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Tactical Urbanism vs Adaptive Urbanism and the Megacity: a new infrastructure

Sam McBride

Tactical Urbanism vs Adaptive Urbanism and the Megacity: a New Infrastructure

Sam McBride

Table of Contents





Infrastructure and Society




Gray Areas


Urban Pendulum

Tactical Urbanism

015 016-021





Adaptive Urbanism


Urban Structure


Future City


Research Summary



Tactical Urbanism vs Adaptive Urbanism and the Megacity: a New Infrastructure

Sam McBride

Case Studies MAG High Square Magasin


The Automatic City 034-039

Bjark Ingels Group Copenhagen, Denmark


Project Framework

Rebar San Francisco, California


The System


Autonomous Components


Design Objectives 040-043


Site Program and Function

060-061 062-063 064-071

Component A - Land Bound


Compoenent B - Water Bound


MIT SenSeable City LAB

Compoenent C - Air Bound


Seattle, Washington


Urban Digestive Systems

Operation Center


Control Center 048-051


IBM Smart Cities

Design Objectives

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil



070 070-071 072-073 074 074 -075 076-077


Tactical Urbanism vs Adaptive Urbanism and the Mega City

As urban areas around the world continue to grow in population and density, they approach scales unprecedented in today’s society. Areas such as Tokaido Megalopolis in Japan and the Northeast Corridor of the United States become the norm and metropolitan regions as a whole begin to approach conditions known as megaregions. The city’s infrastructure, and the people who control it, currently serves as the counterbalance to urban upheaval, and effectively strangle the populace of any social ambiguity and freedom. However, as these urban areas grow and become megaregions, the balance shifts and the infrastructure can no longer contain the populace.

For the city to stay relevant within our hypermodernizing society and to be an effective means of creating, and stimulating social, economic and political constructs, we must reconsider their infrastructures. Current infrastructures have effectively served as the basis and groundwork for occupation within and use of the city, however they fail to adjust themselves in a way that would be relevant to future urban inhabitation. The current understandings of infrastructures and rigid and tend to create more separation and containment, rather than allowing for the spread and flexibile habitation within the city. Tactical Urbanism has began to highlight the current need to re-appropriate and adapt the city and its infrastructure, however it is limited in its effects. Due to its temporary application, small scale, and its effects on only a particular public. Because of these weaknesses, tactical

Introduction 002

urbanism fails to truly respond to the general public, particularly to those struggling to exist in the urban environment. We must move beyond the mere tactical and begin to search for, realize, and design an infrastructure that encourages reappropriation and adaptation, as Tactical Urbanism has outlined, but in a permanent, lasting, and effective way. The creation of a new infrastructure that lives alongside and attempts to understand the social superstructure, rather than standing in its way, an infrastructure that exists for political and social action rather than mere occupational and economic processes. Cities are heading towards a state of social ambiguity, dealing with a number of issues that are currently in a sub-state, or pre-hyper condition, such as: over density and urban sprawl, extreme weather or environmental

003 Introduction

uncertainty, and economic instability. A new infrastructure would not seeking to dissolve or prevent any of these situations, rather to bringing power to the social structure and allowing humanity to adapt and work within these new conditions. This new infrastructure will create what can be called Adaptive Urbanism, an environment that does not exist as the basis or structure for occupation as current infrastructures do, but rather allows for an environment that is responsive to different social conditions within the city. Adaptive Urbanism allows the city to live and change with and alongside society and the urban landscape. It actively battles for the people within the city and change the physical, permanent infrastructures currently in place.


Infrastructure and Society Surveillance Gray Areas Urban Pendulum

Tactical Urbanism Purpose Weskness

Adaptive Urbanism Urban Structure Future City

Infrastructure and Society The city and its infrastructure serve as the platform for society allowing humanity to grow and develop as it wishes.1 Infrastructure is the base layer in which humanities complexities are created and become tangible. However, we must understand urban infrastructures as something that exist outside the typical disciplines of urban design, urban planning, urban studies and urban theory. We must identify urbanism, and more particularly urban infrastructures, as a broad discursive arena that combines all of these and others into a multidimensional consideration of the city.2 Without this broad understanding, infrastructure becomes reductive and fails to allow the facets and complexities of society to develop.

Left: BQE near Sunset-Park New York Cityi Right: Highway network and infrastructure as roadsii

007 Background: Infrastructure and Society

Current infrastructures do exactly this, they fail to understand and allow complexity, creating a controlled environment that is a representation of the few rather than the many. The city is a construct of those with political, economic or social control and effectively stifles any complexity that exists outside this norm. As a result, the city and its infrastructures have become a reductive, controlling means to represent and allow social, political, and economic development. This creates a surveilled condition that puts us at the mercy of those with power, those who control infrastructure and its development.

Surveillance Surveillance is defined as - a watch kept over a person, group, etc., especially over a suspect, prisoner, or the like.3 In reality, society is under surveillance by those who are in control of the city. If we divorce ‘surveillance’ from its singularity and apply it to the urban situation, urban infrastructure becomes the controller of the people, meaning those who are in control of the city’s infrastructure are effectively in control of the people within that given city. Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon offers a framework from which we can understand the surveillance structure of the city. The Panopticon is made up of two pieces, the periphery (annular building) and the center (tower). The tower is pierced with windows on all sides, allowing a 360 degree view of the surrounding. The periphery is split into cells, each extending the entire width of the building, one window on either

Functional Containment by Infrastructure

Background: Infrastructure and Society 008

side. The inside window corresponding to the windows of the tower, the other on the outside, allowing light to cross the cell. The supervisor (the controller, surveillor) is in the central tower with an immediate understanding of its complete surroundings, while those in each cell are at their mercy.4 To understand how this applies to the urban situation, we must separate this understanding from something of pure physical formation, and understand it as a social structure, one that creates a particular relationship between the controlled (surveilled) and the controllers. In the urban situation, the periphery is the common person, those living within the city. The tower, though not always physically in the center, is any infrastructure within that particular city, i.e. roads, buildings, communication lines, railways, sidewalks, public space etc. The infrastructure is the vehicle for control, the domain for the surveillor to exist and mobilize. The infrastructure compartmentalizes the city into particular

009 Background: Infrastructure and Society

factions of existence, suggesting programs and condition that the public must abide by, establishing areas where people may travel, congregate, work and live. Infrastructure is the means of control, by controlling infrastructural development, you can effectively control the quality of life and ‘livability’ within areas of the city, as a result the controller actually becomes those people or things that control the development and growth of infrastructure within the city. The industrialized city is built around and under the control of the political and economic elite who are positioned to shape cities more and more after their own desires.5 As a result we get cities that are reductive in the sense that they only serve in the benefit of those elite, failing to recognize the things that make the urban situation superior, its complexities, its exchanges, its uncontrollable facets.

