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Income gap starters ! #o%&'r'tive 'n'l/sis o1 st'rter2s e'rnings in eleven o##4&'tions 'n5 1o4rteen #o4n6 tries7 8'se5 on t9e :'ge ;n5i#'tor 5't'set< =i#tor !< >e?er >r4no @erinelli Aentro 5e Bst45ios 5e l' C4ev' B#ono%i' DABCBE Universit/ o1 >elgr'no >4enos !ires :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion @l'nt'ge H4i5ergr'#9t I2 IKILT= !%ster5'% T9e Cet9erl'n5s N#to8er 2KIK

.xecutive summar3 !##or5ing to 5't' g't9ere5 8/ :'ge ;n5i#'tor Oe8sites7 l'8o4r st'rters P t9ose O9o 're 8eginning t9eir #'reers 's O'ge e'rners 6 e'rn tOi#e or t9ree ti%es %ore in 5e6 velo&e5 #o4ntries t9'n in e%erging n'tions< ;t is 1o4n5 t9't t9ere is ' 9ig9 groOt9 in in#o%e 54ring t9e 1irst 9'l1 o1 t9eir Oor?ing #'reer7 O9i#9 t9en 1l'ttens Dor even 5e#re'ses in so%e #'sesE< ;t is 'lso 1o4n5 t9't t9e e#ono%i# reO'r5 5erive5 1ro% 9'v6 ing ' terti'r/ or 4niversit/ 5egree groOs t9ro4g9o4t Oor?ing li1e7 'n5 t9't living in ' 8ig #it/ 'n5 e'rning 9ig9 O'ges 're lin?e5 8e#'4se o1 t9e #on#entr'tion o1 Oe'lt9 'ro4n5 %etro&olit'n 're's< Gin'll/7 t9ere is ' &ositive rel'tion 8etOeen in#o%e 'n5 s'tis1'#tion in li1e 's6'6O9ole<

;n#o%e g'& st'rters 6 N#to8er 2KIK Q :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion

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IND.6 I< ;ntro54#tion 2< :'ges 'n5 Oor? eR&erien#e S< B54#'tion T'& U< Vt'rting O'ges 'n5 1ir% siWes X< Yo4ngster2s 9o4se9ol5s Z< [o#'tion o1 Oor? \< T/&es o1 #ontr'#ts7 Oor?ing 9o4rs 'n5 overOor? L< ;n#o%e 'n5 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 li1e ]< Nt9er t/&es o1 s'tis1'#tion IK< !&&en5iR 6 Vt'tisti#s

;n#o%e g'& st'rters 6 N#to8er 2KIK Q :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion

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1. Introduction ^oO %4#9 5o /o4ngsters e'rn in 5i11erent #o4ntries 'n5 o##4&'tions7 9oO i%&ort'nt is Oor? eR&erien#e in t9e 5eter%in'tion o1 O'ges7 'n5 9oO 8ig is t9e e54#'tion g'&_ T9ese 're so%e o1 t9e `4estions t9is re&ort 'i%s 't 'nsOering< T9e i%&'#t o1 1ir% siWe7 t/&es o1 #ontr'#ts 'n5 lo#'tion o1 Oor? on t9e level o1 O'ges 're ot9er to&i#s o1 'n'l/sis7 'long Oit9 t9e st45/ o1 l'8o4r st'rters2 levels o1 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 li1e 'n5 Oor?< Gor t9e O'ge #o%&'rison 9o4rl/ e'rnings #orre#te5 8/ @4r#9'sing @oOer @'rit/ D@@@E r'tes Oere 4se5< Vo7 i1 ' O'ge #orre#te5 8/ @@@ in ' given #o4ntr/ is a I<KKK it %e'ns t9't t9is O'ge 9's t9e s'%e &4r#9'sing &oOer 's a I<KKK in t9e Unite5 Vt'tes< :'ge ;n5i#'tor s4rve/s #o%&lete5 4& to t9e 1irst `4'rter o1 2KIK #o%&rise5 t9e 5't' set 1or t9e st45/ o1 t9e Oor?ing #on5itions o1 t9e l'8o4r st'rting &o&4l'tion< N4t o1 IKK7KKK res&onses7 t9ose s4rve/s t9't 9'5 8een #o%&lete5 8/ &eo&le 'ge5 8etOeen IL 'n5 2X Oere sele#te5 1or 'n'l/sis< T9is res4lte5 in '&&roRi%'tel/ U72KK /o4ngsters2 s4rve/s< T9ese Oere t9en gro4&e5 '##or5ing to t9e #o4ntr/ in O9i#9 t9e/ Oere #o%6 &lete5< To 'voi5 s'%&le &ro8le%s7 onl/ t9e n'tion'l 5't' sets t9't g't9ere5 %ore t9'n SX res&onses 1or t9ose 'ges Oere sele#te5< T9is %e'ns t9't !rgentin'7 >elgi4%7 >r'Wil7 >el'r4s7 Aolo%8i'7 Gr'n#e7 Ter%'n/7 ;n5onesi'7 b'W'?9st'n7 HeRi#o7 Cet9erl'n5s7 V&'in7 Unite5 bing5o% 'n5 t9e Unite5 Vt'tes `4'li1ie5 1or in#l4sion in t9is re&ort< T9e s'%e #riterion O's 4se5 to #9oose t9e %ost re&resent'tive o##4&'tions 1or l'8o4r st'rters< T9is res4lte5 in sele#tion o1 t9e 1olloOing o##4&'tionsc !5vertising 'n5 %'r6 ?eting &ro1ession'ls7 V9o& s'les 'ssist'nts7 de#e&tionists7 Tener'l o11i#e #ler?s7 Aoo?s7 Dr'4g9ts&ersons7 Ve#ret'ries7 :'iters7 !&&li#'tions &rogr'%%ers7 !##o4nting 'sso#i6 'tes &ro1ession'ls7 V4&&ort te#9ni#i'ns7 'n5 Vt'tisti#'l7 1in'n#e 'n5 ins4r'n#e #ler?s< deg'r5ing t9e e54#'tion g'&7 t9e 5istin#tion 8etOeen `4'li1ie5 'n5 4n`4'li1ie5 Oor?ers O's 5eter%ine5 8/ t9e &ossession o1 ' terti'r/ or 4niversit/ 5egree< ;n rel'tion to t9e 1ir% siWe 5istin#tion7 enter&rises t9't 9'5 less t9'n IK e%&lo/ees Oere 5e1ine5 's s%'ll7 O9ile t9ose Oit9 %ore t9'n IKK Oor?ers Oere #onsi5ere5 l'rge< He5i4% 1ir%s Oere t9ose Oit9 ' l'8o4r 1or#e o1 8etOeen II 'n5 IKK &eo&le< T9e /o4ngsters2 level o1 s'tis1'#tion in rel'tion to t9eir fo87 &'/7 leis4re ti%e 'n5 li1e in gener'l O's 'lso 'n'l/se57 'long Oit9 so#i'l in5i#'tors '8o4t 9o4se9ol5 %e%8ers 'n5 1'%il/<

;n#o%e g'& st'rters 6 N#to8er 2KIK Q :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion

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! %'in res4lt o1 t9e s4rve/ is t9't l'8o4r st'rters e'rn tOo to t9ree ti%es %ore in 5e6 velo&e5 #o4ntries t9'n in e%erging e#ono%ies< !not9er o4t#o%e is t9't st'rters2 O'ges groO r'&i5l/ in t9e 1irst 9'l1 o1 t9eir Oor?ing #'reer7 '1ter O9i#9 t9e &'#e sloOs 5oOn< T9ir5l/7 t9e e#ono%i# reO'r5 o1 9'ving ' terti'r/ or 4niversit/ 5egree is s%'ll in t9e st'rting &erio57 84t it in t9e longer ter% e'rning #'&'#it/ o1 9ig9er e54#'tion is #on6 si5er'8le<

