Page 1

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. . research academic professional creative .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . samantha perkins

513 | 560-5975

samperk@mac.com

samperk-works.com

2012 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..


portfolio .. .. .. .. .. . research academic professional creative .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . samantha perkins

513 | 560-5975

samperk@mac.com

samperk-works.com

2012 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..


environmental graphic design

web design

print design

architecture

academia

contents

academic product............................................................01

creative scholarship.......................................................28 design practice...............................................................38

2012

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. portfolio .. .. .. . academic creative practice .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..


student work

graphic design

architecture

V.

I.

interior design

2012

N.

“Vin Winery” is an all inclusive wine bar and retailer. Based on the concept of movement through time, this contemporary but inviting space houses all varieties of wine and organizes them in relation to the space in time it symbolizes (past, present, future).

academic product With areas for private champagne parties, an outdoor balcony, and our natural indoor stream, “Vin Winery” is a one of a kind experience with only the very best quality and sustainability.

Due to the interdisciplinary nature pursued throughout Samantha’s career, the differences between the

design disciplines of architecture, interior design and graphic design have become blurred, making it easy for her to approach design education from a practical foundation.

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . study abroad

The minimization of water usage is accomplished by using two systems: (1) a forced-air falling-droplet cooling tower and (2) a rainwater collection system. The cooling tower serves two principal purposes: (a) to keep the bottles of wine cool as the cooled-water discharge from the cooling tower circulates in the glass structure surrounding the wine bottles and (b) to provide a flowing source of water for the underground “stream” in the building.

In teaching within each discipline, Samantha attempts to pull as much common vocabulary from all three fields, encouraging students to explore all available options, materials and vocabularies within their designs.

multidisc

In the diagram below, the picture labeled “Process heat source” symbolizes both the glass storage shelves for the wine and the underground “stream”. The circulating water that takes on “process heat” while keeping the wine cool is returned back to the cooling tower where it is cooled back down as it is dispersed into droplets and allowed to fall through the cooling tower.

print system design

Because a portion of the falling water evaporates as it cools, make-up water needs to be continuously added to the system. The rainwater collection system provides the water source for this make-up. The rainwater collection system also supplies the water for the fire sprinkler and fire protection system.

composition

retail design

Furthermore, her interdisciplinary approach encourages her students to realize that there is a tool for each problem. Find the right tool, and the problem is easier to solve. This is a standard of design that she seeks to instill in all of her design students, regardless of major. Work shown within these examples were completed by Miami University and University of Arkansas students based on project assignments written by Samantha. Projects range in complexity from simple compositional explorations to detailed integrated communications.

representation foundation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .1


study abroad

upper level

design

study abroad

school of fine arts Miami University

mobile italy

Study abroad studios offer the opportunity to

apply research thinking directly to teaching. In the summer of 2011, this opportunity came in the form of Mobile Italy, where students used a custom-designed exploration kit to observe and document elements of navigation and wayfinding in ancient, historic, and modern environments across the Italian countryside. Students spent the majority of their days  touring historic sites in Rome, Orvieto, Florence, Verona / Venice, and Milan, sketching according to assigned observations. At the end of their stay in each city, they developed  a “cognitive map� of these explorations, visually summarizing their experiences of each location in terms of space, color, impression, and anything else that defined that place for them.

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. . daily sketches cognitive maps .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. Katie Schmidt Catherine Berry Sharon Peng .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .3


study abroad

upper level

design

school of fine arts Miami University

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

study abroad mobile italy

daily sketches cognitive maps .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . featured students .. .. .. Sharon Peng Katie Schmidt Emma Cooper Aaron Schordock .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .5


spa design studio

third year

interior design

architecture department

Miami University

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .

3rd year spa design Designing an academic exercise is difficult

when it must meet the needs of increasing the department’s health-care project types while keeping students interested in the project. To compensate for potential lack of interest, students were to select a client from a series of short documentaries. Since each spa solution aimed at a different personality, depending upon the client chosen, each design solution gained a unique nature unto itself. Clients ranged from retired cia agents to recovering addict musicians, to couples attempting to rejuvinate a dying love. Project results provided spas geared towards solitude, trend, or visceral materiality.

claire showalter therapeutic spa

a spa program was offered instead, in which

little grey men .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . featured students .. .. .. christine lodico .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .7


GRAPHICS GRAPHICS GRAPHICS

DIAGRAM DIAGRAM DIAGRAM

EXTERIOR EXTERIOR EXTERIOR

RENDERINGS RENDERINGS RENDERINGS


spa design studio

third year

interior design

architecture department

Miami University

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

3rd year spa design

melusina .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. carolyn lecompte amanda cole paul weber michelle ensche .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .9

first floor


three-dimensional design

third year

graphic design

art department Miami University

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

3rd year multidisc Taught in collaboration with the Architecture and Interior Design Department, this studio focuses on the three dimensional aspects of graphic design as applied to a multidisciplinary process and project. Two projects run during the semester, including  a smaller-scale packaging investigation and  a larger interdisciplinary project where

food for thought .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. chris george erica sillin

students collaborate on the generation of a

corkum steffel

branded architectural space and business.

rachel baldwin

Spring 2009 students participated in an international design competition, Food for Thought, where one group gained tenth place recognition within the international competition with over sixty entries.

laura wales molly miller .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .11


three-dimensional design

third year

graphic design

art department Miami University

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

3rd year multidisc

microbrew.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. amanda baker erica sillin melissa burr liz chmela chris george annette davisson shane gring katharine land natalya ganyukova kayley wagner jeff raulie nancy valentine .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .13


acton research center

acton research center

acton research center

teacher resources

teacher resources

acton research center

grade 2

acton research center

teacher resources

acton research center

acton research center

acton research center

acton research center

education kit grade 1

education kit grade 1

education kit grade 1

grade 5

grade 4

grade 3

teacher resources

teacher resources

acton research center

education kit grade 1

education kit grade 1

grade 1

acton research center

teacher resources

acton research center

education kit grade 1

grade 6

Sauger acton research center

acton research center

teacher resources

acton research center

teacher resources

acton research center

acton research center

teacher resources

acton research center

acton research center

acton research center

education kit grade 1

grade 9

teacher resources

teacher resources

acton research center

education kit grade 1

grade 8

grade 7

acton research center

teacher resources

acton research center

education kit grade 1

education kit grade 1

acton research center

education kit grade 1

education kit grade 1

grade 11

grade 10

grade 12

do you have the correct folder for your grade level?

Young sauger eat zooplankton, adults also eat fish.