New York City, for example, is largely under the control of developer, who cater to highvalue business and the economic elite. Michael Bloomberg reshaped the city in such a way that these developers had the ultimate say, in effect turning Manhattan into one vast gated community for the rich.6 As the general public is forced to leave Manhattan because of the inflated cost of living, the environments they create follow, creating socially rich and vibrant areas in the Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. As a result, developers follow, gentrifying those areas and pushing the general public out once again. This phenomenon can be seen in many developments of Brooklyn, just to name a few: Williamsburg, Dumbo and possibly more recently Bushwich. In the end, the poor or less affluent in terms of control, are being pushed away from the most developed areas of the city and living in what you could describe as ‘gray areas,’ or areas that generally have less resources, usually meaning they have less access to infrastructural amenities such as public transit, running water, etc. Similar things are happening in Los Angeles, where the affluent are taking parts of the city, and creating a number of fortresses that are Left: Shop Architects Williamsburg, Brooklyn Proposaliii 011 Background: Infrastructure and Society

inaccessible by the general public (the poor and arguably the middle class) and effectively criminalizing and armoring themselves away from those of less affluence. They do this by manipulating the infrastructure in a way that acts against the poor. This is achieved by redevelopment or large urban regions with private security practices, mean streets with no access to public seating and toilets, police as urban designers that act against the poor, and the elimination of social mixing of groups in normal pedestrian circulation.7 This idea reaches a higher level in the right to eminent domain, a concept which allows governments to displace established residents in reasonable housing conditions in favor of higher-order land uses, such as condominiums and box stores. This is relatively typical situation in the United States with similar situations of forced separation and extraction of the less affluent and other oppressed groups (religious, economic, political) being seen in China, Korea, Mumbai, Brazil and many others countries.8

Gray Areas This create a phenomena in which people are living in ‘gray areas.’ In its broadest sense, ‘gray areas’ are developments, enclaves, populations, and transactions that position themselves between legality, approval or safety and eviction, destruction or death. They are spaces that are not legitimized within the rigidness of the urban situation but form a kind of pseudo-permanent margin.9 The causes of this situation, the type of person being oppressed in each gray area and the scale of that gray area, will change given the city or region they exist. For example, the gray areas existing in New York or Los Angeles are of a completely different condition than those of the favelas in Brazil or the Naqab Bedouins settlements of the Beersheba region of Israel.

Living in Gray Areas

Right: Fevelascape, Urban Slumiv Background: Infrastructure and Society 012

These gray areas increase in scale and severity as the separation between the controllers (those with political, economic or social power) and the oppressed becomes more drastic. This is particularly evident in the severity of the populations in each section, the population forced to live in tight conditions with no resources (the oppressed) versus those living with excess land and resources (the controllers). Worldwide, it has becoming evident that the population within the oppressed faction will continue to increase at incredible rates, while those in control faction may increase slightly

but at drastically slower rates. For instance, the economic situation in the United States is likely to polarize, meaning more people will gain great wealth, however most will exist in poverty, effectively eliminating what we understand as the middle class, you are either poor or rich.10 This conflict, mixed with mass urbanization and increased density will bring this condition towards a hyper-state (overexcited; overstimulated11) in which the conflict between the oppressed (surveilled) and the controllers becomes increasingly hostile, causing extreme social and political unrest and a firght for power within the city. This social unrest and the demonstration of this power struggle has already become evident in different parts of the world, for example in areas like China and India as they develop and industrialize. Also civil wars rage in Africa and ferment in Latin America. At any moment, these and many other rising revolts could become contagious.12 As the urban situation approaches this hyper-condition, social upheaval will become a common occurrence, happening on a vast variety of scales and resulting in different degrees of urbicide, all with the hopes of changing the social structure of the city, the oppressed attempting to gain a right to the city. Background: Infrastructure and Society 014

Left: Occupy Portolond Riot, People vs Policev

Urban Pendulum The increased conflict between the controllers and the oppressed presents an urban condition that can be explained through an ‘urban pendulum.’ This pendulum analogy is used to explain the relationships between the current controllers (henceforth called the affluent, as in socially, politically and economically affluent) and the oppressed, general public, or populous. On one side of the pendulum is group A (the affluent) and on the other is group B (the oppressed). The center then is a representation of urban infrastructures, swinging towards those with control. The current representation of the urban situation would swing the pendulum towards Group A or the affluence, as they are the controllers of the infrastructure and as a result in control of the city. What I would like to pose is a reorganization of this condition in which the pendulum swings back towards group B, a condition that would put the populous back in control of the city, a bottom up approach to architecture and design.

Oppressed Urban Pendulum: Current

Oppressed Urban Pendulum: Proposed

015 Background: Infrastructure and Society



Tactical Urbanism


Tactical urbanism has highlighted a need to reappropriation the city and the spaces it creates in regards to the populous rather than the affluent. Tactical is defined as - of or pertaining to a maneuver or plan of action designed as an expedient toward gaining a desired end of temporary advantage.13 Tactical urbanism is then defined by small-scale urban interventions that adapt current infrastructures for the needs of that surrounding public, on a momentary basis and intentionally does not leave a lasting effect on the urban condition as a whole. Through self-appropriation, tactical urbanism enables the general public to use areas within the city for reasons different than originally intended, but are more specific for that particular population, and in the end suggesting that citizens regain their rights to the city.

“The city is, above all, a social product, created out of the demands of everyday use and the social struggles of urban inhabitants. Design within everyday space must start with an understanding and acceptance of the life that takes place there. This goes against the grain of professional design discourse, which is based on abstract principles, whether quantitative, formal, spatial, or perceptual. Whatever the intention, professional abstractions inevitably produce spaces that have little to do with real human impulses‌ To avoid this breach with reality, everyday urbanism demands a radical repositioning of the designer, a shifting of power from the professional expert to the ordinary person. Widespread expertise in everyday life acts as a leveling agent, eliminating the distance between professionals and users, between specialized knowledge and daily experience. The designer is immersed within contemporary society rather than superior to and outside it, and is thus forced to address the contradictions of social life from close up.â€?14 Right: PARKday San Francisco, Californiavi Background: Tactical Urbanism 016

As a result of this re-interpretation of the city and its designers, the goal of tactical (everyday) urbanism is to adapt current infrastructures within the city for temporary, unimagined positions that attempt to serve a larger portion of the public, taking the means of control away from the affluent. This is achieved by claiming land within the city that is currently used for other purposes, such as roads, parks, empty lots, parking spaces; all spaces that were previously sinews of control, and adapting them for new uses that seek to serve a social purpose. This movement has started the dialog between the cities infrastructure and their relationships to the social superstructure, or the social condition produced by the general public. Tactical urbanism proposes that rather than allowing the infrastructure within a city to control the social superstructure, that control can be broken down by re-appropriating infrastructures, or the unused spaces they create within that city, demonstrating the ability for the pendulum to shift.

