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StUDiO AiR

SAMUEL TURNER 558495 SEMESTER 2, 2013 TUTOR: DAVID LISTER


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EOI i: Case for Innovation Introduction Architecture as a Discourse Computational Architecture Parametric Modelling Conclusion Learning Outcomes Algorithmic Sketches

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EOI ii: Design approach Design Focus Case Study 1.0 Case Study 2.0 Technique Development Technique Prototypes Technique Proposal Learning Outcomes Algorithmic Sketches

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Project Proposal Design Concept Tectonic Element Final Model Learning Outcomes Algorithmic Sketches References

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Expression of Interest i Case for Innovation


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A.0 Introduction Hi I am Sam. I am embarking on my third year studying Architecture at the University of Melbourne within the Bachelor of Environments program. So far my experience with digital design both practically and theoretically has been reasonably limited. I gained an introduction to modelling software in the first year subject Virtual Environments; however I have not yet ventured beyond this initial starting point. I am often left feeling restricted when it comes to the use of digital tools, and tend to approach them with trepidation. I am looking forward to the challenge of this subject and the opportunity to broaden my horizons into a new area that is definitely beyond my current comfort zone.

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A.1 Architecture as a Discourse Architectural discourse is constantly evolving, directing and shaping the industry. The scope of discussion often extends beyond simply that of the built form and draws on themes from the broader cultural context. ‘Architecture, then, as discourse, discipline, and form, operates
at the intersection of power, relations of production, culture, and representation’ [1]. Some theorists argue that architecture is a composition of various elements, or parameters, in which the architect finds the balance between solutions that best fit the problems. ‘There are a number of sites: the drawing, text and building; the authors and agents: the architect, building, user and weather’ [2]. Others briefly acknowledge what is beyond the building but maintain a clear focus on the physical ‘buildings as material facts are a small part of the overall field of architecture, a field which is better regarded as a network of practices and debates about the built environment’ [3]. The effectiveness of innovative concepts raised in the discourse inhaving a physical impact is limited by pragmatic constraints such as costs, technology and fabrication, and thus the conceptualized ideas often far exceeds what is actually being constructed. For major projects large investments are usually required and it can be ‘very difficult to convince someone to kind of put $200 million at risk by attempting [something] novel’ [4]. For the Wyndham Gateway Project the particular area of the architectural discourse that will be 3


examined is that of structural ingenuity, with particular reference to membranes and the computation used to simulate these materials into structural systems. The Entry Canopy to Yonkers Casino in New York, by Studio V, is a relevant recent example, particularly in relation to both its flowing form and its function as transitional gateway between spaces. The 90m long structure highlights the efficiency of this system to cover and span relatively large distances for comparatively low cost. Using technologically advanced ETFE Foil cladding, which is just 1% of the comparative weight of glass [5], which the supporting steel structure to remain light and minimal. Also the high transparency of the 4


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material ensures that a maximum of 95% natural light can penetrate through the structure and into the interior space [6].The Entry Canopy contributes to the broader architectural discourse through the use of these innovative materials and technology, demonstrating their possibilities to facilitate a new building typology beyond the linear, right-angled construction of traditional building forms. Another project also at the forefront of the field is The Farm in New Zealand by Anish Kapoor. This design celebrates the potential of materials to create a feeling of movement and dynamism within a stable structure. The vast scale produced its own challenges, with the fabric alone weighing over 5 tonnes. To support the vast amount of fabric and protect against extreme 150km/h wind loads the two identical steel ellipses each weigh 45 tonnes and measure 75cm in diameter [7]. But despite this massive construction the formal qualities of the structure remain the key expression in the finished work, with particular focus being drawn to the jointing between the fabric and Kevlar cable connections. The design embraces the quality of the required joint as an element to enhance the overall legibility of the form, and does not simply treat it as an unfortunate, unconsidered inconvenience. This acknowledgment of the detail is crucial to the project’s success. Theoretically it is relatively simple, the concept of one horizontally angled ring connected to a opposing vertically placed ring creating a perfect circle at the midpoint. However conceptually it is far more complex, drawing on themes of anatomy and archeology [8]. In relation to the Wyndham Gateway Project brief, it is the ability of this structure to elicit an immediate, eye-catching engagement and excitement that is most significant. 6


