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DESIGN INVESTIGATION [Interactive Advertising]

This is a summary of my Design Investigation For more information, please visit my blog at

[CONTENT] Abstract








Effectiveness Measurement






Cases Study




Creative Artefacts






ABSTRACT The development of new media has lead to many unexpected and beneficial outcomes. The art&design community has been largely affected by the dynamic growing of technological advancement. As a New Media practitioner, we’re engaged in a field with unlimited possibilities. I am particularly interested in the field of Interactive Advertising). Perhaps Interaction Advertising is still a new concept since it has been around for just a few decades. . Despite the late arrival, designers and artists find it particularly interested. Like many other design fields, interactive advertising also not only has an interest in form but its main focus is


on behaviour. Interactive Advertising is implementation of interactive elements into Advertising which aims to breakthrough and fit it with the digital age. Interactive Advertising delivers digital solutions which aims to achieve a better result than traditional advertising by connecting the brand’s image to the consumer’s mind through interaction



[ Web ]

[ Mobile Devices ]

[ Advertising ]

[ Apple Store ]








OVERVIEW One might argue that some people wouldn’t be able to catch up with the enhanced technology and the overwhelming flow of information, however, this doesn’t seem to be the problem. Many individuals have proved that as long as you have a valid idea, technology is just simply a means of achieving your idea. With certain afford, you can overcome any boundary. To clarify the matter, I shall point out a few well-known cases in the Interactive Advertising industry. Participants in the field of Interactive Advertising often find themselves surrounding with more and more possibilities since new media development is at its peak. They try to offer and introduce new solutions to a wide variety of technological equipments. Apple is a very good examples. They are a great pioneer and inspirational resource in this field. The arrival of ipads and iphones, as well as the innovative Apple Store have paved the way for Interaction

designers to engage in new challenges. Interactive advertising uses online or offline interactive media to communicate with consumers and to promote products, brands, services, and public service announcements, corporate or political groups. The Journal of Interactive Advertising’s editors Li and Leckenby defined interactive advertising as the “paid and unpaid presentation and promotion of products, services and ideas by an identified sponsor through different means involving mutual action between consumers and clients.” This could be performed through the internet or through a certain form of network; often through the use of an Ad server that can deliver a variety of interactive advertising units.



PROPOSAL Interactive Advertising is a relative new industry which’s emerged from the development of new media and technology. In order to gain an indepth look at the industry, I would carry out a extensive investigation, supported with researches, evidence and well-known cases from the chosen industry. To help my investigation, I would carefully select a number of research methods such as sampling opinions, evaluations, industry contacts, interviews. I will carefully go through different source of information such as


website, internet, articles, newspaper, books and journals to gather as much as information as possible to build a really strong investigation. Moreover, I would reconstruct my investigation into a detailed structure with different categories and subcategories which give summarised but useful information of related topics.


The in-depth definition of Interactive Advertising



The aims of interactive advertising are similar to the traditional objectives of advertising, to sell a product. This means that many of the original elements of advertising impact and effectiveness remain relevant within this new form of interactive advertising. However, according to the Journal of Interactive Advertising 2001, interactive advertising also has some properties that expand the range of potential objectives and that improve advertising effectiveness. Interactive advertising also has the potential to decrease the losses associated with poorly coordinated advertising, to reduce the difficulties commonly encountered in clearly communicating an advertising message and to help overcome new product hurdles, such as a consumer rejection. There are many different facets to Interactive Advertising, including varying methods and types. Using many different types of cognitive tools and advert presentations, organizations can enhance the impact

of their campaigns with this type of advertising. According to Thorson (1996), all advertisements can be classified into one of five basic categories, including: product/service, public service announcement, issue, corporate and political. Advert types also interact with the user’s motives to influence outcomes, or consumer responses, reinforcing the need for Interactive Advertising as a means of persuading potential consumers and target audiences. Using the Internet as the main medium for Interactive Advertising to study the methods, types and outcomes, we can then sound out the different user or advertiser controlled aspects.



EFFECTIVENESS Chang, Yan, Zhang and Lou, in their essay Online In-Game Advertising Effect: Examining the Influence of a Match Between Games and Advertising have listed numerous methods to measure advertising effect :




There are many ways to measure advertising effect, such as through awareness (Hansen, Olsen, and Lundsteen, 2006), brand choice (CobbWalgren, Ruble, and Donthu 1995), purchase likelihood (Aaker, Stayman, and Hagerty 1986), viewing time (Olney, Holbrook, and Batra 1991), brand perceptions (MacKenzie and Lutz 1989), purchase intentions (Bellman, Schweda, and Varan 2009; Gotlieb and Sarel 1991; Kamins 1990), memorybased tests (Brennan, Dubas, and Babin 1999; Russell 1998), and so on. Cobb-Walgren, Ruble, and Donthu (1995) propose a model of antecedents and consequences of brand equity, in which consumers form perceptions about the physical and psychological features of a brand from various information sources (e.g., advertising).

While there are many on and going arguments, Interactive Advertising has increase the Advertising Effect. They deliver digital solution which satisfy the actively engaged consumers. Interactive Advertising also build a better relationship between the consumer and the brand

:) :o :))

<3 !!!



Consumer Society

Social Network






FACTORS Because itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an ever-changing industry, the dynamic development of Interactive Advertising could be influenced by a number of factors. I shall attempt to list a few important factors which Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve investigate with some examples and evidences to clarify the importance of these factors.



INTERACTIVITY There are various debates regarding the meaning of interactivity, but almost all definitions emphasize the importance of interaction between user and system. Sundar, Kalyanaraman, and Brown (2003) have reviewed several definitions and divide them into two species - the “functional view” and the “contingency view.” In the “contingency view” of interactivity, there are three levels : noninteractive, reactive and interactive. An ad which have implemented many of these functions will be considered more interactive than a normal ad. The depth of interactive communication would indeed benefit the effectiveness of the ad. When interactivity is implemented within Advertising, researches have induced that it will contributes to the positive perception of site connect dues to simple association(e.g., Ahern and Stromer-Galley 2000).The higher the amount of interactivity, the greater its value as a peripheral cue it seems.



