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www.sameway.com.au

Ⴋၗ/TelȈ03) 9888 7199 ༈ઍ/FaxȈ03) 9888 7299 26.08.2011-01.09.2011

251

‫ތ‬ ў Н ઴

ौ ੾ ੾

᠍ߔ‫ޥ‬ღİϴѧღᡝᗊີ info@mooncake.com.au ᏎᅭҏȈ03-8562 0500 ொѻЅӒᐬȈ02-9756 6388


Ri Cheng

ᘼṅᗦ

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ኊϛऍσႍᇽ

ஔળྱ ஔᙄकᓃីኇ ஔᙄकᓃᓃ჋ ཱིৌϽַഅ࠮ ཱིৌᙄ݈!ఏ၆

ႍᇽ

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ཱིೲѓࢂ ӨԒᚃਟ᜸Ȉ!औᝍᚃ‫ݶ‬ȃബ‫ݶ‬ȃव૯‫ !ݶ‬ӨԒឨ᜸Ȉ!Φࠈឨȃᜰኂឨ ӨԒႭॵȈ! ࠒҞ໓ȃຊರሸȃْϓ! ӨԒୁೲȈ!ь๏ୁȃْᎈ

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ख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬ட೤ )ή* Level 2, 395 Collins Street, Melbourne 3000 ႫၗȈ(03) 9620 0888 email: info@canaanlawyers.com.au www.canaanlawyers.com.au

ყМȈҏѐጡᒮഋ

ӵ࣏‫ר‬ঈᖿ၌ԃդ൶‫ײ‬ԁࡡৱȂ‫ڷ‬Ϸ‫ٴ‬ ౪ਢೝ‫ོޥڧ‬ᢙҬ‫ޟ‬१σਰӇࡣȂ‫پ‬Ռ ख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ॶޟܚ‬ৰࡡৱİီ‫ٱ‬ᑋ‫⑓ۦ‬ Derek LoȂ՗ࢇᖂᅿİီ‫ٱ‬ങᚊ‫ݡ‬Derek ChanоЅ੫տ៫୰ࡡৱഌжϯJasper Kwok஠᝷៉ᇄȮӣၯΡȯ‫ޟ‬᠞‫ޱ‬Ϸ‫ٴ‬ Ι‫ٲ‬Ԥ፸‫ޟ‬ਰӇȂоЅᐬࢸΙ‫ٲ‬ᔖ‫ݧ‬ཎ ‫ٽݲࡡݲޟ‬Ȅ ѡȈॶৰࡡৱʟီ‫ٱ‬ᑋ‫⑓ۦ‬Derek LoȂѡȈ՗ࢇᖂᅿʟီ‫ٱ‬ങᚊ‫ݡ‬Derek Chan

੫տ៫୰ࡡৱഌжϯJasper Kwok

‫ٱ‬௑‫ޟ‬ၗȂബྮΰ٘ϞᎷȂ‫؁‬Ԥક౰‫ޟ‬џ૖‫ܒ‬ȂӰԪᇄࡡৱӫհୈ ԁএΡၥ౰߳ራ (asset protection)࢐ΪϷ१ौ‫ޟ‬ȄӔ଩ӫԁࡡৱ࣏ձ ໔٘ۡୈ‫ޟ‬ҡཎ๖ᄺȂ։‫ٺ‬ҡཎѶఁȂࣥՍԃΰक़Ӱኁ‫ܘ‬ፏҡ఼ዓ Ϛӫਿೝ௡้֙ബྮ‫ٱ‬Ȃ഍ϚҢ٘ఁӪນȄ