A.2 Computational Architecture Digital technology clearly plays a major role in architecture today. From drafting plans or modelling concepts to examining the impacts of forces and loads being applied to a potential structure, its use has prolificated the industry. When discussing this area of design there are a few recurring words that characterise the debate, the precise phrasing varies across the discourse. Computerisation is commonly regarded as a process of working whereby the idea is ‘conceptualised in the designer’s mind’ [9] prior to being introduced into the digital realm. In contrast, Computation ‘augments the designer’s intellect’ [10] and is seen as a tool for working out a solution to a problem independent from ‘the real business of creative design’ [11]. But regardless of the linguistic disputes, it is important to examine how this relatively recent technological assistance has affected the design process. In order to ascertain the influence that computers have had, it is important to establish what the previous system was prior to their introduction. Traditionally designing followed a very linear path; the architect first establishing what they wanted to build, i.e. the schematic design, then working out how they would actually build it by producing a set of construction documents. Then the builders, fabricators and materials would be sourced and construction could begin [12]. This model restricts communication between the architect and the various contractors required to turn 7


their ideas into reality; further, due to the manual method of producing the drawings, any amendments can have a big impact on both the budget and schedule [13]. The key difference that computation can offer in the design process is flexibility. Changes to the design can be relatively easily accommodated right up until the build, and contractors are engaged earlier in the process with the integration of material or construction parameters that can be considered and tested [14]. This ability to determine, through the use of computational tools, the performance characteristics of a building or structure is a key development in both the design and construction industries. This has allowed far more radical buildings to be built that push the boundaries and challenge the previous, proven methods. This is particularly relevant for the Wyndham Gateway Project as the Council brief stipulates the design of an ‘exciting, eye catching installation’ which ‘inspires and enriches the municipality’ [15]. Computation is at the forefront of the current possibilities of architecture and offers a clear opportunity to fulfil these requirements by creating an innovative, interesting and iconic work to improve the image of the area.

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A.3 Parametric Modelling Parametrics has really come of age in recent times with the development of modern modelling programs; however investigations are not entirely restricted to the present era. Luigi Moretti is seen as the first architect to use parametric modelling as far back as 1960 [16]. His investigations, although formative for the field of parametrics, have been superseded by the vast technological improvements since that time. Today, Parametricism is seen by some as ‘the great new style after modernism’ [17]. Although an undoubtedly growing area, such claims are difficult to support whilst we are still in the relative infancy of parametric modelling in mainstream design. On first examination, the term ‘parametrics’ can seem a bit vague; there have always been parameters within which designers have had to work. The mathematical definition is simply a ‘set of equations that express a set of qualities as explicit functions of a number of independent variables’ [18], or ‘a mathematical formula that requires values to be substituted for a few parameters in order to generate variations from within a family of entities’ [19]. These two very similar definitions, although fundamentally correct, are perhaps not the most accurate in terms of its modern adoption into the architectural context. Yessios continues, ‘today it is used to imply that the entity once generated can easily be changed.’ It is these key elements of control and efficiency that have come to most accurately define the field [20], creating a ‘new level of integration between structure, material and form’ [21]. 10


However, despite the numerous benefits, parametrics does still have its flaws. Models can be difficult to modify or track, when working in collaboration between designers there is a clear need to ‘posses the knowledge about how it was created and the original design intent’ [22]. Also issues can arise through the necessity for ‘front-loading,’ whereby designers must ‘define ahead of time which major elements would be dependent upon other elements’ [23]. The ability to adapt to major changes is significantly reduced, the more efficient option often being to start again from scratch rather than modify the existing framework [24]. Parametrics offers unique potential for the Wyndham Gateway Project. The modelling programs have facilitated experiments with new construction materials, such as membranes which, as a relatively new construction technology offer the potential to ‘make a significant impact’ [25] and enhance the reputation of the municipality. Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges are both architects whose work focuses on the manipulation of membranes and the possibilities of the structural uses of fabric. Projects that Ahlquist and Menges have worked on, such as the Cylindrical Deep Surface Prototype and M1 Textile Hybrid, draw heavily on their various material properties, with the formal composition derived from these parameters. The use of modelling software is central to the ability to produce these works. Due to fabric having a high level of malleability which would be incredibly difficult to manually model and still maintain the continuity of the components across the form. Although still very much experimental prototypes, these projects highlight the potential of this system for use in the Wyndham Gateway as a pioneering example for a developing area of architecture. 11


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A.4 Conclusion The design approach for the Wyndham Gateway Project will utilize the modern advancements in computational architecture through the use of parametric modeling. Specifically the design will explore the material properties of membranes to create a dynamic and innovative structure that will reflect the progressive ambitions of the area. It will benefit both the current residents and draw new people to the area, providing a focal point to put Wyndham on the map.

