, badly affecting the city’s budget.

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Demographic Analysis

Racial segregation: Figure 2.2 Detroit: Race & Ethnicity Eric Fischer, 2010

There is an evident

racial divide in the city of Detroit.

White African American Other

Figure 2.3 Detroit: Unemployment Rate ArcGIS, 2010 22.8 - 100% 15.4 - 22.7% 8.0 - 15.3% 4.1 - 7.9% 0 - 4.0% Zero Population

People without jobs : The most severe cases of unemployment in Detroit are inside city limits, where loss of industry and businesses have left many people without jobs.

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Demographic Analysis

Can I have a ride?: Figure 2.4 Households Without a Vehicle Data Driven Detroit, 2010

A large number of

households inside Detroit’s city limits do not own a car.

38 -79% 21 - 37% 9 - 20% 0 - 8%

Where they live, where they work: Most people in Detroit must commute to get to Figure 2.5 Longitudinal EmployerHousehold Dynamics US Census Bureau, 2009

places of employment.

Commuter Shed Labour Shed

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Demographic Analysis

From motown to ghost town :

One of

Detroit’s most striking situations is the existence of a vast amount of vacant lots. Figure 2.6 Vacant Parcels Data Driven Detroit, 2010 Vacant Parcels

Figure 2.7 Detroit: Polulation Change 2000-2010 Stephen Von Worley, 2011

Flight to the suburbs : A constant threat is Detroit’s severe population loss.

Population gain Population loss

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VISION


LET’S RE-BRAND DETROIT.

O

ur vision is the Rebranding of the City through

the concept of Detroit as a place to visit, own and grow. Our two-pronged approach aims at staggered interventions for transport, employment, education and cultural activities and the identification of growth-incubator zones to redeploy available resources and attract new funding.

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URBAN FORM


Growth Incubators [GI] I

n order to mitigate Detroit’s urban sprawl and decreasing population, we decided to focus on the areas of the city where the number of residents has remained stable and there have been signs of continued development and/ or growth.

We identified four districts referred to as the

Growth Incubators (GIs), which include the financial and

commercial centre, the waterfront and the most important educational and health centres of the city. In this way, we want to strengthen the most populated urban areas and help them develop and grow so they may also positively affect the surrounding deteriorated or vacant areas. What we envision is not the creation of a multicentre urban form, but a revitalised city with a strong identity, and the Growth Incubators will be the tools used to achieve this vision.

Figure 4.1 Growth Incubators

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Governance Structure W

e are proposing a highly devolved government for the city of Detroit wherein a locally elected mayor will govern each of the growing municipalities.

The main responsibilities of a GI local authority will be to:

• Ensure a stable or growing population within the

specific zone. For the revitalisation of the GIs a

Housing

Exchange Programme will be implemented that will

Culture Industry Agriculture Education Transport

take into account all areas outside the four GIs and the most deprived and vacant city districts. The residents of these areas will be able to exchange their houses for a house within the central growing municipalities. Their original properties will be given for free to the city in order to be demolished for materials recycling and farming or even to be used differently in the long term. They will be given properties within the central growing districts with no further changes to the amount of imposed taxation.

• Manage the collection and distribution of taxes.

Each GI will be given the right to keep 50% of the collected taxes for the GI infrastructure, etc.

fund

in order to improve the local

Focus on five growth strategies for each

Culture, Industry, Agriculture, Education and Transport. municipality related to five basic sectors:

Figure 4.2 Governance Structure

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STRATEGIES: CULTURE, HERITAGE & BUILT FORM


Vision T

he unique heritage and culture of Detroit that stems from its thriving industrial past are strong assets that will be integral parts of the city’s regeneration. Our interventions will employ a bottom-up approach to regenerating Detroit’s communities through arts, culture, and creative industries. Artistic expression and innovation will be encouraged and supported through economic and political avenues that allow creative societies to flourish in the Detroit boroughs. By focusing on the areas of Detroit with already stable or growing populations, good housing stock, and historic districts, we are able to identify key areas within our GIs to target and support culture-led regeneration. Over time this vision will spread throughout the city to bring life and culture back to each of Detroit’s neighbourhoods.