SOCIAL NETWORKS Facebook / Twitter / Tumblr The arrival of social networks , such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, marks a new era for Interactive Advertising. It could be considered as one the most important factors which help the field of Interactive Advertising to blossom. Consumers have adapted to the social networksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s multichannel moved toward emerging internet media. Henceforth, Social networks is time intensive but it is affordable and allows advertising company to learn so much from the audiences. Social Networks is a powerful key element to create a phenomenal advertising campaign, a contemporary term for it would be â&#x20AC;&#x153;viral advertisingâ&#x20AC;? Social media also provides such a great platform for collaboration. You can share information and communicate easily through different forms of network.



TECHNOLOGY Anything is possible Technological advancement has changed the whole world. The passive consumer of analog media has rapidly evolved into an active creator of content moving across multiple digital media channels. Many researches have indicated that Technology is the key factor in the transforming of interactive advertising. Consumers are spending more time with digital media because of the mainstream adoption of broadband and smartphones. The development of technology enable designers and artists to bring their works to the next level. Technology allows the art & design community to experience with whole new world of possibilities. However, it should be noted that while Technology has such a great impact on Interactive Advertising, it should be considered as a tool to achieve the designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goal, rather than a factor which we should be dependent on.



SOCIAL CAUSES Politic / Wars / Events Like other industry, Interactive Advertising is affected by a number of social factors such as politic, war, world-wide events such as Olympic, Tsunami..etc..Before launching an advertising campaign, normally companies and studios would do some forms of research to understand the current situation of the society better. Social causes could easily change the outcome of an advertising campaign. A successful advertising campaign would make use of the social cause to increase the its effectiveness. For example, Barrack Obama is the first African-American US president. People hold a great amount of interest over him and many companies make use of it such as Pepsi’s “Dear Mr President” or the viral “I Got The a Crush…on Obama”


Amber Lee Ettinger in the viral music video


ECONOMIC Money is always the problem The economic situation of the world would affect any industry, Interactive Advertising is no exception. Moreover, because this industry requires a lot of equipments and technological methods, it’s very likely that budgets is going to be a problem which need to be planned carefully before starting an advertising campaign. A simple website of an iphone application could cost more than one could imagine. Interactive Advertising usually target several group of people, which would require a large team work, marketing planning, market research…etc..

$$ $$ $$ $ $$ $

It’s important to consider this factor in regard to the consumer’s society, who’s also affected by the economy. If you launch an Advertising campaign in a time where people might not be able to afford the promoted products, it would be a failure no matter how good the creative solution is. 20


CONSUMER SOCIETY The core of everything The consumer society is the leading force of all the factors. After all, they are the target of advertising. Nowadays, with the arrival of hyper new media, consumers find themselves actively engaged in the technological world. They are, arguably, the direct cause of the development of Interactive Advertising. Consumption in a media sense means to be used up, purchased, taken in and absorbed. We have all been born into a society where it is everyday occurrence to consume from the moment we wake up. Our bought alarm clock goes off, we wash our hair with branded shampoo, we clean our teeth with branded toothpaste, we eat our favourite cereal, we watch morning T.V with adverts to buy the latest product or features on which gadget to buy next etc. etc.


Although there are numerous ways to measure the effectiveness of an Advertising campaign, they are almost always based on consumer societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reaction and satisfaction. For that reason, the preference of the consumer society is extremely important


INTERNET They are everywhere Several studies have reported that consumers response well to online advertisements.While there are many on and going argument, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an undeniable fact that the Internet has a great effect on the Advertising industry. Arguably, it could be the key element to distinguish between the traditional form Advertising and Interactive Advertising Internet is such a powerful tool in Advertising because the users can be exposures repetitively to some cretins ads while surfing the web. Repeat exposure is one of the key success in advertising as the most of consumers have a chance to be exposed more than once. Especially on the Internet, repeat exposure could attract a large amount of attention .Unlike TV and radio on which the maximum number of repeat exposures is limited by the number of insertions, on the Internet, the users can be exposed as many times as possible.

The web 2.0 is likely to become a main stream of commercial use since everybody can easily make their own website. Any company or organisation know better to have a valid accessible website before they launch their business. Website has becalmed an online representation, a powerful promotional tool which could last longer than any other forms of advertising campaign. However, there have been many debates regarding the negative effect of internet advertising on advertisement. Pop-up, spams, compulsory surveys and other forms of interruptive online adverts could cause a reversed effect because it could make the consumer despite advertisement. While itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s certainly an important factor, Internet should be incorporated carefully into an advertising campaign in order to achieve the desire outcome.



FORMS The revolution of new media and the evolution of digital technology have triggered many new forms of advertising. They incorporated interactivity and new media into ad as a mean to achieve their purpose. Thus, Interactive Advertising have many different types and mediums. In order to understand the industry better, I shall attempt to investigate some most popular types of Interactive Advertising





In-game Advertising(IGA) is a promising new form of advertising. Dues to the development of gaming technology and the consumers societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s habit of thought, as well as the expansion of internet, IGA comes to prominence. as one of the most effective methods of interactive advertising. IGA indicates the implementation of brands in games (Yang el at. 2006). It should not be confused with advergaming, which I also shall attempt to look at. IGA often refers to advertising in computer and video games. They appear in various mediums of advertising such as billboards, posters, or sponsor signage in sports and racing games (Schwarz 2005) They can be displayed in the background, such as an in-game billboard or a commercial during the pause created when the game is loading.






ADVERGAMING Game For Ads Advergaming ( a portmanteau for “advertising” and “gaming” ) is where advertising and the video game industry crossed. Advergaming refers to the practice of using video games to promote a product. Above the line (ATL) advergaming In employing ATL advergaming, a company typically provides interactive games on its website in the hope that potential customers will be drawn to the game and spend more time on the website, or simply become more product aware. The games themselves usually feature the company’s products prominently (often as “powerups” or upgrades). These games may consist of reworked arcade classics or original programming, and they are usually designed for Adobe Flash or similar multimedia software Below the line (BTL) advergaming


An Adidas billboard is displayed in the foreground of the 1994 video game FIFA International Soccer (also, the electronic board that appears with every goal scored sometimes reads “Panasonic”). Examples of BTL advergames include recruitment tools, edutainment, and traditional in-game advertising. In utilizing BTL advergaming, games are published in the usual way and cause players to investigate further. The subjects advertised for may be commercial, political, or educational in nature. Commercial examples are numerous and include advergames funded by Pepsi, 7 Up, NFL, Formula One, and most recently Burger King. Political/military examples of BTL advergames include recruitment tools like America’s Army, intended to boost recruitment for the United States Army, and Special Force, intended to promote Muslim resistance to the state

of Israel. Educational advergaming is closely related to the Serious games initiative and falls under either Edumarket gaming or edutainment. Examples include Food Force (made by the United Nations’ World Food Program) and Urban Jungle, an educational traffic simulation. Through the line (TTL) advergaming I Love Bees makes use of “link-chasing” and is designed to foster viral marketing. Examples of TTL advergames include “link-chases,” ARGs, and viral marketing.