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A.5 Learning Outcomes Learning about more of the theory behind architecture has broadened my perspective about the process of design and how this has evolved in recent times. My views on computational design have changed from my position at the start of this semester, when I felt a lot more opposed to its growing influence. Whereas I used to wholeheartedly agreed with Lawson and Terzidis that ‘CAD might conspire against creative thought’ and that a ‘designer’s creativity is limited by the very programs that are supposed to free their imagination’ I am now beginning to see the benefits that computers can offer to the world of design. Although I am still more in favour of a computerisation model to communicate design ideas digitally rather than using computational methods to direct the development from the outset.

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A.6 Algorithmic Explorations

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Expression of Interest ii Design Approach


B.1 Design Focus Our team will propose an innovative option for the Wyndham Gateway Protect, involving the use of a relaxed and minimal material structure. Specifically our design will focus on the manipulation of membranes to create a dynamic, non-static form, which will capture the attention of the community and promote the development of the Wyndham municipality. To illustrate the growing advancement of fabric in architecture, it is pertinent to discuss some modern examples from the field. The Playa Vista Bandshell by Michael Maltzan Architecture in Los Angeles is a clear demonstration of the potential of membranes to create exciting and modern forms which where previously restricted by alternative materials. The smooth overall form follows the tensioning of the fabric and creates interplay between the supporting steel pipe members, particularly when internally illuminated at night. For Wyndham this will be an important consideration to incorporate the viewing of the structure both during daylight and at night-time, with the potential to highlight this relationship between the fabric and frame. Also the 15m cantilever demonstrates the capacity for this system to span large areas across a site, whilst maintaining a light and dynamic profile [26]. Also due to the constraints on the site it will be important to minimise the build time on location, this can be achieved through the ‘prefabrication’ of elements off 19


site allowing for a rapid final assembly. To realise this design the technological involvement of computation will be crucial. This can be demonstrated through the designing of Green Void by LAVA Architects, who utilized the capacities of 3D modelling and CNC manufacturing to realise their design. The use of advanced fabrication technologies resulted in a design that required ‘minimal adjustments on-site to achieve a complete installation in an extremely short time’ [27]. Formally the Green Void represents a new development in building typology, from the rigidity and regulation of right-angled heavy mass construction to a system that allows fluidity and flexibility across the structure. This burgeoning field of architecture offers a unique opportunity for Wyndham Council to create a pioneering project which is not only a focal point for their community, but which will be relevant as an example of the system’s potential on an international scale. The relative efficiency of membrane architecture also allows for the creation of a cost effective solution for large-scale projects, where material and construction expenditure can be significantly reduced in comparison to traditional building techniques. 20


B.2 Case Study 1.0 Green Void by LAVA provides a clear example of relaxed and minimal and also utilizes membranes in its construction with a clear link to computerisation. Through these various iterations it was interesting to expand beyond the original form to create something that was unpredictable. Utilising physics modelling allowed for adjustments to be ‘softened’ with any harsh edges springing into curving form, maintaining the ‘relaxed’ quality. Initially the intention was just to try and move away from the original shape, and there basic iterations began transitioning and expanding vertically. However, based on the observation of these variations and the potential relationship to site, which is elongated horizontally, it was decided to focus on this direction. Developing the model in this way was at times difficult; some variables could be manipulated, but would go completely haywire when running the physics software. At times a compromise was made of activating the software for very brief periods and then snap capturing the results, before it had fully resolved. This clearly has limitations for potential buildability or construction, however it was useful to explore the form outcome which would have been difficult to envisage otherwise. The two final versions were selected as they achieved the basic parameter of horizontal elongation which could be applied to the site, whilst maintaining the relaxed and somewhat minimal surface qualities. In the real world of architecture these would be difficult to achieve with 21


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traditional building methods, however using membranes there is the possibility of them being realised. The long flowing curves allude to aeronautical qualities; a futuristic space craft of simply the wing of a plane. The articulation of tension is clear across the surfaces with a strong sense of an aerodynamic nature. This element of creating a feeling of movement was important in choosing these iterations, there appears to be a transitional quality beginning from a fixed point and flowing outwards.