2. Wages and work experience T9e rel'tion 8etOeen O'ges 'n5 Oor? eR&erien#e O's st45ie5 in tOo &9'ses< T9e 1irst &9'se #onsists o1 ' #ross6#o4ntr/ 'n'l/sis in O9i#9 t9e O'ges e'rne5 8/ /o4ngsters Oere #o%&'re5 to t9e in#o%e e'rne5 8/ Oor?ers 'ge5 S2 to UK 'n5 ol5er t9'n XK7 to eR'%ine t9e evol4tion o1 O'ges t9ro4g9o4t Oor?ing li1e in e'#9 #o4ntr/< ;t 'lso en'8les ' #o%&'rison 8etOeen t9e O'ges e'rne5 in 5evelo&e5 'n5 e%erging e#ono%ies< Go4rteen #o4ntries Oere sele#te5 1or t9is &4r&osec !rgentin'7 >elgi4%7 >r'Wil7 >e6 l'r4s7 Aolo%8i'7 Gr'n#e7 Ter%'n/7 ;n5onesi'7 b'W'?9st'n7 HeRi#o7 Cet9erl'n5s7 V&'in7 Unite5 bing5o% 'n5 t9e Unite5 Vt'tes< T9e 1irst gener'l #on#l4sion is t9't l'8o4r st'rters in 5evelo&e5 e#ono%ies e'rn tOi#e or t9ree ti%es %ore t9'n t9ose in e%erging e#ono%ies< :9ile t9e 9o4rl/ O'ge D#or6 re#te5 8/ @@@E r'nges in t9e e%erging #o4ntries 1ro% a I<LX to a X<KZ7 it goes 1ro% a L<\L to a IS<KX in 5evelo&e5 n'tions< N4t o1 t9e 1o4rteen #o4ntries7 >elgi4% &'/s t9e %ost genero4s O'gesc on 'ver'ge a IS<KX &er 9o4r7 #losel/ 1olloOe5 8/ t9e Unite5 bing5o%< >/ #ontr'st7 ;n5onesi' eR9i8its t9e loOest 'ver'ge 9o4rl/ s'l'r/ o1 t9e s'%&lec a I<LX< Yo4ngsters in t9e Unite5 Vt'tes 're &'i5 ro4n5 a II<LL &er 9o4r7 tOo to 1o4r ti%es %ore t9'n in ['tin !%eri#'7 b'W'?9st'n 'n5 >el'r4s7 'n5 siR ti%es %ore t9'n in ;n5onesi'< !not9er interesting &oint is t9't O'ges ten5 to groO 's Oor?ers g'in Oor?ing eR&eri6 en#e< T9e eR&l'n'tion 8e9in5 t9is &9eno%enon is t9't Oor?ers i%&rove t9eir &ro54#6 tivit/ 's t9e/ '#`4ire 9'n5s6on ?noOle5ge 1ro% eR&erien#e< T9is is O9't t9e e#ono%6 i# liter't4re #'lls t9e le'rning68/65oing &ro#ess< Horeover Oor?ers 8ene1it 1ro% #onsi5er'8le s'l'r/ in#re'ses 8etOeen t9eir st'rting /e'rs 'n5 %i55le 'ge< ;n 1'#t7 O'ges get 5o48le5 in t9is &erio5 in >r'Wil7 HeRi#o 'n5 ;n5onesi'< :'ges ten5 to in#re'se 't ' sloOer &'#e Dor even 5e#re'seE 8etOeen %i56 5le 'n5 el5erl/ 'ges< ;n b'W'?9st'n t9e s'l'r/ 5e#re'se t9't o##4rs in t9is l'st &erio5 is so strong t9't it neg'tes t9e initi'l in#re'se< T9ere1ore l'8o4r st'rters in b'W'?96 st'n7 eR#e&tion'll/7 e'rn 9ig9er O'ges t9'n el5erl/ &eo&le< ;n#o%e g'& st'rters 6 N#to8er 2KIK Q :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion

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T9e se#on5 'n'l/sis re1ers to t9e evol4tion o1 O'ges 8/ o##4&'tion7 'g'in 1o#4sing on l'8o4r st'rters< T9e o##4&'tions sele#te5 1or t9is &4r&ose Oere t9ose Oit9 ' 9ig9 re&resent'tion in t9e l'8o4r st'rting &o&4l'tion '##or5ing to :'ge ;n5i#'tor 5't'c !5vertising 'n5 %'r?eting &ro1ession'ls7 V9o& s'les 'ssist'nts7 de#e&tionists7 Tener'l o11i#e #ler?s7 Aoo?s7 Dr'4g9ts&ersons7 Ve#ret'ries7 :'iters7 !&&li#'tions &rogr'%%ers7 !##o4nting 'sso#i'tes &ro1ession'ls7 V4&&ort te#9ni#i'ns7 'n5 Vt'tisti#'l7 1in'n#e 'n5 ins4r'n#e #ler?s< !s in t9e 1irst 'n'l/sis7 it O's 1o4n5 t9't O'ges groO r'&i5l/ in t9e 1irst 9'l1 o1 t9e #'reer 'n5 t9en groOt9 sloOs 5oOn< T9is 1in5ing is in '##or5'n#e Oit9 e#ono%i# liter't4re7 Oi#9 s'/s t9't Oor?ers2 &ro54#tivit/ in#re'ses gre'tl/ in t9e 1irst &'rt o1 t9eir #'reers 54e to t9e in#or&or'tion o1 ?noOle5ge 5erive5 1ro% &r'#ti#e7 O9ile it groOs 't ' sloOer s&ee5 or even 5e#re'ses in t9e se#on5 &'rt 's Oor?ers ten5 to lose so%e o1 t9eir strengt9s 'n5 s?ills< :9en Oe t'?e ' #loser loo? 't in5ivi54'l o##4&'tions '&&li#'tion &rogr'%%ing e%erges 's7 8/ 1'r7 t9e 8est6&'i5 o##4&'tion in t9e st'rting /e'rs o1 '54lt li1e7 t9ree ti%es %ore t9'n ' st'rting re#e&tionist7 O9o gets t9e loOest st'rters O'ges o1 t9e s'%&le< T9e '&&li#'tion &rogr'%%er2s 8est &'/ %'/ 8e 54e to t9e 5e%'n5ing ;T se#tor O9ere %ost 1in5 e%&lo/6 %ent< ^oOever7 in t9is o##4&'tion t9e O'ge groOt9 over ti%e %'/ 8e #onsi5ere5 %o5est #o%&'re5 to t9't s9oOn 8/ ot9er o##4&'tions< ;n &'rti#4l'r7 '5vertising 'n5 %'r?eting &ro6 1ession'ls 're &'i5 1o4r ti%es t9e O'ge o1 t9eir st'rting #olle'g4es in t9e l'st /e'rs o1 t9eir #'reer< Nt9er o##4&'tions t9't s9oO eRtr'or5in'r/ O'ge groOt9 're re#e&tionists7 s4&&ort te#9ni#i'ns7 se#ret'ries7 5r'4g9t &ersons 'n5 '##o4nting 'sso#i'tes &ro1ession'ls7 Oit9 s'l'r/ in#re'ses in t9e r'nge o1 2KK to SKK &er #ent< Aoo?s 're loOest reO'r5e5< Bven t9o4g9 t9eir e'rnings rise %ore t9'n IKK &er #ent 8etOeen t9e 1irst 'n5 t9e se#on5 &erio57 t9e/ 1'll ne'rl/ IK &er #ent in t9e l'st &'rt o1 t9eir #'reer< !ll in 'll7 #oo?s2 in#o%es groO '&&roRi%'tel/ L\ &er #ent onl/ t9ro4g9o4t t9eir #'reer<

3. .ducation Gap T9e e54#'tion g'& is seen 's t9e e#ono%i# reO'r5 1or 9'ving ' terti'r/ or 4niversit/ 5egree< T9e %'in 1in5ing is t9't t9e e54#'tion g'& ten5s to in#re'se t9ro4g9o4t t9e Oor?ing li1e< :9ile in t9e st'rting &erio5 t9e O'ge 5i11eren#e 8etOeen t9e `4'li1ie5 'n5 t9e 4n`4'li1ie5 &o&4l'tion is n'rroO7 in t9e 1olloOing &9'ses it eR&'n5s to sig6 ni1i#'nt levels< !n eR&l'n'tion %ig9t 8e t9't7 in or5er to get 8ro'5 Oor? eR&erien#e7 `4'li1ie5 /o4ngsters st'rt Oor?ing in 4n`4'li1ie5 o##4&'tions 5es&ite t9eir e54#'6 tion'l s?illsg 's t9e /e'rs &'ss7 t9e/ sOit#9 to `4'li1ie5 'n5 %4#9 %ore &ro54#tive o##4&'tions7 O9i#9 le'5s to s48st'nti'l O'ge rises7 not o8t'in'8le 8/ t9e 4n`4'li1ie5 &o&4l'tion< Aonsi5ering t9e st'rting &erio5 onl/7 it O's 1o4n5 t9't in ;n5onesi' 'n5 t9e Unite5 Vt'tes non6`4'li1ie5 st'rters 're 8etter &'i5 t9'n `4'li1ie5 ones< b'W'?9st'n 9's t9e Oi5est e54#'tion g'& in t9e novi#e &erio5c `4'li1ie5 l'8o4r st'rt6 ers e'rn 'l%ost tOi#e t9e O'ge o1 4n`4'li1ie5 st'rters< T9e e54#'tion g'& in >elgi4% is t9e n'rroOest7 's onl/ t9ree &er#ent'ge &oints se&'r'te 8ot9 in#o%e gro4&s< ;n#o%e g'& st'rters 6 N#to8er 2KIK Q :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion

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Ao%&'ring O'ges e'rne5 8/ t9e `4'li1ie5 &o&4l'tion onl/7 t9e Unite5 bing5o% &'/s t9e l'rgest '%o4nts &er 9o4rc %ore t9'n a IU7 ne'rl/ tOelve ti%es t9e O'ge &'i5 1or `4'li1ie5 l'8o4r in ;n5onesi'< Nn t9e ot9er 9'n57 t9e Unite5 Vt'tes o11ers t9e 9ig9est s'l'ries to 4n`4'li1ie5 st'rtersc a IS<S] &er 9o4r< T9e e#ono%i# reO'r5 1or ' 4niversit/ or terti'r/ 5egree #'nnot 8e 5isting4is9e5 8/ region 's t9ere is not one 5isting4is9ing 8e9'vio4r'l &'ttern Oit9in B4ro&e7 Cort9 'n5 Vo4t9 !%eri#'7 or !si' reg'r5ing t9e e54#'tion g'&< Gor inst'n#e7 O9ile >elgi4% eR9i8its #onsi5er'8le rises 'long ti%e in t9e s'l'r/ 5i11eren#e7 Ter%'n/ &resents 5e6 #re'ses 'n5 t9e Unite5 bing5o% 'n5 t9e Cet9erl'n5s s9oO %o5est v'ri'tions in t9e e54#'tion g'&7 #o%&'ring t9e 1irst 'n5 t9e t9ir5 Oor?ing &erio5< :9't is '8sol4tel/ stri?ing is 9oO t9e g'& Oi5ens in !rgentin' 'n5 >elgi4%< ;n t9e l'st &'rt o1 t9e Oor?ing #'reer t9e O'ge 5i11eren#e is eleven ti%es t9e one seen in t9e e'rl/ st'ge< @'rti#4l'rl/ in t9e Vo4t9 !%eri#'n n'tion7 t9e g'& re'#9es ' to& level o1 S]<\ &er#ent'ge &oints in t9e se#on5 &erio57 O9i#9 i%&lies ' I7IIZ &er #ent eR6 &'nsion 1ro% t9e st'rting st'ge g'&< Unli?e t9e &revio4s #'ses7 b'W'?9st'n s9oOs ' ste'5/ re54#tion o1 its g'&7 's it n'rroOs II &er #ent 1irst 'n5 ne'rl/ IX &er #ent %ore in t9e 1in'l st'ge o1 t9e Oor?ing #'reer<

4. Starting wages and firm sizes :it9 re1eren#e to t9e in1l4en#e o1 1ir% siWes on /o4ngsters2 O'ges7 it O's 1o4n5 t9't t9e l'rger t9e siWe o1 t9e 1ir% t9e 9ig9er t9e &'/ in ne'rl/ ever/ #o4ntr/ o1 t9e s'%6 &le< Yo4ng ;n5onesi'n2s e'rnings in ' l'rge enter&rise tri&le t9ose &'i5 in s%'ll #o%&'6 nies< >ritis9 l'8o4r st'rters O9o Oor? in l'rge #o%&'nies 9've ' &4r#9'sing &oOer XK 'n5 L2 &er #ent 9ig9er t9'n t9ose O9o Oor? in s%'ll 'n5 %e5i4% enter&rises7 res&e#tivel/< T9e i%&'#t o1 1ir% siWe is Oe'?er in ot9er #o4ntries7 li?e in 1or eR'%&le >elgi4% 'n5 Aolo%8i'7 O9ere t9e O'ge 5i11eren#e 54e to 1ir% siWe is IU &er #ent %'Ri%4%< !lt9o4g9 it O's eR&e#te5 to see 'n over'll #orrel'tion 8etOeen 1ir% siWes 'n5 O'ges7 HeRi#o 'n5 t9e Unite5 Vt'tes 're t9e eR#e&tion< ;n HeRi#o O'ges 5e#line 's t9e n4%6 8er o1 e%&lo/ees in t9e 1ir% in#re'ses< ;n t9e UV s%'ll #o%&'nies &'/ t9e 9ig9est O9ile %e5i4% 1ir%s &'/ t9e loOest O'ges< ;n B4ro&e Gr'n#e &resents 'n5 't/&i#'l &i#t4re Oit9 %i55le siWe5 #o%&'nies &'/ing /o4ng st'rters t9e le'st<

;n#o%e g'& st'rters 6 N#to8er 2KIK Q :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion

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5. EoungstersF households >'se5 on t9e :'ge ;n5i#'tor s4rve/7 %ore t9'n ' t9ir5 o1 l'8o4r st'rters live 8/ t9e%selves 'n5 e'rn on 'ver'ge a \<\S &er 9o4r< G4rt9er%ore7 ne'rl/ ' `4'rter o1 t9e% s9're t9eir 9o4se9ol5 Oit9 ' &'rtner 'n5 e'rn a Z<X] &er 9o4r< !n5 '&&roRi6 %'tel/ U2 &er #ent live in ' 9o4se9ol5 Oit9 t9ree or %ore %e%8ers 'n5 get a X6Z &er 9o4r< Give &er #ent o1 Oor?ers 'ge5 IL to 2X 9've #9il5ren 'n5 e'rn a X<X &er 9o4r to 14l1il t9eir e#ono%i# &'rent'l res&onsi8ilities< Ao%&'re5 to l'8o4r st'rters Oit9o4t #9il6 5ren7 t9e /o4ng &'rents eR9i8it ' loOer level o1 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 li1e 's6'6O9ole< ;n 1'#t7 levels o1 5iss'tis1'#tion 're I] &er #ent 9ig9er7 t9e 1eeling o1 li1e 14l1il%ent is 2<2\ &er #ent loOer in t9e &'rents2 gro4&< T9e re'son 1or t9eir rel'tive 4n9'&&iness 5oes not &ri%'ril/ 54e to t9eir 9o4se9ol5 in#o%e P 's %ig9t 9've 8een eR&e#te5 6 84t to t9e s#'r#e leis4re ti%e /o4ng &'rents s'/ t9e/ 9've< T9e O'ge 5i11eren#e t9't eRists 8etOeen /o4ng &'rents 'n5 #9il5less #o4&les #o4l5 8e eR&l'ine5 8/ t9e 5i11erent se#tors e'#9 gro4& ten5s to Oor? in< :9ile /o4ng &'r6 ents Oor? l'rgel/ in 'gri#4lt4re7 %'n41'#t4ring7 e54#'tion7 #onstr4#tion7 t9e &48li# se#tor or 9e'lt9 #'re7 #9il561ree #o4&les 're %'inl/ 1o4n5 in tr'5e 'n5 #o%%er#i'l servi#es7 '#tivities rel'tivel/ %ore l4#r'tive t9'n t9e 1or%er ones<

6. Jocation of work T9e region o1 Oor? is 'not9er 1'#tor t9't 5eter%ines t9e level o1 O'ges< Gor inst'n#e7 ' l'8o4r st'rter Oo4l5 &ro8'8l/ e'rn ' 9ig9er s'l'r/ i1 9eQs9e Oor?s in ' 8ig #it/ t9'n in ' s%'ll toOn 8e#'4se t9ere is ' 8igger #on#entr'tion o1 Oe'lt9 'ro4n5 %etro&oli6 t'n 're's< >'se5 on t9e res4lts 1ro% t9e s4rve/7 /o4ngsters in 8ig #ities e'rn on 'ver'ge a IK<SZ &er 9o4r< T9ose O9o Oor? in ' %e5i4% siWe5 toOn e'rn a X<L2 9o4rl/7 \L &er #ent less t9'n t9e %etro&olit'n gro4&< >4t t9ose O9o 9've fo8s in s%'ll toOns get a ]<2I &er 9o4r7 O9ere's t9ose O9o Oor? in r4r'l 're's e'rn a ]<\Z 9o4rl/< T9e rel'tivel/ 9ig9 O'ges t9't 're &'i5 in s%'ll toOns 'n5 r4r'l 're's %'/ 8e rel'te5 to t9e #o%%o5ities 8oo%7 O9i#9 st'rte5 sever'l /e'rs 'go 'n5 O's interr4&te5 in 2KKL6] onl/7 54e to t9e Oorl5 1in'n#i'l #risis<

