Executive Summary Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management in the Bang Pakong Basin Ecosystems
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Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, B.E. 2550 Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the Ecosystems in the Bang Pakong Basin Bangkok, 31 p.
Bang Pakong-Prachinburi Basin
July B.E. 2551
No. of Print 50 No. of pages 31 Publisher
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INTRODUCTION The Bang Pakong and Prachinburi are important River Basins in the East of Thailand. The overexploitation of the limited natural resources has caused their degradation. There are many environmental problems from the upstream to the downstream. Many governmental sectors are trying to recover the problems. The Government Cabinet has agreed on January 4, B.E. 2548 that the concerned organizations have to continuously protect and solve the water pollution problems in the two basins. The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning was assigned to prepare the environmental strategic plans to develop and improve the environmental problems in the basins. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment has an urgent top priority policy that much of the work has to solve the water problems in the basins. The plans and projects under the Ministry must be internally integrated as well as integration with concerned organizations in order to develop integrated management plans for the Bang Pakong basin development in the fiscal year B.E. 2551-2554. In B.E. 2549, the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) provided budgets to prepare strategic framework on integrated management and rehabilitation of the Bang Pakong ecosystems. In B.E. 2550, ONEP has coordinated and enhanced the integrated management of natural resources and environment according to the developed strategies. The monitoring, evaluation programs and models were developed for the management and rehabilitation of the ecosystems of the Bang Pakong Basin. In B.E. 2551, the monitoring and evaluation project was implemented in the Bang Pakong and Prachinburi basins. The purposes of the project were to continuously monitor and evaluate the changes of natural resources and environmental status using the developed programs and models. There are many projects by various organizations conducted in the two basins that are required to continuously monitoring. In addition, these up to date databases and information will reflect the real situation of resources and environment in the basins. However, the local organizations need to be strengthened to use these programs and models to monitor and evaluate the natural resources and environment. They will be able to analyze problems and constraints in their work following the developed integrated management strategies. They can also provide suggestion on improvement of the management and development plans for sustainable management and development of the basins. Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning July B.E. 2551
Contents Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management in the Bang Pakong Basin Ecosystems Executive Summary 1. 2.
Introduction Conclusion on Status of Natural Resources and Environment in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi Basins 2.1 Conclusion on Basic Databases of the Basins 2.2 Status of Natural Resources and Environment Results from the Integrated Management and Development of the Basins Directions for Basin Ecosystem Management of Natural Resources and Environment 4.1 Natural Resources and Environmental Changes and Consideration Issues 4.2 Suggestion on Directions and Plans for Conservation and Rehabilitation of Natural Resources and Environment by Individual Ecosystem Monitoring Models of Status of Natural Resources and Environment in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi Basins
1 2 2 5 9 16 16 19 22
Figures of Contents Figure 2-1 2-2 5-1
Page Topography and boundaries of the Pakong-Prachinburi basins Sub-basins in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins Structures and components of the monitoring and evaluation systems
3 4 24
Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management in the Bang Pakong Basin Ecosystems
Executive Summary 1.
The Bang Pakong and Prachinburi river basins, the main river basins in the East of Thailand, have diversified natural resources and environment. These basins are also important for agricultural productions. At present, the development and the change of economic structures have altered the agriculture bases to more industrialization. Land uses are converted into factories, roads, communities and residences. This fast development is beyond the capacity of the resource availability, causing diminishing of resources, land degradation, soil contamination and increasing environmental problems from the upstream to downstream. The decreasing of forest areas was imbalancing the basin ecosystems, hence shortage of water supply and causing water pollution. There were rapid urbanization expansion that were not consistent with the urban and city plans including lack of facilities and utilities. The solid and toxic wastes from households were increased. Similarly, the agricultural lands are degraded and abandoned. The natural and cultural environment were encroached and destroyed. In addition, saltwater is intruded into upstream to the upper part of the Bang Pakong and Prachinburi Rivers. The mangrove forests at the Nakorn Nayok River estuary are decreased. There are land uses conflicts among land users in the basins. From these degradations and imbalances of ecosystems, ONEP developed important and urgent policies to solve the problems in the Bang Pakong and Prachinburi basins, as a pilot project. The project was integrated between the plans within the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) and concerned outside organizations in the basins. Since B.E. 2550, the Natural Resources and Environmental Management Division has coordinated and enhanced the projects. The programs and models to monitor and evaluate the resources were developed. Hence, the future ecosystem management in the Bang Pakongâ€“ Prachinburi river basins will be suitable to the change status of resources in the basins. This will lead to the efficient actions. Therefore, it is essential to employ these models developed in B.E. 2550 to monitor the ecosystems in the basins. They will help to analyze problems and constraints in the integrated manners of resources in the basins. The models also provide suggestion on continuity, efficiency and sustainable of the basins management and development. These models are tools and mechanisms to link the work conducted by the Central and Local Governments to increase higher efficiency and products in the Bang Pakongâ€“Prachinburi basin management and development.
Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management in the Bang Pakong Basin Ecosystems
ONEP assigned the Tesco Ltd. in cooperation of Kasetsart University to conduct this Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the Ecosystems in the Bang Pakong Basin Project according to the Agreement No. 72/2551, dated December 20, B.E. 2550. The working period is 210 days. Objectives: The objectives of this project, â€œMonitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the Ecosystems in the Bang Pakong Basinâ€? are as below: 1. To monitor and evaluate the changes in status of natural resources and environment of ecosystems in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins that were conducted according to the integrated Bang Pakong management and development plans; and 2. To improve the efficiency of the developed models on monitoring and evaluation of status of natural resources and environment using tools and mechanisms of the concerned Central and Local organizations to improve their management and rehabilitation of the basins ecosystems. Aims: The products are: 1. There are databases and reports on change status of natural resources and environment of the ecosystems in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins. 2. There are models on monitoring and evaluation of status of natural resources and environment in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins that are linked to concerning organizations in the basins.
Conclusion on Status of Natural Resources and Environment in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi Basins
Conclusion on Basic Databases of the Basins
The two important basins in the East, Bang Pakong-Prachinburi have a total area of 18,853.27 km2 or 11,783,293.75 Rai. The areas are mostly in Chacheongsao, Prachinburi, Nakorn Nayok, Chonburi and Sra Kaew provinces and partly in Sara Buri, Chanthaburi, Nakorn Ratchasima and Pathumthani provinces. The areas, (based on the GIS databases and analysis of the Department of Water Resources, B.E. 2551) cover 320 sub-districts in 52 Districts. The area is divided into main basin and sub-basin as follow:
Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management in the Bang Pakong Basin Ecosystems
Figure 2-1 Topography and boundaries of the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins
Figure 2-2 Sub-basins in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins
The Bang Pakong Basin: The total area 8,891.74 km2 is divided into 4 subbasins, including the Mae Nam Nakorn Nayok, Klong Tha Lad, Klong Luang and Mae Nam Bang Pakong Plain.