form of deep integration of advertised products, services and brands into the gameplay. Produce placement in-gameadvertising is most commonly found in sports titles and simulation games. It has more recently been used in firstperson shooters and action titles. The principal advantage of product placement in in-games advertising is visibility and notoriety. For advertisers an ad may be displayed multiple times and a game may provide an opportunity to ally a product’s brand image with the image of the game

Product placement A very interesting and promising promotional opportunity is the product placement of specific brands in popular game environments. This may take the



DOMINOSPIZZAHERO.COM/ Example for Advergaming The app allow you to make top quality pizzas by kneading dough, spreading sauce, sprinkling cheese, placing toppings and more as you race against the clock. You can compete against other pizza makers on the Game Center Leaderboards. Sharing function is also available as you can share your achievements, scores, and pizza maker profile on Facebook and Twitter. You can even make a pizza and order it from Dominoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. The purpose of this advergame is quite interesting. While itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s obviously a move to promote Domino, it also encourage people to participate in the game with the opportunity of being employed by the company as pizza chef (the prize).



RED BULL FORMULA FACE. Example for Advergaming Red Bull Formula Face is a browser racing-game that can be controlled by your facial expressions! The system is tracking the user´s mimic and head movement via webcam. And this is how you play the racing game: - Blinking = turboboost - Smiling = activating collected specials (monster tires, glue, scissor…) - Imitate shown grimaces = shoot photo and collect bonus (only if you imitate correctly the photo is made!) - Tilting your head = steering left/ right All you need is a computer and a webcam – no special hardware. You can select different character styles, individualize it with your own photo, pick a formula 1, nascar or rallye car a and race in one of three tracks. The game and its tracks are all made in a paper style design and make the user

explore the world of Red Bull – f.ex. urban nightlife, sport freestyle and racing. The game is closely tied into social networking, as you can post your highscore on Facebook, start friend challenges on Facebook and share the photos of you imitating grimaces. A Facebook-gameticker integrated on the website is showing the user all gaming news from his friend network. 30


ONLINE ADVERTISING Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s everywhere Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web to deliver marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads on search engine results pages, banner ads, blogs, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, interstitial ads, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam. Many of these types of ads are delivered by an Ad server.



ASOS: THE URBAN TOUR Example for Online Advertising The Challenge ASOS is a global, online fashion brand that designs and sells on-trend fashion to young guys and girls around the world. Over the last 10 years ASOS has become the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading online fashion retailer for young women, but amongst men, the brand is still largely unknown. Our challenge was to put ASOS on the map as an exciting and credible fashion destination for young guys, despite being massively outspent by more established competitors like H&M and Uniqlo. The Idea: As Seen On the Street - The ASOS Urban Tour We selected the best talent from a cross section of global cultural capitals - London, Paris, Tokyo, New York, LA, Berlin and Shanghai - and created an interactive

experience that enabled guys to watch the men perform while dressed in the key items from that season. You could click on any dancer seen on the screen at any time, causing the performer to breakout of the action and showcase his clothing - which could be bought immediately using a built in e-commerce engine. 32


SOCIAL NETWORKS AD Everything goes viral Viral Advertising is buzzword referring to marketing techniques that use preexisting social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through selfreplicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of viruses or computer viruses (cf. memes and memetics). It can be delivered by word of mouth or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet.[1] Viral marketing may take the form of video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, ebooks, brandable software, images, or text messages.


The ultimate goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to create viral messages that appeal to individuals with high social networking potential (SNP) and that have a high probability of being presented and spread by these individuals and their competitors in their communications with others in a short period of time.


INTEL: THE MUSEUM OF ME Example for Social Networks Ad When users surf to the Museum of Me page, they’ll find an image asking them to connect the service to Facebook. After no more than a minute of waiting, a video tour takes users through a “visual archive of your social life.” “This exhibition is a journey of visualization that explores who I am,” the video reads as users start taking the tour through the virtual museum. As the tour commences, users will “walk” through rooms, showing the profile pictures of friends, personal photos, videos from their profiles, and much more. The “museum” also includes a collection of status updates and other content posted to their wall. Another room shows the user’s location information on a map. Intel’s Museum of Me is about more than just helping users visualize their activity on Facebook. The service is also an advertisement for the company’s Core i5 processors, though that doesn’t become clear until the very end of the

user’s video. Overall, Intel’s Museum of Me is worth trying out at least once. It’s a really neat tool that does a fine job of collecting all the information from your Facebook page and doling it out in a fun exhibit.



VIRAL ADVERTISING Everything goes viral Viral Advertising is buzzword referring to marketing techniques that use preexisting social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through selfreplicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of viruses or computer viruses (cf. memes and memetics). It can be delivered by word of mouth or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet.[1] Viral marketing may take the form of video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, ebooks, brandable software, images, or text messages.


The ultimate goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to create viral messages that appeal to individuals with high social networking potential (SNP) and that have a high probability of being presented and spread by these individuals and their competitors in their communications with others in a short period of time.


TAKE THIS LOLIPOP. Example for Viral Advertising Just in time for Halloween, this haunting, live-action, Facebook Connect driven site dares people to “Take This Lollipop.” And with permission from a Facebook user, Take This Lollipop trolls through their photos, friend lists, news feeds and other personal information. The site then plugs the data into a web video starring a sweaty, disheveled degenerate looking at your personal information. With over 60 million visits and 10 million Facebook “likes” from around the world in thirty days, it’s now the most successful Facebook app of all time.



SECOND LIFE Adsin the 3-D Virtual World Second Life is a “3-D virtual world entirely build and owned by its residents”. Within this Second Life, you can interact with other users, explore the virtual world, create and trade items, buy lands or build your business empire. It has been estimated that there over 7 millions user in Second Life. This figures have shown the popularity of Second Life, which has prompted people to take Second Life more seriously and move forward it as an interactive advertising medium.

brand experience, or through contextual ads placed on billboards within the game.