Left: Superkilen, Copenhaggen, Denmark, BIGvii 019 Background: Tactical Urbanism

A number of firms such as Rebar, in projects like the Nomadic Grove, Parkcycle, or Bubbleway, and BIG, in projects like Superkilen, MAG High Square, or Vinterbad Bryggen, have begun to explore in tactical urbanism and a bottom-up approach to design. These projects highlight the ability to reclaim space within the city for social and cultural purposes, driven by the social superstructure, rather than the affluent or other common controllers. For example, MAG High Square or Superkilen by BIG takes the previously unused roofs of a number of buildings, connecting them and offering a new blank canvas for social interaction and activity. Beyond taking advantage of unused space, a project like Rebar’s Parkcycle takes a piece of the city’s infrastructure that is currently used for non-humanistic social activity (the parking space, the street median) and adapts the space for public use in the form of a small park or seating area.

Weakness Tactical urbanism, at its definition, is small-scale urban intervention that promotes a more humanistic, social urban environment on a temporary, short-term basis. Its weakness is exactly this, by definition, its intervention is too small and its effects are limited and temporary. Its larger mission begins to question the understanding and social control within the city, however small scale interventions are still limited in their effects and the percent of the populous they enact. Tactical urbanism’s three base weaknesses are:

Small-Scale Intervention Temporary Effects Particular Public Tactical urbanism offers a bridge for the volunteer, for the activist, the social avant-garde to access urban space in a new way, and to reach beyond the constraints of the city. However, as illustrated, this only affects a certain particular public in the sense that its

effects don’t reach beyond these people, they do not spread to the entire populous. As a result, these interventions do not instigate a larger social change within the city and truly fails to swing the pendulum from the affluent towards the oppressed. Temporary implementation also perpetuates the use of these installations by the particular public and not the larger social superstructure because they are not permanent, therefore do not spread past a singular instance, a moment in time. How can we reach beyond this particular public, and envision intervention that extends to the larger social superstructure of the city and respond to all humanistic activity, rather than those of a few? In this movement’s attempts to approach design from a bottom-up mentality, it has relied on a certain person or group to enact change. As a result, you gain small, temporary installments of bottom-up design, however, they fail to reach beyond the small group that enacts them. To affect the larger social superstructure of the city, the bottom-up mentality must be approached from a holistic point of view, looking at larger scale urban interventions with small scale effects. Background: Tactical Urbanism 020

Right: Parklet, San Francisco, California, Rebarviii

Adaptive Urbanism To move beyond tactical urbanism, we must think of larger implementation, a new infrastructure for the city that begins to effect a larger populous through a bottom-up approach. The following terms break-down adaptive urbanism into its key properties:

Urban Scale with Localized Effects Proactive yet Responsive Adaptive and Adaptable

City Scale with Localized Effects Background: Adaptive Urbanism 022

Proactive yet Responsive 023 Background: Adaptive Urbanism

Adaptive and Adaptable

Current infrastructures are typically understood as physical channels that connect one space with another, enabling the passage and transfer of people and goods. They (infrastructures) are primarily considered important because they are channels for economic exchange, making them the sinews of power and lines of control.15 At its dictionary definition, infrastructure is: the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization - the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.16 This is describing an incredibly rigid intervention, laying the groundwork and serving as the foundation for society to exist and grow atop of. However, this understanding of infrastructure, whether intentional or not, contradicts and contains the complexities of the social superstructure, essentially putting it (society) within a container and establishing a rather banal set of parameters we must exist within. For this reason we have to move beyond this traditional understanding, pushing towards a

Right: Pop-Up Cityix

Background: Adaptive Urbanism 024

new infrastructure that is bottom-up in nature, relying on the social superstructure to inform its function and implementation. We must begin to understand infrastructures as something more adaptive. Adaptive in the sense that the system seeks to adapt the current infrastructures, it finds those unusable, unsuitable and controlling situations created by current infrastructures, and changes them, allows them to be occupied in a way that directly relates to the general public. It divorces itself from something merely economic, becoming a sinew for life and occupation. It must be understood as adaptable in the sense that the spaces the system creates can adjust for a multitude of uses for different times, purposes, and people. It must tap into ideas of networking on all levels (social, political, economic) and change depending on the needs of those networks. We have to understand infrastructures as something on the urban scale, but with localized effects. They must be able to adjust

025 Background: Adaptive Urbanism

themselves in relation to the entire city, analyzing the entire urban condition while still understanding their effects on a more micro scale. How they inevitable bring control back to a particular location within that larger system. With a base infrastructure in place, the goal becomes a new kind of infrastructure, an infrastructure that works in tandem with the existing but brings the person, and society back into the equation. Rather than a static infrastructure that exists beneath society and as the base, we need an infrastructure that is active, and responsive in creating space for the complexities of the urban situation to exist. This infrastructure can help society combat the constraints defined by the city in a way that offers proactive solutions, that responds to the desires and needs of the populous, and seeks to adapt current infrastructures to facilitate those needs.

Urban Structure This creates an urban situation that can be thought about in three layers that stack atop one another. The first layer being current infrastructures, made up of the buildings, roads, sidewalks, and other static elements that make up the urban landscape. Atop the built layer you get people, the social superstructure and all its facets and complexities. Then comes the adaptive layer, the proposed layer. The adaptive layer is fed by the people, through information systems, but also seeks to adapt and change the static nature of the first layer, the built layer. The adaptive layer effectively serves as the bridge between the people and the built landscape allowing the built landscape to be more receptive to the populous and the social superstructure it creates.