Size

Habitat

Diet

Predators

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

acton research center

education kit

Sauger

People eat sauger, as do larger predatory fish.

Size

Habitat

Diet

Predators

acton research center h center research center acton researc acton

3

acton research center

Chad Smith

nature center officer

5

6301 Park Office Road College Corner, OH 45003 513 523 6347 chadsmith@arc.com

2

6

7 1

4 8

1

Rain washes chemicals from car fluids, such as oil and gasoline, into  the lake.

2

When cars are washed on pavement, the water washes chemicals from  the pavement and soap into the storm sewers, which drain into the lake

3

Rain runs off the roof, collecting chemicals, and flows into the lake

5

Litter is washed into the lake and pollutes it

4

Nutrients and bacteria from animal feces are washed into the lake

6

Soil and nutrients from fertilizers in fields are washed into tributaries that  flow into the lake

7

Soil washes down hills and collects nutrients and soil, which flow the lake

8

Asphalt doesnʼt allow water to filter through it and increases the s at which water and pollutants flow into the lake


w into 

speed 

three-dimensional design

third year

graphic design

art department Miami University

Entrance into The Wade Center projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

3rd year multidisc

watershed research center .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. A lyse Eversole Nomiki Frangopolis Amy Baker Jinghang Huang A llison Backovski

Back of The Wade Center Cross section B

Peter Gray Becca Strasbury Claire Saltsman Kristen W haley Emily Drumm Emma Cooper Kara Isabella Mallory McDonagh John Tatone Lindsay Schragen .. .. .. .. .. .. .15


retail design studio

third year

interior design

architecture department

Miami University

As part of a semester-long retail interior

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .

design project, the studio was required 

green space

3rd design retail year V.

I.

N.

“Vin Winery” is an all inclusive wine bar and retailer. Based on the concept of movement through time, this contemporary but inviting space houses all varieties of wine and organizes them in relation to the space in time it symbolizes (past, present, future).

to develop a brand for the space in order to

With areas for private champagne parties, an outdoor balcony, and our natural indoor stream, “Vin Winery” is a one of a kind experience with only the very best quality and sustainability.

direct the look and feel of the overall solu-

tion. Program requirements for the project were open, in that the students were able to determine if the space would be a food service or hard goods retail program. Students developed logo and any proposed graphics within the spaces in addition to the traditional interior design curricula of material studies, spatial organization and experience design. All projects were required to consider the

usage of “green” materials and a sustainable branding concept within developing their final projects.

analysis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. ..

The minimization of water usage is accomplished by using two systems: (1) a forced-air falling-droplet cooling tower and (2) a rainwater collection system. The cooling tower serves two principal purposes: (a) to keep the bottles of wine cool as the cooled-water discharge from the cooling tower circulates in the glass structure surrounding the wine bottles and (b) to provide a flowing source of water for the underground “stream” in the building. In the diagram below, the picture labeled “Process heat source” symbolizes both the glass storage shelves for the wine and the underground “stream”. The circulating water that takes on “process heat” while keeping the wine cool is returned back to the cooling tower where it is cooled back down as it is dispersed into droplets and allowed to fall through the cooling tower.

jenna green

Because a portion of the falling water evaporates as it cools, make-up water needs to be continuously added to the system. The rainwater collection system provides the water source for this make-up. The rainwater collection system also supplies the water for the fire sprinkler and fire protection system.

gillian klass carolyn twombly .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .17


a blank

{Retail} Space A

Floo

B

C

n

r Pla

A Short Section Isometric Facing Facade

etric Isom

Long Section Facing Right

C Short Section Facing Back of House Short Section Facing Facade

B A Short Section Isometric Facing Back of House

B


retail design studio

third year

interior design

architecture department

3rd design retail year

Miami University

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. green space .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. carolyn twombly sarah parks .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .19


PROJECT 003 JOINING TWO SPACES APRIL

21 (08) john m humphries anna p sokolina

josh p carson


phries olina

representation

josh p carson

Joining Spaces

first year

architecture

architecture department

1st year representation Utilizing various disciplines of design, the intention of this studio lab is to assist first year architecture and interior design students in learning the necessities of architectural graphic representation.

explained, with students completing projects using orthographic and isometric standards, graphic and three-dimensional software solutions, and model building techniques. Following the completion of smaller projects, the lab tied back into the main studio, which required the students to design a poster and small book describing their studio project  program and solutions, as well as a small port-

7

folio website design highlighting both studio and lab projects.

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. . poster design book design hejduk models .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. ..

unforgetta

Multiple techniques of representation were

Miami University

josh carson

sarah pytlik .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .21

S


I then took that 2-dimensional model, and uploaded it to sketch up in order to 'play' with it. This was a major transition process-going from shapes to volumes. I found that sketch up really didn't do it for me, and though I was coming up with what I felt were strong compositions, they still lacked the essential connections and spatial systems.

First sketch up propos

17


sal

representation

first year

architecture

architecture department

Miami University

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .

1st year representation

poster design book design hejduk models .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. sarah glenn sarah pytlik spring 2008 class .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .23


foundations

first year

architecture

architecture department

Univ. of Arkansas

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

1st yearfoundations

First Year Design Studio curriculum at

the University of Arkansas’ Department of Architecture was designed to help the students look beyond their traditional methods of observation in order to “see the world anew” and apply this new vision to a design process. Projects were written as a series of steps, each taking an ordinary object through multiple iterations, continually breaking the object into more abstract forms of itself. Universal design principles were used in teaching composition and representation techniques, including photography, painting, print making, hand-rendering and model building skill development. Work from this studio was displayed within the School of Architecture’s Long Hall Gallery during the Spring of 2005, and was selected for publication within the School of Architecture’s annual re:view newsletter.

the machine re:create pattern photostitch .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. matthew hoffman timothy schmidt .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .25


foundations

first year

architecture

architecture department

Univ. of Arkansas

projects shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

1st foundations year

the machine pattern of nature progression .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. featured students .. .. .. timothy schmidt matthew hoffman .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .27


wayfinding

environmental graphic design

print systems

interactive design

creative scholarship

The interdisciplinary nature of Samantha’s work experience led her on a continuing path to find the

overlaps, the intersections, the places where architecture and graphic design merge and work together. This pushed her in the direction of investigating wayfinding, or how design leads people.