The Prachinburi Basin: The total area 9,961.53 km2 is divided into 4 sub-basins, including Klong Pra Sathung, Mae Nam Pra Prong, Mae Nam Hanumarn and Lower Mae Nam Prachinburi.
Topographically, the two basins are mainly flats that are under with paddy fields. Small parts in the North of the basins, under forests are low mountain of San Kamphaeng Range that divides the East, Central and Northeast Regions. The floodplains in Chacheongsao and Nakorn Nayok provinces are suitable for rice production. In the South of the area, there is Ban Thad Mountain Range that divides Thailand and Cambodia. There is Chanthaburi Range in the far South. The Prachinburi River flows from the West and joins the Bang Pakong River in Nakorn Nayok province to form the Bang Pakong main River, then flows southward by through the flat topography in Chacheongsao province. The River, then continuously flows into the Gulf of Thailand in the Bang Pakong District. 2.2
Status of Natural Resources and Environment
Forest Ecosystem: • The Forest in the area, 3,912.96 km2 includes part of the Conservation Forests that are under the 4 National Parks and 3 Wildlife Sanctuaries. These National Parks are part of Khao Yai, Thap Lan, Pang Sida and Sam Lanh Waterfall. The Wildlife Sanctuaries are Ang Rue Nai, Khao Soi Dao and Khao Keaw-Khao Chompoo. The Khao Yai National Park, Pang Sida National Park and Thap Lan National Park are part of Dong Phaya Yen-Khao Yai World Heritage Forest Site. The Ang Rue Nai and Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuaries are parts of the 5 province- boarder forests (of the East) that are ecologically important site also. • The forest utilization areas, 3,027.72 km2 have been divided according to the Government Cabinet on 10 and 17 March B.E. 2535, into 3 zones. They are 1,128.73 km2 of Conservation Forest (Zone C), 1,759.19 km2 of Economic Forest (Zone E) and 139.80 km2 of Agricultural Suitable (Zone A). These zones are 5.99%, 9.33% and 0.74% of the basins respectively. • According to the watershed class, the watershed class 1 and 2 must be preserved as water resources have 2,363.39 km2 or 12.54% of the basin. The watershed classes 1 and 2 are divided into class 1A, 1B and 2 with an area of 1,488.89 km2, 56.58 km2 and 817.92 km2 respectively. • In B.E. 2550, the areas of the fertile forest in all the 7 Preserved Forests are 3,638.48 km2 or 92.93% of the total forest areas in the basins. There is a trend of recent replantation that the conditions of forest are better than the past (in B.E. 2545 the fertile forests were 3,607.28 km2 or 92.19%).
• In B.E. 2550, the upper watershed forests have been replanted, hence the fertile forest condition recovered to 2,324.26 km2 or 98.34% of the whole upper watershed. According to the evaluation of the last 5 years, the forest areas increased 5.11% as compare to the year B.E. 2545 • There are potential forest areas that may be combined into larger reserved forests. They are 46,034.10 Rai in Khao Yai National Park, 3,500.00 Rai in Pang Sida National Park, 88,962.57 Rai in Thap Lan National Park, 20,590.50 Rai in Sam Lanh Waterfall National Park, 6,223.50 Rai in Khao Keaw-Khao Chompoo Wildlife Sanctuary and 14,000.00 Rai in Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary. Agriculture Ecosystem: • In B.E. 2550, the agriculture ecosystem included 4,060 km2 of paddy field, 3,899 km2 of upland crops, 790 km2 of fruit orchard, 1,966 km2 of tree, 714 km2 of aquaculture and 129 km2 of livestock. • According to soil quality, there are problem soils for agricultural productions, including 6.054.55 km2 or 32.11% of Acid Sulfate Soils, 1,261.78 km2 or 6.69% of Saline Soils, 6,899.54 km2 or 36.60% of Shallow and Gravelly Soils, 3,276.08 km2 or 17.38% of Steep Slope and 68.57 km2 or 0.36% of the most severely eroded lands. • The average annual surface-water flow is 8,654 million m3. But the storages in the existing and proposed constructions are be only 800 million m3 or 9.3% of the total water volume. This figure does not include water storage under the Bang Pakong water management. Therefore, the basins are very vulnerable to water shortage. It is necessary to seek for more water storages for future water demands in the basins. • At present, the irrigation areas in the Prachinburi basin are totally 626,477 Rai. The potential irrigated areas are 936,487 Rai. The irrigated areas in the Bang Pakong basin are 1,449,158 Rai with possible expansion to 1,575,738 Rai in the future. Water Resource Ecosystem: • There are 3 important rivers including the Mae Nam Nakorn Nayok and Mae Nam Prachinburi that flow and join together to form the Bang Pakong River. There are many natural tributaries of the three rivers, forming a river network. They are 105 streams in the Mae Nam Nakorn Nayok, 162 streams in the Prachinburi and 48 streams in the Bang Pakong. • According to the monitoring in B.E. 2546, the surface water quality in the main rivers and their tributaries were lower than the standard. This condition continues to the present. The water quality in the Bang Pakong, from river estuary to Bang Chanak Bridge, Bang Nam Preow, Chacheongsao province is still not improved. The water quality is in category 3-5 as indicated by DO and BOD. In certain areas high levels of heavy metals above standards like Cd and Zn were detected. The quality of surface water in the Bang Pakong River estuary, Baan Pho district, Muang district, Bang Khla district and Bang Nam Preow district was low. The water quality on Prachinburi River was deteriorated in category 4-5 as indicated by BOD, coliform bacteria and fecal coliforms. The standards for the deteriorated water quality are ammonia, nitrate, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni and Cd. The water quality in the Nakorn Nayok, in general also deteriorated, in category 2-5 as indicated by DO, BOD, ammonia, nitrate, Ni and Mn.