଄‫ޱ‬Ȉΰक़‫ޟ‬ਰӇ֯ၶ࣏༌ཐȂҐ‫ޣ‬ձঈԤ‫ؠ‬ԤΙ‫ٲ‬Ԥ፸‫ޟ‬ਰӇᇄ‫ר‬ঈ᠞‫ޱ‬ Ϸ‫ٴ‬Ιή‫ڹ‬ȉ ᑋ‫⑓ۦ‬ȈϚԃ‫ר‬ᙤԪᇄ᠞‫ޱ‬Ϸ‫ٴ‬Ιή࡞ӻΡ഍ϚЊ఼ཿ‫ޟ‬ᐬࢸ‫ࡡݲ‬న‫ٽ‬Ȃо Derek Lo ЅΙ‫ٲ‬σড়഍ၶ࣏Ԥᑹ፸‫ޣ‬ၾ‫ޟ‬ਰӇ֑Ȋ‫ٽ‬ԃ௃‫ٱ‬ᓡ໽ཾ‫ޟ‬ΡρȂ ࡡৱ ൷Ιۡौ‫ݧ‬ཎоЅ߳ࡻኁ‫఼ޟܘ‬ዓȂᇄ‫ࢸٳ‬೨ӻ୽ড়ϚӣȂೝี౪ ኁ‫ܘ‬ፏҡ఼ዓϚӫਿӵᐬࢸ‫ٮ‬Ϛѫ࢐ᛴҺᆴ෡٥ቄᙏ൐ȂՄ࢐ᓡᓢ ‫ٱီޟ‬஠ོೝѿࢇ‫׋‬ӗ‫ٱ‬ᔮ௡Ȃ੼ήਰ‫ۻ‬Ȃኇ៪ࣥσȄ‫࡚ר‬ដΙҍ ю‫ޟٱ‬ਢঐȂҳ։൶‫ࡡײ‬ৱ‫ޟ‬ᔓօȂϚौо࣏ᇯဌ൷џоΟ‫ٱ‬ȂԤ ਢࡡৱџо࣏ձ៝៖Ȃ෵ሆӗᆴȇौ‫ݧ‬ཎ‫࢐ޟ‬ȂؐΙనೝ௡‫ޟ‬ဌ՗ Ȃശଽӗᆴ࣏20࿲ᐬϯȂՄೝี౪ኁ‫ܘ‬ፏҡ఼ዓϚӫਿȂ੼ήਰ‫ۻ‬ ϞᎷȂೝ௡‫ޟ‬ဌ՗೽லՍЍ15నȂӗᆴџདՄ‫ޣ‬Ȋԃΰ෈ᇄσড়ඪ ‫ڗ‬Ȃೝ௡ਢоȶ‫ר‬Ϛ‫ޣ‬ၾȷ‫ٮ‬Ϛ࢐Ιএ‫ޟ៝ת‬౩ҥȂ‫ܚ‬о߳ࡻኁ‫ܘ‬ ‫఼ޟ‬ዓ࢐ߨல१ौ‫ޟ‬Ȅ ഌжϯȈѪѴ߯࢐‫ה‬ఖџо૖ᙤԪᐠོඪᒺЙࡻ163᛫ᜌ‫׹ޟ‬ၥಋҕȂά‫ޱܖ‬ ཱིಋҕΡρȂӵᐬࢸ᛫ဍӈդӫӣ໌՗ཱི‫׹ޟ‬ၥࠉȂ഍ᔖ൶‫ࡡײ‬ৱ ࡡৱ ‫ޟ‬ᔓօȂᇄࡡৱӑ໌՗୦ଆȂᔮࢥԁӫӣȄ‫ר‬ശலَ‫ޟ‬এਰ࢐ȂԤ ࡊИ࿋ߑо࣏ՌϏΪϷ۷ၼȂоճቋ30࿲ᗊີΟΙዺҡཎȂӵ᛫ဍ ӫӣࡣϗี౪নҏҡཎߞѿ‫ޟ‬નघ༉Ꮇή6এТȂՄཾкά‫ܢ‬๘៉घ Ȃ٥6এТԃդᗈ‫ڥ‬ԙҏ‫ޟ‬30࿲‫ڹ‬ȉά‫ޱܖ‬ӵ᛫ဍӫӣࡣϗี౪ন‫پ‬ ፲ড়‫ٮ‬ҐԤ୵፲ନ᜸‫ޟ‬ถྱ้้Ȃौ‫ݧ‬ཎ‫࢐ޟ‬Ȃӵᐬࢸ‫ؠٮ‬Ԥᖝਢ ӫघȂΙҍ᛫ဍΟӫӣȂ߯҆໸ᗊີȂ‫ܚ‬оࡡৱӵ೻‫ี߯ڋ‬ථΟ࡞ σ‫ޟ‬ਝҢȄ

!