Figure 5.1 Flickr, 2010

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Policies & Objectives A

s identified by Creative New York (Center for an Urban Future, 2005) and a University of Pennsylvania Harvest Report (Stern and Seifert, 2007), various components work together to form a successful creative sector, including: consistent, dedicated and cheap workspace, diversity, educational infrastructure, unions, governmental support, locally based partnerships and local involvement, a centralizing entity, unique sense of place, social networks, and spatial bounding. Although Detroit lacks many of these elements, it has the potential to foster support for its creative industries and kick-start regeneration in its cultural districts. See figure 5.3 on the next page for more detail. The overarching objectives of these measures are:

• Support the development of creative clusters to

To significantly reduce the amount of vacant buildings and the city and increase available amenities house cultural and artistic activity

• Ultimately improve the image and overall livability

of Detroit. The timing and implementation of mechanisms to support these measures will be fundamental to their success. Figure 5.2 True Detroit, 2011

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Policies & Objectives

Figure 5.3 Culture in Detroit

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Implementation Mechanisms T

he initiatives needed to spur cultural growth, improve housing stock, and change the city’s image are largely economic endeavors, so the majority of the mechanisms that will grow and maintain the cultural objectives must be initiated by the government.

Figure 5.4 Detroit: Culture

CHANGES IN TAXING Although the City of Detroit does not have extensive funding to support new initiatives, its governmental powers can be leveraged in other ways. A change in the tax policies will be key to the economic success of the creative sector, and new regulations for the GIs will include tax write-offs for people working in creative industries. However, since Detroit’s municipal funds are already stretched thin, the tax break would only apply where a person assumes a responsibility that directly benefits the community, such as renovating or repurposing vacant buildings, establishing a market, etc. Further, all taxes collected from creative industry workers will be used for direct government support of the creative sector, allowing all money made by the creative sector to benefit the city’s cultural institutions. These tax changes will begin in the cultural centers of the GIs, which will encourage clustering in certain districts and foster the ‘spatial bounding’ that is necessary for successful creative clusters.

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Implementation Mechanisms CREATIVE DETROIT

ART IN SCHOOLS PROGRAMME

A second mechanism necessary for the success of a creative sector in Detroit is the creation of a centralizing entity that will bring together the disparate aspects of the sector and formalize its existence. The entity, Creative Detroit (modeled after Creative New York and Creative London) would operate as an organization made up of members from local government and local communities so as to be an effective and efficient resource and outlet for both parties. A partnership of this kind would lead the creative industries agenda by pulling together community and cultural groups with government, education and realestate partners, and driving forward a long-term program of investment and growth.

The presence of art programs in schools and vocational training will encourage and allow students to think freely about a potential path toward the creative sector, thereby allowing them to contribute to the economy generated by the cultural and creative sectors. Refer to the education section for further detail about this mechanism.

Figure 5.5 True Detroit, 2011

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Implementation Mechanisms HOUSING EXCHANGE To work in tandem with the tax abatements in the GIs, a building exchange program will be initiated to encourage people to move into the GIs and revitalize the decent housing stock. The exchange program will allow people to leave their homes or studios located outside of the GIs to claim a building of equal size and value inside one of the zones, thus creating clusters with higher densities and diversities of people that will also form a larger tax base for the districts. To maintain viable structures, buildings that are left enter the farming scheme, either as sites for vertical farming or to be repurposed for other uses. This program will continue so long as it continues to improve the built environments of both areas and supports the growing economies of the zones.

Figure 5.6-7 True Detroit, 2011

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Funding F

unding will come from all potential angles, including governmental support through direct grants as well as tax reforms, private foundations and philanthropic institutions, and bottom-up growth. These will be relied upon to continue directly supporting cultural institutions and established organizations operating within the creative industries.Finally, as Detroit’s government is low on funding, the creative sector will need to contribute to its development, primarily through physical enhancements.

GOVERNMENT FUNDING

• Federal Community Development Block grants to

“develop a viable urban community.”