City and Community Ecosystem: • In B.E. 2550, there were 56 municipals in 551.37 km2 or 2.92% of the two basins area. •
The average daily solid waste from the community was 5.22 kg per person
• There are 4 solid waste treatment plants that are according to the sanitary principle. They are in Muang Chacheongsao, Bang Khla, Phanas Nikhom and Baan Bung communities. • According to the solid waste management, there are several problems including the high amount of solid waste, no suitable place for treatment/landfill in their own areas, lack of efficiency, lack of personal and equipment, limited budget and in-proper treatment or lack of cooperation from the local people. • The pollution sources from the communities included 56 million m3 of wastewater, 6.0 million kg BOD, 1.1 million kg BOD of TKN annually. It is estimated that in B.E. 2567, the total annual wastewater in the two basins will be 106 million m3, 11.4 million kg BOD and 2.1 million kg BOD of TKN. • About 70% of wastewater from communities and 30% from industries were released into the nearby river or natural streams. These were resulted from the increasing density of community and number of industries as well as chemical residues from agriculture. In addition there was lack of awareness of the local people in releasing wastewater into waterways without waste water treatment, particularly in the municipal areas along the rivers. Wastewater runoff was released to flow into the nearby natural waterways. • The wastewater treatment systems are available only in the Muang Chacheongsao Municipal as an oxidation ditch system, and in Phanas Nikhom Municipal as a stabilization pond system. Industrial Ecosystem: • There are 2 industrial parks and 1 industrial zone with a total area of 157.43 km2. There were 5,039 factories distributed in the basins. • In B.E. 2550, there were 5,039 factories, among these 4,260 factories or 84.54% were type 3 factory, 394 factories or 7.82% were type 1 and 385 factories or 7.64% were type 2. • Currently there are 3 large industrial estates including Wellco, Gateway City and Ammata Nakorn. There is 1 industrial zone, the Kabinburi Region. There are 2 industrial parks including Sahaphat Network in Kabinburi district and 304 Industrial Park. • The problems of industrials in these basins were due to the Eastern Seaboard Development Project (ESB) where large amount of investments from various industrial sectors come in without good facility preparation. Therefore, the factories were disorderly distributed in the basins and difficult to control. It is difficult to control new settlemences and environments. The expansion of factories without proper management caused natural resources degradation including wastewater, solid waste, air and noise pollutions and toxic wastes. -7-
• However, the large industrials follow the regulations and measures of the Environmental Impact Assessment Studies (EIA). The environmental quality monitoring including air and noise pollutions, water quality and health were under the limit of the official standards. When the environmental problems that are not met with the standards, they have to improve. Coastal Ecosystem: • The degradation trend of mangrove has been improved. Currently, many private Organizations and NGO sectors are interested and aware of the important of the mangrove forests. There are reforestation and awareness on conservation and replantation of mangrove forest programs by local people. There is more people participation in mangrove forest management. • The Coastal Mangrove Forest Station 5 under the Department of Marine and Coastal Resources (DMCR) plays important roles in mangrove replantation. There were projects on mangrove replantation to bring back the natural fertile condition. Since B.E. 2545, there were 980 Rai of mangrove replantation in newly mudflat areas. • The coastal water quality was deteriorated, below the standards due to released water and wastewater from many sources. It was found that the annual nutrients like phosphate-phosphorus and nitrate-N were above the standards. The Bang Pakong River estuary has been long under coastal aquacultures. In addition, on to the Bang Pakong River banks there are communities, factories and swine farms that release wastes directly into the River. The released wastewater is toxic and dangerous to natural aqua-fauna, particularly the young sea juveniles, the nutrients released into the River estuary cause eutrophication that encourages for phyto-planktons to bloom “Red Tide” along the estuary. In some years, heavy metal contents in water, including Fe and Mn were missing standard limit. • Since B.E. 2538-2550, cage aquaculture has been gradually increasing. There were 111 owners with 9 Rai in B.E. 2538, but increased to 195 owners with 42 Rai in B.E. 2549. There is no increase since then due to economics and unsuitable water quality. • Nutritients in the River estuary is attracted to dolphin, particularly during November to February. There are three dolphin species, Creacella brevirostris and Neophocoena phoenoides that are attractive to tourists. The Sousa chinensis is on the red list of IUCN as rare species and on No. 1 list of the CITES that strictly no trading, except only for research study. Hence during November to February, this location is important for tourism activity of Chacheongsao province. • In B.E. 2550, DMCR reported that there were hundreds of dolphins feeding in this River estuary in B.E. 2545. There are now less numbers of dolphins due to less preys; such as sea-catfish, mullet fish and thread-fin fish hence they are found far away from the River estuary. There are about 50 dolphins at present, but only 5-10 dolphins are found at a time in the morning during November to February. There are 2 places to observe the dolphins, near the River estuary and the shell aquaculture areas.
Results from the Integrated Management and Development of the Basins
In B.E. 2550, there were many projects conducted according to the integrated management and development plan in the Bang Pakong basin by several organizations. They had spent 215.42 million Baht. One of the pilot projects was under the Bang Pakong ecosystems management that supported activities for conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources and environment. The projects conducted were the coordination on management of natural resources. During the past 2-3 years, the natural resources and environment have changed that impact to the human life in the ecosystems as follow: Forest Ecosystem: During the past, the integrated management and development plans gave high important to the conservation and rehabilitation of upper watershed areas in the Bang Pakong and Prachinburi basins. The Prachinburi basin is the upper watershed of the Bang Pakong basin. The main organization conducted these activities was National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department (NWPD) that involved in the management of the conserved forests to maintain in fertile condition. They constructed Check Dams to keep soil moisture for forests in the upper watershed. They are now trying to combine the nearby forests into the conserved forests. The Department of Water Resources (DWR) also involves in rehabilitation of watershed areas by construction of check dams. ONEP continuously for two years, conducted pilot projects in forest replantation in Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary. The Office also supports the combining of forests into the Wildlife Sanctuary area. They involved in rehabilitation of suitable habitat and food for wildlife. Similar pilot projects were conducted in Khao Yai National Park. The Office joint with the Office of Natural Resources and Environment of Nakorn Nayok province developed the degraded forests as a nature learning classroom. These activities are not only rehabilitated the natural resources, but also promote participation and cooperation among local organizations. In conclusion there were integrated activities in the forest ecosystem as follow: Fertility rehabilitation of forests in the upper watersheds â€˘ Rehabilitation of the upper water sources under the integrated management and development plans in B.E. 2550 was conducted by NWPD. There were 1,460 check dams constructed in degraded forests which will increase moisture to the soil and forests, reduce soil erosion and induce biodiversity in the upper watershed. The check dams were not only reduced soil erosion, but also increased water supply to the downstream areas. The storage water will be available for human and wildlife. There were 7.3 million Baht for 280 check dams in Hanumarn sub-basin, 400 check dams in Klong Tha Lad, 780 check dams in lower Parchinburi sub-basin. It is estimated that the moist forest areas will be more than 14,600 Rai.