In a story for InformationWeek published in May 2007, Executive Editor Mitch Wagner said:

American Apparel is a US clothing company that recently launched a Second Life store. Through offering virtual versions of their clothes that users could place on their avatars in the game the company can gain valuable feedback on what is popular as well as raising awareness and generating more traffic to their online store. Raz Schionning is director of web services at American Apparel, and says:

“I calculate that, as of the end of March, there were fewer than 310,000 regular users of Second Life.” There are two main options to advertise in second life – become part of Second Life through building a store and a 37

As Cristiano Midnight, creator of one of Second Life’s first and longest running third party sites, SLuniverse. com, says: “I think and does and just venue is

any company that comes along not understand the environment treats it as another marketing doomed to fail.”

“I have few expectations about generating significant revenue right now – it’s not the objective at this point. I see Second Life as a budding example of the evolution of the “web experience”. The potential is amazing and very compelling.” The potential is certainly there, with companies such as American Apparel and Red Bull using the medium very effectively. The main difference is that within virtual worlds companies must interact with their customers – the customercompany relationship becomes blurred. As Wagner James Au puts it:

The main opportunity surrounds brand equity – virtual worlds are an excellent way of interacting with consumers, building an enjoyable experience, and as a consequence building brand equity.Virtual worlds could become excellent avenues to test store layouts and clothing concepts. However, as always, it will be important to assess whether your virtual world customers are close enough to those of your real life ones.

“Marketers need to be playful, need to embrace the fantasy aspect, need to embrace the ability to suddenly morph into a squirrel with a jetpack or just like I did, jump on the table and start playing air guitar.”



IXD IN ADVERTISING Interaction Design in Advertising Implementation of interaction design in Advertising ( or IxD in Advertising) is another medium to achieve successful interactive advertising campaign. Like many other design fields interaction design also has an interest in form but its main focus is on behaviourInteraction design is heavily focused on satisfying the needs and desires of the people who will use the product. There are five dimension in IxD which could all be used to apply to Interactive Advertising. They are : 1D Words This dimension defines the interactions. Words are the interaction that user use to interact with. 2D Visual Representations The visual representations are the things that the user interacts with on


the interface. These may include but not limited to “typography, diagrams, icons, and other graphics” 3D Physical objects or space The space with which the user interacts is the third dimension of interaction design. It defines the space or objects “with which or within which users interact with” 4D Time The time with which the user interacts with the interface. Some examples of this are “content that changes over time such as sound, video, or animation” 5D Behavior The behavior defines the users actions reaction to the interface and how they


STREET TAG Example for IxD in Advertising Street Summer’ was a season of programming and events across Channel 4 during the summer of 2011 and focussing on street culture from hip-hop and graffiti to break-dancing and streetrunning. Our objective was to raise awareness of this season and to get the audience actively involved. In conjunction with an on- and offair campaign, we created Street Tag, an iPhone app to actively engage the target audience. This app uses augmented reality to turn an iPhone into a can of spray-paint. Using the iPhone’s camera, users virtually ‘graffiti’ any surface in real time, without the risk of damage to public property. The app has the ability to recognise surfaces and let users’ virtual ‘paint’ sit flat on them. Once the piece was finished, users shared their work with a geo-tag so everyone can see it.

The app has taken on a life of its own, quickly hitting 85,000 downloads and achieving a 5-star rating by its users in the iTunes App store. The app has become an internet sensation; it reached much farther out from audience and users and inspired more than 61,000 bloggers write about the app.



MOBILE ADVERTISING Advertising on Mobile Device Mobile advertising is a form of advertising via mobile (wireless) phones or other mobile devices. While some people see mobile advertising as a relative form of online advertising, they are actually much larger than that. It has been estimated that there are 4.6 billions mobile phone user while there are currently 1.1 billions desktops and laptops in use globally. As such, Mobile advertising is a very powerful form of interactive advertising. They even outnumber TV set by over 3:1 ratio. Their venue is almost on of the highest in the world.


There are many different forms of mobile advertising, however. The traditional advertising has seen the advertising through the MMS and SMS, Mobile Web Banner, Mobile Web Posterâ&#x20AC;Ś etc. Recent years, with the development of new media, we see the coming of Mobile Rich Media Ads. With the arrival of HTML5, Flash is no longer dominated the scene since iOS does not support Flash.

Types of mobile advertising are expected to change rapidly. With the development of new media, mobile advertising is an ever-changing industry. The voice-intensive origin of cellphones has been outgrowth by a number of multimedia mobile devices. Unlike the conventional one-way media like TV, radio and newspaper, web media has enabled two-way traffic, thereby introducing a new phase of interactive advertising, regardless of whether static or mobile.


WINDOW AZURE Example for Mobile Ad

The reader sees a Windows Azure ad that communicates that the development platform was created for creative minds. The call to action invites readers to unleash their creative selves by tinkering with this very ad. When the users turns their tablet on its side, they see the actual code that powers the iPad ad. At this point, he/ she can change all the visual elements of the ad by changing the HTML 5 code. He/she can change the background, the photography, the typography, etc. All to make the point that thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no limit to what you can do when you develop your cloud apps using the Windows Azure platform



CASE STUDIES In order to clarify and understand Interactive Advertising better, I shall attempt to look at some cases study from the industry. They are well-known agencies, practitioners or campaigns which would be rather essential to look at in order to understand the practice of this field better. While I try to show the cases which I find most particularly interested, you can go to investigation/case/ to view more cases and information



R/GA The Digital Agency of the Future R/GA operates under an advertising agency model that emphasizes crossagency collaboration. Its agency model, which has been written about in publications such as Communication Arts and Adweek, is designed to be flexible in order to change with clients’ business needs. They are headquartered in New York — with additional offices in San Francisco, Chicago, London, São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Singapore, and Stockholm. The agency is part of the Interpublic Group of Companies (NYSE:IPG), one of four global advertising holding companies. R/GA creates advertising and marketing products based in technology and design. They are a renowned advertising agency, with clients such as Ad Council, American Eagle Outfitters, Ameriprise Financial, Avaya, Barnes & Noble, Chanel, Goldman Sachs, Grey Goose, Hewlett-Packard, Johnson & Johnson,