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B.3 Case Study 2.0 We decided to focus on the Playa Vista Bandshell in Los Angeles By Michael Maltzan Architecture. This is a very innovative example of the possibilities of membrane contraction, exhibiting the desired qualities of a relaxed and minimalistic composition. The design, although relatively small in stature and appears simple, it is highly complex. Two steel rings form the basis for the structure, by tilting and angling these rings the opening for the front of the stage was formed. The membranes are then tensioned over this base form. Although structurally it does not operate as a composite, as we intend for our project, the effect is still successful. Particularly the consideration of nighttime use of the structure and the interaction between lighting, varying levels of transparency between the fabric and frame, is relevant for use on the site at Wyndham.

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Clearly the designers intended for the structure to survive in the elements, so consideration of wind factors and exposure were important, especially with the particular form. The five steps of the project process that were identified are: form, materiality modulation, fabrication and construction. Attempting to recreate these stages was more difficult. We began by exploring the form in small sections, testing the effects of twisting, divergence and bending of elements. The eventual outcome was similar to the bandshell in a formal sense, however it was drastically different structurally. We struggled with applying these membrane tests to the dual-ringed surface, so compromised by joining them between two points instead. This achieved the surface tension between; however issues of structural stability, which were present in the original, had been lost. The feeling of dynamism and a non-static form remained but were less successful. The limitations of one singular mass form are constrictive and the potential to expand beyond this could be necessary.

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B.4 Technique Development The algorithmic explorations allowed us to test the performance of the membranes across the structure when applied with forces.Varying the malleability of the material created control over the effects that resulted. Interesting individual techniques but the overall form still needs development and finalisation. Producing more candidate solutions for consideration, and choosing the ‘right’ solution for further development would be valuable[28]. To the right are some sketch options for the jointing of the fabric to the membrane; the most practical at model scale is using double-sided tape to achieve the cleanest finish, the equivalent of welding or gluing the fabric together in reality. However the most exciting option was the ‘zip’ joint, where the ‘teeth’ of the fabric hoops interlocked with the structural rod to neatly join together. This system also performed very well under the bending conditions that we expect to achieve in the final product. More basic options, such as a simple one-stitch sleeve, crumpled when bent and distracted from the clean overall form.

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B.5 Technique Prototypes Prototyping was a very valuable way to explore ideas in three dimensions without the restrictions of Rhino and it is a process that I am a lot more comfortable with. The particular focus was to determine the material properties that we could develop further. Elastic and stretchy membranes which were explored in the first prototype offered interesting potentials to impact on the form of the frame behind. The second prototype highlighted the need to determine an appropriate wire for our frame, with the right subtle balance between malleability and resistance to deformation. The wire that we used for the models was too flexible and once bent retained that imperfection which was very difficult to remove. Using the Fablab laser cutter for the production of the cotton strips used in the second prototype was very valuable towards understanding how the machine worked and what was required to produce them.

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B.6 Technique Proposal The key focus of our proposal will be in highlighting the possibilities of membranes and fabric structures. Conceptually we will draw on the theme of migration, with the aim to create moving and a dynamic (nonstatic) structure to reflect this with interaction from the surrounding environment, particularly wind to help create movement. It will perform as a composite with cladding and frame working together to create a symbiotic structural system. Potentially the form will be created in direct response to the conditions on Site A; views, prevailing winds etc. Site A was chosen as we wanted to maximise engagement with the major audience which we identified as the drivers on the road and believed realistically that it was unlikely that many people would stop off on their journey to investigate an interesting jointing technique between membrane and structural frame!

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B.7 Learning Outcomes So far the ability to generate a rationalised argument for our design proposal has been manageable. But translating these ideas into clear concepts, particularly in the direction of the evolution of form, has been challenging. Gradual improvements have been made in the realm of computation, but clearly this area can be a sticking point. It is very easy to sketch up a grand concept on paper, but a completely different proposition when translating this into a digital model. Often I think it could be easier to spend more time experimenting from a basic starting point and using the technology to inform the direction of the design, even if it results in unexpected outcomes. Rather than imagining ideas which then end up clashing when attempting to realise them computationally. It has been beneficial to consider multiply design possibilities, when simply viewing aesthetically, but its is important to also remain focused on the conceptual elements. In our process we tended to neglect the broader picture when considering the formal development and didn’t fully consider how it would fulfil our conceptual objectives. One area that was particularly useful were the prototypes. These helped to examine different options in a physical and materialally focused dimension that wasn’t possible using other methods. This was significant in helping guide the direction towards the potential outcome as incorporating and working with the individual material properties is integral to our design concept.