Jasper Kwok

!

ѪѴདඪᒺӨҡཎΡȂΙዺҡཎ‫ޟ‬๖ᄺߨல१ौȂԤ࡞ӻΡਢலᇄ ݉ЄΠΡӫհ໠৤ҡཎȂϚႆ‫ڏ‬ᄂ೻࢐ߨலӠᓎ‫ޟ‬Ȃ୅षีҡࣥቄ

ଶԪϞѴȂ഼ώ‫ݲ‬һ࢐‫הר‬ఖӨ៫кᔖ၎੫տ‫ݧ‬ཎ‫ޟ‬ȇᐬࢸ‫ޟ‬഼ώ ‫ڏݲ‬ᄂߨலፒᚕȂՄиငல‫׽‬ᡐȂ‫ޣר‬ၾ࡞ӻ៫кਢலоघ10ϯΙ ωਢဒ፜ষώȂϚႆ‫ڏ‬ᄂ࢐қ‫ޟݲ‬Ȃ୅षೝࢇ‫ؠۺ‬Ԥࡸྱȶശճώ ၥȷЛпষώ‫ޟ‬ၗȂࡣ‫ݎ‬џ࢐ߨலബྮȄϚ൐ौ஠ӑࠉФή‫ޟ‬ώၥ ӒኵᘪᗙষώȂᗙौёց਀оЅᆴ෡ȂࣥՍԤೝᔮ௡‫ޟ‬џ૖‫ܒ‬ȂӰ Ԫȶശճώၥȷ࢐ߨல‫ޟ‬१ौȊ‫ר‬ෆᔓօΙড়ೣ዁ሳσ‫ޟ‬ᐠᄺ೎౩ Ι۠ႂ㡇ȶശճώၥȷ‫ޟ‬ਰӇȂҏ٘ጂ࢐Ιএฒ໇ЅϚ݂ҩ‫៫ޟ‬к ȂӰ࣏ؐ՝ষώ༉пඁُᓀؐωਢȂശࡣ๖‫ؑۺࢇݎ‬၎៫кΙԩ‫ܒ‬ Ӵпю20ӻ࿲ϯϠᄯή‫ޟ‬ষώȊӰԪ៫кᔖ੫տ੼ཎȂЎ‫࢐ڏ‬Ө՗ ཾ‫ޟ‬ȶശճώၥȷ֯Ԥ‫ܚ‬ϚӣȂ៫кᔖөࡡৱၚ୰‫؁‬ӻ‫ޟ‬၏௑Ȃо ջញқ‫ٽݲ‬Ȋ഼ώ‫ݲ‬ѪѴΙ໶঄ு៫к੼ཎ‫࢐ޟ‬Ȃঙᙛ(part time)о Ѕᔓώ(casual)‫ٮ᠌ؚۡޟ‬Ϛӵܻ៫кȂՄ࢐‫ڏ‬ώհ‫ޟ‬ਢ໢࢐֏ۡਢ Ȃ୅षষώ‫ޟ‬ώհਢ໢ؐ࢑෈ϚӣȂт߯࢐ᔓώȇࣺІӴȂष၎ষ ώ‫ޟ‬ώհਢ໢‫ۡھ‬Ȃؐ࢑෈‫ޟ‬ΰੲਢ໢ΙኺȂ٥ቄт߯࢐ঙᙛষώ Ȃ៫кሯौ๝ϠтԤᖠ୅෈Ȃ੾୅้้Ȅ