• Detroit Neighborhood Opportunity Fund program

for a variety of economic and infrastructural initiatives

CDCAD Mini Grants that specifically fund high quality art projects. These programs will remain in place to fund ongoing and new economic initiatives.

PRIVATE FINANCING

Figure 5.8 Flickr, 2012

• Skillman Foundation • JP Morgan Chase Foundation • Kresge Foundation

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STRATEGY: INDUSTRY


Vision D

espite the recession and the bankruptcy, the remaining major employers of Detroit still belong to the industrial sector, including automotive, construction, and chemical. However, most of Detroit’s basic industries are located outside of the city causing urban sprawl and depopulation of the central areas. While more than 500,000 employees work in the suburban employment centres, fewer than 142,000 work in the central business district. (Source: DCDC mapping, Amerigis, 08.20.2008). Part of our overall vision is to make Detroit an attractive place for people to live, work and invest by injecting diversity into the industrial landscape, promoting innovation, and providing opportunities for professional growth. We want to replace the old image of the (declining) car industry city with a new one that will depict a city of opportunity, innovation and collaboration.

Figure 5.9 Flickr, 2012

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Policies & Objectives OBJECTIVES

1.

Creation of a promising environment for new ideas and growth

2.

More young people studying, working, starting their own business.

3.

Create new jobs for the existing and potential future population within the city.

4. Inject a missing economic diversity. 5. Change Detroit’s negative image within the next

15 years and be able to attract new investors.

6.

Make Detroit more productive and even capable of exporting its innovative products in the future.

POLICIES

Promote research through collaboration with other sectors, as education.

Allocation of land for research in technology and manufacturing.

Introduction of new employment centres within the abandoned parts of downtown

Promotion of new types of industry that will take advantage of the existing workforce and infrastructure (new green technologies, information technologies, recycling and construction of materials, renewable energy and new transport systems).

Create opportunities and facilitate collaboration, land acquisition and smooth integration of “newcomers” into the industrial landscape.

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Implementation Mechanisms SPECIAL RENAISSANCE ZONES These zones will redefine certain boundaries and reorganize a tax-protecting legislation for specific areas within the city of Detroit suitable for industrial development. These areas are chosen according to the following:

• Location of the older renaissance zones • Amount of vacant land and industrial lots • Proximity to universities • Density and type of available workforce within the

area (i.e. residents in blue collar occupations)

• Quality of soil (for agricultural renaissance zones) • Amount of abandoned residences planned to be

demolished

• Amount of publicly owned land

The zones are divided in two types: agricultural and industrial, but both types are interrelated, mostly through research. In order for an investor to get land or infrastructure for industrial use or research within the zones: Figure 5.10 Flickr, 2012

Land can be bought with a tax exemption for the following five years or,

• Land will be given for free with no tax exemption.

Relevant legislation will exist for residents living within the areas. There will be an expiration date after a period of five years for each industry of the zones, and during this period the industry will start to pay a part of the taxes according to its productivity and growth. An evaluation of the industrial zones must take place annually. Each GI, through a reorganised taxation system, will pay for the tax exemption of the industrial zones. More specifically, each of the four municipalities must offer 50% of the collected taxes to the central government of Detroit, and keep the other half for infrastructure, social welfare, economic development etc. From this amount, 20% will go for the industrial zones and will be redistributed according to each zone’s needs and progress.

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Implementation Mechanisms RESEARCH CENTRES Research centres will be located within the renaissance zones and close to the universities with which they will cooperate.

Renewable energy and server farms Following the example of the city of Bremen (Jorg Ploger, 2007), Bremen city report, CASE Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion), we will begin by creating a flagship research park located between the two prominent universities and within the renaissance zone that contains part of Detroit’s waterfront. Research and industry in this area will be focused on renewable energy such as hydroelectric power. There are already startup businesses collaborating with Michigan State University develop and commercialise a generator of hydroelectric power suitable Figure 5.11 Imageshack, 2012

for all kinds of river currents. If Detroit develops its supply methods of hydroelectric power by using the river, certain renaissance zones could be transformed into server farms in the future. Cheap hydroelectric energy and cheap land will be the two determining factors for the location of big companies’ data centres.