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B.8 Algorithmic Sketches

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Project Proposal Final Design


C.1 Design Concept Our design attempts to capture the impact of migration for Wyndham and the desire to foster a cohesive community by unifying the individual migration paths to create a connected and supportive whole. After the Mid-Semester Crit we received feedback from the panel that conceptually the project was progressing satisfactorily but that the translation of these ideas into form needed more consideration. As a result, our design has significantly evolved, breaking free of the previous singular mass forms that had been examined, to a combination of two juxtaposed elements. The key rational is to convey the narrative of migration, that is, the decision to leave one location for another. It will be particularly important to emphasis the specific point where this decision is realised, where the literal migration occurs. Highlighting the contrast between the two halves of the design will significant in demonstrating relevance to the Wyndham community beyond simply the fact of high migration occurring in the area. It will be important to examine the details of how our design will directly interact with site context. The positioning on site will be particularly crucial towards the project success. We have chosen to use Site A, which unfortunately removes the possibility of direct access of temporary ‘habitation’ of the structure. However, after identifying that realistically the likelihood of many motorists deciding to disrupt their journey to investigate a roadside sculpture was low, regardless of 41


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how interesting it looked. Subsequently, we determined that the key target audience would be passing motorists, and that the high visibility and prominence of Site A would be the most suitable for addressing this group. Significantly, Site A allows for extended views from the freeway, via access to head-on visibility – not just lateral - creating prolonged exposure which is particularly important if viewers are traveling at high speed. The orientation of our design on site is also significant, particularly as a means for communicating the conceptual influences on the work. The decision to position the design so it is facing north-east, reflects the intention for the narrative of the migration to be mirrored by the path of the motorists. Upon entering Wyndham the work will be read as a series of individual disjointed elements, as the viewer draws closer to the work and passes, these disjointed elements begin to converge and come together to reveal a cohesive and unified whole; akin to individual migrants becoming a members of the community. Conversely a similar effect will occur in reverse when leaving Wyndham, signalling that migration is not simply a one-way process. Undoubtedly not all motorists will completely connect to the design upon initial viewing, however after repeated interaction, for example on a daily commute, they may begin to consider the conceptual quality of the work and perhaps even draw their own conclusions about its meaning. It is important to remember that art does not have to be immediately understandable to be successful. Encouraging individual connection through consideration and contemplation of the work is often 43


more significant than providing a conceptually onedimensional fragment of easily digestible design. It can be argued that creating a work that has an instantly ‘readable’ concept would not be appropriate for a site with such a high level of recurring engagement, such as this. When considering the site conditions it is vital to consider the impact it could have towards construction of our project. Due to potentially limited accessibility and build time it will be important to ensure all elements are manufactured and prefabricated off-site, so that assembly time on-site is reduced to a minimum.

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Off-site Fabrication Pipes

Membrane

Segment continuous Separate Lengths

Strips Pieces

transport on-site foundations Joints 45

Frame

Fabric

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C.2 Tectonic Elements Construction of prototypes was important to determine the feasibility of larger scale developments. The first prototype, although it had significant aesthetic limitations, helped to test the structural properties of the plastic coated wire and the interplay between the ‘teeth’ of the interlocking fabric joints. The flexibility vs. support ratio of the wire was successful, creating smooth curves will very low permanent deformation. Although the fabric did partially dictate the overall form, the balance of the composite structural relationship was in favour of the wire. This was affected by the need to improve the exact size of the fabric sections with some areas of excess resulting in a loss of tension across the surface. The articulation and performance of the joins was satisfactory, although the precision could be improved. Importantly the efficiency of the system could be easily translated to larger scale construction, with tab lengths defined by the distance (potentially 1m) of straight metal sections making up the curve. Allowing for pre-stitching and ensuring that all fabrication work was conducted in the controlled environment off-site. Rather than requiring individual securing of each tab on site, the sections of the frame could be inserted between the membranes. This would reduce construction time and costs by rationalising the assembly process. The 1 : 5 Scale Model was useful to explore potential options for the second major area of joints, that of the structure to the 46


ground. The expected solution would be to create a reinforced concrete footing will embedded metal cylinder sections, into which the steel wire could be secured. Ensuring a high level of accuracy of the angle and direction of these cylinders is crucial, as they will help to create the overall form. Important elements in the model are the consideration of resolving the multiple origins of the wires, a factor that was lacking on the digital models where the pipes all converged to one singular point. Ideally that amount of footing visible above ground should be kept to a minimum, with the desire to create a feeling of the structure growing from the site, not simple applied upon it.

