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special edition

revolution 1983 1985

the assassination of

indira gandhi the wreck of the

titanic the


revival first woman in space

sally ride

punks, skinheads, casuals... we explore the

subcultures of the 80's

in this section of revolution we look at the years 0f 1983 - 1985. as a very crucial part of the decade, we have looked back at some of the major events that occurred and the trends that were formed. in this section we will be looking at the likes of; the mod revival, the titanic wreck, the assassination of indira gandhi and more. all contribution comes from existing sources and this section of revolution has been construced and designed by sam woolf.

(06) Sally Ride (010) The MOD Revival (016) Indira Gandhi (022) The Bhopal Disaster (028) The Wreck of the Titanic (032) Subculture

science is fun. science is curiosity. We all have natural curiosity. science is a process of investigating. it's posing questions and coming up with a method. it's delving in.

sally ride



america's first woman in space

One of the most influencial women of the 1980’s was Sally Ride. In 1983 Sally Ride became the first American woman at the age of 32. She joined NASA in 1978 and she served on the committees investigating the nation’s two space shuttle disasters (Challenger and Columbia), becoming the only person to serve on both panels. Her achievements with NASA lead the pathway for women not just in America but across the world to join space programes and other exploration missions. Sally Ride studied at Staamford University in the Bachelor degrees; English and Physics. She later she earned a master’s degree and a Ph.D. in physics while doing research on the interaction of X-rays with the interstellar medium. Sally was one of 8,000 people who answered an advertisement in the Stanford student newspaper seeking applicants for the space program. She was chosen to join NASA in 1978. During her career, Ride served as the ground-based capsule communicator (CapCom) for the second and third space shuttle flights (STS-2 and STS-3) and helped develop the space shuttle’s robot arm. After her time with NASA, Sally went to work at the Stanford University Center for International Security and Arms Control. In 1989, she became a professor of physics at the University of California, San Diego, and director of the California Space Institute

th mod


" i think it's quite subversive for kids who haven't got a lot of money to dress up in a suit and look twice as good as someone who's got three times as much money. it's a social comment" - ian page, secret affair


we are the mods

Mod was a youth subculture of the early to mid-1960s. The Mod subculture was focused on fashion and music, the subculture has its roots in a small group of London-based stylish young men in the late 1950s who were termed modernists because they listened to modern jazz. The Mod revival was a music genre and subculture that started in England in 1978 and thrived in the 1980’s, it later spread to other countries (to a lesser degree). The Mod revival’s mainstream popularity was relatively short, although its influence has lasted for decades. The mod revival post-dated a Teddy Boy revival, and Mod revivalists sometimes clashed with Teddy Boy revivalists, skinhead revivalists, casuals, punks and rival gang members. In the early to mid 1980s in the UK, the Mod revival scene influenced by the original 1960’s mod subculture developed at the Shepherds Bush nightclub ‘Sneakers’, which was run by Tony Class, with Paul Hallam and Richard “Shirley” Early as DJs. The club featured rare R&B and soul music, and attendees wore sharp tailor-made clothing. Also in Shepherds Bush, through the early-to-late 1980s, was Club MOD, at The Bush Hotel, where Tony Class DJed soul music and songs by mod revival bands. The mod revival scene had some crossover with the 2 Tone ska revival of the late 1970s and early 1980s; associated with bands such as The Specials, The Beat, The Selecter, and Madness.


i dira



even if i died in the service of

the nation, i would be proud of it. every drop

of my blood... will contribute to the growth of this nation and to make it

strong and dynamic.

the assassination of indira gandhi

In 1984, the Indian Prime Minister,Indria Gandhi was shot by assassins in New Delhi. No exact motive was known but it was believed that the pair of men who shot her were her two bodyguards and were also Sikh extremists acting in retaliation for the storming of the Sikh holy shrine of the Golden Temple in Amritsar in June of that year. This operation in June is known as ‘Operation Blue Star’, the Indian army completed an assault on the Golden Temple in Amritsar in June 1984, which left the temple heavily damaged. Mrs Gandhi had been receiving death threats since the attack on the temple in which 1,000 people died. The night before her death she told a political rally:

“I don’t mind if my life goes in the service of the nation. If I die today, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation.” Indria Gandhi first became prime minister in 1966 and again in 1980 and was praised for her battle against famine in rural areas. Indira Gandhi was such a significant power in India during this period of time. She was the second longest serving Prime Minister of India and the only woman to hold the office. Gandhi became known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power. In 2001, Gandhi was voted the greatest Indian Prime Minister in a poll organised by India Today. The eventual cause of her death came as a result of threats that were posed on the central government of India. Several of the country’s states wanted a larger measure of independance. The Sikh Separatists in Punjab asserted their opinions with violence in order to achieve an autonomous state. This lead to Indira Gandhi to send her army to attack the Golden Temple in June 0f 1984. This lead to her eventual assassination, in the heat of the anti-Sikh riots.


bhopal disaster there is no disaster that can't become a blessing, and no blessing that can't become a disaster

-richard bach



the gas leak

Another incident to affect India that same year was during the night of the 2-3 of December 1984, there was a gas leak that occured in Bhopal, India. It has been quoted to be the world’s worst industrial disaster. Over 500,000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals. The toxic substance made its way in and around the shantytowns located near the plant. Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release. The initial effects of exposure were coughing, vomiting, severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation. People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant. Those who ran inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride. Owing to their height, children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations. Many people were trampled trying to escape. Soon after the accident, representatives from different activist groups arrived. The activists worked on organising the gas victims, which led to violent repression from the police and the government. Numerous actions have been performed; demonstrations, sit-ins, hungerstrikes, marches combined with pamphlets, books, and articles. Every anniversary, actions are performed. Often these include marches around Old Bhopal, ending with burning an effigy of Warren Anderson.

titanic the


i cannot imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder. i cannot conceive of any vital disaster happening to this vessel. modern shipbuilding has gone beyond that.

- captain edward smith



discovery of the titanic

Jean-Louis Michel of and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, discovered the wreck of the famous Titanic ship. The ship was found located about 370 miles south-southeast of the coast of Newfoundland, lying at a depth of about 12,500 feet. The Titanic came to her eventual end after sinking in 1912. After leaving Queenstown The Titanic followed the Irish coast as far as Fastnet Rock, a distance of some 55 nautical miles. From there she travelled 1,620 nautical miles along a Great Circle route across the North Atlantic to reach a spot in the ocean known as “the corner” south-east of Newfoundland, where westbound steamers carried out a change of course. The Titanic sailed only a few hours past the corner on a rhumb line leg of 1,023 nautical miles (1,177 mi; 1,895 km) to Nantucket Shoals Light when she made her fatal contact with an iceberg. The sinking of Titanic caused the deaths of more than 1,500 people in one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. The RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time it entered service. It took over 70 years before its wreckage was discovered in 1985. When The Titanic was found, it was over two miles below the ocean’s surface. By using an unmanned submersible called Argo, they were able to come across this new discovery and also gave new meaning to the Titanic’s sinking and gave birth to new dreams in ocean exploration.




punks, skinheads, casuals...

Many styles from the late 1970s remain fashionable in the early 1980s. In the 1970s, the silhouette of fashion tended to be characterized by close fitting clothes on top with wider, looser clothes on the bottom. This trend completely reversed itself in the early 1980s as both men and women began to wear looser shirts and tight, close-fitting trousers. Men also grew mustaches due to the influence of television shows like Magnum, P.I.. Medium-length hair was common for men, while the longer haircuts of the 1970s went out of fashion. However, very long hair for men became fashionable in the late 1980s due to the influence of Heavy Metal music. Brand names became increasingly important in this decade, making Ralph Lauren and Calvin Klein household names, among others. Many subcultures were formed around the worid, but mainly in the US and US. These subcultures were groups of people who followed a certain trend that esentially boiled down to the music they listened to, the clothes they wore, the places that they hung around etc. The main subcultures during this time period were; Punks, Mods, Skindheads, Casuals, Goths, Metalheads and Hip-Hop. These groups of subcultures tended to form a natural hate for one another believing that their particular style was the best. This would often lead to fighting, riots etc. All of these styles and trends have developed and adapted so that even nowadays there will still be groups of people that follow in these certain subcultures.



sam woolf id: woo12353865

designer timeline london college of communication graphic and media design

project 1 03/12/2013

Magazine timeline1983 1985dundun