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MINISTERE DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR D’IVOIRE

REPUBLIQUE DE COTE

ET DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE

UNIVERSITE DE COCODY

UNION-DISCIPLINE-TRAVAIL

C1 LINGUISTIQUE ANGLAIS UV 333 : PSYCHOLINGUISTIQUE

TOPIC :

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION AT PRIMARY SCHOOL IN UNITED KINGDOM AND COTE D’IVOIRE

Teacher : Pr.Anna Manouan

Students : Ilori Selim Olaosebikan N’gbocho Marc Arthur Tra Bi Tra


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OUTLINE

INTRODUCTION

I°) CONTEXT AND JUSTIFICATION II°) CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: AN OVERVIEW III°) CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN COTE D’IVOIRE IV°) SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN BOTH COUNTRIES V°) SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN COTE D’IVOIRE

CONCLUSION


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INTRODUCTION

To maintain their development, many countries all over the world have experimented citizenship education that is, the process of helping people learn how to become informed, active and responsible citizens. The UNITED KINGDOM is one of these countries where citizenship education has never been far from the top of the political and education policy. Contrary to the UNITED KINGDOM, citizenship education in COTE D’IVOIRE seems to have little importance for policy-makers, especially in primary school where the practice of citizenship education is difficult although it is taught. Is it the teaching method that should be questioned? To what extent can we improve the theoretical teaching of citizenship education? In our research, we are going to carry out an investigation to shed light on this situation by giving first an overview of citizenship education in the UNITED KINGDOM, as well as the case of COTE D’IVOIRE and afterward make a comparative analysis of both cases. At the end, we will provide some suggestions to improve the teaching methods related to citizenship education in COTE D’IVOIRE.

I°) CONTEXT AND JUSTIFICATION

« Citizenship is more than a subject. If taught well and tailored to local needs, its skills and values will enhance democratic life for all of us, both right and responsibilities, beginning in school and radiating out. »1 The term citizenship has several different meaning: -

A legal and political status: citizenship is used to refer to the status of being a citizen, that is, to being a member of a particular political community or state.

-

Involvement in public life and affairs: That is to the behavior and action of a citizen. It is sometimes known as active citizenship. Citizenship in this sense is applied to a wide range of


Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com Forin evaluation only. activities: From voting in elections standing for political office to take an interest politics and

current affairs. It refers not only to rights and responsibilities laid down in the law, but also to general forms of behaviors, social and morals. -

An educational activity: That is, to the process of helping people learn how to become active, informed and responsible citizens.

The principal justifications for citizenship education derive from the nature of democracy. Democracies need active, informed and responsible citizens. Citizens, who are willing and able to take responsibilities for themselves and their communities, contribute to the political process. These capacities do not develop unaided. They have to be learnt. Citizenship education involves a wide range of different elements of learning, including: -

Knowledge and understanding: About topics such as; Laws and rules, the democratic process, the media, human rights, diversity, money and the economy, sustainable development and world as a global community. And about concepts such as democracy, justice, equality, freedom, authority and rule of law.

-

Skills and aptitudes: Critical thinking, analyzing information, expressing opinions, taking part in discussions and debates, negotiating, conflict resolution and participating in community action.

-

Values and dispositions: respect for justice, democracy and rule of law, openness, tolerance, courage to defend a point of view and willingness to listen to, work with and stand up for others.

In the UNITED KINGDOM, citizenship has been introduced, for the first time ever, as a compulsory component of the school curriculum in England. It is a new foundation subject for pupils aged from 11 to 16, since September 2002, and past of a non-statutory framework alongside personal, social and health education (PSHE) for pupils aged 5 to 11 since September 2000. In COTE D’IVOIRE, the educative system is much attached to subject such as Mathematic, History, Geography, French, Physics, etc… Be a good citizen is not only having much knowledge but also live in harmony with your environment. There is a lack of promotion of citizenship education in primary school in COTE D’IVOIRE. What are the causes of this lack of promotion of citizenship education in primary school in COTE D’IVOIRE? The reasons could be the effectiveness of the education system in COTE D’IVOIRE, the aging of the educative method or an absence of a real education policy.