• DWR constructed 27 check dams on the upper Lam Phaya Tharn, Bupham subdistrict, Nadee district, Chacheongsao province and on the upper Klong Tha Lad, Tha Takiap sub-district, Tha takiap district, Chacheongsao province. Each check dams provides moisture to 270 Rai of forests. Increase forest areas • This activity constructed roads around the Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary and planted forests in B.E. 2549. The activity was under the Bang Pakong ecosystem management project of ONEP. In the Tha Kadan sub-district, Sanam Chaikhet District, the degraded forests have been replanted and 100 Rai of forests have been combined into the Wildlife Sanctuary. In B.E. 2551, An Private Company provided additional fund to plant 331 Rai of forests. In B.E. 2549 the Wildlife Sanctuary planted 200,000 trees (5 km long) along the boundary under the support of the Office. This on-going activity will add more forest areas to the Wildlife Sanctuary. • There is a potential to combine forest lands into the conserved forests. This activity reviewed and analyzed the past work and found that many important conserved forests were under replantation to their former fertility level. These forests will be combined into the conserved forests. The Khao Yai National Park, Sam Lanh Waterfall National Park and Khao Ang Rue Nai have targeted of 46,034 Rai, 318 Rai and 37,975 Rai respectively that should be combined. Therefore, the conserved forest areas in the two basins will have high potential to increase. This activity should be supported by concerned organizations to conserve and reclaim forest and wildlife resources of the country. Rehabilitation of wildlife habitat and food potential areas • In B.E. 2550 the rehabilitation of wildlife food source areas were supported by the natural resources and environment coordination project under ONEP. The selected area in Thung Nong Khai, Moo 5, Klong Takao sub-district, Tha Takiap district, Chacheongsao province had 60 Rai. From the observation, there were foot traces of wildlife like barking deer, samber deer and elephant. This type of activity will be expanded to 15,000 Rai in Klong Hin swamp area by the Sanctuary. This swamp contains water for wildlife and many foot traces of wildlife were found. Therefore, it is indicated that this activity improve habitat of wildlife. Increasing management efficiency • In B.E. 2549 under the Bang Pakong ecosystem management project, strategies for management and rehabilitation of the Bang Pakong ecosystems were prepared for all forest conservation sites. Therefore, each Conservation Office should prepare master management plans that include classification of suitable zones for natural resources, fragile ecosystems and utilizations within carrying capacity. This should provides clear operation directions for management in the conservation zones. There are 4 National Parks that have prepared the management plans, including analysis and short and medium management terms. The long -10-
term plans cover many aspects, but in the similar direction. The plans are conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources and environment and promotion of nature study and research. The plans also include promotion of tourisms with participation processes of concerned communities and organizations and development of models for suitable and efficient management. NWPD have prepared integrated management plans for Dong Phaya Yen-Khao Yai forests. The plans prohibit the separation of National Park and the Wildlife Sanctuary. There should establish management organizations with financial supports to prepare yearly operation plans under the task “Maintain and sustain of ecosystems in the Dong Phaya Yen-khao Yai Forests in parallel to the management of tourism sites, research, dissemination knowledge and participation” Strengthening of participation process • Perception and awareness on conservation of local people There are 7 conserved forests, including 4 National Parks and 3 Wildlife Sanctuaries. These are important, at high priority in the country. The National Parks, Khao Yai, Thap Lan and Pang Sida and the Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary have been registered as World Heritage that is world important biodiversity. This status is highly recognized as forest resources, wildlife and high biodiversity. Hence, the management plans are accepted by all concerned organizations, including the people awareness and participation around the area. This ensures that the forests will be more conserved than the past. In addition, the conservation of natural resource and environment issues has been continuously alerted by concerned organizations. Therefore, the people aware on the important in natural resource conservations for their living and sustainable dwelling. In addition the eco-tourism issues are popular and have been promoted in these recent years. Therefore, the eco-tourisms are benefited to the people in the areas, like goods and services to the visitors. These eco-tourisms have developed tourism networks to promote the local economy. There are many conservation groups and clubs in all the nearby conserved forests. The people involve in activity and participate in caring of all conserved forests. • Cooperation and supporting the conservation activities There were organizations and clubs established by the government and private sectors in order to support the conservation activities of the Central and Locals. These activities enhanced the potential on management of the conserved forests. In the past the forests were large, but limited personals and budgets. Apart from the organizations and clubs, the supports were also from the government and private sectors, including scientific matters and budget. ONEP involved in forest replantation for food and habitat of wildlife in the Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary. The Department of Environmental Quality Promotion (DEQP) supported on awareness of environment for tourisms in Khao Yai National Park. The Sothorn Wararam Temple and Toyota Foundation continuously, for 5 years support on replantation of forests in the Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary. These cooperations indicate the conservation trend with budgeting supports that are important mechanisms in sustainable forest and wildlife conservation and replantation. -11-
Agriculture Ecosystem: The work conducted mainly by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives during the integrated management and development of the Bang Pakong basin had reclaimed and improved the agriculture ecosystem. ONEP of Pollution Control emphasized on promotion of sustainable agricultural development as well as management of toxics from agricultural sectors. These pilot projects are concluded as follow: • ONEP supported the establishment of a Demonstration Center and disseminated organic fertilizers to Baan Bo Klang community, Nakorn Nayok. This work was conducted under the Bang Pakong ecosystem management, B.E. 2549 project. At present, the organic fertilizers are selected as OTOP (One Tambon One Product). In addition, this Center has been supported from the Organization Development Institute as organic distribution center in the East. The Center promotes the sustainable agriculture for sustainable agriculture ecosystem in the basins. • In B.E. 2550, The Pollution Control Department (PCD) conducted project on wastewater management from swine farms. This project supported the wastewater treatment system for swine wastewater. These included databases of swine farms, evaluation of status and efficiency of the 218 participating farms. There were 55 wastewater treatment plants that were recovered. There were monitoring systems to evaluate the efficiency of the recovered wastewater treatment plants. In B.E. 2551, 56 swine farm owners were trained on green swine farming that have been expanded as friendly swine farms in the basins. • In B.E. 2550, PCD improved the potential of wastewater treatments from aquaculture. They was database development to evaluate the status of aquaculture and promotion on understanding of wastewater released from the ponds. There were seminars to increase knowledge and understanding of wastewater treatments from aquaculture. There were discussions among small groups of farmers. In addition, media were prepared for dissemination. In B.E. 2551, wastewater released from aquaculture were improved. There were databases on ponds and seminars on “aquaculture, reduce toxic and environmental friendly” in March-April B.E. 2551. There were measures on space allocation systems for fish aquaculture and number of fish cage aquacultures. • On 25 March B.E. 2550 at the Noen Hom TOA, Prachinburi province, PCD organized a seminar for farmer groups on improving and understanding in reducing toxics from paddy fields. Water Resource Ecosystem: The water resource ecosystem changed during the integrated Bang Pakong Management and Development Plans. The work was divided into two main parts, volume of water management and water quality improvement. DWR was responsible on water resource management, including water securing, additional water development, water resource rehabilitation and management. The water quality improvement was conducted by PCD and ONEP. The pilot projects in critical areas are concluded as follow: -12-