Within her studies, Samantha realized that most contemporary wayfinding design leads using signage or maps, but ignores the facts that people use human behavior or contextual clues when making

navigational decisions. Further investigations revealed that this lack of understanding was an issue at the educational level, which can be overcome. Knowhere, an immersive series of teaching tools, looks at how context and behavior impact navigational decisions using actual context as its foundation. A mobile drawing kit is used exploring urban environments, encouraging students to find minor (or major) details in human behavior or contextual clues. A website encourages social network sharing of these findings. A book acts as a more traditional tool, but uses materials and color to provide tactile examples that orient and lead on a smaller scale. And an exhibit turns its venue into a teaching tool, pointing out moments where navigation decisions are made and what within that space aids in these.

2012

statement .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . research .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .29


wayfinding

environmental graphic design

print systems

A Roadkit for Exploring Knowhere Cincinnati Design Awards 2011 distinguished detail

interactive design

project shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. exploration kit .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .31


wayfinding

environmental graphic design

print systems

interactive design

project shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. website

AT&T

12:34 PM

AT&T

12:34 PM

NowHere, Italy

Via Della Quattro Fontaine

AT&T

12:34 PM

iPhone app .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .33


wayfinding

environmental graphic design

print systems

interactive design

project shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. book design .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .35


wayfinding

environmental graphic design

Knowhere: Finding the Ways We Wayfind Cincinnati Design Awards 2011 honor award, SEGD built works

print systems

interactive design

project shown .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. exhibit .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . photos by nomiki frangopolous samantha perkins .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .37


always delivers unmatched

guidance to our members and

Since our associates deliver these services and provide this protection, we treat them with respect, encourage open and honest exchange of ideas and - as a knowledge organization - work to develop everyone’s unique capabilities.

Since our associates deliver these services and provide th ideas and - as a knowledge org

We work under the belief that following the industry is for others. We think, innovate, and execute differently - and

We work under the belief that following the industry is fo

customers. We are in business to serve our members. Simply put, they must always be our first priority.

embrace the difference .

architecture

environmental graphic design

wayfinding

2012

print and web designs

We work under the belief that following the industry is for others. We think, innovate, and execute differently and

embrace the difference.

Our work is vitally important. We provide value - added health and financial services and we shield people from fiscal catastrophe when they or their families are sick or injured.

GUIDANCE

when you need it

statement .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. We are focused on company .. GROWTH and .. . We recognize that success . is ... achieved through .. bold thinking and .. implementation that doesn’t .. shy away from calculated risk, .and . always delivers unmatched. .. guidance to our members.. and .. customers. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .

Our work is vitally im shield peop

PROFITABILITY

We are in business to serve our members. Simply put, they must always be our first priority.

Since our associates deliver these services and provide this protection, we treat them with respect, encourage open and honest exchange of ideas and - as a knowledge organization - work to develop everyone’s unique capabilities.

We value our shareholders and communities we serve. We maintain the highest ethical standards and exemplify good corporate citizenship whenever we do business.

design practice

Samantha trained as an architect within the course of her undergraduate education and initial

professional experience. It was discovered early that her strengths lay in the schematic development of design projects, as well as within the representation preparations necessary for client meetings.

Catt Lyon Design

W hite Design Studio

This ultimately led to her placement within highly visual projects as a designer and project manager, in which she held many responsibilities for the coordination of multidisciplinary aspects and consultant organization. All projects shown represent a consistent attempt to utilize digital, audio/video, and building technologies to provide a dynamic, but modern, design solution. Each focuses on sequential interactions of audience, as well as the rich potentials found inherently within the materials used.

dsgn .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .39

We are in business to ser


architecture

environmental graphic design

wayfinding

print and web designs

2001 vm+sd Magazine Design Award, First Place National Concrete Masonry Association, Design Award of Excellence

environment rave review theaters Multi-screen movie theater prototype design. In this multi-screen theater designed with the dsgn associates design team, a layered system of structure, light and articulated ribbons weaves throughout the exterior facade and interior design, establishing an aesthetic tie between the urban / sub-urban context and the visually-saturated interior spaces. The exterior signage, a primary component  of the elevation, recalls the traditional urban movie theater marquees, showing off posters of current and upcoming films, while branding the facility in a highly graphic manner. Eventual plans for the poster installations include the option of replacement with dynamic screen systems tied to a central  computer network.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . dsgn .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .41


architecture

environmental graphic design

wayfinding

print and web designs

las vegas environment convention center Interior / exterior wayfinding design systems for the Las Vegas Convention Center. To ease confusion among current visitors, the Las Vegas Convention Center commissioned a graphics and wayfinding design that would additionally accentuate new renovationsto the facility. To contrast the bright lights, sensory overloaded feel of the city itself, the signage for the new Convention Center addition minimizes its impact, taking on a “white canvas� aesthetic, allowing for the installation of trade show graphics using transparent cling overlays. The current configuration of the Center includes three separate buildings, each with their own exhibit halls and meeting rooms.  To constantly inform visitors which hall they are within, the wayfinding takes on a more  passive, intuitive navigational method, using color to visually orient visitors.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Catt Lyon Design .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .43


architecture

environmental graphic design

wayfinding

print and web designs

environment trump tower chicago Interior / exterior wayfinding signage designs for som’s design of the Trump International Hotel and Tower, Chicago. The interior materials are defined within the project as “rich and lush,� pushing the palette of the design towards highly polished, yet tactile solutions, which allows the signage to appear more as a piece of artwork within the decor, rather than a directional sign. Exterior building materials of glass and steel matches brushed steel and die-cut, backlit typography for all site-situated directional signage. A larger directional map and advertising sign, located along the Miracle Mile, calls attention to the Trump services within a two block radius of the actual site.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Catt Lyon Design .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .45


environmental graphic design

integrated communications

print

web

web designcriticism constructive Website design for a hypothetical non-profit site hosting company. This project builds off of the idea of building a better world. Constructive Criticism gives people the chance to voice their concerns and ideas within a virtual city, adding their own view to the mix. Based around a Flash interface, the design allows floating constellations to open, exposing new sites, new worlds within, using a collage city as a background organizational structure. As links activate, panels slide to reveal information about the desired topic, including pricing, sign up information, and access to sample hosted sites.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . personal .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .47


architecture

environmental graphic design

wayfinding

print and web designs

web design brinkleysargent.com Portfolio website design for a Dallas-based architecture firm. For Brinkley Sargent Architects, the design demonstrates how the aspects of an architectural design processes work together to generate a final construct. Original conceptual drawings are used as  background base for the welcome and all textbased pages, while “drawing construction lines� extended from the portfolio page photographic images to give a more hand-drawn appearance to the overall page compositions. The use of typography and color adds visual appeal to the composition, with all colors and typefaces selected chosen to accentuate the post-modern lines and appearance of the firm’s designs.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . PhDv8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .49