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II°) CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: AN OVERVIEW

Formerly, the UNITED KINGDOM government had little interest in instilling citizenship education in its populace at large. They feared that rather than making people love their country, it could let them be radicationalists. Later on, British authorities fell the necessity to advocate the teaching of political skills and knowledge regarding the post war political and social context, a concern that was more or less dealt with in their different curriculum. However, although England, Northern Ireland, Wales understood the need for citizenship education, it was not the case of their populace as a whole. The main problem was a real understanding of the notion citizenship education by schools themselves. But supporters of citizenship education went on to get the government accept this new reality not only in secondary schools but also in primary schools. Thank to the labour government, citizenship education was made statutory. There is no doubt that citizenship education has a different place and a different understanding within each devolved home nation. But what was important for the UNITED KINGDOM as a whole was the commonality aspect. It is also true that the definition of citizenship education varied accordingly. Whereas Scotland seemed to promote active citizenship, Northern Ireland was more interested in inculcating in its pupils; community understanding. The peculiarity with the UNITED KINGDOM in its approaches to citizenship education is that, the government plays a great part not only in taking decision but also in getting involved significantly in the process of creating active and responsible citizens. They want to get pupils engage in issues that affect them and enable them to take important contributions to a democratic culture. It is in the same vein that, the Lord Chancellor in 1998 said: “We should not, must not, dare not, be complacent about the health and future of British democracy. Unless we become a nation of engaged citizens, our democracy is not secure”. It shows the worrying levels of apathy, ignorance and cynicism about public life. As a result, citizenship education became a must in schools by empowering pupils to participate in society effectively as active, informed, critical and responsible citizen, that is, encouraged a more interactive role between schools, local communities and youth organizations that could help to make local government more democratic, open and responsive. In the same vein, education to citizenship means three (03) things related to each other, which are social and moral responsibility, community involvement and political literacy.


Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software For self evaluation only. Talking about social and moral responsibility, childrenhttp://www.foxitsoftware.com learn from the very beginning confidence,

socially and morally responsible behavior, both in and beyond the classrooms, towards those in authorities and towards each other. Windsor County Primary School, Toxteth, yet for several years there have been no exclusion, something that the headteacher puts down to the creation of the pupil council. Thanks to that pupil council, pupils are allowed to discuss what they wanted to say to others, making their school as a place where children’s opinions count. As for community involvement, children learn about and become helpfully involved in the life and concerns of their communities, including learning through community involvement and service to the community. Finally, political literacy enables pupils to learn about and how to make themselves effective in public life through knowledge, skills and values. For instance, the junior citizenship programme has been developed by the institute of citizenship studies through a pilot with a number of primary schools in Halton. This programme seeks to help year 6 pupils understand the concept of citizenship, particularly what is to be a citizen and principles involved, through their everyday experiences of the world around them. Pupils are encouraged to be active, to speak out about issues and to develop their ideas and attitudes. The programme is supported by teachers’ notes and pupil topic sheet, all based on the concept of community: from the school community to the local community. The challenge builds confidence, emphasizing young people’s roles and responsibilities, and their right to question decision makers and hold them to account. It clearly demonstrates that young people, too, are stakeholders in society.

III°) CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN COTE D’IVOIRE

Since the military coup orchestrated in 1999, COTE D’IVOIRE has gone through a series of social crisis that even led the country to a divided territory in 2002. Brothers and sisters of the same nation and particularly politicians came to suspect each others. The political rebellion witnessed in 2002 sometimes degenerated into political violence in some areas and although the situation has come to a significant improvement, the issue of the presidential election date is still of concern. Recently, the announcement of the new government team after the dissolution of the previous one met the discontent of some politicians. As a result, many public goods were burnt and once again, regrettably, people died. Regarding the situation, Ivoirians in general and politicians in particular should wonder about their children’ education.


Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software For evaluation More important, the government must make sure that, http://www.foxitsoftware.com future citizens receive an active citizenshiponly.

education in their early ages. Citizenship defined as enabling citizens to make their own decisions, to take responsibility for their own lives and their communities is a new fact in COTE D’IVOIRE due to the lack of citizenship values in the behavior of our leaders, hence the mismanagement of country affairs and so on. Our focus has therefore been directed towards primary school pupils and our explanation is not far from KEVIN ADON’s who asserted: “young people have future, old people have remembrances.”2 We first assessed the teaching material of citizenship education at primary school. Our investigation through some questionnaires (appendix 1 and 2) in some primary schools revealed that, the only real teaching material dealing with citizenship education is IVP3. This subject has been taught for several years but there have been no a real concern coming from the government. This subject enables pupils to familiarize with notion such as community life, life in family, respect of others, tolerance… Besides, teachers develop some others methods to instill in their pupils the same values. These methods include mainly sport and some educative games at school and the justification given by primary schools teachers is that: children learn well when they play. However, the inculcation of citizenship values seems to have positive effect on pupils only when they are in class. Despite the fact that citizenship is taught at school, 93% of teachers know what it is whereas 7% do not know (figure 1, appendix 3). In addition to sport, IVP3 and educative games, pupils learn about citizenship through television by the programme called “between us”4 which give some lesson of citizenship to adult. Some NGOs5 like CERAP6 tried through a project called PRESCI7 to promote citizenship education through the creation of “peace villages” for students of grammar schools. The exclusion of pupils from programme of active citizens makes them think that they are not concerned with citizenship education. This leads to the non-application of what their teachers teach them about citizenship at school (figure 2, appendix 3), despite the fact that many of them know what citizenship is (figure 3, appendix 4) and find it important for their life and the live of their country (figure 4, appendix 4). Some of the teachers that we met want the revision of the educative system and many others ask for the creation of socio-educative programme on citizenship for pupils (figure 5, appendix 5). 47% of pupils want to be more implicated in citizenship education since it is benefit for all of us.


Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation In fact, if the teaching of citizenship values is accompanied with some practical exercises in someonly.

schools, it is purely theoretical in others.

IV°) SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN BOTH COUNTRIES

Citizenship is a theme which draws the attention of all states. The UNITED KINGDOM and COTE D’IVOIRE have not made the exception. The introduction of citizenship education in both countries reflects issues of equal right, active citizens… Interestingly enough is the awareness of pupils about these values in both countries. COTE D’IVOIRE and the UNITED KINGDOM share some common points in citizenship education but also have some differences. Being in COTE D’IVOIRE or in the UNITED KINGDOM, the benefit pupils receive from citizenship education is the same regarding its considerable advantages in terms of helping pupils address the outcomes for wellbeing, developing self-confidence and successfully deal with significant life changes, challenges such as bullying and discrimination. It enables them to make a positive contribution by developing the expertise and experience needed to claim their rights and understand their responsibilities. It also prepares them for the challenges and active life. Pupils really enjoy learning new things and as result they are interested in education to citizenship. Besides, governments in both countries have made sure that this subject is taught at school. However, the participation of government into the issue of citizenship education is not the same in both nations. Unlike the British government, the Ivorian one remains reluctant about involving himself in the process of creating active citizens. British pupils are given more attention even outside the class and radio broadcasts are organized to let pupils express themselves freely and debate about issues of democracy. 70% of pupils in the UNITED KINGDOM are engaged in some activities such as working in local association which represents the view of young people including the civic society, the crime prevention panel, the town council’s amenities committee and do some beneficial actions in the local community.


Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.the Pupils’ participation in this town council aims at preparing them for conflict resolution and through

British Youth Council (BYC) they act for the well-being of the nation and themselves. Whereas in COTE D’IVOIRE the teaching of citizenship education is taught at schools but not emphasized considering the non-practice of citizenship values from primary schools to university which lead to the worse state of our environment, vandalism perpetrated on public domain during political opposition demonstration. Although Ivorian primary school teachers make initiatives to make pupils good citizens in the future, these initiatives remain somehow inefficient as long as they are not backed up by the government.

V°) SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN

COTE

D’IVOIRE

As it has been noticed in the world, countries with active citizens become more and more develop. Today, the UNITED KINGDOM can be considered as a model in terms of building a real nation through the inculcation of citizenship in its population. COTE D’IVOIRE is not far behind but we still think that to reach the level of the UNITED KINGDOM, the following suggestions should be experimented: -

Create an environment, that is, non-threatening in which pupils, young people and others can express their opinions freely and without embarrassment, use their initiative without fear of failure. Such a climate takes time to be, but can be built up gradually.

-

For citizenship education, make pupils learn by dealing with real-life issues facing by themselves and give them a say in their own learning. It will help them be active citizens.

-

Help pupils learn what citizenship means through discussions and debates in the classroom and participation in the life of the school and in the wide community. They are given opportunities both to develop their learning and to put into practice in real-life situation.

-

Create socio-educative programme on citizenship for pupils because they learn better by playing.

-

Pursue the teaching of citizenship education out of schools by involving pupils’ parents. Knowing that repetition is good for them for it will remind them what they have forgotten.

-

Extend citizenship education to university so that it will be maintained and help us have good leaders in COTE D’IVOIRE.

-

Reinforce alphabetization for those who can not read. It will help them read information about citizenship values and put them into practice.


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-

http://www.foxitsoftware.com evaluationbecause only. The government must take an active part in the teaching of citizenship values toFor population it

is their duties. -

Increase efforts to build efficacy levels among children and young people in the entire community context in their lives from an early age if they are to become fully engaged and participate more in civic and political society. These contexts include families, peers, schools and local neighborhoods.

-

Use the media to draw the attention of young people about the importance of civic participation and initiate a campaign to raise children and young people’s efficacy levels in and beyond schools.

-

Give specific attention to those groups of young people currently with the least positive levels, particularly those students from the lowest socio-economic background.

CONCLUSION

Citizenship education is essentially an issue of definition and support. It is centered on the question of how and where citizenship education is best located in schools and how the development of its effective practice can be supported and nurtured. School can only do so much. They could do more, and must be helped to do so. However, pupils’ attitudes to active citizenship are influenced quite as much by schools as by many factors other than schooling: by family, the immediate environment, the media and the example of those in public life. The challenge is how to involve parents, government, community representatives and NGOs in citizenship education in meaningful partnership with schools. This entails getting them to understand what citizenship education is about and how they can actively contribute to it through careful dialogue in schools. Applying for a job is a personal issue, the minimum wage is a citizenship one; drinking is a personal issue, the law on alcohol use is a citizenship one; what you look for in a friend is a personal issue, their political opinion is a citizenship one.


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NOTES

1- Bernard Crick, National curriculum Citizenship, 1999 2- “les jeunes ont l’avenir et les vieux ont des souvenirs” 3- Initiation to active life (initiation à la vie pratique) 4- Entre Nous 5- Non governmental organisation 6- Rasearch and studies center to reinforce peace (centre d’étude et de recherche d’appui à la paix) 7- Citizenship education project at school (projet d’éducation scolaire à la citoyenneté)