Secure, development and reclaim of water resources • In B.E. 2550, DWR under the integrated Bang Pakong management and development plans rehabilitated 11 water resources. They were Khao Kam Paeng, Khao Po Bon and Nam Klong Kok water resources improvement projects that were constructed to support the wildlife in the 5 province border forests. Hence, volumes of water were increased by 54,825 m3. The water resources constructed in Klong Tharn for household water supply, agriculture and flood and drought relief have capacity of 500,000 m3 that supplies water for 1,000 Rai of agricultural areas in 2 villages with 350 households. • There are 7 deteriorated natural water resources that were improved and rehabilitated for supply and consumption, balancing of the ecosystems and drought relief as follow: - Bung (swamp) Ta Chua, Phra Archarn sub-didtrict, Ongkarak district, Nakorn Nayok province (cancellation) - Bung Phra Archarn sub-didtrict, Ongkarak district, Nakorn Nayok province - Bung Huai Nam Sai, Lad Krathing sub-district, Sanam Chaikhet district, Chacheongsao province - Klong Takian water body, Klong Ploo sub-district, Nong Yai district, Chonburi province - Nong (swamp) Mo Hai, Baan Song sub-district, Phanom Sarakham district, Chacheongsao province - Baan Khao Pha Nang Phattana water body, Tha Kradan sub-district, Sanam Chaikhet district, Chacheongsao province - Baan Huai Kob water body, Khoo Yai Mee sub-district, Chacheongsao province to contain 1,157,250 m3 for 1,250 households • DWR has improved and rehabilitated the Bung Phra Archarn in Ongkarak district, Nakorn Nayok province in order to solve problems on lack of drinking and supply water. This project emphasized on participation of all stakeholders. The water available has increased to 47,200 m3 to 197 households. Water quality rehabilitation • PCD has rehabilitated the water pollution in Klong Sarapee. The Department, the farmer representative, the Bang Pakong, Prachinburi and Ton Le Sap Basin Sub-committees and concerned organizations agreed to appoint 2 working groups. They were working group on surveying and inspecting of pollution sources that cause water pollution in the Klong Sarapee. The other working group was on measures and controls according to the protection and solving pollution in the Klong Sarapee. The work included water volume, drainage, land use, fishery, cultivation, use of agricultural chemicals, sources of pollution and settlemences. They collected water and sediment samples that might be contaminated. They established 2 automatic water quality monitoring gauges in the fishing cage area in Baan Srang sub-district, -13-
Prachinburi province that is about 6 km south of the Klong Sarapee. The other guage is on the Prachinburi River, Bang Tan sub-district, Baan Srang district, Prachinburi province. The databases, dissemination system to public and an alarming system were prepared. The trainings on water quality monitoring and warning system were organized. The people were informed to understand the processes of the monitoring systems. They also involved in inspecting and maintaining the stations. From the obtained data, the working groups have successful in reducing the water pollution problems in the Klong Sarapee and nearby Prachinburi River. •
PCD has rehabilitated water pollution from households and Soonthorn Phichitaram temple. The wastewater treatment system was constructed in the Bung Pra Archarn community by PCD. The wastewater treatment was for individual household. The selection criteria were within 500 m from the Bung Pra Archarn; willingness of local people (obtained from questionnaires); general condition of each household as considered from bathroom, toilet and kitchen; and suitability of wastewater treatment site. From these criteria, 37 pilot treatment systems were constructed at Soonthorn Phichitaram temple areas and 31 households within 500 m from the Bung Pra Archarn. These efficient wastewater treatments were reasonable cost. Water resource management, conservation and rehabilitation networks • ONEP supported the Bang Pakong, Prachinburi and Ton Le Sap Basin subcommittees to organize the Bung Pra Archarn community meetings. These activities created networks among community leaders and members from 7 sub-districts on conservation and rehabilitation of the Bung Pra Archarn. At present, the network members have 16 sub-districts and the meeting is rotated every month to analyze and solve the problems together. These networks have continuous activities. • DWR established a Bang Pakong Operation Office. This office supports the work under the Regional Water Resources 6 on coordination among Local and Central offices, private sectors, public sectors. The networks and stakeholders have analyzed and processed the data according to the integrated Bang Pakong management and development plans and the pilot projects on integrated basin management. Increasing efficiency of water resources management • Water resource management is important for sustainable water development. They were flood network developments, warning systems and water allocation plans by the Department of Water Resources. The networks, 16 automatic remote stations covering the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins were capable to detect water flows, flood, drought and quality. There are 4 automatic meteorological Logger, 7 manual recording meteorological stations, 22 meteorological network stations and flashflood-landslide warning system in 22 risk villages.
• DWR set criteria for water allocation. The criteria were accepted by all water users, people and government sectors. They have plans to allocate water based on understanding and acceptation of people and all water users in the area. City and Community Ecosystem: There were pilot projects under the integrated Bang Pakong management and development plans for the city and community ecosystem as follow: • ONEP conducted pilot projects on environmental management study for 2 communities as livable communities. They were Bang Khla, Municipals and Tambon Organization Administrations (TOA) in the Bang Pakong River estuary, Chacheongsao province. The activities included nice looking of house’s front and improvement for livable city scenery and living. During 28-29 August B.E. 2550, study tour and workshop were organized for the two communities, 45 persons to observe the solid and wastewater management, green city and coastal ecosystem in the Rayong Municipal and the Khung Kraben Study Center in Chanthaburi province. These activities promoted the knowledge, understanding and application on future city environmental management. •
ONEP prepared Manual on Natural and Cultural Environment Management. There were 2 pilot projects on integrated natural and cultural environment management using participation in the Bang Pakong basin. The first project prepared a manual for management of natural and cultural environment. The other project prepared maps of environmentalcultural heritage of the Muang Chacheongsao Municipal and the Saint Paul community in Bang Teen Ped sub-district, Muang district, Chacheongsao province. Industrial Ecosystem: Under the integrated Bang Pakong management and development plans, B.E. 2550, PCD conducted project on clean technology in factories and community industries. They surveyed and developed databases of factory industries in Chacheongsao, Prachinburi and Nakorn Nayok provinces. They started with 5 pilot industrial types and 30 community industrials. At present, they are in the processes of strengthening the potential on industrial environmental management. They monitor air pollution from exhaust ventilation (CEMs) using computer linkages. It is under continuous monitoring that will be useful to future environmental monitoring from industrials. Coastal Ecosystem: According to the monitoring plans and activities, the status of coastal resources in Bang Pakong River mount are as follow:
• ONEP supported the study on designing, preparation of education nature trails and communication signs on Tha Kham natural islet, Tha Kham sub-district, Bang Pakong district, Chacheongsao province. The Tha Kham Municipal was the host on ecotourism. The work accomplished under the Bang Pakong ecosystem management, B.E. 2549. The project also supported the mangrove nature trails of Kong Karam Temple (Upper temple). This forest is one of three mangrove forests left in Bang Pakong district. According to the natural resources and environmental coordination project, B.E. 2550, the locals want to conserve and rehabilitated 20 Rai of mangrove for nature education, awareness and environmental learning sites for the youths. • DMCR supported the Education Center and provided media on dolphin and marine and river estuary conservation. The Center is at Kong Karam Temple, Bang Pakong district, Chacheonhsao province. • DMCR rehabilitated the coastal resources in the Bang Pakong basin using integration approaches. The activities included awareness on marine and coastal conservation. DMCR joined the local organizations to monitor and care of dolphins and the Rak Tha Le Thai youth camping. DMCR also established volunteers to protect marine and coastal resources. There were people networks involved in these activities. The results from these projects had returned the fertility to the marine and coastal resources, as 20 dolphins were found in November, B.E. 2550. The solid garbage was found less in the River. • At present, DMCR establishes office to promote dolphin conservation. The marine and coastal resources are continuously monitored for those illegal and destroy the ecosystem. There are marine and coastal ships 801 and 301 to continuously guard the coast. In B.E. 2550, DMCR has operated in the Bang Pakong River estuary, including Chacheongsao province and Klong Bang Tam Rhoo, Chonburi province, including the mangrove plantation.