ᑋ‫⑓ۦ‬Ȉശࡣ‫ר‬དᇄσড়Ϸ‫࢐ޟٴ‬Һ೽ႂ‫ٽ‬ȂϚौо࣏༉༉ᆴ෡‫ڥڷ‬ੑᎽᎻၥ ਿȂ୅षձೝឌП‫ܚ‬௡֙‫ޟ‬ၗȂ࢐ོ੼Ԥӗ‫ٱ‬ਰ‫ޟۻ‬Ȅӵԝ‫ޟڗ‬Һ ࡡৱ ೽ ᆴ ൐ ΰ Ȃ ೽ ல ࣼ ‫ ࢐ ޟ ڗ‬ȶ Fine(ᆴ ෡ )ȷ Ȃ Ϛ ႆ ष ձ ࣼ ‫ ڗ‬ȶ Summons(༈ಉ)ȷ‫ޟ‬ԅಁȂ։ߒҰឌПᒵᐅ༈ѢқΟҺ೽‫ݲ‬ೣ‫ޟ‬ٙ кΰ‫ݲ‬৳Ȃஅҏΰӵ೻এ௑‫ݷ‬ήȂձೝ੼Ԥਰ‫ޟۻ‬ᐠོϐ࡞σȂσ σኇ៪‫ڗ‬஠‫پ‬ӵҏӴоЅ੕Ѵ‫ีޟ‬৤ȂϚৠ‫܇‬ຜȊȾ‫ׇ‬ȿ

Derek Lo

03


ӣၯΡᇭ

಑362෈

௃ցШ‫ॷڗٳ‬෫ From Libya to Hong Kong

Դ֘ў஼ਛѽ࠲᠕ӀӔᅆ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬་֖ߩᡚߞњ෯ϭȂࡔক џࡈۤఀϞർ‫׀‬Ȃ‫ؽ‬ϢϞ঵ൌߞᐌޯ‫ڧ‬ȂҙႿໄߞࣆᡋЏ ‫ށ‬ፁऎ֘ў஼ਛњࢺߞࡔক‫ݙ‬ӞႋȂ಩Դ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬বᅆߞȂ ࣏ྲࣆᡋՂ֣ജ࢙Ӳȉ

Under the cover of air strikes launched by the western powers in support of the civilians, the rebels have won their way all through into the capital Tripoli. Gaddafi is losing grip and it is just a matter of how the new power is to be established in Libya.

ҙႿໄߞᑾ໗ࣆᡋȂ‫۽‬๒࣏ЙఀӔѕȂ֭ԺՐ‫ڽ‬Ȃ֘ў஼ ਛԴԨ‫׀‬ѧ་ϾӮ޵ߞԢ੡Ȃϵ‫ݸظ‬ϞЂ༓Ⴄ࿚ຜҙႿໄ Ꮾ‫۽‬ҁߞ࿂ᡋ೚޼Ȅ֘ў஼ਛࠜง݆໛ҙႿໄߞዷϧᇒ ޼Ȃ‫ێ‬ᅁ‫ڭ‬Йକ૭ԴႽ዇୼ԳȂሲ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ఐ޶Ȃሃ֋Ў ٟգᝯ࠼Ȅ

While GaddafiɅs dictatorship has never won the hearts of his people, nonetheless the importing of oil by the western countries has fuelled GaddafiɅs high-handed control over his country. Western countries cannot claim any high moral ground by distancing themselves from GaddafiɅs brutal governance over the past.

಩੡ȂЂਛᝯަߞ࣏ྲ࢙ӲߞࣆᡋȂྻ࣏ࢨዹߞϘৎࣆ ᡋȉ಩੡ࡔকКٟգ‫ށ‬ᢖऎϠӔ‫ݙ‬త‫ۦ‬фሮԢߞታഞȂԯ թ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬аᐼҞକҪ࣏х࣍ЙԢ౉၏Н༡ߞক‫ڎڰ‬ϧȄ ྲ࢙ӲߞࣆܹȂକ‫׎‬х࣍ϠӔቮঋȂзᅁߞԴ‫׀‬ѧ‫࢙ڲ‬Ӳ Ӕѹ֋޼ߞࣆᢜȂᘘ࣏ϘৎӏߢዴȄК஼УϼՐ‫ז‬ѹᑾ໗ ᑢҫȂሲ‫࣏ߞށ‬ညϘৎᑾ໗߰ߞ৆ϭȂ‫ڭ‬ЙࠑӯϠӔබఀ ۖ֋ӤȄᑾ໗ࣆᡋҞѽ࣏Ϙৎۤ҃ҩϘৎߞܼ᠈ϭҝȂ዇ ԐӠȞӔѹȟ࣏ঋ၃Ⴥࠜ੡༡ȂЖକԴৎϠߞࢥྐȂߤྻ ߞћмѽ֌஼ਛۘ࢘КՅԴȄ