Biofuel and airports Research on biofuel production for all kinds of transportation, especially aircrafts, will take place within the renaissance zone located close to the out-of-use Coleman Young International Airport. We propose that the airport be given to the US army, which will be responsible for the research in collaboration with the local universities and communities. The part of this area that belongs to an agricultural renaissance zone will become the farming land for biofuel crops. In this way the federal government and army will fund the new infrastructure needed, and a new population will come to live and work in the centre of the city. Additionally, Willow Run and Detroit Metropolitan airport have already expressed their interest in participating in a biofuel research programme within their premises. 05 STRATEGIES 01 INDUSTRY BACKGROUND

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Implementation Mechanisms RECYCLING CENTRES Each GI will have a recycling centre that will come into operation after the stabilisation of the population due to the housing exchange programme, and will take over part of the waste received by the central incinerator.

Figure 5.12 Detroit: Industry

Electric bus

Renewable energy

Potential server farms

New military base+biofuel

R

Additionally, an industry related to building material recycling operated by the private sector will be located within the research centre.

BUSINESS INCUBATOR According to the Bremen example, we are proposing the collaboration between Detroit’s development corporations (such as the DDA, EDC and LDFA) for the creation of a business incubator, a space located close to the financial city centre where graduates will be able to set up their first offices and start-up companies, exchange ideas and foster new partnerships.

R R

CONNECTION AND NEW TRANSPORTATION MEDIA 1

1 mile

R

R

2

R

R

Airports-Biofuel research areas Existing industries R Research centres Incubator centre Existing industry clusters Industry parcels Renaissance zones Future Renaissance zones Recycling points Indystrial heritage DRT (Detroit Rapid Transit) Rapid Bus Stop

The above implementations will be connected to the most populated areas of the four GIs, the universities, the big employment centres and the existing industries of the suburbs, by a new rapid bus system. The construction of the new electric buses can be assigned to the big automobile companies in order to create a new competitive market that will be able to export advanced green technology systems for public transport vehicles after a period of 15 years. 05 STRATEGIES 01 INDUSTRY BACKGROUND

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Funding A

revolving green fund will support investment and infrastructure needed for the implementation of the main strategies and mechanisms.

FEDERAL FUNDING

• Low Income and Energy Efficiency Fund (LIEEF) • Recovery Act Funding, Department of Energy • Advanced Technology Vehicles and Manufacturing

Loan Programme

Economic Development Administration of US Department of Commerce

Advanced Research Project Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)

Federal Programme: Regaining our Energy Science and Engineering Edge(Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE)

STATE FUNDING

• Michigan Development Corporation • Michigan State University • Michigan Energy Office • Detroit Edison and Consumers Energy • Local Development Finance Authority (LDFA) • Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport

PRIVATE FUNDING Figure 5.13 Flickr, 2012

• Dow Chemical company • Vortex Hydro Energy • Willow Run Airport 05 STRATEGIES 01 INDUSTRY BACKGROUND

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STRATEGY: AGRICULTURE


Vision A

griculture is a sector with myriad opportunities to cultivate and innovate. Detroit is a city with large postindustrial infrastructure, vacant land, heritage, and a dependence on importing food. This condition could be turned into a large agricultural programme to develop the proposed Growth Incubators. Our prospective vision of Detroit agriculture revolves around four ideas:

1. Reduction of food import 2. Boost of innovative farming types 3. Transformation of abandoned historical heritage 4. Transforming traditional farming into new ecotypes, and promoting healthy foods and lifestyles.

Figure 5.14 Flickr, 2012

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Policies & Objectives W

e advocate two approaches to farming, vertical and horizontal, for two categories of crop, food and bio-energy. The five main objectives of the agricultural proposal are:

1. Farming rehabilitation 2. Introduction of vertical farming 3. Establishment of bio-fuel production 4. Bio-fuel commercialisation 5. Food exporting

Figure 5.15 Flickr, 2012

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Implementation Mechanisms AGRICULTURAL RENAISSANCE ZONES To achieve the main agricultural objectives, the renaissance zones will be responsible for hosting industrial and agricultural activities. These zones will be administered under precise local conditions and tax/land regulations.