Directions for Basin Ecosystem Management of Natural Resources and Environment
Natural Resources and Environmental Changes and Consideration Issues
The results from various plans and projects of concerned Central and Local organizations found that the natural resources and environment of the Bang Pakong and Prachinburi basins have changed. They are in a better conditions. There are important factors to be considered as directions for future managements. They are concluded below:
Issues to be considered for future management
Overall changes •
The 7 conserved forests, 2.45 million Rai remain the same as by the Acts. There are potential nearby forests, 179,310.67 Rai to be combined into the conservation forests.
Supports the replantation to increase forests in the upper watershed to their fertile using check dams construction and vetiver grass plantation.
1.45 million Rai or 98.34% of conserved forests and forests (1.48 million Rai) in the upper watershed, are in fertile condition. There were 5.11% rehabilitated to fertile forests, hence less areas to be replanted
Support and promote suitable environment for wildlife habitat.
Enhance process to combine forests and management as forest groups.
Promote the participation of local people on conservation and replantation with awareness and perception.
Promote sustainable agriculture, organic agriculture and reduce toxic contamination.
Study to prepare fair and efficient water allocation.
Establish networks and agricultural organizations and water user groups with participation.
The management with people participation were used, including networks and conservation organizations.
There are 10 million Rai of fertile soil. There are problem soils, including 3.8 million Rai of acid sulfate, 0.79 million Rai of saline, 4.3 million of shallow and 42,856 Rai of severely eroded that should be rehabilitated.
There are wastewater pollution from agriculture, chemical contamination and pesticides in water resources.
The annual surface water, 8,654 MCM available, but only 740 MCM or 9.3% is stored. It is very fragile in water allocation.
There are currently 2.08 million Rai irrigated areas. The potential irrigated areas are 2.51 million Rai.
There are problems on shortage of water, flood, intrusion of saltwater due to water allocation problems. There are wastewater from agriculture, like Bung Pra Archarn and Klong Sarapee.
There are many abandoned fields.
Surface water quality in the main rivers, Prachinburi is mainly in category 4-5, when the target is bellow category 2, the Nakorn Nayok mainly in category 2-5 and Bang Pakong mainly in category 3-5. The water category 3-5 is deteriorated. The target for water quality is below category 3.
The wetlands were not considered and managed. Hence, it has impact to water quality and quantity in the basins.
• Construct the perception and awareness on water resource conservation. • Promotion and supporting the conservation and rehabilitation of water quality to category 3 in all streams for sustainable development. • Give important to wetland management with local people participation.
Ecosystem City and Community
Issues to be considered for future management
Overall changes •
There are 56 communities, but only 18 • Enhance and enforce the city planning for every community. communities have community plans.
The daily average of solid waste was 5.22 • Support and enhance all communities to have efficient solid and wastewater kg/person. The cities and communities treatment systems. have no efficient and suitable solid waste treatments. There are currently 4 sanitary • Support and promote the city land fills. environmental management according to the livable city. There were 70% of wastewater from communities and 30% from industrials. Currently the combined wastewater treatments are in Chacheongsao and Phanas Nikhom municipals.
Some TOA managers need to understand the city quality management.
There are currently 6 large industries and • Support and promote the concepts of clean technology for productions. 5,039 factories in the basins. Factories outside the estates and regional industries • Strictly law enforcement including or near to communities were complained measures for pollution management on pollution, including wastewater, air and from factories. noise pollution and smell. This was • Promote the new industrials in the because of the rapid expansion of factories industrial settlement or industrial zones and the lack of efficient environmental where there are efficient treatment management. systems.
Coastal water quality is deteriorated, • There should have awareness and perception on reduction of toxics mainly due to nutrition parameters that are release into water resources and coastal above the standards. The heavy metals water. from industrials and communities are higher than standards in some areas. In the • Strict law enforcement on releasing of river estuary, the low water quality is due waste from industrials located along the to cage fishing. river estuary. There are very small areas of mangrove • Apply law and incentive measures to forest that are nursing areas of fauna and increase mangrove areas for young fertility of marine resources. fauna nursery, disaster protection and
Coastal erosions are still severe problems in some areas. • The tourism for dolphin watching is lack of order and system that may impact to the dolphin habitat. •
coastal erosion prevention. Control the number of fish cages in the river estuary and promote environmental friendly management. Properly organize suitability and scientifically for dolphin watching.
• Construct knowledge and strengthen the cooperation of networks and organizations on conservation of marine and coastal resources.
Suggestion on Directions and Plans for Conservation and Rehabilitation of Natural Resources and Environment by Individual Ecosystem
The suggestion and conservation plans for future conservation and rehabilitate under the integrated Bang Pakong management and development are as follow: Forest Ecosystem: 1. Even though the 7 conserved forests, 2.5 million Rai in the basins are more than 90% fertile and the protections are efficient, the preservation, conservation and replantation should emphasis on soil moisture for sustainable water sources on upstreams. It will provide regular water supply to down streams. It should give special important on the clear definition of the conserved zones in order to proactive protection of the forests. In addition, it should combine the nearby fertile forests together. The forest fire areas, 937,500 Rai should apply the wet forest breaks. The vetiver grass plantation will slow water flow from upstreams as well as protect soil erosion. The check dam construction should be continued in Klong Tha Lad, Lower Prachinburi and Hanumarn sub-basins. In addition, the check dams should be constructed in the Mae Nam Nakorn Nayok, Mae Nam Pra Prong and Klong Sathung subbasins. The target of the check dams is 1,200 locations. Each Check Dams will provide moisture to 100 Rai. 2. The networks and mechanisms on community participation on preservation, conservation and replantation should be promoted to increase fertile forests, particularly in the degraded forests and around the conserved forests. It should follow the local cultures, traditions and indigenous knowledge as well as following the community forests or â€œFood Bankâ€? according to the Kingâ€™s Initiation. There should have promotion on cooperation in the expansion of forests by combining the 170,000 Rai of outside forests into the reserved forests. 3. Research study on development potential and increase carrying capacity of nature and environment for eco-tourisms should be supported and promoted. A master plan for specific locations including the characteristics for suitable zoning should be developed. The rules and regulations should be developed in order to lead to sustainable utilization. Specifically, the master plan preparation for the conserved areas, like Khao Ang Rue Nai and Khao Kaew-Khao Chompoo Wildlife Sanctuaries have to emphasis in all reserved areas. 4. The areas to rehabilitate the food and water sources for wildlife in the 3 Wildlife Sanctuaries in the basins should be surveyed. These will provide sufficient areas for wildlife habitats that they may not move outside the forests and have conflict with the surrounding communities.