Everyone is eyeing on the new governing body to be set up. The Libya civil war is merely a flight among the different ethnic groups and so far no prominent rebel leader can stand out as a national chief. There are still uncertainties as to whether the new government can truly represent the people through democracy. The 5000 years of Chinese history tells the falling of a tyrant does not necessarily mean freedom for everybody, as often another oppressor would come into place. Only prolonged time can allow democracy to build up in personal mind, social culture and national system.

After WWII many British colonies have gained independence but not many among them could readily enjoy free and ϟըЂᐼࢢȂॻ஼ЙьฤӔԳ‫ڕ‬ԨᑾӲȂ֭କԴ๺੡༡а democratic governance. I think the starting point to have an ࢙ӲஉԑӔѹ֋ӤߞࣆܹȂࡒ‫ڭ‬ЙԺ‫ڍ‬Ȅ‫ا‬ះఀঋ࢙ӲӔ accountable government is to improve the standard of living and education level of the people, as well as to enhance ѹф֋ӤߞߤྻȂ൵୓ፅߞ౧Ԇ࣏ϠӔӠࣿఀۖ‫ؼ‬ຠȃి the transparency of the government ruling system. ‫ڈ‬ѪӀߞ෩୼ȃѽфᇒ޼൅‫ߞ࢘ށ‬෩୼ȂЖକ࢙ӲࣆܹԨ One crucial factor to enhance the transparency of the ϠӔ঑യߞ౧ԆȄ government ruling system is the governmentɅs respect to ঋ෩୼ᇒ޼ߞ൅‫࢘ށ‬Ȃࣆܹᅆණᢜߞපদ࣏ӅঋߞȄཇያ ණᢜକᑾӲඡᐱЖକ҄ۖߤྻаϠӔߞߢఐᡋఀۖ࠲ቪȂ ϠӔЖգ౧ԆᆾᅅࣆܹȄ‫֋ڽا‬শสȂჅҝዴϩՐশส࣏ Ϙৎ၃ᕻфి‫ڈ‬ѪӀൌ୼ߞߤྻȂ๒փ൵ࠕ់ўԴ‫ֹق‬௻ ஘ᗁನണயশส੡Ȃஜቄѽᇯࢺ޼Չф࠲ՉຈನӤȂۘѤ สϠࠑႿྍ‫ڍ‬Ȃ‫ـ‬ၒྍԴ஘ᗁನണயশสЂᐯ੡Ȃѽ௻Ђ ់ϧఠۘ੭ཀྵȂ‫ڹڭ‬ӡ‫ޠ‬ϧ‫ࠡڽ‬ѤᐯӠࠑႿྍ‫ڍ‬Ȅփশส ࣆܹ‫ڭ‬ٟգՉవණᢜళണфඡᐱ஼ਛታᐱϠണสߞЂൊԊ ֖຀Ȃ཈ѽ‫ܡ‬ў๴ҍ഼ඡ‫҃ۤڽ‬Ȃ‫ࣆڭ‬சҦ๴ࠑᗏ‫ށ‬Ȃ‫د‬ ‫ܡ‬ўࢆཇሃྲᇷళണ಄ऎϘ᎘ȄഺϘзൌ҄Ϡᅆশสࣆܹ ࣏‫׎‬පদණᢜфদ໛ҾӔߞ‫ڏ‬Ꭲ֋ӤྏۖዎዋȄ

the media. The free reporting of mass media is important for the protection of peopleɅs right to know in order to keep a check on the government. Hong Kong, the place where I come from, over the past decades has been a society achieving high in economy and education. Over the recent visit by Vice Premier Li Keqiang, the Police however have forcefully prevented the general public and the Hong Kong University students in voicing out to Mr Li by blockading the campus, in the name of maintaining security and order. There has been no official press media coverage in place to report on Mr Li visiting schedule. Instead, there has been only announcement from the Chief SecretaryɅs office in lieu. It is a matter of concern for the government not respecting press media and freedom of speech in Hong Kong.

