Page 1

Towards a Resilient CĂ Mau (Vietnam) A design Investigation into Mangrove Aforestation

Author: Sam Khabir

Towards a Resilient Cà Mau (Vietnam) A Design Investigation into Mangrove Aforestation Advanced Master Thesis of Urbanism and Strategic Spatial Planning (MaUSP) European Postgraduate Masters in Urbanism (EMU) Author: Sam Khabir Promotor: Bruno De Meulder Co-Promotor: Paula Viganò Design Advisors: Henri Bava Christian Nolf Kelly Shannon Annelies De Nijs Readers:

Joaquin Sabaté Sybrand Tjallingii Wim Wambecq

KU Leuven Faculty of Engineering Science Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning Leuven, Belgium

Towards a Resilient Cà Mau (Vietnam) A design Investigation into Mangrove Aforestation

Presented on 28/06/2013, Venice, Italy. Front page image: ‘Yuenan quan sheng yu tu’ (Complete map of Vietnam’s provinces), around 1890.



The tesis is submitted in order to obtain the degree in Advance Master of Science in Strategic and Spatial Planning (MAUSP), and the European Postgraduate Masters in Urbanism (EMU), a joint program between four European universities (KULeuven, TUDelft, IUAVenezia and UPCatalunya). The graduation thesis is accompanied by the Landscape Urbanism Studio, a design studio at the University of Leuven, which has its main focus on the growing cities in the developing countries and their challanges, and tries to investigate the possible solutions thourgh reseach by design.

Landscape Urbanism Studio, that this booklet resulted from, was a unique experience in which students with different backgrounds and 14 different natioanlities participated in.

Sam Khabir

Howver, this booklet could not have come into existance without the support, critical feedback and encouragement of many people. First of all, I would like to thank my promotor and co-promoter, Prof. Bruno De Meulder and Prof. Paola Viganò for their critical feedbacks and support during the process of this research. Subsequently, I would like to thank Prof. Henri Bava, Prof. Kelly Shannon, Christian Nolf and Anneliese De Nijs for their help and guidance during the design process. Furthermore, I wish to thank Guido Geenen (KULeuven), Yuri Guerruts (KULeuven), Karin Helms (École nationale supérieure de paysage, versailles), Ken McCown (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Wim Wambecq (KULeuven), Annelies De Nijs (KULeuven) and Peter Aeschbacher (Pennsylvania State University), for their critical feedbacks before finalizing the thesis. In the same way, I am thankful to my colleagues in Landscape Urbanism Studio in Leuven, especially Victoria Petrovsky (Parsons The New School for Design, New York City), Chien Trinh Dinh (KULeuven), José Fernando Higuera Osorio (KULeuven), Dorien Pelst (KULeuven), Thomas Lenaerts (KULeuven), Kobe Pillen (KULeuven), Anne-Michèle Zeevaert (KULeuven) and Mario Auricchio (UPCatalunya, Barcelona). In the same way, I am thankful to all the participants from KULeuven, AHO, HCMUARC and SIUP for joining the filedwork, workshop and the exhibition in Cà Mau. Sam Khabir

Table of Content

Chapter 1. Introduction to Ca Mau Peninsula 1.1.Geomorphological formation of the Peninsula 1.2.History 1.3. Context (Landscape Logics & Challanges) 1.3.1.Topography 1.3.2.Productivity 1.3.3.Natural Resources 1.3.4.Change in the landuses

1.4.Urbanization History

Chapter 2. Challanges

2.1.Urbanization 2.2.Soico-Economic challanges 2.3.Socio-Spatial Challanges 2.4.Pollution 2.5.Climate change 2.6.Hydrology and Climate of the Ca Mau Peninsula 2.6.1.Rainfall 2.6.2.Tempereture 2.6.3.Tidal influences 2.6.4.Flooding 2.6.5.Freshwater Shortage and Salinity

2.7.Acid Sulfate Soils 2.8.Erosion

Chapter 3. Ca Mau Peninsual, Challanges and Strategies 3.1.Uniqueness of the different ecosystems 3.2.The Specificity of The Different Environments. 3.3.Shrinkage of The Mangrove Forests 3.4.Shrinkage of The Mangroves Throughout The History 3.5.Physical and Biological Characteristics of the Dominant Mangrove Species in Ca Mau Peninsula 3.6.Mangrove Reforestation Projects 3.6.1.A Comparison between North and South of Vietnam 3.6.2.Socio-economic aspects of the replantation projects

3.7.The Ecological Goods and Services of The Mangrove Forest 3.8.Ecosystem goods of the mangrove forests 3.9.Biomass Production 3.10.A successful mangrove restoration project in south Viet Nam 3.11.Mangroves and Mitigation of Climate Change Effects

Chapter 4. Toward a symbiosis of Landscape Urbanism 5

5 9 11 11 12 13 13 14 19 23 23 25 25 26 27 31 31 32 32 33 34 35 35 37 39 40 41 42 45 47 47 49 49 50 51 51 53


4.4.Mangroves & Acid Sulfate Soils 4.5.Disused and Abandonment of Shrimp Ponds

55 55 56 57 59 59 61 62 63 64

5.1.Ca Mau Landuses 5.2.Urbanization 5.3.Masterplan Analysis 5.4.City & The Low-Lands 5.5.Road Hierarchy in Ca Mau City 5.6.Analysis of The Greem Structure of The City

72 74 80 81 87 91

4.1.Current Trends

4.1.1.Dikes in Viet Nam 4.1.2.Costs of a coastal dike in Vietnam

4.2.An Ecological Protective - Productive Approach 4.3.Taming the water 4.3.1.Increase and changes in biodiversity 4.3.2.Socio-Economic aspects of the project 4.3.3.The Statistical Aspects of The Project

Chapter 5. Ca Mau City (Interprative Mapping & Analysis)69

Chapter 6. Ca Mau City (Strategies and Design) 6.1.The development of a water-based landscape 6.2.Dissapearance of the water structure 6.3.The Use of a Mangrove Plantation as a Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

6.3.1.Cleaning Wetlands & River Bank Forests (Design Proposal) 6.3.2.Making Space for Water (Design Proposal) 6.3.3.Filtering Canals (Design Proposal) 6.3.4.River Bank Defence (Design Proposal) 6.4.Dealing with Freshwater Shortage 6.4.1.Design Proposal (Sponge Forests) 6.4.2.Potential Benefits of Peat Swamp Forests 6.5.Framing the urban (Design Proposal) 6.5.1.Strategies: Linear City - Green Framework - Urban Platforms - Lifestyles 6.5.2.Cut and Fill 6.5.3.From Planning to Planting 6.5.4.Recycling The Low-lands 6.5.5.Urban Forestry 6.5.6.Designing The Urban Platforms

Chapter7. Conclusion Biblography

93 95 95 96 97 99 100 101 103 104 105 109 109 110 110 110 111 113 125 125 126

Thesis intro  
Thesis intro