SPECIAL FARMING QUARTERS The agricultural parts of renaissance zones will be converted into special farming quarters specialising in food cultivation, horticulture, animal husbandry, and biofuel production. The key pre-requisites of farming quarters are the availability of state-owned, vacant land within Detroit not included in the proposed living incubator areas, and high agricultural potential (Figure 5.16). (Yun, 2008 ), (Kathryn Colasanti, Charlotte Litjensand Michael Hamm, 2010).

Figure 5.16 Detroit: Agriculture

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Implementation Mechanisms FOOD PRODUCTION Food production in Detroit will be introduced through horizontal and vertical farming.

Horizontal Urban Agriculture Urban agriculture is a well-known concept, which will be promoted in three farming quarters in the second, third, and fourth renaissance zones (Figure 5.16). Following the Detroit Hantz Farms’ philosophy – a city is “sustainable producer of agricultural goods,” we intend to engage Detroiters with urban agriculture via “green jobs” opportunities, local entrepreneurs’ involvement, clean environmental policies for citizens, and improved economic sustainability. To achieve the best results, we propose to extend the growing season and introduce ‘post-harvest crop management’. Figure 5.17 shows different production scenarios.

Figure 5.17 Local Production Capacity Colasanti, Hamm and Litjensand, 2010

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Implementation Mechanisms Vertical Agriculture/Aquaculture Vertical farming is an innovative design solution for the agricultural sector. This concept has a range of benefits, including crop diversity, optimal water management, minimal use of land, healthy food supply, minimisation of the risk of plants’ diseases, reuse of by-products, adaptability to a variety of climate, and geographic conditions (Despommier, 2012). A drawback of vertical farming is a significant energy requirement for biomass/biogas to heat up the farm (Bomford, 2012), (Digital Journal, 2012). Three buildings are targeted for vertical farming: Lee Plaza Hotel, Southfield Office Buildings, and Two Brothers Plant. These buildings are situated close to the proposed farming quarters and are Detroit heritage buildings. Lee Plaza Hotel is located in one of the growth incubators near the second renaissance zone. It, for example, could be the first instance of the transformation of a vacant historical building into a new agro-type infrastructure. The 15-storey skyscraper was listed in the United States National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1981 and abandoned in the early of 1990s. (EMPORIS, 2012), (Detroiturbex, 2012). Figure 5.18 Vertical farming

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Implementation Mechanisms Lee Plaza could be rehabilitated via the scheme and mechanisms used in Chicago vertical farm. “The Plant” is an old Chicago meat farm converted into a “Net-Zero Energy Vertical Farm”, which combines food businesses with aquaponic growing systems with the benefit of low rent and energy costs. The vertical farm will generate around 125 jobs and recycle about 10,000 tons of landfills food waste per year to meet its heat and energy requirements. Figure 5.19 shows “The Plant” working mechanism. “The Plant” runs through the ‘social enterprise model’ working for profit and non-profit ways and accumulating social and environmental aims (The Plant, 2012).

Figure 5.19 The Plant The Plant, 2012

BIOFUEL PRODUCTION Vacant brownfields in the first (airport area) and third renaissance zones will be used for bio-fuel production. Land restoration (plowing, seeding and inter-seeding) and bioremediation will be required with the potential involvement of special employment. Once the areas for bio-fuel are established the administration could create an internal market for production to later expand to the nearby areas. An example of internal use is powering green buses with bio-fuel through an eco-transport programme. General Motors has already sponsored projects with cellulosic ethanol production; a further step could be the development of a new class of biodiesel catalysts – adequate to high- free fatty acid (FFA) feed stocks (waste grease), instead of costly low-FFA feed stocks (soy oil) (Yun, 2008 ), (MIDWEST ENERGY NEWS, 2012).