L’Oréal Paris, MasterCard, McCormick, Nike (including Converse), Nokia, Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Reuters, S.C. Johnson, Verizon, and Zain….among others Since 1995, R/GA has changed into an interactive advertising and secured IBM as a client. At the time, IBM was consolidating advertising agencies and selected R/GA to redesign the company’s five-million-page website.The agency also developed websites for companies such as Levi Strauss & Co and Ellis Island Museum. In 2001, R/GA expanded its client roster by becoming the Interactive Agency of Record for Nike and Verizon in 2003.The agency also started a retail practice and built location-based interactive displays for the flagship Original Levi’s Store in New York City in 1996. From 2004, R/ GA changed its agency model to account for the changing business needs of its clients in the digital age. The agency

expanded globally, and built a more diverse offering including mobile, social, digital advertising, and brand development. R/GA also created digital marketing options for its clients and developed the Nike+ platform. The agency expanded its client roster to include Nokia (2004), Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;OrĂŠal Paris (2006), Walmart (2009), MasterCard (2009), Ameriprise Financial (2009), and Taco Bell (2009).





The groundbreaking Nike+ campaign has evolved. Now the Nike+ GPS App takes the Nike+ experience out of your shoe and into your pocket, connecting you to the world’s largest running club no matter what brand of shoe you’re wearing. It comes fully loaded with tools to empower runners and enhance their training. Nike+ GPS uses your phone’s built-in GPS to track your progress and broadcast your runs to your friends on Facebook. When a friend cheers you on, you hear applause in your earphones. Surprise guest stars voice words of encouragement as you push yourself. Nike+ GPS takes the platform to a whole new level of convenience, cementing Nike+’s place as the ultimate running platform.




What would you say to the man whoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s about to refresh our nation? The Dear Mr. President integrated campaign gave people the chance to speak their mind to then President-Elect Obama. Citizens across the country were invited to send a message to him by uploading a video on, through interactive text and video banners, text messages, and a mobile site. The response was so overwhelming that we compiled a selection of the messages in a custom-made book we delivered to President Obama.








NIKEiD invites anyone to be a designer by customizing Nike products, from shoes to team jerseys to equipment. Today, the product is the interface. Guests simply pick their favorite kicks and start designing by directly touching any piece in any order. But it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t stop at just colors, patterns, and tags. Now performance features are customizable, complementing any athletesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; style of play. Part customization tool, part online store, part design community, NIKEiD represents the future of personal style while blurring the line between the virtual and the physical.



EVALUATION It’s an undeniable fact that R/ GA is a pioneer in the field of interactive advertising. They have earned their reputation as one of the most successful and creative agencies in the industry. The company follow Greenberg’s model. which value inhouse collaboration from start-to finish by using a multidiscliped team, technologists partner with copywriters, designers, researchers and planners.

HELLICAR & LEWIS Play/Work/Learn

Hellicar & Lewis is the partnership between Pete Hellicar and Joel Gethin Lewis, formed in 2008. They are interested in creating groundbreaking experiences that use art, technology and design to take people into the moment and impart lasting memories. Recent commercial projects include a global 24 Hour Music event for Coca Cola that took realtime input from music fans all around the world via social networks and a comment wall for the Turner Prize that allowed visitors to contribute comments via Twitter. In addition to their work for clients, they also enjoy working in educational, artistic and performance contexts, recently completing an interactive dance piece in collaboration with a choreographer studying at the Laban School, as well as an ongoing project creating interactive therapeutic 55

software for children on the autistic spectrum. They’ve exhibited at: The Tate Modern, London The National Poetry Library, London Semi-Permanent, Hong Kong onedotzero, London Watermans Gallery, London Kalied Editions Gallery, London Outline Editions Gallery, London The Banff Arts Center, Canada The Victoria and Albert Museum, London Yota x onedotzero, St. Petersberg FOAM Gallery, Amsterdam THey’ve presented our work at: FITC Design Indaba WPP Stream/ Vice London College of Fashion, London Central St. Martins, London

Flash on the Beach, Brighton Geeky by Nature, New York Camberwell College of Arts, London The London College of Communication The Oslo School of Architecture and Design The Oslo National Academy Of The Arts Goldsmiths, London Northern Digitals, Manchester Semi-Permanent, Auckland Flashbelt, Minneapolis Dorkbot, London D&AD Presidents Lecture

upfront,” says Lewis. “A lot of people said to me ‘no- one will want to open source their projects, you’re crazy’, but no-one’s had a problem with it so far.”

At the centre of their business strategy is open source, with all works they create being placed online for others to download and use or adapt after they are finished. You might imagine that this approach would cause anxiety in some of the advertising agencies or brands they have been talking to, but surprisingly this is not the case. “We say everything 56




On March 22nd, 2011, Hellicar&Lewis teamed up with Nexus Productions, Wieden+Kennedy, Frukt, Lexus PR, CocaCola and Maroon 5 to put on a live 24 hour music event. They used OpenFrameworks to create and deliver an interactive experience for the band in the studio that allowed them to interact with fans Tweets in real time. The event was simultaneously broadcast to the world via the web thanks to Streaming Tank and Akamai. Tomas Leach directed the camera team and edited the film They worked with several members of the OpenFrameworks community to make the project happen: Chris Sugrue James George Josh Nimoy Joshua Noble Marek Bereza Todd Vanderlin 57



As part of Semi-Permanent Hong Kong, Hellicar & Lewis were invited to create a new version of our Feedback installation. They collaborated with Todd Vanderlin for this particular project. A Kinect camera is used in order to allow three dimensional interaction with the piece. Made with openFrameworks.





EVALUATION Similar to R/GA, Hellicar & Lewis is also leading company in this field. However, the thing that I found rather admirable about Hellicar and Lewis that they are contributor of the Open source community. You can gain access to most of their works, there are certain creative common and commercial copyright restriction, but it’s obviously valuable if you can learn from the project that they’ve done so far. Since it’s a private design studio, Hellicar & Lewis tends to deliver interesting but playful solutions which experience with interactivity and satisfy the audiences with some entertaining treats. This is certain Also, the background of Hellicar & Lewis’s founders, Joel and Pete, before they start their partnership, is a good example to show that with Interactive Advertising is open to everyone.