ٟգϠౕؓশสྻᢏ՘‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ఐ޶Ȃ֭಩੡শสߞ๴ਣ Nobody wants to see Hong Kong going down the track of Libya, but whatɅs prevailing in Hong Kong is indeed ࡒЙ࣏ҨϠᑉѕཛྷȉ worrying.

Raymond Chow Publisher

‫ߝޥ‬ ۹ஈћ Issue No. # 252 # 253 # 254 # 255 # 256

Publication Date 02/09/11 09/09/11 16/09/11 23/09/11 30/09/11

Published by: Publisher/Chief Editor: Editoral Consultant: Editor: IT & Website: Senior Designer: Editor/Designer: Advertising:

Submission Deadline 31/08/11 07/09/11 14/09/11 21/09/11 28/08/11

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њႀ຅ࢇ᠌π஫ҟ၌ ցШ‫ٳ‬ᗟᡶߔ௥ཱིਢф ћʟҏѐጡᒮഋ

௃Ϭԑ2ТϛԠցШ‫ٳ‬ᛖีौؑњႀ຅ήᇃ‫ޟ‬σೣ዁ၽ՗Ұࡄо‫پ‬Ȃৈӵњႀ຅ಱυ ΰ‫ޟ‬ȶ๕ષȷΙᘈᘈ୚ᆧȂॖ‫ٱ‬ፐएζРઉЀ઻Ȅ࿋Ӵਢ໢8Т22РԞ఑Ȃȶ๕ષȷ ϐငᆧᆧৈ‫ذ‬њႀ຅șșІᄇࣂռᖝ࠲ήȄ22РȂІᄇࣂ‫ݡ‬၆໌ΣցШ‫ॶٳ‬഍‫ޟ‬Ꮝ‫ݰ‬ ٨Ȃ‫ٮ‬լሴ‫ޟ‬Ꮝ‫ݰ‬٨σഋϷӴୢȂಛ‫ݽ‬ΟցШ‫ٳ‬42ԑ‫ޟ‬њႀ຅ࢇ᠌ғӵоᡙΡ‫ޟ‬ഀ࡙ π஫ҟ၌Ȅ Іᄇࣂ࿽࿽ഽց ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬ԑ஼Ⴥอ܎৶ྻ܎৶ࠠϪ‫ݛن‬ȅᘙ१Ϫ 22 џ≩౐ᅆණᢜሲȂхᅆँ‫ޠ‬ႅЏఠۘ঵ൌߞᐌޯ ‫ڧ‬ȂӫࡈӒԴҾа౻୵ҙႿໄร᏶ൊ༤ȄࠠϪ‫ن‬ ‫ݛ‬ȅᘙ१ϪᇍȂညч౎༡Ȃ‫֋ڽ‬ռែ‫཰ݛ‬ȃљᇯ ॠȃሏᆬෳф֘ൊЋ஡ߞхᅆँ‫ޠ‬ႅቁۖȂ‫ڭ‬Џԑ বఠۘߞᐌޯ‫ڧ‬ȂӫࡈӒԴҾа౻୵ҙႿໄร᏶ൊ ༤ȄҁᘘࠑӯȂ֋ 21 џ୓ԑ஼Ⴥอ܎৶ྻ࠮ࢺ᠈ ҡ༟ྻ៉Ȃ஥୅൵ྲߞক‫ڰ‬་ਣȂхᅆँӒԴԑࡱ ྩ੏ҙႿໄȂ‫ڭ‬వ୵‫ێ‬ᛓ༟‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ҞକȄ