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Funding W

e propose funding from the following private and public organisations to subsidise and promote Detroit’s agricultural sector:

• Verti-Gro; • General Motors;

PRIVATE SECTOR

• Michigan Agriculture Preservation Fund; • Building Better Rural Places (Federal Programmes

• The Farm Aid; • The Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation; • The Syngenta Foundation for

Agriculture;

Figure 5.20 Google Images, 2012

• The Company Patagonia; • The Hantz Farms; • The WalMart Foundation; • W.K. Kellogg Foundation;

PUBLIC SECTOR

U.S. Department of Agriculture (Federal Grant Programs for Farmers);

Sustainable

Michigan Department of Agriculture & Rural Development (grants and programmes);

for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation, and Community Development (grants);

• Cooperative Development Foundation;

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STRATEGY: EDUCATION


Vision D

espite the fact that Detroit is a popular place to study with plenty of universities and colleges offering various degrees, education is one of the most significant issues in the city. The majority of students come only to study and leave the city immediately following graduation. Due to to the low rate of education and literacy among locals and the lack of places to find work, creating opportunities and reasons to stay and work in Detroit grounded in education is a main priority.

Thus, the most significant intervention in this

sector is to introduce an educational system that functions as a cohesive mechanism working in collaboration with industries, culture, and sport activities through all levels of education.

Figure 5.21 Flickr, 2012

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Policies & Objectives

E

ducation policies and objectives are:

1. Bring young generations back to school 2. Provide training for adults to improve skills and literacy

3.

Raise local youth to become competitive professionals willing to stay in Detroit

4. Ensure career growth through provision of work places and opportunities for professional advancement

5. Develop an educational institution working in conjunction with the industrial, agricultural, and cultural sectors successfully linked through a new transport system

Figure 5.22 True Detroit, 2011

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Implementation Mechanisms MAGNET SCHOOL PROGRAMME A magnet school programme will run in primary, secondary, and high schools to increase student achievement, motivation, and satisfaction with school, and to help young people in identifying their priorities and preparing for university. These will be schools different specialisations in natural sciences, exact sciences, humanitarian disciplines, agriculture, sports, arts, medical, engineering or practical skills required in different sectors. This programme will be linked with the cultural and agricultural sectors. Workshops within this programme will invite pupils and young students to participate and gain experience, and some industrial practice will be introduced for high school students.

Figure 5.23 Detroit: Education

Figure 5.24 Flickr, 2012

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Implementation Mechanisms

Figure 5.25 Flickr, 2012

GETTING SKILLS PROGRAMME

STUDY FOR FREE, STAY FOR THREE

This programme will help adults who dropped-out of, or did not attend school it at all. It will assist them in gaining skills needed in newly developed sectors, and to find future employment. This scheme will be developed primarily for the industrial and agricultural sectors located in the renaissance zones, initially funded by private institutions that will gradually hand the bill over to the industrial and agricultural sectors.

This scheme applies to higher education and research programmes. The main idea is to introduce special programmes to the universities according to the needs of the new developing industrial, agricultural, and transport sectors. They will be located in close proximity to these sectors, and will attract students to the universities by providing them with a free education provided they stay and gain work experience in Detroit at least for three years. The programme will be responsible for finding work opportunities and placing graduates within companies. Initially, it will be funded by number of private and government funds, but once the programme has taken off local industries and agricultural corporations will burden the costs.

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Funding W

e propose the following private and public organisations to subsidise and promote the educational sector:

PRIVATE SECTOR

• Coca-Cola (programs focus on building educational

Altria (Middle and high school enrichment programs for urban public schools, technical education at community colleges and universities, including agricultural studies programs at select land-grant institutions, higher education and scholarship support).

Walmart (provides support for Teachers, FirstGeneration College Student Success, Minority-Serving Institution Support, Adolescent Literacy, Dropout ReEngagement and Veterans’ Education).

• AAU (American Association of Universities) funding

for research, graduate and undergraduate education).

ACEC (The American Council of Engineering Companies provide scholarships and promote engineering careers in the built and natural environments). infrastructure; mentoring; school drop-out prevention; reading and literacy; scholarships).

Google (programs, competitions, awards, and support for students in primary, secondary, and higher education.)