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C.3 Final Model The fabrication and construction of the final model was the realisation of our concept in physical scale. Once the final form had been decided the translation of this into fabrication documents was particularly arduous. This was mainly due to the method for applying the tabs to each unrolled digital membrane section. Presumably there is a more efficient way, as this involved an incredibly large number of intricate sequences of highly repetitive mouse clicking. Nevertheless, after offsetting the edge, adding uniformly distributed control points, linking these laterally to the external line and then removing redundant lines the desired outcome was achieved. Once into the more familiar physical world of model building there were a few immediate challenges to overcome. Due to the slight variations in the proximity of the laser cutter to the cutting surface of the fabric there was quite a significant amount of variation in the level of heat that was applied to the material. As a result, some sections were starting to melt together whilst others were lightly scored with some areas simply not cut at all. After resubmitting for fabrication the impact of the laser was adjusted and the issue was largely resolved. Now that all the individual elements had been sourced, it was a matter of beginning the assembly. A key area of importance was in the connection between the model base and the wires, as this needed to be kept as clean 50


and neat as possible. This was to reflect the potential for the structure to be embedded into the grass of the site, thus concealing the joint between the two elements whilst allowing the viewer to fill in the gap and create the connection. The outcome of this part of the model was successful, however the application of the fabric had the potential for improvement. The tension of each individual section and subsequent deflection was only evident in small areas. This was due to the limitation of the jointing system for the second section of the model which as unresolved. Options such as embedding the fabric into each pipe, via a clip-in bracket would be the most logical solution, however this would have been very difficult to achieve at 1:50 scale. Overall, the outcome of the model was satisfactory for fulfilling our conceptual ideas; however some of the construction intentions where only partially evident. The composite effect, although present, was impacted by the wires which were fractionally more rigid and less flexible than ideally desired. Formally though, it appeared to fulfill the requirements of being ‘exciting and eye-catching’ as specified in the Wyndham brief. It was great to see the end product in the context of the site as it is always difficult to fully visualise the exact views from specific locations around it. Clearly it is important for the structure to still perform and be visually engaging at night, so it was interesting to explore the potential for lighting techniques. The most successful option was when the design was internally lit, creating patterning from contrasts between overlapping sections of tabs, single surfaces and gaps in the membrane.

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C.4 Learning Outcomes From the final presentation crit it was clear the exact materiality of the design needed more work. The specific products that are proposed to be used are PTFE-coated fiberglass fabric for the membrane element and galvanized hollow steel sectioned at 1m intervals with non-rigid joints allowing a controlled level of flexibility. This system of dividing the structural curves into sections was made for pragmatic reasons because the availability of materials that adhered to both property and cost performance was very limited. This will allow for a restricted degree of flexing across the lengths, as the spans are each up to 25m long. Hopefully too, Wyndham Council would view this consideration of the budget favorably as this was a key criteria of their brief. The durability of the membrane is very important so to longevity of the protect so the weather proofing advantages of PTFE are ideal. Overall Studio Air has definitely been challenging, stimulating and gruelling. Engaging with a previously unexamined area of architecture has definitely broadened my perspectives, both at a computational level and in furthering an awareness of the current industry discourse. Personally, I feel capable of using the technology for fabrication, but not so much for designing from the get go. Although I value the possibilities of computation, the freedom of non-digital alternatives are still so much more appealing. I realise with the current industry direction, some form of computerisation is inevitably needed to work 57


in architecture. There are clearly massive benefits towards efficiency, and flexibility, particularly for developing design documents. However I still feel uncertain about the prevalence of solely designing using digital tools. Ultimately, this studio has been difficult as it has forced me to broaden my perspectives beyond the ‘bubble’ of university towards the real-world environment of design.