architecture

environmental graphic design

wayfinding

print and web designs

2003 Entablature Architecture Website Honor Award American Design Awards Gold Medal

web design marlonblackwell.com Portfolio website design for an internationally renown architect. The website design for Marlon Blackwell, a Northwest Arkansas-based architect and friend, needed to somehow speak about Marlon’s work in a unique voice that matched his designs. To accomplish this, the work itself serves as a foundation for the design. Taking the then-favorite project, a converted garage that now acts as a honey collection and storage space, the site design uses the idea of projects-as-bees for the primary navigation, and categories-as-cells for the organization. All project links hover within cells found on the opening image, and lead to a new two-square design on click. The site was built in Flash and html to allow for limited bandwidth issues of the time.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . PhDv8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .51


architecture

environmental graphic design

wayfinding

print and web designs

printidentity design systems Multiple projects expressing the identity of various design studios using something unique to each. Marlon Blackwell: the use of his most famous residential project defines the proportions of  a slot cut from the middle of each card, expressing the idea of knowing Marlon through his work without having to literally represent the work on the card. The slot  calls attention to the double-sided nature of the medium, as well as all personal contact information found on the reverse side. sam: personal stationary design using casual signature as initial typographic definition,  and photographs taken within the garden as a source of color and texture. Typographic treatment of “sam� mimics the signature of the holder, as well as leads the view off of the page.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . PhDv8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .53


d chemical

ndscape for

ilver bullet

gae appear

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

ns.

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

........................................................................................................................................

nstable and

.............................................................................................................................................

en modest

FUEL CELLS

To Dr. Rachael Morgan-Kiss, Liz Chmela and the Miami University Green Diesel

published by Samantha Perkins for gr601: Type Systems, Spring 2009

Team and for their curiosity, dedication

instructor Carolina de Bartolo

and enthusiasm. :::: To my friend and

Academy of Art University

colleague, Professor Peg Faimon, for her

San Francisco, California

insight. :::: To my son, Denver, for his

Dot Matrix, ocr-f, pmn Caecilia

unending desire to drag me away from

binding by John Galt Bindery,

my computer. ::::

Dayton, Kentucky

And, most impor-

tantly, to my husband, John Humphries,

paper Neenah Starwhite Tiara 80 lb. Text

whose patience and encouragement kept

cover Neenah Starwhite Soft Touch

me going throughout it all. :::::::::::::::

110 lb. Cover

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

© 2009 by Samantha Perkins All rights reserved.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

No part of this publication may be used or

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

reproduced in any manner without express

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

permission of the designer.

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

GENER AT IO N A

FUEL CELLS

GENER ATIO N A

FUEL CELLS

.................................................................................................................................................................

and other

production

e and com-

scale algal

WITH VERY SPECIAL THANKS :::::::

book design Samantha Perkins

DESIGNED BY SAMANTHA PERKINS :::::::::

.............................................................................................................................................

nce algae-

r R&D, new

FUEL CELLS

HO W ALGAE CAN FUEL THE W ORLD AND SAVE IT TOO COMPILED AND ::::::

...................................................................................................................................................................

heral to the

FUEL CELLS

..............................................................................................................................................................................

uted water

..............................................................................................................................................................................

ely needed

cient food,

HO W ALGAE CAN FUEL THE W ORLD AND SAVE IT TOO

e that this

planet. Fuel

FUEL CELLS FUEL CELLS

of amazing

00

CONTENTS 0 8 GENERATION A ::::::::::::::::::::: Deceptively Simple Tiny Fuel Factories We Need a Bigger Tank 1 8 WHAT IS ALGAE? :::::::::::::::::: Algae Production Concepts The Green Promise 3 4 BIOFUELS ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Making Biofuels The Process Ethanol and Biodiesel Production Concepts International Developments American Implications 5 2 THE BEST OPTION :::::::::::::::: Synergy Oil Producing Crops Not Corn Algae is Different 76 FUTURE GOALS ::::::::::::::::::::: Carbon Dioxide Energy Security Climate Change Important Next Steps 8 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY :::::::::::::::::::: Sources Cited 9 0 INDEX ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: A–Z

W HAT IS ALGAE?

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

Dr. Benning, who’s also funded through the

:::::::::::::::::::

ocused attentions

DECEPTIVELY SIMPLE ::::::::::

TINY FUEL FACTORIES :::::::::

The basic concept behind algal biofuels is deceptively simple. Microalgae naturally

On a clear, sunny November morning, Juergen Polle dips a disposable dropper into

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: However, Dr. Benning’s lab has produced

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Scaling is the magic that Straser awaits. “It’s

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: These photosynthetic organisms are far from monolithic. Biologists have categorized

us Air Force jet fuel program, admits that

promising results already. In 2005, they

a lot harder than people think.” :::: For a

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

biologists lack a full understanding of the

uncovered some of the genes and enzymes

biofuel company to make serious headway

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

important to standard lipid biosynthesis in

in the us fuel market, it must first prove that

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

dance) include diatoms, green algae, blue-green algae and golden algae. :::: The bulk

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, isolating B TAl Cr, a

it can produce at least one million gallons of

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

of the organisms collected and studied in this program fall in the first two classes— the diatoms and the green algae. :::: Microalgae are the most primitive form of

s in corn kernels;

produce and store lipids similar to those found in most vegetable oils. If scientists can

a sloshing slough of Sheepshead Bay on Brooklyn’s southern shoreline, searching for

metabolic pathways algae use to produce oil.

d-generation bio-

genetically jigger the oil storing tendencies of algae into becoming more efficient than

microalgae. “On average, I get three to ten strains per water sample.” he says. Polle

In algae, oils accumulate under physiologi-

microalgae in a variety of classes, mainly distinguished by their pigmentation, life cycle and basic cellular structure. The four most important (at least in terms of abun-

fuel per day, according to Straser. And

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

a new generation

key challenges include selecting the most suitable algae strains, growing these algal

waters surrounding Brooklyn and Long Island, on the hunt for species that might one

nitrogen or grossly fluctuating temperatures,

membrane

Since

accomplishing that takes closed tank biore-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

plants. While the mechanism of photosynthesis in microalgae is similar to that of

een an explosion

cells at optimal rates, engineering the metabolic pathways that control oil production

day serve as the tiny engines of a biofuel-based economy. :::: Dr. Polle is looking

which are counterproductive to vigorous

Chlamydomonas is not an ideal oil producer, it

actors the size of a football stadium. But

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

higher plants, they are generally more efficient converters of solar energy because of

they are in nature, commercially viable levels of transportation fuels may result. The

m the cellulose in

escapes his fourth-floor lab at Brooklyn College every chance he gets to sample the

l companies and

to create cells pregnant with desirable oil products, and extracting the oil in an effi-

for efficient oil producers, algae that can accumulate anything more than 30 percent

ctor of the indus-

cient and economic manner. :::: It’s not the first time algae have been pegged as a fuel

of their body weight in oils. His work, now a year and a half old, is funded by a us

epartment of the

source. Between 1978 and 1996, the us Department of Energy (doe) explored the poten-

DIATOMS....