PUBLIC SECTOR

• FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid -

scholarships for education)

• US DEPED (Department of Education) • Title I Grants (The main source of federal funding

for the No Child Left Behind (NCLB))

Pell Grants (Pell Grant is a post-secondary educational Federal grant sponsored by the U.S Department of Education. Enacted to help undergraduates of lowincome families in receiving financial aid). 05 STRATEGIES EDUCATION

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STRATEGY: TRANSPORT


Vision T

ransport is a vital part of any city. The reduction of automobile use in Detroit and improvements in connectivity to places of education, work, entertainment and health will ensure a dynamic and functioning city, as well as greatly increase the quality of life of its citizens. Transport in Detroit is currently severely affected by a lack of ridership due, in large part, to the city’s low density and expansive bus network. The aim is that through a rerouting of the public transportation system, connectivity and transport investment efforts can be focused on stable and growing areas.

Figure 5.26 Flickr, 2012

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Policies & Objectives R

ebranding and changing habits of the way Detroit residents move around the city poses a significant challenge made even more taxing by the city’s lack of funds. In addition, there is a great need to address sub-par road conditions, pedestrian and cycle safety and unsustainable traffic patterns. Transport policies for Detroit are:

1.

To reduce the number of automobile drivers (especially one driver per car) and provide a network connecting residents of Detroit to places of employment within and outside Detroit.

2. To fully implement a high quality, attractive and reliable network of Bus Rapid Transit for the city by 2035.

3.

To promote a healthy lifestyle and implement safe cycling lanes and green highways.

4.

To improve cooperation between different levels and agencies throughout the city, enabling the establishment of public-private partnerships that will improve employment levels in the city of Detroit.

Figure 5.27 Flickr, 2012

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Implementation Mechanisms T

o accomplish these objectives, specific areas have been identified within and outside the GI’s as those with the greatest potential and need for connectivity. These include new sites for industry, agriculture, education and culture. It is imperative that these new nodes become part of the transportation network, as we foresee these becoming centres for employment, entertainment and personal growth. Inspiration for transport measures come from the city of Curitiba, Brazil and Houston, Texas (Goodman, Laube and Schwenk, 2006). Transport will be addressed through the implementation of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) network, reconfiguration of transit lanes and the addition of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, congestion charging and Cycle Super Highways (Figure 5.28).

Figure 5.28 Detroit: Transport

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Implementation Mechanisms BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) A BRT network is much more flexible and cost-effective and a viable alternative that will allow an improvement to the image of the public transportation system, while improving efficacy, reliability and safety (Martin, 2012). Prior to implementation, current bus routes will evaluated and re-routed to reflect future BRT routes. BRT will be implemented in zones adjacent or leading to current employment centres, including those located outside city limits. The aim is to identify the principal corridors that can benefit from a public transportation scheme. Further implementation criteria includes population density, with priority given to zones with higher densities, shown in the map as light red.

Figure 5.29 Road reconfiguration

• The network consists of five routes connecting

at strategic development nodes. The routes will be implemented over a fifteen-year period.

• The buses occupy the central lanes (figure 5.29)

with a station separating the boarding platforms. A system of pre-payment is implemented in all the stations to enhance boarding speed.

• It is possible to purchase weekly, monthly, and

annual transport credits that provide significant monetary savings.

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Implementation Mechanisms CONGESTION ZONING & HOV LANES

CYCLE SUPER HIGHWAYS

• Corridors that currently experience a large volume

of automobile traffic will be prioritised to receive roadwork improvements and lane re-configuration to promote carpooling through the implementation of congestion zoning and high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes.

• Current parks and large green spaces are shown

on the map as light green. Other areas that can take advantage of pedestrian right-of-way, such as railway lines will be used to link these green spaces and create a network of Cycle Super Highways.

• The lanes adjacent to the BRT are designated HOV

lanes. These are available for automobiles with two or more passengers and are active Monday through Friday at peak driving times.

• Single drivers-per-car are subject to congestion

charging according to distance travelled. Congestion charge bands are shown as tollbooth points on the map. Automobiles in HOV lanes are exempt from congestion charging.