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BIBLIOGRAPHY Advisory Council for learning & teaching in Scotland (2002), Education for Citizenship in Scotland. Edinburg: LTS Andrews, R. (2OO1) Citizenship education in Wales: Community, Culture and the curriculum Cymreig. Welsh Journal of Education, 10, 1, 21-31 Andrews, R. (2007) Citizenship Education in the UK: Divergence within a Multi-National State. Citizenship Teaching and Learning. Vol 3, N°1 Annette, J. (2000) Education for citizenship, Civic participation & Experiential learning & Service learning in the Community. In D. Lawton, J. Cairns & R.Gardner (Eds) Education for citizenship. London: Continuum Batho, G. (1990): The History of the Teaching of Civics & Citizenship in England Schools. In: The Curriculum Journal, 1(1), 91-100 Brown, C. (1991): Education for Citizenship. Old Wine in New Botles? In Citizenship, 1(2), 6-9 Crick, B. (1998): Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy In Schools: Final Report of the Advisory group on Citizenship. London: QCA Crick, B. (2000): Essay on Citizenship. London: Continuum Crick, B. (2002). Education for citizenship: The Citizenship Order. Parliamentary Affairs, 55, 3, 488-504. Ellenbogen, A. (2004) Ecole Primaire & Citoyenneté en Côte d’Ivoire, France: Ed. Harmattan Giddens, A. (2000) : In : Pearce, N.; Hallgarten, J. eds. Tomorrow’s Citizens: Critical Debates in Citizenship and Education. London: IPPR Heater, D. (2001): History of citizenship_Leicester : Allandale Online Publishing Kennedy, K. (1997): Citizenship Education and the Modern State. London: Falmer Press Kerr, D. (1999): Re-examining Citizenship Education, the Case of England. National Case study for IEA Citizenship Education Study phase 1-Slough: NFER Kerr, D. (1999): Citizenship Education: An International Comparison. International review of Curriculum and Assessment Frameworks paper 4. London: QCA


Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation Kerr, D. / Lines, A. / Blenkinsop, S/ Shogen, I. (2002): What Citizenship and Education Mean To only. 14-Year

Olds. England Results from the IEA citizenship Education Study: The View of Students, Teachers and Schools-London: DFES Kerr, D. / Cleaver, E. / Ireland, E. / Blenkinsop, S. (2003): Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study: Report on First Cross. Sectional Survey 2001-2002. London: DFES Kerr, D. / Huddleston, T. (2006): Continuing Professional Development: Making Sense of Citizenship; Hodder Education Kerr, D. / Benton, T. / Cleaver, E. / Featherstone, G. / Lopes, J. / Whitby, K. (2008): Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS): Sixth Annual Report. Young People’s Civic participation In and Beyond School: Attitudes, Intentions and Influences. National Foundation for Educational Research Mycock, A. (2004): Restricted Access: A History of Nation Political Education in Britain. Unpublished Paper, presented at the PSA Annual Conference, University of lincoln Niens, U. / Mc Ilarath, L. (2005): Understanding of Citizenship Education: Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland. Galway, Community Knowledge Initiative O’Hare, P. / Gay, O. (2006): The political Process and Citizenship Education. London, House of Common Library Phillips, R. (2003): Education Policy, Comprehensive Schooling and Devolution in the disUnited Kingdom: An Historical “Home International” Analysis. Journal of Education Policy, 18, 1, 1-17 Phillips, R. / Piper, H. / garrett, D. (2003): Citizenship Education in the U.K: A Home International Analysis. In M. Williams and G. Humphregs, (Eds.), Citizenship Education and Life Long Learning: Power and Place. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Wilkinson, H. / Mulgan, G. (1995): Freedom’s Children. London: Demos


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APPENDIX 1

QUESTIONNAIRE POUR INSTITUTEUR

Ce questionnaire a été élaboré dans le cadre d’une recherche sur l’éducation à la citoyenneté afin d’étudier son impact sur les élèves de l’école primaire. Nous vous prions de bien

vouloir

répondre à ces questions. Merci pour votre collaboration.

1) Quelle classe enseignez-vous ? CP

CE

CM

2) Depuis combien d’années enseignez-vous ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………

3) Où enseignez-vous ? Publique

Privé

4) Que comprenez-vous par éducation à la citoyenneté ? Respect des lois et de l’environnement. Enseignement à la l’auto-défense. Enseignement à rejoindre un parti politique.