Left: Future City Lab’s Datagrove, San Jose, Californiax Background: Adaptive Urbanism 026

Urban Structure

Future Cities As global growth patterns and globalization suggests, people are moving back to urban cores, in what seems to be a product of both need and want. Urban cores offer a tremendous amount of resource in a very compact zone, inevitably creating the most viable, and livable areas in the world. Urban areas, and soon to be megaregions, inevitable attracting both the oppressed, and the vastly affluent. For the oppressed, urban areas can offer extremely cheap housing options, although well below standards of living, such as the favelas of Brazil or other urban slums. Urban areas also offer opportunities to gain employment, although at in low paying positions and usually bad working conditions. For the affluent, the proximity to resources and large populations, open incredible sinews for economic growth and power. For this reason, not only are we seeing a huge influx of population living in urban areas, but we are seeing a huge influx of the two groups outlined in the beginning of this paper, the oppressed and the affluent. Pairing this with polarization and elimination of the middle class, the conflict between each group is expected to magnify incredibly in coming years, as we approach the reality of a megaregion. Right: Density Map of London, UKxi Left: Hong Kong, Urban Sprawlxii 029 Background: Adaptive Urbanism

This migration pattern into megaregions, with overall population increase, increased population density, global economic instability and polarization, climate change, and social or political unrest, will truly approach a hypercondition in which all facets of society are magnified, particularly those suggesting a dystopian future. For these reasons, the general population will be forced to live in a more adaptive way, allowing life to exist within unstable conditions and between cracks that may currently seem impenetrable, such as flooded waters or within a decomposing infrastructure with few resources. This creates a need for the understanding and implementation of adaptive urbanisms and their applications to new infrastructures within the city that particularly seek to make this type of habitation possible.

Research Summary An inherent struggle within the city has been identified between the general public or the oppressed and the affluent. This struggle is created through the control over the infrastructures of the city, and through this control of the infrastructures, one group can control the other. In the case for today, this exists as the affluent controlling over the oppressed. The current battle over infrastructure is forcing a certain populous into what we have termed grey areas, areas that severely lack the necessary means of infrastructure, or at least greatly lack in infrastructures compared to that of their affluent counterparts. As population grows and we see increasing urban densities, these grey become harder to live within and the conditions within start to reach a dystopian condition.

For this reason, we must shift the pendulum of control away from the affluent and towards the general public or the oppressed, and in doing so, creates a new understanding of infrastructure that is more fluid, and respond to the populous itself. Approach infrastructural design from a bottom-up approach, taking the control away from the affluent. Tactical urbanism has served as a base study on bottom-up design that seeks to adapt current infrastructures of the city. However, tactical urbanism is limited in its abilities and effects particularly because it only offers the following:

Small-Scale Intervention Temporary Effects Particular Public

Background: Research Summary 030

We must move beyond this tactical approach and reach adaptive urbanism which is characterized by:

City Scale with Localized Effects Proactive yet Responsive Adaptive and Adaptable Adaptive urbanism seeks to make adaptive living possible. As future cities concern themselves with dystopian conditions such as social and political upheaval, population and density increases, global economic instability and polarization, and climate instability, they must approach urbanism that can change, and evolve with the conditions presented to them. As society becomes less stable and more ambiguous, infrastructures must do the same, adaptive living is necessary for life within the future city.

Adaptive Urbanism

031 Background: Research Summary

Case Studies

High Square Magasin Take Away

Park Cycle Take Away

Urban Digestive System Take Away

Operation Center

High Square Magasin Copenhagen, Denmark Bjarke Ingels Group, 2002

The High Square in Copenhagen, Denmark by Bjarke Ingels Group is an ideas project for the Copenhagen City Council executed in 2002. The project was to envision a new kind of public square as a response to the opening of its new subway system. The new public square is a 3,000 square meter plaza on top of Magasin du Nord, a large department store in the heart of the city. The square serves as an oasis that will combine the benefits of space, air, and unprecedented views with a highly urban program; a program that includes an outdoor cinema, drop-off for cars and taxis, city routes, cafes and stages. These spaces cascade down the building until it reaches the sidewalks and neighboring squares.17 One of the most widely inaccessible spaces for the public in the city are the roofs of buildings, which are often just a vast wasteland of unused landmass. At best they serve a private function, usually in the form of a garden or small court. This project seeks to change the nature of

Left: High Square Magasin, BIG Architects, Copenhagen, Denmarkxiii

035 Case Studies: High Square Magasin

that wasteland and transform the roof of a department store, and surrounding buildings into a public space and become part of the cities infrastructure. The most challenging aspect of this situation is the transition from the ground plane, or existing infrastructures, to the public space high above the city. The architect attempts to do this by extending the public space all the way down to the existing infrastructure through a series of spaces. By doing so, the added public space is essentially an extension of the city’s infrastructure. This project envisions the reappropriation of space (particularly unused space) within an urban setting, reclaiming it for public use in attempts to stimulate a social response that becomes a part of the permanent infrastructure of the city. Its program and installation is broad enough that the large platform

can be used for a multifaceted set of functions, in some ways allowing it to become an adaptive surface that can be shaped in different ways depending on the desires of those using it. By offering only slight suggestions to functionality of space, while still maintaining a general openness and fluidity, Bjarke Ingels Group plays a careful balance between programmed and un-programmed spaces. By keeping the program, and really the design, ambiguous enough that it can be used for a variety of purposes, the installation becomes a basic platform that frames and gives space for culture and social interaction to take over and do as it needs. Bjarke Ingels Group takes this approach in a number of their projects, including the better known Superkilen in Copenhagen. This is what allows these spaces to become adaptive, and is a quality that is essential to the ideas of tactical urbanism.

This project gets stuck in the realm of tactical urbanism and fails to extend to adaptive urbanism in the sense that it still only applies to a certain particular public and fails to respond to the greater populous within the city. Because this project is extended only above a single shopping center in Copenhagen, it is really only applicable to those using the shopping facility and those who may reside in its immediate surroundings. This means its social impact does not extend past this user group and fails to address the populous as a whole. This project is adaptive in the sense that it adapts currently infrastructures, however it does not become adaptable. It offers a blank canvas for occupation and in some ways may offer an adaptable space which enable people to use it for flying kites, or basketball, or a large public event, however at best it is still just a public space. It cannot become adaptable in the sense that it can offer both public and private space depending on the needs of that given time. In this sense, it also fails to be responsive because it is inherently limited in what it can become and how it can respond to the needs of a neighborhood or area.

Case Studies: High Square Magasin 036

Right: Circulation and Site Organizationxiv 037 Case Studies: High Square Magasin

Left: Use Diagramsxv

Case Studies: High Square Magasin 038

Take Away The balance between design and oppenness is key to the success of projects like this, and within tactical urbanism. However, for this to apply to adaptive urbanism, a layer of complexity must be added that allows for a more adaptive use, particularily of a program that requires enclosure. It successfully adapts existing infrastructure within the city for something new. It reaches

Right: Physical Modelxvi

beyond the previously understood constraint and creates space atop the existing, touching on the urban structure. Without a concious effort to reach beyond the particular public, it will not happen. It this case, the mere conditions and clients involved in the project make it difficult to extend past this particular public.