Figure 5.30 Flickr, 2012

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Funding W

hile the majority of funding will come from Federal sources, smaller interventions can be sponsored by local initiatives.

FEDERAL FUNDING

• The Transportation Infrastructure Finance and

Innovation Act (TIFIA) program The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

• The Transportation Investment Generating

Economic Recovery (TIGER) Discretionary Grant Program ($28.1 million)

• Small Starts Grants (up to $75 million) • Pilot Program for Transit-Oriented Development

Planning ($20 million)

LOCAL FUNDING

• Greenway Trust Fund (local corporations

partnership)

• Adopt-a-trail small grant programs

Figure 5.31 Flickr, 2012

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IMPLEMENTATION


Relationships A

ll the implementation mechanisms are closely related and rely on each other. In particular, there are close relationships between the education, culture, agriculture and industry sectors (figure 6.2). Transportation hubs were implemented at key locations that could link key points in Detroit. On the next page, figure 6.3 outlines these relationships.

Figure 6.1 Relationships between strategies

Figure 6.2 Education programmes feed industry, agriculture & culture

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Relationships

Figure 6.3 Mechanisms, Strategies & Funding

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Phasing O

ur plan for Detroit is outlined to be carried out through 2050. As this is foreseen to be a largely organic process, there are various evaluation points that are aimed to critically analyse whether targets have been reached (figure 6.4). The first years will focus on lobbying and getting the city ready for the changes to come, including re-routing buses and setting up educational programmes. The next period is when we begin to see physical implementations in the city, as well as the first business incubator and renaissance zones establishment. Finally, we see results with the generation of food, labour and new bright minds.

Figure 6.4 Phasing

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CONCLUSION


Final Thoughts D

espite a lack of resources and the challenges Detroit faces, it is well situated for a comprehensive regeneration plan. Existing areas with growing and stable populations are excellent starting points for the initiatives and interventions that will begin to catalyse growth and development in the city. These Growth Incubators have been carefully selected to pilot the interventions across key sectors of the city.

Culture and heritage oriented initiatives focus heavily on economic factors to spur culture-led regeneration, while industrial initiatives aim to promote innovation and provide opportunities for professional growth. Innovation in the agricultural sector will modernize Detroit’s food production while creating an economic market of its own, and interventions in the educational system will emphasise the importance of education of all type for all ages, and provide opportunities for growth and career enhancement at all levels. Lastly, an overhaul of the transportation network will provide a reasonably sized transit network that will grow to comprehensively fit the needs of the city. Detailed mechanisms and phasing strategies accompany each of these strategies to address the unique challenges Detroit faces, and to ensure that each measure aims for and achieves reasonable objectives. Together, these five focused strategies will target the immediate needs of the struggling city, and work together for years to come adapting to new situations as elements improve and new challenges surface. In this way Detroit will transform into a prospering 21st century metropolis that reflects its former identity as centre of innovation, industry, and success.

Figure 6.1 Flickr, 2012

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BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY Figure 7.1 Thank you!

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Tonni L. Griffin and Collaborative Design Centre, 2010. DCDC Mapping, source DPD 2010. W.K. Kellog Foundation, 2012. Grants. [Online] Available at: http://www.wkkf.org/grants/grants-database.aspx [Accessed April 2012]. Yun, M., 2008. Alternative Uses for Vacant Land in Detroit, Michigan. University of Michigan. Zimmer Lori, 2011. Five Green Data Centres that Serve the Environment, [Online] Available at: http://mylifescoop.com/ featured-stories/2012/03/5-green-data-centers-that-serve-the-environment.html [Accessed April 2012].

Sites

http://urcmich.org/ http://explorer.arcgis.com/ http://www.brooklynnavyyard.org/sustainability.html http://www.pps.org/ http://www.trfund.com/ http://www.degc.org/ http://www.vortexhydroenergy.com/ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/tifia/ http://www.fta.dot.gov/12304_222.html *Source of all title page & individual section photos : True Detroit: Everything I see. [online] Available at: http://true-detroit.tumblr.com/[Accessed April 2012].

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ReBranding Detroit