MULTICELLULAR GREEN....

BROWN....

cally stressful conditions, such as a lack of

RED....

WATER LEVEL ................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Air Force grant that aims to develop algal jet fuel. Currently, the Air Force uses about

Industry

tial of algae, but stopped when the price of a barrel of crude oil fell from $50 to $20. Not

two and a half billion gallons of jet fuel per year, which obviously poses a potential

ecoming the) the

since then has there been so much research and development focused on making algal

security issue. :::: Dr. Polle says that since he started collecting algae for the Air Force

gy

GREEN....

lipid

in

the

species.

growth. This is a central problem from the

is hoped that what Dr. Benning learns in this

even this is not enough for some systems.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

their simple cellular structure. :::: In addition, because the cells grow in aqueous

perspective of someone who wants to grow a

model system translates into other, more

Biofuel efforts based on open pond growth

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

suspension, they have more efficient access to water, co2, and other nutrients. For

of photosynthetic algae, which gather at the

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Through

turn up. :::: “We’re investors in science

surface to draw energy from sunlight, might

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

unit area of land, compared to terrestrial oilseed crops. :::: Put quite simply, micro-

genetic experiments on Arabidopsis and on

sometimes, technology all the time, and

need considerably more space. ::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

algae are remarkable and efficient biological factories capable of taking a waste

the lab rat of algae, genus Chlamydomonas

magic infrequently,” says Erik Straser, leader

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

(zero-energy) form of carbon (co2) and converting it into a high-density liquid form

(which naturally inhabits soils and is easily

of the Cleantech team at Mohr Davidow

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

of energy (natural oil). This ability has been the foundation of the research program

healthy algal population that is proficient at producing and storing oil. ::::

75 M ...............................................................

gene responsible for producing a critical

biofuel-friendly species that Dr. Polle might

:::: The primary

biofuels a broad reality. :::: Dozens of private companies and a few publicly funded

project, he’s isolated approximately 300 strains of unicellular algae, and is in the pro-

algae is the sim-

researchers are now working on algae strains similar to those contained in the Cargill

cess of parsing out a few hundred more strains that are clumped together in additional

Algae feed off of

ponds, trying to bring the cost of algal oil manufacture down to levels that could save

water samples. :::: The beauty of imagining microalgae as tiny fuel factories is that

cultured in the lab), Benning hopes to iden-

Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

funded by the Office of Fuels Development. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

converting sun-

consumers from the roller coaster of gasoline prices. Key players in the algal fuel race

the compounds they naturally manufacture are chemically similar to petroleum

tify transcription factors that are triggered

firm. Straser’s investment portfolio includes

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

include Solix Biofuels, a Colorado-based operation which plans on firing up a closed

based fuels. For example the triacylglycerides that photosynthetic algae accumulate

:::::::::::::::::::

tank bioreactor system that uses waste carbon dioxide from beer making, and Aquaflow

generally resemble jp-8, the kerosene-based jet fuel of choice for military aircraft.

:::::::::::::::::::

Binomics, a New Zealand company that seeks to produce biofuels by harvesting wild

And these unicellular plants don’t just make and store these useful oils; they can

:::::::::::::::::::

algae from polluted waterways. Earlier this year, in the first algae powered commercial

really crank them out. The us Department Of Energy estimates that microalgae have

:::::::::::::::::::

aircraft test flight, a Continental Airlines Boeing 737 was powered in part by an algal

the potential to produce one hundred times more oil per acre than any terrestrial

:::::::::::::::::::

biofuel produced by California-based Sapphire Energy. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

country, from ponds and birdbaths in Texas to the Salton Sea of California. He has

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

his sights set on collecting in the salt f lats outside San Francisco as they likely har-

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

bor interesting marine species that he has not yet seen. In similar salt f lats near the

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Great Salt Lake in Utah, he found a few strains of algae that he thinks might be new

300 M ......................................................................................................................................................................................

plants, including soybeans or corn. :::: Juergen Polle’s hunt has taken him across the

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

SS

LED ORGANISM,

ERT SUNLIGHT, RAIN

BIOMASS (ENERGY)

to science, though the constraints of his mandate prevent him from fully exploring

a company that feeds farmed pine and poplar

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

to encourage increased oil production in

trees to bacteria that normally inhabit ter-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

algae without slowing their growth from

mite guts and produce ethanol. :::: While

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

stress. “We’re trying to identify the nuts and

scientists are working to develop the tech-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

bolts of making oil in algae,” he says, “but

nological tools necessary to make biofuels

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

by stressful environments, and could be used 250 M ............................................................................................................................................................

we’re missing the basic tools.” ::::::::::::::::

1.2 PHOTIC ZONE

nto usable energy

150 M ............................................................................................................................

:::: SUBLITTORAL ZONE LOCATIONS OF ALGAE SPECIES

VARIOUS SPECIES OF ALGAE THRIVE WITHIN DIFFERING DEPTHS OF THE SUBLITTORAL ZONES WITHIN THE OCEAN.

mercially viable, Straser says existing biofuel

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

companies are scrambling to scale up their

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

operations to sizes that will make a real dent

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

in us fuel consumption. :::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

lipid production potential.” ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

FOUND IN BOTH FRESH AND BRACKISH WATER. APPROXIMATELY 100,000 SPECIES ARE KNOWN TO EXIST. DIATOMS CONTAIN POLYMERIZED SILICA (SI) IN THEIR CELL WALLS, WHICH STORE CARBON IN A VARIETY OF FORMS, INCLUDING IN THE FORM OF NATURAL OILS OR AS A POLYMER OF CARBO-\ HYDRATES KNOWN AS CHYRSOLAMINARIN.

AND THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY 2,000 KNOWN SPECIES FOUND IN A VARIETY OF HABITATS.

GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYCEAE) ARE ALSO QUITE ABUNDANT, ESPECIALLY IN FRESHWATER. (ANYONE WHO OWNS A SWIMMING POOL IS MORE THAN FAMILIAR WITH THIS

EVOLUTIONARY PROGENITORS OF MODERN PLANTS. THE MAIN STORAGE COMPOUND FOR GREEN ALGAE IS STARCH, THOUGH OILS CAN BE PRODUCED AT TIMES.