KOICHIRO TANAKA Prijector.Inc / Japan Tanaka established, a creative collective, in 2004.Tanaka first made an international name for himself with his intricate work for Uniqlo,UNIQLOCK, the dance music clock, UNIQLO CALENDAR, a calendar that presents a miniaturized Japan, and Intel’s “The Museum of Me,” an exhibition of your social graph. He has received numerous international awards including a D&AD Black Pencil and a Cannes Titanium. The Museum of Me, which pulls content from viewers’ Facebook pages and displays it in a personalized, virtual “exhibition.” The museum has racked up more than 800,000 “Likes” since its June launch.



What do actor Susan Sarandon, jazz musician Esperanza Spalding, Tumblr founder David Karp, Momofuku chef David Chang, and Gregg Breinberg, the music director of NYC’s P.S. 22’s kids chorus, the Oscars-performing YouTube sensation, have in common? They are all – along with Laura Linney, John Leguizamo, and Glee star Darren Criss, and 23 other big name (and should-be-known) New Yorkers – being featured in the latest Japan-based Uniqlo advertising campaign, “Voices of New York,” released in time for New York Fashion Week. The innovative microsite incorporates video clips (such as this one of Criss), featuring New Yorkers talking about their inspirations while wearing the brand’s fall collection. “NYC Voices” has a slightly unusual way of animating and navigating and yet immediately makes sense. And how often do we get annoyed by a soundtrack that butts into the experience and makes you 65



scramble for the ‘sound off’ button? Not so in the case of Kenji Ozawa’s ‘The River’ which even manages to complement the interviews nicely.


[UNIQLOCK] The Brief: UNIQLO was seeking an innovative way to build its brand awareness internationally, and promote its business expansion into the global market. recognized the 70 million blogs worldwide as a powerful buzzbuilding media, and created a functional and entertaining blog widget for the bloggers to spread the brand globally. The campaign concept they developed was the fusion of a CLOCK which functions as a blog utility, time signaling MUSIC, and DANCE performance videos with UNIQLO clothing. They named it UNIQLOCK. As a 100% UNIQLO branded widget, this automatically became a tool to connect UNIQLO and the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bloggers. The Launch And Execution: 67

As a teaser, uploaded 16

audition videos onto YOUTUBE. Then they launched the UNIQLOCK site to start distributing the blog widget. The numerous dance videos and the clock counter appearing seamlessly one after another makes the viewers eager to see more. Since the widget plays all-year round, 24/7, the dancers change their outfits according to the season. The bloggers were motivated by seeing the websiteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s world map which visualized the expansion of all of the users.Screensavers and shop installations were also released to enhance the UNIQLOCK experience, from personal desktops to the UNIQLO stores. The Results: Over 27000 widgets from 76 countries Over 68 million views from 209 countries (the wedgets + the website) Over 500 thousand views on You Tube (the audition videos)


EVALUATION has managed to make a name of themselves in the Interactive Advertising industry. They’re known for their simple but innovative solutions. Koichiro Takana is known as one of the leading minds in this field, he’s widely recognise for the collaboration between Intel and Facebook, the viral “Museum of Me”. Takana and Projector. inc have incorporated and make good use of Social Network in their works, making it appeal to a large number of audiences.


31 FPS & ANDREAS ROTHAUG Andreas Rothaug is a 25 years old developer who started programming with Flash 4 when he was 13. With 16 he started his first company IMG31 working on international releases for clients such as Siemens. Since 2006 Andreas Rothaug foccused on his new company 31fps. 31fps offers state of the art interaction design and conception using future technologies merging visual beauty with natural user interfaces. 2010 31fps started expanding forming a new collective of inspired artists and developers: Futura Epsis 1 Found 2010 by award winning interaction designer and artist Andreas Rothaug, FE1 offers state of the art conception and development in the field of human / computer interfaces. Rather then the usual 9to5 scheme the team works in intense sessions,


following a concept of passionate work and living. 24/7. Futura Epsis 1 delivers interdisciplinary experiences, ranging from modern online-based solutions and mobile applications to semantic concepts including Multi-Touch setups and various other forms of interactive installations. Their famous quote on their website : “ We love Interaction and we love creating experiences. Our basic goal is to connect to a person on an emotional level ”

[QDD] The official app from the album Limousine To The Guillotine released on the mind-blowing danish electronic & experimental label Rump Recordings The app includes remix tracks from artists like Thomas Knak aka Opiate, Jason Forrest , Kim Hiorthøy, Guido MÜbius and Loopspool (Tied + Tickled Trio)




Christoph Ruprecht is an award winning German artist based in Karlsruhe. He is best known under his pseudonym “CrispyCrystal”. His particularity comes from his unique style, most of the time abstract and rich in graphical elements mixed together. 31 fps was comissioned to showcase Christopher Ruprecht’s portfolio in a unique and innovative way. The flash site is a mesmerising piece of art. It’s an interactive fairy tale with a mysterious atmosphere by implementing surrealism sound and visual effect.





EVALUATION 31 fps is a ground-breaking group of spectacular creative individuals, created by Andreas Rothaug. They share the same vision with Hellicar & Lewis, learning and playing with ideas, technology and mediums. 31 fps is also renewed for their bespoke interaction design. , using the latest technologies incorporated the visual aspect with natural , user-friendly interfaces. They have the same goals as many other people who’re currently working in this field- to bring the interaction between human and machine to the next level. In their quote, they mentioned that they want to connect with a person an “emotional level” though their works, which is one of the basic criterias of Interactive Advertising



INTERVIEW In order to clarify and understand Interactive Advertising better, I shall attempt to look at some cases study from the industry. They are well-known agencies, practitioners or campaigns which would be rather essential to look at in order to understand the practice of this field better. While I try to show the cases which I find most particularly interested, you can go to investigation/case/ to view more cases and information






QUESTIONS FOR R/GA 1. R/GA is known as a pioneer in the field of Interactive Advertising and Interaction Design. You’ve delivered some of the most innovative digital solutions for many big clients such as Nike, Verizon, HBO.... Can you tell us more about R/GA ? 2. Let’s take a look at the “NIKE+ GPS”, the rather successful digital collaboration between Apple and Nike. Thanks to the digital interaction, consumers can enjoy a higher level of leisure during their work-out. What is the inspiration behind this campaign ? 3. The R/GA’s Greenberg model is quite successful, making R/GA stand out among fellow agencies as the pioneer in digital age. I notice that R/GA focuses to create multidisciplined teams, technologists partner with copywriters, designers, researchers and planners. Why do you think that


team collaboration from start to finish within the company is better than handling off ideas to separate outsider department ? 4. In an interview with Warren Berger from Communication Arts, R/GA’s founder, Mr Greenberg has mentioned “Creating applications that ties to community is the new advertising”. This is a very interesting point that I would like to ask more from your opinions ? 5. How did R/GA adapt so quickly to the new environment where Social Networks like Twitter and Facebook are dominating, pushing their predecessors such as television commercials out of the way ? 6. Do you think that by adding interactive elements to advertising, such as iphone applications, social networks..etc, the

result will be more effective as the consumers would engage better in the process ? 7. Do you think that Interactive elements have changed the nature of Advertising ? If yes, in which direction they are leading us toward ? 8. What are your advises for students and young designers out there who would like to participate in the field of Interactive Advertising industry ?