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7. T3pes of contracts, working hours and overwork Te%&or'r/ 'n5 &er%'nent #ontr'#ts 're reO'r5e5 5i11erentl/ in t9e l'8o4r st'rt6 ing %'r?et< Nn t9e one 9'n57 te%&or'r/ Oor?ers 9've ' %e5i'n O'ge o1 a X<LZ &er 9o4r< Host o1 t9e% 're 8etOeen IL 'n5 22 /e'rs ol5 'n5 9've ' %e5i4% level o1 e54#'tion< @res4%'8l/7 O9ile t'?ing terti'r/ or 4niversit/ 5egrees7 t9e/ Oor? te%&o6 r'ril/ 's O'itersQO'itresses7 re#e&tionists7 se#ret'ries7 o11i#e #ler?s7 #oo?s or s'les 'ssis6 t'nts< Nn t9e ot9er 9'n57 &er%'nent /o4ng Oor?ers r'nge in 'ge %ostl/ 1ro% 22 to 2X 'n5 e'rn on 'ver'ge a \<SK &er 9o4rg 2X &er #ent %ore t9'n t9e 1irst gro4& o1 te%&or'r/ Oor?ers< Vi%il'r to te%&or'r/ Oor?ers7 t9eir level o1 e54#'tion is %'inl/ %e5i4%< ^oOever7 t9e &er%'nent gro4& &resents ' 9ig9er &ro&ortion o1 st'rters Oit9 8ot9 8'si# 'n5 '5v'n#e5 levels o1 e54#'tion O9o Oor? in ver/ 5i11erent '#tivities in ter%s o1 &ro54#tivit/< :it9 re1eren#e to t9e i%&'#t o1 Oor?ing 9o4rs on /o4ngsters2 O'ges7 t9e %'in 1in56 ing is t9't 9o4rl/ s'l'ries 5e#line 's Oor?ing 9o4rs in#re'se< ! re'son t9't %'/ eR6 &l'in t9is &oint is t9't overti%e is #o%%onl/ seen in 9ig9er &ro&ortions in 4n5er5e6 velo&e5 #o4ntries7 O9ere tr'5e 4nions2 &oOer is rel'tivel/ Oe'? 'n5 l'8o4r l'Os 're %ore 1leRi8le< G4rt9er%ore7 e#ono%i# '#tivities li?e 'gri#4lt4re7 %'n41'#t4ring 'n5 #onstr4#tion 're %ore rel'te5 to overti%e t9'n #o%%er#i'l servi#es7 9e'lt9 #'re 'n5 e54#'tion< !#6 #or5ing to t9e 5't'7 ' `4'rter o1 t9e st'rters t9't Oor? %ore t9'n UL 9o4rs ' Oee? 5o so in 'gri#4lt4re7 t9e %'n41'#t4ring 'n5 #onstr4#tion in54str/< T9ose O9o Oor? less t9'n SX 9o4rs ' Oee? %'?e 4& onl/ \<Z &er #ent in t9ese se#tors<

K. Income and satisfaction with life !lso t9e rel'tion 8etOeen in#o%e 'n5 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 li1e 's6'6O9ole 9's 8een 'n'6 l/se5< Gor t9't &4r&ose7 t9ree in#o%e gro4&s Oere sele#te5 1ro% t9e 5't'c Oor?ers O9o e'rn less t9'n a X &er 9o4r7 t9ose O9o e'rn 8etOeen a X 'n5 a IK 9o4rl/7 'n5 l'stl/ t9ose O9o get &'i5 %ore t9'n a IK 'n 9o4r< B'#9 gro4& in5i#'te5 its level o1 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 li1e 'long ' s#'le t9't Oent 1ro% one Dver/ 5iss'tis1ie5E to ten DO9i#9 re&resents '8sol4te s'tis1'#tionE< !s t9e s#'le in#l45e5 ten n4%8ers7 t9e 1irst 1ive #o4l5 8e #onsi5ere5 's t9e 5iss'tis1'#tion 're'7 t9e l'st 1ive 's t9e s'tis1'#tion 're'< T9e t9ree in#o%e gro4&s &resente5 9ig9er levels o1 s'tis1'#tion t9'n o1 5iss'tis1'#6 tion< Cevert9eless7 it %4st 8e s'i5 t9't t9e &er#ent'ge o1 st'rters t9't s9oOe5 s'tis6 1'#tion Dlevels 1ro% Z to IK o1 t9e s#'leE in t9e gro4& t9't e'rne5 %ore t9'n a IK &er 9o4r O's 9ig9er t9'n t9e &er#ent'ges t9't eR9i8it 8ot9 t9e %i55le 'n5 t9e loOer in#o%e gro4&s< T9is %e'ns t9't t9ere is ' &ositive #orrel'tion 8etOeen in#o%e 'n5 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 li1e 's6'6O9ole7 or7 in ot9er Oor5s7 8etOeen %one/ 'n5 9'&&iness< ;n#o%e g'& st'rters 6 N#to8er 2KIK Q :'ge;n5i#'tor Go4n5'tion

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;n so%e gre'ter 5et'il7 \S<2U &er #ent o1 t9e st'rters O9o e'rn less t9'n a X &er 9o4r #l'i% to 8e s'tis1ie5 Oit9 li1e 's6'6O9ole< T9is &ro&ortion #li%8s to \\<LS &er #ent in t9e %i55le in#o%e gro4&7 'n5 4& to LX<22 &er #ent in t9e 9ig96e'rning gro4&< T9e s'%e #on#l4sion #'n 8e 'lso 'rrive5 't i1 t9e 'n'l/sis 1o#4ses onl/ on t9e eRtre%e v'l4es o1 t9e s#'le< T9e t9ree %ost intensive levels o1 5iss'tis1'#tion re&resent \<UI &er #ent o1 t9e loO6&'i5 st'rters7 Z<SS &er #ent o1 t9e %i55le6in#o%e ones7 'n5 Z<KU &er #ent o1 t9e /o4ngsters O9o e'rn %ore t9'n a IK 9o4rl/< Vi%il'rl/7 t9e t9ree 9ig96 est levels o1 s'tis1'#tion re&resent UL<K\ &er #ent o1 t9e 9ig96O'ge st'rters7 S]<LS &er #ent o1 t9e /o4ngsters O9o get &'i5 1ro% a X to a IK 'n 9o4r7 'n5 2Z<KX &er #ent o1 t9e gro4& t9't gets t9e loOest e'rnings<