...............................................

GOLDEN ALGAE (CHRYSOPHYCEAE) ARE VERY SIMILAR TO DIATOMS. THEY HAVE A MORE COMPLEX PIGMENT

..................................................

SYSTEM, AND CAN APPEAR YELLOW, BROWN OR EVEN ORANGE IN COLOR. APPROXIMATELY 1,000 SPECIES

........................................................................ ACTINASTRUM ..............................................

COMPOSITION. THE GOLDEN ALGAE PRODUCE

:::: ALGAE CELL DESIGN

NATURAL OILS AND CARBOHYDRATES AS ENERGY SCENEDESMUS ............................

SPIROGYRA ............................................ GOLDEN ALGAE ....................................

13

FUEL CELLS

14

::::

22

15

W HAT IS ALGAE?

:::: 2 3

FUEL CELLS

BIOFUELS

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Various industrial algal growth system

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

designs are possible. The Japanese, French

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

SHALLOW POOLS ARE CHEAP AND QUICK, BUT RISK Y

HANGING ALGAE BAGS TO INCREASE LIGHT EXPOSURE

SYNTHETIC ALGAE BIOLOGY AS AN EFFICIENT OPTION

DARK FERMENTATION IN PLACE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

s from algae was

and German governments have invested

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

process in which

significant r&d dollars on novel closed bio-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

algae production.

reactor designs for algae production. The

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

rtment Of Energy

main advantage of such closed systems is

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

ewater treatment

that they are not as subject to contamina-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

which some source of waste co2 could be

plant equipped with hundreds of bags of

make, but also burns cleaner and more effi-

sunlight into chemical energy, but not nearly

efficiently bubbled into the ponds and cap-

growing algae in an attempt to find a better

ciently than gasoline. But sensing that

as efficiently as other materials—industrial

The cheapest and quickest way to grow algae is also the riskiest. Shallow pools, in

The Valcent Corporation of El Paso has established a 6000 square foot greenhouse

Most algae producers focus on diesel fuel production, as it is not only cheaper to

Solazyme sees photosynthesis as the biggest problem to algae oil. Algae converts natural

tion with whatever organism happens to be

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

as a way of intro-

carried in the wind. The Japanese have, for

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

tured by the algae, get great sun exposure

growing solution. The setup’s purpose is to

America’s conversion to diesel could come

wastes, switchgrass, low-grade molasses—

::: In the 1980s,

example, developed optical fiber-based reac-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

and have little overhead costs. The ponds

expose the algae to as much sunlight as

slowly or not at all, Sapphire Energy has

can. So Solazyme designed a process that lets

echnologies that

tor systems that could dramatically reduce

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

are “raceway” designs, in which the algae,

possible without the risk of contamination.

used synthetic biology to make algae cells

algae feed in the dark on input biomass

energy. Much of

the amount of surface area required for

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

water and nutrients circulate around a race-

Though much more expensive than growing

that automatically produce carbon chains

rather than sunlight, cutting down the con-

track. Paddlewheels provide the flow, and

algae in open ponds, Valcent believes its

nearly identical to those found in gasoline.

version process from weeks to days. The

algae production. :::: While breakthroughs

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

entality.” A quad

in these types of systems may well occur,

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

the algae are thus kept suspended in water.

system is far more efficient because it can

Sapphire’s gasoline emits as much carbon

company’s end-product diesels meet the

ment of Energy to

their costs are, at the current time, rather

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Algae are circulated back up to the surface

maximize oil output by precisely controlling

as petroleum, but because algae consumes

same standards as nonalgal diesels, and it

able to displace,

prohibitive—especially for production of

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

on a regular frequency. The ponds are kept

the temperature and chemical composition

atmospheric carbon, Sapphire claims its

expects their price to be on par in two to

ting 1015 times

biofuels. Department of Energy’s program

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

shallow because of the need to keep the

of the algae solution. Valcent is perfecting

system is carbon neutral. In September, Bill

three years. Until then, the company, which

ment of Energy to

focused primarily on open pond raceway

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

systems because of their relative low cost.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

depth to which sunlight can penetrate the

outside biofuel companies, possibly as early

undisclosed amount to the more than $100

will continue to clock miles in its algae fueled

:::::::::::::::::::

pond water. The ponds are operated contin-

as this spring. Its target is a system that is

million Sapphire has raised, making it one

cars, standard vehicles purchased straight

osophy of energy

algae exposed to sunlight and the limited

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

uously; that is, water and nutrients are con-

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

stantly

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

its technology as it prepares to license it to

Gates’s

investment

company

added

an

signed an agreement with Chevron this year,

self-sustaining, with the algae increasing 50

of the best funded algae start-ups. In three

off the lot. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

water

percent in size every twenty-four hours. ::::

to five years, Sapphire expects to produce at

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

containing algae is removed at the other

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

least ten thousand barrels of gas a day. :::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

end. There is the problem, on the other

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

hand, that these raceways leave algae at

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

risk to temperature fluctuations, animals,

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

and competing algae strains. ::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

fed

to

the

pond,

while

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

26

:::: 2 7

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸

source of fuel is

¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸

now the basis for

benefit of serving

03

BIOFUELS MAN HAS USED BIOFUELS TO COOK FOOD AND PROVIDE HEAT FOR YEARS. Over half the people on Earth use firewood or agricultural materials for cooking and heat. Drying cow manure for cooking fires is still a first job for young brides in rural India. But burning manure robs the land of fertilizer

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

MAKING BIODIESEL ::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

when an acid and alcohol are mixed.) In order to understand the process (without

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

being too technical), we need to take a closer look at vegetable oil. One of the main

prospect of having to modify the millions of diesel engines in use around the world in a

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

wide range of different types of vehicles, researchers in the late 1970s and early 1980s

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

opted to modify the vegetable-oil fuel instead. :::: This was actually a fairly easy

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

choice, according to Werner Korbitz, the chairman of the Austrian Biofuels Institute

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

in Vienna. “That’s because, even then, it was clear that biodiesel would not be able to

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

pounds such as oils and fats, or any of a large group of organic compounds formed

problems with vegetable oil compared to diesel fuel is that it’s thicker, or more viscous. This is due to the fact that vegetable oil contains glycerina—a thick, sticky substance—in its chemical structure. Every vegetable-oil molecule is composed of three fatty acid chains attached to a molecule of glycerin. Picture a microscopic threelegged creature with a round glycerin head and three long, dangling legs. This is why

replace more than about ten percent of the petroleum diesel market share,” he says.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