Parkcycle San Fracisco, California Rebar, 2007

The Parkcycle project by Rebar out of San Francisco proposes a human-powered open space distribution system that is designed to adapt out auto-centric urban infrastructures and was first deployed as part of PARK(ing) Day 2007 in San Francisco. The system is made up of bicycle powered platforms covered in green space, proportional to that of an automobile, allowing easy movement from place to place. It provides open space benefits to a neighborhood that needs it, when they need it.18 This system, powered and controlled by human force, seeks to find those awkward, unused spaces created by our current infrastructure within the city, transforming those spaces into, small green spaces. The system is envisioned at a scale that would suggest the ability to affect the larger superstructure and be implemented at the city scale with localized effects. This enables the spaces to exist in places of need as outlined by the social superstructure establishing a bottom-up approach to design, rather than something that is designed and implemented by laws of proximity. Left: Parkcycle, San Francisco, California, Rebarxvii 041 Case Studies: Parkcycle

Although these platforms of green space have the power to adapt infrastructures within the city, making the system adaptive, they themselves are not adaptable. Meaning they only offer a specific program that cannot change and be manipulated by those using it. This creates a system that cannot really be proactive yet responsive. The system can be proactive in identifying spaces of need within the city, however this is not truly responsive because their needs may not be fulfilled through the implementation of green space, some neighborhoods may desperately need other functions. To these regards, this system does not truly offer localized effects because, again those effects are limited to a particular type, a type of green space. For this system to align with adaptive urbanism, its constraint to offering only small plots of green space must be broken and it must be able to offer more variety in functionality, possibly extending past only public space.

Take Away A moving system has the potential to break the binds of the particular public reaching the populous. Scale of the implimented spatial conditions greatly effects the adaptability. In this case, the implimentation is too small rendering the space limited in its available functions. Green space does not equal adaptable space. An autonomous set of objects to make up a network render that network adaptive in the sense that they can effect different locations with the ability for each location to have a local effect and function specific in its own. Merely human driven objects cannot be entirely proactive because their scope and information available to them is limited. They do not get a comprehensive view of the whole. Left: Parkcycle, San Francisco, California, Rebarxviii Right: Parkcycle, San Francisco, California, Rebarxix Case Studies: Parkcycle 042

Urban Digestive System Seattle, Washington MIT SENSable City LAB

The Urban Digestive System, or Trash Track imagines a future city where the invisible infrastructures of trash removal become visible, uncovering the particularly hidden final journey our trash takes. Trash Track focuses on the use of pervasive technologies to expose the challenges of waste management and sustainability, hoping to move towards a system of trash collection and management that makes 100% recycling a reality. By using hundreds of small, smart, location aware tags that are attached to different types of trash they are able to track items as they move through the city’s waste management and distribution system. This then reveals the final journey of our everyday objects through a series of real time visualizations, increasing the public understanding of the trash management systems within the city.19 This project falls short of what we describe as adaptive urbanism, and is particularly difficult

Right: Tracking Devicexx Left: City of Trashxxi

045 Case Studies: Urban Digestive System

to categorize within tactical urbanism or adaptive urbanism because is not spatial and offers no attempts to become spatial infrastructure. This means it does not fit many of the adaptive guidelines, however it demonstrates how a project can be proactive yet reactionary. This project is proactive in the sense that a problem was identified, how trash is dealt with within the city, and an attempt is being made in finding a solution and allowing 100% recycling to be possible. It is then reactive because it is using data gathered from the current system to identify the faults that prevent the ability for that system to be 100% recycling.

TrashTrack builds on previous work from SENSEable City Lab and their exploration of how the increased deployment of sensors and mobile technologies radically transform how we understand and describe our cities. It begins to illustrate a new kind of infrastructure that may not offer something inherently spatial, but certainly responds in a move adaptive way. It also begins to describe a type of change cities around the world are beginning to go through as we head to a more bottom-up approach of managing resources and promoting behavioral change within the city.20 This strategy of deploying sensors within the city becomes increasingly relevant because of their ability to gather information in real-time. If that information can be gathered and processed in real-time, we can then use that information to tell a system what a particular area within the city needs, allowing a system to become reactionary, proactive, adaptive and adaptable, in an incredibly relevant way.

Right: Trash Circulationxxii Left: City Trash Tracking and Mappingxxiii 047 Case Studies: Urban Digestive System

Take Away Sensory technologies can offer a mechanism to recieve information in attempts to gain a vew of the whole, a view typically inconceivable from the human perspective. By providing the information to the public, you can promote a bottom-up approach. With knowledge, people will seek the necessary change. Information networks and mappings can prove to be increadibly relevant in effecting and influencing decision, particularily how things, in this case trash (but could be people) move within the city.

Operation Center Rio de Janeiro, Brazil IMB Smart Cities

Rio Operations Center is an operational hub that is a kind of master control that assists in the running of the city, receiving real time data from the ground and the sky. This information is received from a number of cameras, radar, and satellite imagery that is then monitored by those working within the Operations Center and used to react quicker and form a better understand of any potential problems within the city. These problems range from a natural disaster, large-scale emergency or attack, to a traffic jam. Once an emergency is identified, alarms sound to warn the community of the upcoming problem, and allows for quicker evacuation and notification.

Right: IBM’s Tripod of Infromationxxiv Left: Rio’s Operation Centerxxv 049 Case Studies: Operation Center

The operation center houses over 33 agencies that all work together, allowing for seamless notification of arising issues. Each agency is dedicated to different means of information within the city, and together they offer a broad understanding of the city ranging, from public safety, government administration to education, health care, transportation or the environment. 21

Rio’s Operations Center was realized by IBM and is a part of their vision of the smarter city. As demands grow and budgets tighten, IBM recognizes that solutions must not only be more innovative and smarter, they must also address the city as a whole. Through collecting and analyzing the extensive amounts of data generated by the city, IBM Intelligent Operations Center seeks to coordinate and share data in a single view, creating a big picture view of the city as a whole. 22 In Rio’s case, this holistic view of the city allows administrators, and leaders to make more informed decision about how to react to different situations within the city.