Water resource Ecosystem: 1. Management the demand of water utilization for all activities of all sectors at highest benefits. These should be accepted by all stake holders to remove all conflicts. The integrated surface and underground water resource management should be employed for water supply and drinking and productions in the basins. The people participation should be involved on the proper water demand and supply in both upper and down streams. The water utilization should confine to the lifestyle and indigenous knowledge, technically and economically suitable as well as equity and equality. 2. Conservation and rehabilitation of water quality in the Bang Pakong River, including its 48 streams and the Nakorn Nayok River and its 105 streams in a sustainability of the surface water quality standard category 3. The water quality in the Prachinburi river and its 162 streams is important to fertile and balance utilization according to the environmental change and quality of human life in the basin. 3. Controlling of the 56 communities in the basins on efficient wastewater treatment. The quality of water releases into natural streams must be above standards in order to reduce the impact from their sources. This includes water releases from agriculture, livestock, shrimp pond, aquaculture and wastewater from communities. 4. Campaigning on awareness and cooperation of networks on pollution and environmental quality management. This should include the care of water resources, promotion on reduction of wastewater from productions, and the application of clean technologies. Agriculture Ecosystem: 1. Promotion on suitable agricultural land use in accordance to soil quality. This can be done through suitable land use planning, land recovery and rehabilitation of problem soils. These are recoveries of 3.8 million Rai of acid sulfate, 0.8 Rai of saline and 33,656 Rai of abandoned shrimp and fish ponds. The soil fertility status should be increased and the abandoned land should be recovered for agricultural uses. 2. The good agricultural lands should be protected for sustainable productions as these highly suitable lands are limited. Therefore, they should be protected and maintain for only agricultural uses. The uses of these suitable lands for other purposes will not only reduce the suitable lands, but also increase the uses of unsuitable and marginal areas for other productions. The suitable agricultural land zoning and buffering will reduce conflicts for the future land uses.
3. Development and promotion of unsuitable 0.45 million Rai, 0.08 million Rai and 6.7 million Rai of aquaculture, livestock and crop cultivation areas respectively for sustainable land uses. The laws and incentives measures should be developed and applied. For examples, they are freshwater and saltwater shrimp aquacultural areas. The cage fishing and other aquaculture areas and swine farms should be managed. These managements in the whole basins should be under the Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and measures of sustainable environment management as â€œCode of Conductâ€? (CoC). City and Community Ecosystem: 1. Limit the land utilization zoning of all cities and communities according to the city plans for good city environments, livable city and sustainability. The natural resource and city activities and urbanization expansion must be balanced. The urbanization expansion should consider the capacity of the resources and ecosystems. The similar city activities should be arranged in the same area, but separate the un-like activities away from each others. These arrangements will give the best benefits to resource allocations. The facility and utility are suitable to the need of people and good living conditions. It should emphasis on community waste disposal along the riversides. These can be done by developing local environmental rules and regulations. 2. The natures, cultural and historical and archaeological sites should be conserved, protected and rehabilitated by announcing the conservation and environmental protection zones. The business housing areas and suitable land utilizations must be in ordered. This includes the monitoring on illegal encroachment and the natural degradation of natural and cultural heritages for sustainability. It should promote the local people participation in conservation, protection and controlling the environment quality, eco-tourisms, cultures and historical and archaeological sites. These promotions include the understanding, valuation and important of these properties at nation and international levels. 3. Enhancing the 56 TOAs to have efficient and suitable wastewater treatment systems. This is important to municipal level, such as communities living on river banks or high density population. These communities must have wastewater treatment systems before releasing treated water in to natural streams. 4. Promotion of the 56 communities to have suitable and sustainable community environments, including solid waste management, efficient wastewater treatment and increasing greening zones according to the livable city concepts. The greening areas should not be less than 10% of the community area. The city development must be controlled and the city scenery must be promoted using participations of all sectors. There should have efficient city waste treatment systems in the basins. The solid waste should be gathered and properly treated according to sanitary engineering by each TOA.
Industrial Ecosystem: 1. Controlling and promotion of the future expansion of industries to confine to the suitable zones that have been prepared with infrastructures, facilities and efficient waste treatment systems. The promotion of new factories and industrial estates and parks should be in the assigned zone. There are 6 locations, 6,425 Rai, available before opening any new area. The city law enforcement should be implemented. 2. Monitoring and law enforcement to control the environmental quality of the 837 large factories and the 5,039 factories distributed in the basins. Incentive measures to the owners to have good environmental management should be initiated. 3. Clean technologies for industrial productions should be promoted. Coastal Ecosystem: 1. The few mangrove areas must be conserved and replanted, including the nipa palm plantation. The degraded coastal forests should be rehabilitated, including the abandoned shrimp ponds on Tha Kham islet and the newly emerging mud-lands. These areas are for nursing ground for juveniles. Wastewater must be treated before release into the sea. Coastal erosion must be reduced and coastal environment should be protected. 2. Supporting and promotion of conservation fishing using proper fishing gears in accordance to traditional and indigenous knowledge. The damaging fishing gear must be banned. The awareness and strengthening of the coastal conservation and rehabilitation networks should be developed. 3. Suitable and environmental friendly cage aquacultures of the 195 owners with 42 Rai along the Bang Pakong River estuary should be encouraged. 4. The Bang Pakong River estuary should be announced as an environmental protection zone, using the Acts 43 on the Enhancement and Conservation of the National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992)
Monitoring Models of Status of Natural Resources and Environment in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi Basins
The developed models for monitoring and evaluation on management and rehabilitation of ecosystems in the Bang Pakong basin, B.E. 2550 were developed and designed. They will support the analysis of plans/projects. The strategy on management and rehabilitation of the Bang Pakong ecosystems will be conformed. The models provide products, results and impacts from the conducted projects that have targets, products and indicators, as well as an evaluation of Geoinformatics databases. It included the pilot projects
conducted in B.E. 2549. These developed models are linked to online website by registering to http://bpkeco2.onep.go.th These models developed in B.E. 2550 were confined to the monitoring, policy and plan, evaluations and measures of action taken for natural resources and environments that were conducted in B.E. 2548. These models will also monitor and evaluate the Environmental Quality Management Plan B.E. 2545-2549 and B.E. 2550-2554. These systems are linked to the Central, Local and networks in the basins. The participating organizations are able to search, improve and analyze the status of natural resource and environmental data online via internet, using ID code. The revised or improved data will be approved before releasing to public. The structures of the systems have been conceptualized and designed, joint with the staff who responsible for providing and receiving the data via internet networks. There are 7 data groups as shown in Figure 5-1 They are: 1. History of data. This data group presents the introduction of the project, including past education, objectives, targets, study area and framework that are confined to ONEP. 2. Databases on status of natural resources and environment. This data group is designed to disseminate the data and information of the study area. They are: â€˘
Basin databases include topography, boundary, characteristic of the basins and administrative boundary in the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi river basins.
Important spatial databases include the 7 conserved forests. They are 4 National Parks including Khao Yai, Pang Sida, Thap Lan and Sam Lanh Waterfall. There are 3 Wildlife Sanctuaries, including Khao Ang Rue Nai, Khao Keaw-Khao Chompoo and Khao Soi Dao. The data also include the 5 province boarder forests in the East.