QUESTIONS FOR PROJECTOR 1 Since its beginning in 2004, Projector. inc has attracted widespread interest from the creative industry. You’ve delivered some of the most innovative digital solutions for many big clients such as Intel & Uniqlo . Can you tell us more about ? 2 “The Museum of Me” is a viral phenomenon on Facebook. What is the inspiration behind this campaign ? 3 What do you think about the role of Social Network in Interactive advertising ? Let’s take “The Museum of Me” for example. What is Facebook’s contribution to the success of your campaign ? 4 Do you think that by adding interactive elements to advertising, such as iphone applications, online social media platforms..etc, the result will be more


effective as the consumers would engage better in the process ? 5 Do you think that Interactive elements have changed the nature of Advertising ? If yes, in which direction they are leading us toward ? 6 What are your advises for students and young designers out there who would like to participate in the field of Interactive Advertising industry ? result will be more effective as the consumers would engage better in the process ?


QUESTIONS FOR 31FPS 1 On your website, you mentioned that you would like to connect with a person to an emotional level. Why would you want to achieve that ?

Interactive Advertising industry ? result will be more effective as the consumers would engage better in the process ?

2 Do you think that by adding interactive elements to advertising, such as iphone applications, online social media platforms..etc, the result will be more effective as the consumers would engage better in the process ? 3 Do you think that Interactive elements have changed the nature of Advertising ? If yes, in which direction they are leading us toward ? 4 What are your advises for students and young designers out there who would like to participate in the field of 84


Q&A WITH HELLICAR & LEWIS Since the founding of your partnership, you’ve delivered some of the most innovative digital solutions for many big clients such as Coca Cola & Uniqlo Can you tell us more about Hellicar & Lewis ? Pete and I met more than ten years ago. We started by finding things that we were both interested in, and we’ve found new things since then. It’s an ongoing experiment.


be good at what they are good at is something that we always try to do. What do you think about the role of Social Network in Interactive advertising ? Let’s take “Coke 24” for example. What is Social Network’s contribution to the success of your campaign ?

“Coke24” is a viral phenomenon, It has attracted widespread interest from the creative industry  What is the inspiration behind this campaign ?

Social networks were the main medium through which fans and the band communicated with each other. We think social networks are a very useful platform upon which to do interesting things. Much more interesting things than advertising.

We just wanted to make a direct interface between the band and their fans. We didn’t want them to break away from doing what they do best being musicians. We wanted to make an interface out of the walls of the studio - and make a way of broadcasting that to the wider world. Letting people

One of the thing I admire about Hellicar & Lewis is your contribution to the Open Source community. Thanks to your sharing spirit, we could learn from your wonderful experiences. What do you think about the role of Open Source in Interaction Design and

Interactive Advertising ? Open Source is simply the best method we have found to run our business. We want to do this for a long time, and Open Source seems to be the best way of doing that. We think Openness can allow creativity to come to the fore again, rather than the perennial first mover advantage. That’s the nature of the game however. Do you think that by adding interactive elements to advertising, such as iphone applications, online social media platforms..etc, the result will be more effective as the consumers would engage better in the process ? It all comes down to telling the truth about what the company is trying to do. Interactive elements won’t save a lie, but will enable a truth.

have changed the nature of Advertising ? If yes, in which direction they are leading us toward ? I don’t think that Interactive elements have changed the nature of advertising. I think that it is all communication. Perhaps faster communication? Is that better? What are your advises for students and young designers out there who would like to participate in the field of Interactive Advertising industry ? Read. Try paper prototyping. Get as much work experience in as many different fields as possible. Set up an online shop of some kind. Try to make money. It be surprisingly easy/hard. Do things that you like to do and share your enthusiasm with others irl and online.

Do you think that Interactive elements 86


ARTEFACT Because itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an ever-changing industry, the dynamic development of Interactive Advertising could be influenced by a number of factors. I shall attempt to list a few important factors which Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve investigate with some examples and evidences to clarify the importance of these factors.



WINDEX Brand Study

About Windex is a trademark for a glass and hard-surface cleaner manufactured since 1933. S. C. Johnson acquired Windex in 1993 and has been manufacturing since The product was recently reformulated with more environmentally desirable solvents.

The blueish-green color inspired bartenders similarly tinted mixed drinks. For example, a â&#x20AC;&#x153;Windex shotâ&#x20AC;? typically contains vodka, triple sec, and Blue Curaçao for color.

The original Windex was colored a light, transparent shade of blue, but varieties are marketed today in a variety of colors (ocean fresh blue, sunshine lemon and citrus orange) and fragrances (spring bouquet, ocean mist, lavender and tea tree), and with a variety of additives such as vinegar, lemon, lime, or orange juice.

The latest ad campaign from Windex seems to be suggesting how an ugly mark on a well-structured body distorts the entire scenario. The ad communicates very straight that their product is efficient enough to clean up every mark that distorts the window plane. However, it is difficult to speculate actual performance of the brand but the ad seems to be claiming it helps leaving no marks.