And trying to retool the diesel engine for such a small potential part of the market

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

didn’t generate much enthusiasm among automobile manufacturers. :::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

of plant the oil comes from, approximately 20 percent or less of the vegetable-oil

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

molecule is composed of glycerin. Transesterification involves breaking every oil

vegetable oil is described technically as a triglyceride, or three fatty acid chains and glycerin. :::: Although the exact percentage varies somewhat depending on what kind

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

and gathering firewood denudes forests and

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

During the process, alcohol is added, and each of the fatty acid chains attaches to one

leads to deforestation. Biofuels are simply a

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

of the new alcohol molecules, creating three mono-alkyl esters. This process makes

molecule (triglyceride) into three fatty acid chains and a separate glycerin molecule.

form of solar energy. Similar to land plants,

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

the esters thinner and more suitable for use as diesel fuel. Once separated from the

algae use photosynthesis to convert solar

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

glycerin, the alkyl ester chains are what is called biodiesel. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

energy into chemical energy stored in the

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

form of oils, carbohydrates and proteins.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Plants used to create transportation biofuels

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

today, primarily corn, soybeans and sugar

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

cane, were grown for over ten millennia to

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

maximize food value. They are a convenient

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

but naïve choice as a biofuel because they are

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

while heavily resource intensive to grow in

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

terms of cropland, water, fertilizers and

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

other fossil fuels. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 36

:::: 3 7

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

FUEL CELLS

BIOFUELS

FUEL CELLS

THE BEST OP TIO N

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

In the 1980s, a modification of natural oils

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Other environmental benefits of biodiesel include its highly biodegradable nature and

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

was introduced that helped to bring the vis-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Alternatively, algal strains that may produce

cosity of the oils within the range of current

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

that it appears to reduce emissions of air toxics and carcinogens (relative to petroleum OIL PRODUCING CROPS ::::::::

diesel). A proper discussion of biodiesel would require much more space than can be

There are hundreds of oil-producing plants that can be used as feedstocks for biodiesel,

ins, largely corn.

more carbohydrates and less oil can be

petroleum diesel. By reacting these tags

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

from corn to soybeans and sunflower to oil palm. Even avocado and industrial hemp

adapted motors

processed and fermented to make standard

with simple alcohols (a chemical reaction

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

success of the fuel in Europe, biodiesel is a very promising fuel product. :::: High oil-

will work. Here is a brief overview of some of the most common crops, listed in

ethanol. Some algal strains contain up to 90

known as “transesterification” already com-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

producing algae can be used to produce biodiesel, a chemically modified natural oil

descending order of oil production in liters per hectare (2.47 acres) and in us gallons

Unlike ethanol,

accommodated here, but given its many environmental benefits and the emerging

of plants such as

percent carbohydrates. The downside of this

monplace in the oleochemicals industry), a

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

that is emerging as an exciting new option for diesel engines. At the same time, algae

per acre. The production figures given are conservative averages and can vary widely

at. These oils can

carbohydrate conversion is that the available

chemical compound known as an alkyl

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

technology provides a means for recycling waste carbon from fossil fuel combustion.

depending on specific plant variety, cultivation practices, and weather and soil condi-

n. :::: Algae oils

technologies require considerable heat and

ester, or biodiesel, is created. Its properties

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Algal biodiesel is one of the only avenues available for high-volume re-use of co2

tions. Other products made from these plants and their oils are included in the listings

e. When the oil is

energy to produce the ethanol. The remain-

are very close to those of petroleum-based

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

generated in power plants. It is a technology that marries the potential need for carbon

to highlight existing competitive markets. :::: Current feedstocks for biofuels not only

diesel fuels. ::::

disposal in the electric utility industry with the need for clean-burning alternatives to

JATROPHA

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

CANOLA

PEANUT

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Commercial experience

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

consume precious cropland and trillions of gallons of water but they provide a dismally

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

nts. Alternatively,

or nitrogen rich organic fertilizer. :::: Some

with biodiesel has been very promising.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

petroleum in the transportation sector. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

low yield. The higher yielding land plants do not grow well in the us including cocoa,

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

tation fuels. The

algae create 60 percent protein and provide

Biodiesel performs as well as petroleum die-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

rapeseed, jatropha and coconut oil. Scientists believe commercial algae farms can

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

esel engines. It is

ing protein may be used for animal feed

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

and refined with

added nutritional elements when compared

sel, while reducing emissions of particulate

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

produce 5,000–20,000 gallons of oil per acre. :::: Algae’s potential remains theoretical

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

ages over ethanol

to conventional land plants. Besides protein,

matter, co, hydrocarbons and sox. Emissions

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

because scaled production has not yet been achieved. Significant production break-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

lds about 30 per-

algae contain a broad spectrum of other

esel was the only

nutritious compounds including peptides,

quired Tier I and

carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, pigments,

onstrated biodie-

minerals and other valuable trace elements.

artment of Energy

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

3.2

:::: COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS ALGAE

SPECIES

:::::::::::::::::::: LIPIDS :::: PROTEIN :::: CARBOHYDRATES ::

ANABAENA CYLINDRICA

petroleum diesel,

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

e makes oil natu-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

of petroleum and

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

............

APHANIZOMENON FLOS-AQUA

ARTHROSPIRA MAXIMA

....

.............

lastics and drugs.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

BOTRYOCOCCUS BRAUNNI

out anything that

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

CHLAMYDOMONAS RHEINHAR

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

CHLORELLA ELLIPSOIDEA

...........

4–7

43–56

25–30

3

62

23

6–7

60 –71

13–16

86

4

20

.....

21

48

17

............

84

5

16

CHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA

..........

2

57

:::::::::::::::::::

...............

CHLORELLA VULGARIS

DUNALIELLA SALINA

EUGLENA GRACILIS

.................

51–58 57

14–18

30 –45

25–33

........

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

9–14

28–39

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

ated with diesel engines. Total particulate

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::: TRIACYLGLYEROLS

STANDARD ALKYL ESTER, MORE COMMONLY KNOWN

SOURCE ALTERNATIVE.

COOH

COCONUT

matter emissions are also much lower. ::::::

—O—CH2

HC

COOH + 3 MOLECULES ALCOHOL

—O—CH2 + 1 MOLECULE GLYCEROL

HC

COOH

—O—CH2

SAFFLOWER

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

MUSTARD

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

SOYBEAN

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

40 –57 1 TAG

...........

................