This project, like Trash Track, is not necessarily a case study for adaptive urbanism, however, it demonstrates ways in which the city can become more proactive yet reactive. It offers a study on how a city can collect, analyze, and use data generated through a variety of methods of the city to successful gain a real time view of the entire city. However, Rio’s implementation is currently more a means of surveillance within the city rather than a tool for the public, and although in some ways it serves to offer a big picture mapping of the city, its implementation still leans towards the affluent and fails to directly relate to the populous within the city. To achieve something that is less surveillant and more bottom-up in nature, we must look at each piece of the equation carefully: how data is collected and what kinds of data are collected, how that data gets analyzed and who does the analyzing, and then how the analyzed data gets used and who has access to that data.

Left: IBM’s Tripod Breakdown Descriptionsxxvi Right: Rio Operation Center Displaysxxvii Case Studies: Operation Center 050

Project Framework

Automatic City

The System The Autonomous Components

Design Objective

Social Scale Localized Effects Adaptive and Adaptable Conditions Proactive yet Responsive Promote Adaptive Lifestyle


Northeast Corridor

Program and Function Component A - Land Component B - Water Component C - Air Network Control Center Site Design Objectives Program


The Automatic City The Automatic City is an idea of the city as the holistic reality of independently operated autonomous pieces. Autonomy is used here in a digital, machinated sense of pseudo-sentient, intellectually ‘insectoid’ [hiveminded] components that can act independently or in tandem as a response to perceived urban stressors without outside input. Hence the use of the ‘automatic’ and the Automatic City.

The Automatic City is an attempt to imagine a city’s infrastructure as a living, responsive system within the city that directly feeds from and responds to both social and physical structures of the city. It desires to resituate the infrastructure within a city to better align with the desires and patterns presented by the people, rather than in pursuit of economic gain or political control. It is an attempt to implement a proactive, bottom-up approach to the infrastructures of a city.

Left: Archigram’s Walking Citiesxxviii

Project Framework: A City of Beings 054

Right: Future City Lab’s Datagrove, San Jose, Californiaxxix

The System A system of autonomous components is spread across the city, each component is able to receive, process and understand data and information as it is received from various superstructures of the city. This information is received through a variety of sensory objects within the city. these objects exist within both social, and physical superstructures. Today, a cell phone is an example of such sensory object, which relays and sends information about its user, paired with time and geographic encryption. The future city will be dealing with greater concepts of ambient computing, or ubiquitous computing in which we move beyond the personal computing era and technology fades to the background of our lives but the technology exists within everything. This would create an urban environment where everything becomes a computing agent that continuously records, and maps human movement without being intrusive, we use computers without even knowing it. Right: Neil Spillers Visualization of Gibsons Slamhoundsxxx Left: Spatial Surrealism, Neil Spillerxxxi 057 Project Framework: Design Objectives

As a system, the goal is to assist in the gathering of information from the city, but also to bring all the information from different sensory objects together, and create a holistic, comprehensive view of the social superstructure and its relationships to the physical environment. This understanding should present emerging patterns within the urban environment, in real-time, meaning they update as the social or physical structure changes and adapt to conditions. This understanding of the city is also bound by social constraints rather than physical, or personal constraints. Social constraints, meaning this understanding, or mapping, follows and is reliant on social densities and living patterns within the city, it is not subject to personal bias or any physical or infrastructural barriers.

The Autonomous Components Beyond assisting in the gathering of this information to help create a holistic view of the city, each autonomous component has the mission to act upon this information. The autonomous component processes, and understands the information received from the system. Through this understanding, the component identifies the best ways to react. This reaction assists in both the spatial and infrastructural capacities of the city, meaning the product becomes available on a pseudo-private level [housing, shelter, etc.] but also on a public [public open-space, community space] and an infrastructural level [lighting, repair, transportation].

Because of their material and mechanical abilities, the components are able to change their shape and size depending on the way they choose to react to a given situation. In addition, they are able to move within the city, allowing them to optimize their location and function for any situation presented. The abilities of each component allows for a localized effect that caters to the desires and needs of the people within a given area of the megaregion. Each component assists people by allowing a more adaptive lifestyle. This will become an increasingly important ability as cities head towards a ‘hyper-condition’ in which both our physical and social situations become increasingly unstable, changing in uncontrollable ways.

Right: NASA’s TET Warfighterxxxii Project Framework: A City of Beings 058

Design Objectives Social Scale Social scale defines the ability and need for an implementation that can effect and react to the entire social superstructure, an implementation less bound by physical constraints, and more concerned with social constraints.

Localized Effects Offering interventions that are not over-generalized in the sense that they only respond to the city as a whole, the components must apply themselves in a localized manner, responding to specific conditions presented in a neighborhood or small region of the Northeast Corridor.

Adaptive and Adaptable Conditions The components must be able to adapt current infrastructures, changing or enhancing the conditions they present, allowing for new, more appropriate ways of use. They must also be adaptable and be able to change their function and spatial conditions depending on the situations presented, and the needs of a given area within the megaregion.

Proactive yet Responsive The implementation must be proactive, actively seeking to find spatial solutions to problems within the city. It must also be responsive in that the problems it seeks to solve, must be informed through data received from the population, approaching implementation informed from the bottom-up.

Project Framework: Design Objectives 060

Promote Adaptive Lifestyles The components should ultimately allow for a more adaptive lifestyle, creating conditions for life in urban situations that are less stable than previously understood.

Right: Theo Jansen’s Strandbeest xxxiii 061 Project Framework: Design Objectives

Site The project situates itself on the Northeast Corridor of the United States, a megaregion spanning from Washington DC to Boston. The Northeast Corridor has become America’s foremost example of the megaregion, an emerging urban ecology that consists of a group of interconnected metropolitan regions and the natural landscapes on which they depend. 23 The Northeast Corridor is a megaregion composed of 5 city centers [Washington D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston] in which the social, political, and economic elite reside.

These city centers compose a high density built environment with financial, educational and other service related industries, attracting those with high paying jobs, and effectively shutting out those who are less affluent. Due to continued growth and development of a regional rail system, those elites who do not reside in the city centers, will live on the periphery, with expanses of land and space compared to those who reside within or around the city centers, making the daily commute into the city center for work and play. The regional rail line will also enable this, as well as quick and easy movement from one city center to another, offering optimal connectivity between the thriving centers of the region. Between the city center and the periphery, will reside the mass sprawling metropolitan area, the webbing that connects each city center. This metropolitan area will be incredibly dense, and

Right: UN Projected City Growth to 2050xxxiv Project Framework: Site 062

occupied by the less affluent, relating to the Gibsonian ‘interstitial’ or ‘marginal’ urbanism in which urban life is defined by the absence of amenity, and the selective recombinant use of available resources. This is due to the development of transportation systems and other infrastructures within the city controlled by the elite. The metropolitan area will be largely overlooked, making it incredibly difficult to travel within this sprawl, and impossible to travel to the city centers. This area between will face hyper-conditions of social or political unrest and over population and density that will create a highly ambiguous society that must respond to a number of social facets that are out of their control. This, combined with a decaying infrastructure and unstable environment due to climate change creates the need for a more adaptive lifestyle, a lifestyle that is not contained and dependent on the constraints of current infrastructures.