The popularity of Windex in the US led to the generic use of the trademark for similar product, including those marketed under different brands Window Cleaner. 89

Campaign: Marks that Distort


THE BRIEF Money is always the problem Idea I come across Windex recent advertising campaign and I find it quite interesting. A good thing about Windex, in my opinions, is that they have the potential to be developed more in the advertising aspect. They havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t launched a lot of interactive or digital advertising campaigns so I think I would have fun in the process of making something new. I create a piece of Interactive mini Kinect game in which the audience can swipe the white screen in order to reveal an image. I used a series of white, crystal clean windows and glasses in order to deliver the message : Windex can clean them all. I hope that the Interactive elements would bring the brand close to the audience Methods I used Kinect and Processingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s library OpenNI to achieve my goal




THE BRIEF Money is always the problem Idea In my research, I find a particular form of Interactive Advertising very interesting, which is Advergaming. A game is made entirely for the purpose of Advertising. I decide to create a mini game to promote Windex original which’s called “Windex Hero”. In the game, you have to destroy all the dust monsters by spraying Windex Original toward them. The final boss is the giant black dust monster which you will have to destroy in order to win the game Methods I used GameSalad Engine to create this game. The game was intended to





About Virgin Active is a chain of health clubs in South Africa, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Australia and the United Kingdom. The company launched in 1998 in Preston, Lancashire as part of Richard Branson’s Virgin Group. In their website, Virgin Active’s mission is to bring positive change to people’s lives, because life’s more fun when you move. Their values: - Fun - Innovation - Challenging the norm - Excellent customer service - Value for money If you’re moving, you’re alive, you feel good. You’re instantly on the path to health and wellness. - As fun and enjoyable as possible. 95

Campaign: Oomph Virgin Active’s nationwide ‘Oomph’ campaign designed to promote awareness of and encourage membership at their Clubs. Multiple inflatable billboards ran simultaneously at towns across the UK, from Twickenham to Bolton and Farnborough to Preston. These formats were used in specific post code areas in order to target certain demographics – local roadside locations were the primary focus but these were also planned to be in position in proximity to key shopping and leisure areas.


THE BRIEF Money is always the problem Idea Inspired by the works of Hellicar & Lewis and ( Feedback Form, ), I want to create a piece of interactive feedback form for Virgin Active. The gym member can give feedback form by doing some simple movement whichâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s part of a relax exercise after working out. Methods I used Synapse to trigger the audio file. For the visual aspect, I used Quartz Compressor with the special Synapse plug-in to create some rather interesting visual effect with particles system controlled by body movement.




EVALUATION Interactive Advertising is an everchanging industry because they are strongly associated with the development of new media, whichâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a dynamic growing field. My Design Investigation aims to explore the factors which would affect the industry, as well as different forms of Interactive Advertising. In order to achieve that, I also attempt to make some industry contacts with a few notable individuals and companies which are well-known in the field of Interactive Advertising


consumer society and the social effect. Designers and companies always look out and study a good number of factors before they begin their project. There are different opinions regarding the efficiency of in-house production and outside suppliers, but team work is a primary requirement.Collaboration is very valuable in this field as it would take various people from different fields to make a successful advertising campaign.

After the investigation in the field of Interactive Advertising, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve gained some information which would be rather helpful for my future practice. With the research that I gather, I manage to expand my knowledge of Interactive Advertising.

There are several formats of Interactive Advertising. A few popular examples are Advergaming, Interactive Installation, Online Advertising and Mobile Advertising. These formats have different targets and methods, but they all focus on the Interactivity between the consumers and the advertising campaigns.

According to my finding, Interactive Design could be affected by a number of factors, such as technology development, internet, economy,

In order to achieve the outcomes I desire, I carried out an extensive research plan through both primary and secondary resources. There are severals

sources which I find rather helpful, such as the Journal of Interactive Advertising, the Webby Awards Archive…I also attempt to make some industry contact of my own by sending interview questions to a few well-known studios in the industry such as Projector. inc (Japan), Hellicar&Lewis , RGA.. etc. To get the best information out of my interview, I focus on their recent successful advertising campaign. In addition to that, I also ask them about their inspiration, their ideology and their thoughts on the current situation of Interactive Advertising, as well as their advices for the young generation of designers. At the end of the Investigation, I receive some very helpful and valuable replies from some of the studios. These answers contribute greatly to my Design Investigation.

field. It’s ever-changing and overwhelming and you will not be able to adapt well into this industry if you stay within your comfort zone. It’s important to experience, to make mistake and then learn from your mistake.Moreover, it’s a good habit of thought to start sharing your works with others and learn from other people’s work. After this project, I also understand the industry better, as well as realising the current situation of this field. I am looking forward to work and explore in this environment after my graduation

By interviewing and studying notable individuals and companies in the field of Interactive Advertising, I’ve learned that this is a challenging 100


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Bruner, Gordon C. II, and Anand Kumar (2000),”Web Commercials and Advertising Hierarchy-of-Effects,” Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (January/ April), 35-42. Cannon, Hugh M. (1982). “A New Method for Estimating the Effect of Media Context,” Journal of Advertising Research, 22:5 (October/November) Drèze, Xavier and François-Xavier Hussherr (2003), “Internet Advertising: Is Anybody Watching?,” Journal of Interactive Marketing. Evans, John (1999), “Challenges of

Precision Marketing (2002), “HSBC to Lure Students with Interactive Game,” Precision Marketing, (August 30), 5. Phillips, Mark (1994), “Throwing from the Chair: Being-disabled-in-the-world and Other Marginalizations,” Mary Washington College, aletheia/disabled.shtml Rodgers, Shelly and Esther Thorson (2000),”The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process On-Line Ads,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1 (Fall), <http://jiad. org/vol1/no1/rodgers> (accessed on 15/04/12).

Schwarz, Joyce (2005), “R-U-GAME?” iMedia Connection, available at http:// asp (accessed 20/04/2012)

Young, E. (2004), “EA Makes Ad Play,” San Francisco Business Times, (February 6).

Screven, C. G. (1999), “Information design in informal settings: Museums and other public settings,” in Information Design, Robert Jacobson, ed., Cambridge: The MIT Press,

Woolley, Scott (2003), “Zap! The Day May Finally be Near When Digital Technology Eviscerates a $60 Billion As Business. How Will the Networks Survive?” Forbes, 172 (6),

Sengupta, Jaideep and Gerald J. Gorn (2002),”Absence Makes the Mind Grow Sharper: Effects of Element Omission on Subsequent Recall,” Journal of Marketing Research, 39 (May), Sutherland, Max and John Galloway (1981), “Role of Advertising: Persuasion or Agenda-setting?,” Journal of Advertising Research, 21 (5), 25-29. Yang, Moonhee, David R. RoskosEwoldsen, Lucian Dinu, and Laura M. Arpan (2006), “The Effectiveness of ‘In-Game’ Advertising,” Journal of Advertising,

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