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

AS BIODIESEL, HOLDS TRIACYLGLYEROL PROPERTIES

HC

PORPHYRIDIUM CRUENTUM

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

(TAGS) WHICH ARE VERY CLOSE TO THOSE OF NORMAL

12–17

39–61

22–38

SCENEDESMUS OBLIQUUS

throughs are occurring now. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

32

14–20

...............

SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

many engines. Biodiesel virtually eliminates the notorious black soot emissions associ-

PETROLEUM DIESEL, MAKING IT A VIABLE FUEL 14–22 6

....................

PRYMNESIUM PARVUM

of nox are, however, higher for biodiesel in

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

3.3

26

:::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::

SUNFLOWER

12–14

50 –56

10 –17

4–6

46–630

8–14

3 MOLECULES OF BIODIESEL

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 46

:::: 47

56

:::: 5 7

The oil transformation process the researchers selected was transesterification, or the transformation of one form of ester into another. (Esters are naturally occurring com-

test engines around the world were undoubtedly ruined in many of those early experiments. The problem was that, for almost a century, diesel engines had been gradually developed, adapted, and fine-tuned to burn petroleum-based diesel fuel. Faced with the

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

critically unproductive in producing energy

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

As most of the early biodiesel researchers quickly discovered, using straight plant oil as a fuel substitute in diesel engines was not especially good for the engines. Numerous

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

stock for ethanol

STORAGE COMPOUNDS.

TRIACYLGLYCERAL (TAG). THIS BREAKDOWN IN THE STANDARD METABOLIC CHAIN ALLOWS ALGAE

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

ARE ALREADY KNOWN TO EXIST, PRIMARILY IN FRESHWATER SYSTEMS. THEY ARE SIMILAR TO DIATOMS IN PIGMENTATION AND BIOCHEMICAL

1.3

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::

NOSTOC .....................................................

CLASS OF ALGAE). THEY CAN OCCUR AS SINGLE CELLS

TO INSTEAD PRODUCE OIL DROPLETS, WHICH CAN THEN HARNESSED FOR BIOFUEL CONVERSION.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

12

BACTERIA IN BOTH STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANIZATION. THESE ALGAE PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN FIXING NITROGEN FROM THE ATMOSPHERE,

ANACYSTIS ...........................................

GREEN ALGAE LACKS A KEY ENZYME NECESSARY IN MOST LAND PLANTS USED TO SYNTHESIZE

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

BLUE-GREEN ALGAE (CYANOPHYCEAE) ARE MUCH CLOSER TO

ANABAENA .................................

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

........................................................

OIL DROPLET (TAG)

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM CHOROPLAST

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

he says. “We just go out and try to find the greatest diversity there is and screen for

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE OCEANS, BUT CAN ALSO BE

OR AS COLONIES. GREEN ALGAE ARE THE

NUCLEUS

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

SPECIES, AS WELL AS AMBIENT LIGHT LEVELS FOUND WITHIN EACH LEVEL.

these potential taxonomic additions. Currently, we’re not really identifying them,”

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:::: ALGAL GROUPS

DIATOMS .......................

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

from genetically modified organisms com-

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

THIS DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATES DEPTHS AT WHICH EACH SPECIES OCCUR, OVERLAPS OF OCCURRENCES WITHIN VARYING

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

2.2

DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) ARE ALGAE DOMINATE THE

these reasons, microalgae are capable of producing thirty times the amount oil per

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :


environmental graphic design

integrated communications

print

web

print design fuel cells 96 page scientific book design. This book design discussing the use of algae  as an alternative fuel source uses the analogy  of test tubes and scientific research as a conceptual starting point. Each column becomes an individual test tube, with small “algal cells” nesting at the end of each main section. Background highlighting calls attention to specific information which leads to called-out backing imagery. Chapter opening imagery merges soft-focus macro photographs with subtle gradients and typographic “ripples” to imply views through algae-filled waters. The binding is a soft cover design with an exposed spine, which mimics the verticality of the test tube, while allowing the book to lay flat when opened.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . personal .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .55


ingredients: opposing tastes working in perfect conf lict with each other.

CROSSING BINARISM B OR DE R S •

brew cold, drink hot.

ingredients: a powerless blend from the edges of the Empire.

CROSSING MARGINALITY B OR DE R S •

enjoy powerlessly on the edge of your seat.


environmental graphic design

integrated communications

print

print design post-colonial tea bags Small-scale packaging project using tea bags as a medium for investigating post-colonial terminology and ideas. Using iconic language of isotypes, layered symbols, and typography, each tea bag defines  a single term found within post-colonial  discourse. Together, the tea bags work to define this discourse using a common medium found in all colonial instances—the British iconographic tea.

2012

web

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. CROSSING .. CIVIL/SAVAGE B OR DE R S .. .. .. .. blend, separated ingredients: a rootless .. from all historical ties. .. drink alone. let brew indefinitely, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ingredients: a well-mannered blend of

highly sophisticated herbs against lower

classed, uncultured and primative spices.

brew carefully to avoid bloodshed.

CROSSING EXILE B OR DE R S •

personal .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .57


CA

A WIM

PARIST WINGSO

MAY 22–23, 20

JULY 3–4, 201


environmental graphic design

Integrated communications campaign for a hypothetical film festival. This multimedia project highlights the films of Wim Wenders in a fictional film festival. The concept of the festival plays upon Wender’s use of travel and isolation in his films as a means of personal reflection and self-discovery.

PORTR AITS VIEWED IN 30 FR A MES PER SECOND

M WENDERS TRAVELING PICTURE SHOW

TEXASTHEMILLIONDOLLARHOTELDON’TCOMEKNOCKING OFDESIREUNTILTHEENDOFTHEWORLDPALERMOSHOOTING

10

print

web

multimedia camera obscura

AMERAOBSCURA

010

integrated communications

| |

HOLIDAY AUTO THEATER, CINCINNATI THE SILVER BOW DRIVE IN, BUTTE

JUNE 12–13, 2010 AUGUST 14–15, 2010

|

|

THE SHOWBOAT DRIVE IN, HOUSTON

THE STARLITE DRIVE IN, LOS ANGELES

Pieces for the project include print and  environmental advertising, a collectable dvd set of the films intended to be shown at the  festival, a collection of music from the film, postcards, water bottles, clothing items, tickets, day passes, and a collectable book, all housed within a vintage projector case. Additional deliverables for the proposal feature an art gallery designed to move from drive in to drive in, following the festival across the country. Renderings of the gallery designs were completed by Stephen Young.

2012

portfolio .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . PhDv8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .59


ciao.


samantha perkins portfolio  

a collection of academic results, creative scholarship, and design practices

Advertisement
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you