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Bakelite Telephone


Elisha Gray

Alexander Graham Bell

The Invention of the Telephone

Elisha Gray 1835 - 1901

March 10, 1876

Most people are aware that the first phone ever created was by Alexander Graham Bell. March 10, 1876 was the birth of the electrical telephone as well as the death of the multiple telegraph. “Mr Watson - come here - I want to see you.” were the famous first words that were successfully transmitted over the telephone. However, many people argue that he was the first and rightful creator of the telephone. ‘The Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell controversy concerns the question of whether Bell or Gray invented the telephone independently and, if not, whether Bell stole the invention from Gray.’

Alexander Graham Bell 1847 - 1922


Tivadar Puskás 1876 - invented the telephone switchboard exchange.

Johann Philipp Reis 1860 - constructed prototype ‘make-and-break’ telephones, today called Reis’ telephones.

The Invention of the Telephone

Antonio Meucci 1854 - constructed telephone-like devices.

Thomas Edison 1877-78 - invented the carbon microphone which produced a strong telephone signal.

Other Contributors:


Industrialisation Innovation Capitalism

Modernism and Modernity

1850 - 1950 ‘Modernism was a cultural movement in the first part of the 20th century. It occurred in art, literature, music, architecture and drama. Modernism is marked by a rejection of tradition, and an interest in new ways of doing old things. Also, there was a belief that the application of science and technology could change the world for the better. The changes began in the late 19th century and carried on until about 1950. The details differ greatly, and the term covers some movements which are somewhat contradictory.’ ‘At the same time, the 1920s were known as the “Jazz Age”, and the public showed considerable enthusiasm for cars, air travel, the telephone and other technological advances.’ The forces of modernity highly influenced the development and production of the telephone in the late 19th century onwards. Access to mass production, in conjunction with a surge of new technology, meant that the telephone quickly became a common household item. The want and need for the telephone quickly grew amongst the general public and has now become very rare for a person to not own their own phone.

Josef Müller-Brockmann 1914 - 1996


Timeline Of The Phone - Part One

1956

SRA/Ericsson MTA (Mobile Telephone System A)


Timeline Of The Phone - Part One

1983

Motorola DynaTAC 8000X


Timeline Of The Phone - Part One

1989

Motorola MicroTAC1984 Nokia Mobira Talkman


Timeline Of The Phone - Part One

1992

Motorola International 3200


Timeline Of The Phone - Part One

1992

Motorola International 3200


The Lover’sTelephone

Feature: Cup and String The ‘cup and string’ is probably the most simple and earliest form of the telephone. Known as ‘the lovers telephone’ it is simply made from two cups or tin cans connected by a piece of string. The way that this works is quite simple also; the sound travels along the piece of string by vibrations which is then converted back into sounds when it reaches the receivers ear. Although this is a very clever use of material, it was quickly overrun by the invention of the electrical telephone.

Two tins and some string - the simplest form of the telephone


The Parts of a Telephone

Ordered Chaos

Designspiration


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

1996

Nokia 9000


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

1998

Nokia 5110


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

1999

Nokia 3210


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2000

Motorola


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2001

Nokia 8250


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2002

Nokia 7650


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2003

Samsung S300


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2004

Motorola V3


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2005

Sony W800i


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2006

LG Chocolate


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2007

Apple iPhone


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2008

HTC G1


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2009

Motorola Milestone


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2010

Motorola Backflip


Timeline Of The Phone - Part Two

2011

Samsung Galaxy S II


Phone Booth - Film FoneJacker - Television

Modern Visual Culture: Film and Television

With phones being very common and accessible, as well as very popular amongst younger people, there are many films and television programmes based around them.

The Phone Shop - Television

Popular


Modern Visual Culture: Film and Television

Popular

Dom Joly’s Happy Hour Television


Modern Visual Culture: Art and Design

Popular

As with film and television, many artists and designers have taken the telephones popularity and produced various types of work based around it.

Designspiration


The Phone Hacking Scandal

Scandal

A much more recent occurrence that involved the use of the telephone was the phone hacking scandal. ‘Phone hacking is the practice of intercepting telephone calls or voicemail messages, often by accessing the voicemail messages of a mobile phone without the consent of the phone’s owner.’ The newspaper ‘News Of The World’ were caught and found guilty of these crimes which are seen by many to be highly immoral. This caused the newspaper to admit its guilt and close down after 168 years of distributing its publication.

Rupert Murdoch News Of The World


Apple Inc.

1984

Apple Macintosh


Apple Inc.

2006

Apple MacBook Pro


Apple Inc.

2012

This is the phone to have at the moment. It is probably the most technologically advanced and most stylish phone created to date. This is the phone that all of the others phone manufacturers are competing with and trying to beat.

Apple iPhone 5



A Brief History of the Telephone