9. Other t3pes of satisfaction T9e l'st 'n'l/sis o1 t9is re&ort involves l'8o4r st'rters2 levels o1 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 t9eir &'/7 fo8 'n5 leis4re ti%e< ;n ' s#'le t9't goes 1ro% one Dt9e 5egree o1 '8sol4te 5iss't6 is1'#tionE to 1ive7 t9e /o4ngsters2 level o1 9'&&iness in rel'tion to t9eir Oor?ing #on5i6 tions7 O'ge 'n5 1ree ti%e O's eR'%ine5< deg'r5ing t9e levels o1 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 &'/7 UL<S] &er #ent o1 t9e l'8o4r st'rters 're 5is6 s'tis1ie5 Oit9 t9e O'ge t9e/ e'rn< Ce'rl/ 9'l1 o1 t9e%7 t9't is7 22<U &er #ent o1 t9e Oor?ers 'ge5 8etOeen IL 'n5 2X7 #l'i% to 8e ver/ 5iss'tis1ie5 Oit9 t9eir in#o%e< >/ #ontr'st7 2I<2 &er #ent 're 9'&&/ Oit9 t9eir e'rnings 'n5 ' `4'rter o1 t9e% 6 X<Z\ &er #ent o1 t9e /o4ng6 sters 6 're 5elig9te5 Oit9 t9eir O'ges< Gin'll/7 SK<UI &er #ent o1 l'8o4r st'rters 1eel in5i11er6 ent '8o4t t9eir &'/< T9ere1ore7 t9ere is ' 9ig9er &ro&ortion o1 5iss'tis1'#tion t9'n s'tis1'#6 tion Oit9 reg'r5 to st'rters2 e'rnings< Cevert9eless7 U] &er #ent o1 t9e /o4ngsters eR&ress s'tis1'#tion Oit9 t9eir fo8s< ;n 1'#t7 IL<XX &er #ent s9oO 14ll s'tis1'#tion Oit9 t9eir Oor?ing #on5itions< >/ #ontr'st7 onl/ 22 &er #ent 're 5iss'tis1ie5 Oit9 t9eir fo8s 'n5 2] &er #ent eR&ress in5i11eren#e< Gin'll/7 Oit9 re1eren#e to t9e levels o1 s'tis1'#tion Oit9 leis4re ti%e7 t9e 5istri84tion o1 t9e 'nsOers is even< ! t9ir5 o1 t9e /o4ngsters 're 5iss'tis1ie5 Oit9 t9eir 1ree6ti%e7 O9ere's SZ &er #ent o1 t9e 'nsOers #l'i% s'tis1'#tion in t9is 're'< T9e ot9er SK &er #ent s9oOs in5i11er6 en#e Oit9 reg'r5 to leis4re ti%e<

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10. Appendix - Statistics Table 1 – Evolution of hourly wages by country in terms of PPP

Table 2 – Evolution of hourly wages by occupation in terms of PPP

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Table 3 - Hourly wages of the qualified and unqualified starting population, by country in terms of PPP

Table 4 - Hourly wages of the qualified and unqualified workers aged 32 to 40, by country in terms of PPP

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Table 5 - Hourly wages of the upper 50 qualified and unqualified workers, by country in terms of PPP

Tables 6, 7 and 8 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Youngsterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hourly wages and firm sizes

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Table 9 – Location of work and hourly wages

Table 10 – Household members and hourly wages

Table 11 – Impact of types of contract in hourly wages

Table 12 – Working hours and hourly wages

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Tables 13, 14 and 15 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Working hours and industries

Table 16 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Levels of satisfaction in life as-a-whole of the labour starters who earn less than P 5 PPP

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Table 17 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Levels of satisfaction in life as-a-whole of the labour starters who earn between P 5 and P10 PPP

Table 18 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Levels of satisfaction in life as-a-whole of the labour starters who earn more than P10 PPP

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Table 19 – Labour starters’ levels of satisfaction with pay

Table 20 – Labour starters’ levels of satisfaction with job

Table 21 – Labour starters’ levels of satisfaction with leisure time

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Income Gap Starters  

According to data gathered by Wage Indicator websites, labour starters earn twice or three times more in de- veloped countries than in emerg...

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