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C.5 Algorithmic Sketches

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References 1) Thomas Dutton and Lian Hurst Mann, Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), p. 1 2) Jonathan Hill, Immaterial Architecture (London: Routledge 2006) 3) Richard Williams, Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005) p. 108 4) Alex Matovic and Grimshaw Architects (interview for Digital Fabrication in Australia ARC research project, 2012). 5) Karen Zabarsky, Yonkers Raceway Empire City Casino Expansion (Archinect, 2008) http://archinect.com/StudioVArchitecture/project/ yonkers-raceway-empire-city-casino-expansion [Accessed 8 August 2013] 6) Architen Landrell, ETFE Foil: A Guide to Design (Architen, 2009) http://www.architen.com/technical/articles/etfe-foil [Accessed 7 August 2013] 7) Bruce Wright, Make a grand entrance: the importance of entryways to buildings, and how to design a good one (Fabric Structures, 2013) http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0813_ f1_grand_entrance.html [Accessed 8 August 2013]

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8) Anish Kapoor, Dismemberment (Anishkapoor, 2007) http:// anishkapoor.com/127/Dismemberment%2C-Site-I.html [Accessed 7 August 2013] 9) Kostas Terzidis, Algorithmic Architecture (Boston: Elsevier, 2006), p. xi 10) Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought from Architectural Design’ Architectural Design, 83 (2013), p. 10 11) John Frazer, ‘The Generation
of Virtual Prototypes for Performance Optimization’, in GameSetAndMatch
II: The Architecture Co-Laboratory on Computer Games, Advanced Geometries and Digital Technologies, ed. by Kas Oosterhuis and Lukas Feireiss (Rotterdam: Episode Publishers, 2006), pp. 208-212 12) American Institute of Architects, Comparing project phases between traditional and integrated delivery. (AIA, 2010) http:// www.aia.org/ groups/aia/documents/ pdf/aiab083423.pdf [Accessed 3 August 2013] 13) Daniel Davis, ‘Evolving Digital Morphologies: By Means of Biology and Computer Science’ (B. Arch thesis, Victoria University, Wellington, 2009) 14) Brady Peters, Inside Smartgeometry: Expanding the Architectural Possibilities of Computational Design (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2013) 15) Wyndham City Council, Demographics and Population of Wyndham (Wyndham, 2011) http://www.wyndham.vic.gov.au/ aboutwyndham/wyndhamcity/demographics [Accessed 5 August 2013] 62


16) Herschel Chipp, Theories of Modern Art (California: University of California Press, 1968), p. 591 17) Patrik Schumacher, ‘The Parametric Epoch: Let the Style Wars Begin.’ Architects’ Journal 16 (2010), pp. 41-45. 18) Eric Weisstein, CRC Concise Encyclopaedia of Mathematics (Florida: Chapman and Hall, 2003) p. 63 19) Chris Yessios, ‘Is there More to Come? In Architecture’ in The Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, ed, Branko Kolarevic (New York: Spon Press, 2003) pp. 259-68. 20) Daniel Davis, ‘Modelled on Software Engineering: Flexible Parametric Models in the Practice of Architecture’ (PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, 2013) 21) Neri Oxman, ‘Material-based Design Computation’ (PhD thesis, MIT, Massachusetts, 2010) 22) Parametric Technology Corporation, Explicit Modeling: What to do when your 3D CAD Productivity isn’t what you expected (PTC, 2008) http://www.vbtllc.com/images/ PTCProductivityWhitePaper.pdf [Accessed 8 September 2013] 23) David Weisberg, The Engineering Design Revolution: The People, Companies and Computer Systems that changed forever the Practice of Engineering (Englewood: Jamaica Court, 2008) p. 20 24) Rick Smith, Technical Notes from Experiences and Studies in Using Parametric and BIM Architectural Software (VBTLLC, 2007) http://www.vbtllc.com/images/VBTTechnicalNotes.pdf [Accessed 2 September 2013] 63


25) Wyndham City Council, Western Gateway Design Project Brief (Wyndham, 2011) http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid3962725-dt-content-rid-10327484_2/courses/ABPL30048_2012_ SM1/Project/Project%20Document%20-%20COMMENTED.pdf [Accessed 26 July 2013] 26) Fabric Architecture, Playa Vista Bandshell lights up the park, (FA, 2011) http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/1111_cs_ playa_vista_bandshell.html [Accessed 16 September 2013] 27) Ethel Pohl, Green Void / LAVA (ArchDaily, 2008). http://www. archdaily.com/?p=10233 [Accessed 16 September 2013]

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ST NC 2013


Studio Air Final Report 558495 Samuel Turner