Data on natural resources and environment in the ecosystems that were obtained from the study. There are 6 ecosystems, including forest, agriculture, water resource, city and community, industrial and coastal.
3. Data on important policy and plans. These are data on policy and plans for the basins as compiled from ONEP. The data are for those who interested to use the systems. They compose of integrated Bang Pakong management and development plans, strategic plans to manage and rehabilitate the Bang Pakong ecosystems, environmental quality management plans, B.E. 2550-2554 and the development strategic plans of the Bang PakongPrachinburi provinces. 4. Management supporting systems. These are the most important data in the models. The systems are designed to online support the status of natural resource and environment from concerned organizations. They are 3 sub-systems as below:
Figure 5-1 Structure and component of the monitoring models
The reports and indicators for monitoring of natural resource and environment are input from responsible organizations. The in-charge persons have to log into the systems. The menus is as below: - Reports on monitoring of natural resource and environment - Recorded forms - Additional records
The Geoinformatics database systems display the status of resources in map format. There are 94 maps that can be downloaded. There are many spatial and GIS data as follow: - 11 layers of L7018 topographic maps of the Royal Survey Department - 13 layers of basic databases - 14 layers of forest ecosystem - 19 layers of agriculture ecosystem - 15 layers of water resource ecosystem - 24 layers of city and community and industry ecosystem - 18 layers of coastal ecosystem
There are Map Server and high resolution satellite data and satellite data from Google Earth that coordinates are given. This information is clear to display as maps. The report system under these Geoinformatics databases shows the Map Server of the Natural Resources and Environmental Coordination Project and the Map Server of the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Bang Pakong Natural Resources and Environment Project that cover the two basins. •
The Decision Support System (DSS) designed to illustrate the information that has been compiled. The system includes the Decision Model of important issues. These will help the decision makers to decide on option or probability incidents in the area. There are 17 cases as follow: - Boundaries of province and district - Forests on upper watershed - Agricultural areas - Problem soils for agriculture - Soil/land management - Management of abandoned shrimp ponds - Rehabilitation of abandoned tiger prawn ponds - Rehabilitation of abandoned saltwater shrimp ponds - Steps on reclamation of shrimp ponds in freshwater zone with marine subsoil - Treatment system and wastewater treatment from freshwater fish ponds - Management of pollution from swine farms
DSS of wastewater from swine farms (Source: Agricultural Wastewater Section, Water Quality management Division, Department of Pollution Control) Area and dimension of suitable greening zones Comparisons of water quality according to the water resource types Management of small reservoirs (Source: information Section, Office of Technology and Communication, Department of Land Development and Consultants from the Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University) Management of suitable water barriers Mangrove forest areas
5. Dissemination of scientific and referencing data. These folders are used for searching and downloading all past studied scientific papers. They can be used in many aspects as follow: •
Reports on Ecosystem Management of the Bang Pakong Basin Project and the Bang Pakong Natural Resources and Environmental Coordination Project.
Reports under the Coordination Project on Natural Resources and Environmental Management of Ecosystems in the Bang Pakong Basin. The booklets are Elephant of Khao Ang Rue Nai, Life Style in Klong Tah Lad, Protection of Good Agricultural Lands, Combination of Conserved Forests, Youth Conservationist Camp, Protection of Coastal Environment, Bang Pakong River Mount and Conserved Bung Pra Archarn Network.
Disseminated publications are - Environmental Related Laws - Environment Foundation Fund - Simple Solid Waste Management - Management of Water Barriers - Environmental Management of Liveable City - Rehabilitation of Abandoned Shrimp Ponds - Environmental Swine Culture - Manual on Bird Watching in Tha Kham Islet - Eco-tourisms in Bang Pakong Basin Ecosystem - Techniques on Conservation Participation - Policy and Plans for Conservation of Rivers and Streams - Concepts on Sustainable Management of Basin Ecosystems - Concepts on Protection of Good Agricultural Lands - Dong Phaya Yen-Khao Yai Forests - Environmental Protected Areas - Conserved Forests in Bang Pakong Basin
6. The Webboard is designed for online communication on the status of natural resources and environment from the networks. The reported data are text reports or coordination between the interested conservationists on Bang Pakong-Prachinburi natural resources and environment. 7. Networks and contents of related website. These parts are designed to support the reports on status of natural resources and environment from concerned organizations. They include data from networks in the responsible areas, internet system and compiled websites from concerned offices and organizations in management of the Bang Pakong-Prachinburi basins. These services help the users to like to interested work of the Offices or it can be used as portal web among networks. The structures of the website consist of 7 parts. They are history of the project, status of natural resources and environment, important policies and plans, management supporting system, technical papers and disseminated publications, webboard, networks in the basins and contents of related websites. The designed website uses menus that are framed to the Click to Expand Manu. In order to activate the website for monitoring and evaluation of natural resources and environment of the ecosystem in the Bang Pakong basins enters the website as follow: http:// bangpakong.onep.go.th
Working Group Monitoring and Evaluation of Natural Resources and Environmental Management in the Bang Pakong Basin Ecosystems Steering Committee (1) Mr.Somsak (2) Mr.Sakunyut (3) Ms.Katunchalee (4) Mr.Wittaya Studied by
Study Team (1) Mr.Pisase (2) Dr.Apisit (3) Dr.Sittichai (4) Mr.Tappana (5) Dr.Wirot (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Mr.Manu Mr.Vichit Mr.Lertwit Dr.Suwaluk Mr.Chatchai
(11) Mrs.Kubkul (12) Mr.Jamroon (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19)
Ms.Oranuch Ms.Nanjira Mr.Paopong Mr.Songyot Mr.Saroj Ms.Phunsa Ms.Amporn
Boondao Sarutanon Wechwimol Tangpittayaweth
Chairman Committee Committee Committee and Secretary
Tesco Ltd. 21/11-14 Soi Sukhumvit 18 Sukhumvit Road, Khaeng Klong Teoy, Khet Klong Teoy Bangkok 10110 Tel. 0-2258 1320 Facsimile: 0-2258 1313, 0-2261 4511 Email; email@example.com
Project manager/Expert on Natural Resources and Environment Status Eiumnoh Expert on Remote Sensing and GIS Tantanasarit Expert on Indicator Development for Monitoring and Evaluation Aewpanthong Expert on Program development Pimmanrojanakul Expert on Forest-Wildlife Resources and Conserved Forest management Srikajorn Expert on Land use and Agriculture Vetpan Expert on Water Resources Rungsirak Expert on City and Community Sathumanusphan Expert on Coastal Ecosystem Romson Expert on Archaeology, Historical and Nature Sites Samakkee Expert on Public Participation Suay-Dee Expert on Network Development and Basin Management Mechanism Silpmaneephan Environmental Scientist Joradeeh Environmental Scientist Nitikasetsoontorn GIS Technician Usook GIS Technician Phokasem GIS Technician Chomchit GIS Technician Kamtaeng Project Secretary