5) Enseignez-vous l’éducation à la citoyenneté ? Oui

Non

Pourquoi :…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………….


6) Comment l’enseignez-vous ?

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Par l’éducation civique et morale Par le sport Autres (précisez) :…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………

7) Les élèves comprennent-ils ces enseignements ? Oui Un peu Pas du tout Pourquoi : ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………….

8) Mettent-ils ces enseignements en pratique ? Oui Un peu Pas du tout Pourquoi : ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………

9) Cet enseignement a t-il de l’importance à vos yeux ? Oui Un peu Pas du tout Pourquoi :…………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………


10) Que faut-il faire pour l’améliorer ?

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Revoir le système de l’enseignement. Créer des jeux socio- éducatifs sur la citoyenneté. L’amélioration viendra d’elle-même. Que suggérezvous :………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………….

11) Que faut-il faire pour que cette éducation soit bénéfique au pays Étendre l’enseignement jusqu’à l’université S’intéresser plus aux enfants même en dehors de l’école Ne rien faire Intensifier l’alphabétisation Que suggérezvous :………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………..


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APPENDIX 2

QUESTIONNAIRE POUR ELEVE Ce questionnaire a été élaboré dans le cadre d’une recherche sur l’éducation à la citoyenneté afin d’étudier son impact sur les enfants. Nous vous prions de bien vouloir répondre à ces questions. Merci pour votre collaboration.

1) Quel âge avez-vous ? 6-8

9-12

Autre : ……………..

2) En quelle classe êtes-vous ? CP

CE

CM

3) Quelle école fréquentez-vous ? Publique

Privé

4) Avez-vous entendu parler de la citoyenneté ? Oui

Non

5) Si oui. Qu’est ce que la citoyenneté ? Le respect des lois et de l’environnement. L’enseignement à l’auto défense. L’enseignement à rejoindre un parti politique.

6) Comment vous vous informez sur la citoyenneté ? A l’école A la télé Dans la rue Par le sport


Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software For evaluation only. 7) Que pensez-vous de l’éducation à la citoyennetéhttp://www.foxitsoftware.com ?

Bien

Pas intéressé

Pourquoi ?……………………………………………………………………....................................... .....................................................................................................................

8) Le mettez-vous en pratique ? Oui

Un peu

Pas du tous

Pourquoi ?............................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................................

9) Comment aimeriez vous qu’on vous enseigne la citoyenneté ? Créer des jeux socio-éducatifs sur la citoyenneté. Garder la méthode actuelle. Vous impliquez dans cette éducation.

10) Vous marchez dans la rue, une personne de votre âge vous bouscule. Comment réagiriez-vous ? Vous lui rendez votre coup. Vous tolérez et vous le laissez partir.

11) Vous finissez de manger, vous avez le sachet de votre nourriture en main. Que faites-vous ? Vous le jetez par terre. Vous cherchez une poubelle pour le mettre dedans.

12) Et s’il n’y a pas de poubelle à côté de vous. Qu’allez-vous faire ? Le jeter par terre. Le garder sur vous jusqu'à ce que vous trouviez une poubelle.

13) Que pensez-vous des casses qui se sont passées dans le pays. Bien

Regrettable

Pourquoi :……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………….


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APPENDIX 3

figure 1 teachers who know citizenship

teachers who do not know citizenship

7%

93%

figure 2 students who practice citizenship values

students who do not practice it

40%

60%


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figure 3 students who know citizenship

students who do not know it

15%

85%

APPENDIX 4

figure 4 students who find education to citizenship good

10%

90%

students who do not mind it


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figure 5 teachers who ask for the creation of socio-educational programme for pupils teachers who ask for the revision of the educative system

27%

73%

APPENDIX 5


citizenship in cote d'ivoire