New York


Baltimore Washington DC

Projected Urbanized Area of the Northeast Corridor in 2050

063 Project Framework: Site

Program and Function Component A – Land Bound Component a is a land bound creature that moves with and amongst the people of the city, grounded, running within the city, or jumping from building top to building top. This component mimics human movement through the city and seeks to find emptiness, identifying needs within the city and responding with the creation of space. It primarily seeks to create spaces that exist within this pseudo-private realm; particularly responding to needs of housing, offices or on occasion a cultural space.

This component also seeks to repair, or expand current infrastructures of the city. It can identify, and fix decrepit buildings, roads, or transport systems, but also expand or adapt these systems where necessary. For instance, if a space is currently in use by a road and is no longer needed for that reason, it will change the effectiveness of its function by becoming an appendage on the road with a particular function in response to an area. If an area is in need of additional housing, it becomes an appendage to a particular building, either atop or on the side, effectively expanding on the space the building already offers. In the case of repair, if a building has become disrepair, it can fill that gap and become a piece of the structure or can reinforce the current structure by attaching itself.

Right: Broadway, New York, New Yorkxxxv Project Framework: Program and Function 064

Component B – Water Bound Component b is a water bound creature that completely lives in and feeds from the water and primarily exists within the infrastructural level of the city. This component becomes increasingly important as water levels continue to rise, and at increasing speeds. This will inevitable create situations where the ground floor of some buildings are completely submerged, in addition, submerging all lines of circulation within that area. The water bound being will primarily seek to allow for life and travel in these areas, growing to create second and third level circulation paths between buildings, as well as repairing and stabilizing structural conditions of a particular building.

Left: Hudson River, New York, New Yorkxxxvi

In addition, to rising water levels, unpredictable storm surges of great magnitude are expected to occur more often. With these components living within the water, it allows them to follow the storm and be an immediate response in a disaster conditions. They can offer informal housing and shelter where needed as well as offer other infrastructural needs in a postdisaster area, such as lighting, transportation and other necessary resources.

Boston Water Levels - Now - 5 Feet (100yrs) - 25 Feet

New York City Water Levels - Now - 5 Feet (100yrs) - 25 Feet

Philadelphia Water Levels - Now - 5 Feet (100yrs) - 25 Feet

Washington DC Water Levels - Now - 5 Feet (100yrs) - 25 Feet

Right: Projected Water Levelsxxxvii 067 Project Framework: Program and Function Baltimore Water Levels - Now - 5 Feet (100yrs) - 25 Feet

Component C – Air Bound Component c is an air bound creature that is deployed within the public sector. It will seek opportunities to grow upon and make active public space within the city. It function could range from activating a current open space within the city for public use by slightly manipulating that space to allow for a particular function, or physically creating the space for public use through the destruction or occupation of current buildings. This component will also serve as a maintenance mechanism, but primarily within conditions of the natural environment; repairing, cleaning, changing and creating sectors of the city dominated by greenery. This component will ensure that a section of the environment is saved and preserved for both the natural environment, but also for the use of the public.

Right: Birds Eye of Manhattanxxxviii Left: New York in the Fogxxxix Project Framework: Program and Function 068


Control Center

Each component will be deployed in multiples, allowing all to work with one another (A+A+B, A+B+C, C+C+C) and each component will be continuously receiving information from within the city; information about its natural environment, its physical environment, and most importantly its social environment. This will be achieved through the use of sensory technologies, as the components are moving and acting within the city, they are gathering information, sending that information, and receiving new information from other components. In the end, each component should have a view of the city, identifying emerging trends, and finding their place and function within that system.

The control center for the Automatic City will consist of three pieces, one central control and two sister locations. Each element of the control center, both the sister locations and the central control, are the primary storage centers for all data that is collected from each component, the means of processing and the re-distribution of that data. For instance, as information is received from component a, it is sent to the nearest control center, which will distribute that information to component b and c. In addition, the central control and two sister locations will conduct all fabrication, deployment, and repairs of each component. If a component is in need of any kind of maintenance it either freely comes to the control center, or another component will assist in the transportation of that component to the control center.

Project Framework: Program and Function 070

Essentially each element of the control center is the primary storage facility for all information and also the maintenance and construction facility for the system of components in closest proximity. Each sister location will send their collected data to central control, which will then both distribute that information, but also

Sister Location

Information Distribution

Central Control

collect and analyze the information from all three location. This analyzed data then works its way backwards through the network, from central control, to the sister locations, to each component within the network.

Sister Location

Site [Control Center]



New York Easton Philadelphia Harrisburg Baltimore Washington DC

The sites of each piece of the control center, central control and its two sister locations, are chosen with focus on their centrality and ease of deployment. When looking at the Northeast region, we identify the five large city centers, and between each is a gap in which the sprawling metropolitan is projected to exist, housing most of the population. Within these zones (highlighted in yellow) it is important for the control centers to be centralized, allowing for the most even distribution of components. For ease of deployment, it is important for the centers to be along water routes, to allow for the spread of component b, and allowing them to reach the flooded areas of the region. We can also speculate that existing development will be the starting point for the metropolitan sprawl that will develop over the next 35 years. Meaning density values will radiate away from those existing developments. For the control centers to be most affected, they need to be

Control Center Loctions

Project Framework: Program and Function 072

placed in areas of highest density, this allows for maximum impact and accuracy of the entire system. For these reasons, three locations have been identified within the region, both Harrisburg and Easton, Pennsylvania, and Hartford, Connecticut. Because of its centrality in the region, Easton will be the site of central control, with Harrisburg and Harford as two sister locations. With this spread across the region, the system should be able to accurately and effectively serve the entire social area.

Two rivers intersect within Easton, the Delaware River and the Lehigh River. The site for central control exists at the junction of these two rivers. This will allow for easy deployment of component b and allowing easy connection to surrounding cities such as Allentown, Bethlehem, and Trenton. This site is also adjacent to two major highways which will provide easy deployment and circulation of component a and c.



073 Project Framework: Program and Function Easton, Pennsylvania

Design Objectives [Central Control]

Program [Central Control]


Fabrication Shop

Functionally, central control must be able to handle a flux of goods [component construction, distribution and repair], information [data from the city], and people [public connection]. The form of the building should negotiate these junctions, offering points of intersection.

Shop space that is dedicated to the fabrication and construction of each component.

Social Center Central control should serve as a social center, offering a point of refuge within the metropolitan sprawl.

Adaptable The building, when not under commission for the construction of components, should be able to adapt to a number of given functions, depending on the needs of the immediate environment. This could range from shop space, to housing, to community space. This should demonstrate how adaptive urbanism can be applied on a building scale.

Repair Zone Zone dedicated to the repair of each component.

Test Shop Space used for the testing, and construction of objects commissioned to assist in the collection of data from the city.

Simulation Zone A zone used for the simulation of new programs and components before they enter the metropolitan landscape.

Project Framework: Program and Function 074

Distribution Channels

Processing Zone

Channels used to deploy each component.

Space for workers within central control to write new programs that allow the components to react in different ways, depending on the needs of the environment.

Storage Storage area for extra components not in use.

Data Storage Space filled with batteries, servers and processors dedicated to the storage of electronic data received from either sister control center and components.

Antenna Zone Space used for the housing of antennas and other devices needed for the transfer of information.

075 Project Framework: Program and Function

Information Zone Space for workers within central control to create and manage visuals describing and analyzing the information received from within the city. This space will also be in use by the public for the viewing and understanding of data mappings.

Public Shop Zone used for the public to construct and test objects for personal or community use.

Rational An adaptive lifestyle is required as we approach megaregions and hyperconditions. Current projections suggest an unstable urban condition with social and political unrest, over population and increasing density, decaying infrastructures and climate change. This project will demonstrate how we can promote a more adaptive lifestyle through the means of adaptive urbanism. This will be demonstrated through two modes, the first being on a city scale, through a system of components that can promote a vast impact yet have very localized, individual effects, promoting an adaptive lifestyle in both our private and public lives. The second mode, a building scale, will demonstrate how a new build project can fit within the ideas of adaptive urbanism and have a lasting impact on the urban environment.

Both demonstrations should show how, by re-understanding our infrastructures of the city, we can create a proactive solution that will allow for new life within a growing distopic environment. Showing and understanding ways in which we can use areas of the city, previously understood as unusable, and inevitably question the true limits of those within the city.

Right: Hylozoic Ground, Philip Beesley, Venice Biennalexxxviii Project Framework: Program and Function 076

000 Project Framework: Program and Function

Henri Lefebvre, The Urban Revolution, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003): 117.

Wang, 1992), 155-188.


John Chase, Margaret Crawford, and John Kaliski, Everyday Urbanism, (New York: Monacelli Press, 2008), 6.


surveillance. Dictionary. com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference. com/browse/surveillance (accessed: September 29, 2013).




Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1977), 200. David Harvey, “The Right to the City,” New left Review, September-October, no. 53 (2008): 38.



Michael Sorkin, Variations on a Theme Park: the New American city and the End of Public Space, (New York: Hill and


David Harvey, “The Right to the City,” New left Review, September-October, no. 53 (2008): 37.


Neil Brenner, Peter Marcuse, and Margit Mayer, Cities for People, Not for Profit: Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City, (London: Routledge, 2012): 154.


Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation, (New York: Dutton, 2013).


hyper. Unabridged. Random House, Inc. http:// (accessed: September 29, 2013).


David Harvey, “The Right to the City,” New left Review, September-October, no. 53 (2008): 37.


tactical. Unabridged. Random House, Inc.http:// (accessed: September 30, 2013).


End Notes 078


John Chase, Margaret Crawford, and John Kaliski, Everyday Urbanism, (New York: Monacelli Press, 2008), 7.




Garcia-Navarro, Lourdes, “Rio Goes High-Tech, With An Eye Toward Olympics, World Cup,” Parallels, Web, parallels/2013/05/31/187316703/RioGoes-High-Tech-With-An-Eye-TowardOlympics-World-Cup.


IBM, “Smarter Cities: The insight to identify, transform and progress.” en/smarter_cities/overview/.


Todorovich, Petra, and Sharath Vallabhajosyuila. America 2050, Regional Plan Association, “Northeast Megaregion 2050: A Common Future.” Last modified November 2007. Accessed October 26, 2013. http://www. html.

Swati Chattopadhyay, Unlearning the City: Infrastructure in a New Optical Field, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012): 244-245.


infrastructure. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers. infrastructure (accessed: October 01, 2013)



Bjarke Ingels Group, “MAG – High Square.” Accessed October 2, 2013. http://www.big. dk/.


Rebar, “Portfolio: Parkcycle.” Accessed September 26, 2013. parkcycle/.


SENSEable City Lab, “Trash Track.” Accessed September 26, 2013. edu/trashtrack/index.php?id=1.

079 End Notes

i photos/59414209@N00/8638788309/


http://localecologist.blogspot. com/2011_08_01_archive.html




http://urbanlabglobalcities.blogspot. com/2011/11/todays-infographics-measuringhuman.html

xii comments/15x3kd/urban_sprawl_in_hong_ kong_kowloon_taken_near_lion/ daily/2013/03/williamsburg-skylinebrooklyn-waterfront-redesign


iv favela-tour/


http://theimpolitic.blogspot. com/2011/11/who-are-these-occupyprotesters.html

vi arts-culture/Parking-Days-RoadsideAttraction.html


viii the_lab/2012/10/autodesk-galleryreclaiming-public-space-exhibit.html








xvii parkcycle-swarm-is-a-mobile-green-space-byrebar-group-n55/








Image Credits 080




Ibid tet/

xxxii php

xxxiii blogs/melding-technology-and-urbanmanagement-rio-de-janeiros-operationscenter


xxv smarter_cities/overview/ Ibid

xxvi galeria/centro-de-operacoes/

xxvii publications/longrange2/ WorldPop2300final.pdf

xxxiv united-states/new-york-city-prints

xxxv abqnewsseeker/nyc-waters-rise-toirene-levels-before-superstorm.html

xxxvi interactive/2012/11/24/opinion/sunday/ what-could-disappear.html?_r=0


http://thetricycles101.blogspot. com/2012/08/extra-research-walking-city. html

xxviii new-york-01-2/

xxxviii xxix



http://lebbeuswoods.wordpress. com/2010/07/17/neil-spiller-the-greatforgetting/



081 Image Credits

http://the-daily-growler.blogspot. com/2012/03/foto-by-tgw-fog-overmanhattan-new-york.html http://www.architecturenorway. no/stories/other-stories/hylozoicground-2012/

Adaptive Urbanism  

Thesis Research

Adaptive Urbanism  

Thesis Research