23 џ൭౎Ȃхᅆँ‫ޠ‬ႅԓతԓኖȂ‫ؽ‬Ϣࠠኅኅ‫ڲ‬ ֻᖉȂ֫ታϞҙႿໄԴֻᖉаߞ֝഍Ȃ֭‫ڭ‬ӏ๴಩ ҙႿໄߞᚸႫȄхᅆँࢽ෭‫ࠠܡ‬Ϫ‫ن‬ஙȅ‫ړ‬ங 23 џ౎༡ᇍֻᖉаߞᐼ୽Џ၃ຕ‫ف‬ȂҁেЏ၃ఠۘ ֻᖉߞ 90% Ȃ཈գьዴ஡ா‫ܥ‬Յ‫ةݯ‬ȄхᅆँЀ ֻ‫ڭ‬ӏԴࠠኅኅ‫ֻڲ‬ᖉа๴಩ҙႿໄ۶ҁ‫ۊ‬Єߞᚸ ႫȄփҙႿໄ 24 џ๴ࠑᗾ႖ሲȂҁ‫ݸ‬ౢࠠኅኅ‫ڲ‬ ֻᖉ࣏ȶᐼങᅣଡ଼ȷȄҙႿໄ‫ۊ‬Єᘈ၍шȅӿ෻᠋ ঑യߞϘਛც໛ሂߞᇨ૭ 24 џҏႶϞҙႿໄߞᗾ ႖ሲȈȶԴ၃Ⴥ 64 ‫ޚ‬Ҕॗᐱዅ᠛ओНࢢȂࠠኅኅ ‫ֻڲ‬ᖉЏ՘ϘுဤӮȂ‫ا‬েԯᐼങ১ԯᅣᛓֻᖉȄ ȷҩᑂ‫׀‬ѧ‫ֱݛࠠڲ‬ც໛ሂඡႽȂҙႿໄϘԩ๴‫ڏ‬ Ϡ 24 џ≩౐๴ࠑᗾ႖ሲȂҙႿໄЏ֯Հ࿤൯Ȃᅆ хᅆँ་֖ȶዴѡϜ֌ዴՐȷߞ‫ةݯ‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬ሰ‫׀دڏ‬ ѧ‫ڲ‬ᢏ՘ȶѫЋȃᆦ‫ܬ‬۶ѫઔȷȄ ҙႿໄϯըг༟ᠨব࣏Դ6ѡ12џȂည੡ҁሃࡈ‫ڽ‬ ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬஼ቫ໪ทᗑԪྻѹਯӿࣨ‫ܒ‬џᓚшᅆ࢚Ȅ ࠕџȂᔌ຾ᐼ؊ԫᇦȂҙႿໄᅇը๴ࠑᔂরᗾ႖Ȃ ၳҡӔಿ‫ظ‬Ϣᐼ୽Ȅग़஼஼‫ڨ‬ൊ๴‫ڏ‬Ϡ‫ݛ‬ጝ 22 џ ሲȂУ‫ڎ‬Ђጁ෠෪ߞఐඡᢖӯȂҙႿໄٟգᛓ༟‫׀‬ ѧ‫ڲ‬Ȃ֭ग़ўЙ౻྾ҙႿໄ᚟ԴЦኃԳўȄԴᅆ‫׀‬

ক‫֖ڰ‬ஜКࠑ಩ᒕ࿂ߞॻ஼۶‫ޱ‬஼ӫࡈϵ๑‫ޱ‬ሲ౻ ҙႿໄ‫ڗ‬Դ֣഍Ȅည๒ȂϵЙవ୵ҙႿໄЏ၃ᛓ༟ ߞᐌޯ‫ڧ‬Ȃᚼೊۖ‫׀‬ѧ‫ێڲ‬ҁԳ஡‫ݕ‬ҁ஼ߞҞକ ‫ݑ‬ȄϵգණᢜಟเȂՂ‫ލ‬ҙႿໄᓴᑄԴ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬Ⴔ᚟ ୓‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫ڶڭ‬Ꮻᠠ‫ي‬њࢺ߰֫ᑂϘў‫ݕ‬་֖ႼᕝᐼȂ ЪҞକຜхᅆँᅹ՘Ϙ‫ࢃܠ‬଎ȄթҳȂ஼ቫԖ‫ޱڰ‬ ਲЫՐ6ѡԨҙႿໄ๴ҍ༇੏҄Ȃഺ‫ڹ‬ҁԴ஼ቫϯ ࢝᝱‫ۖر‬ਟ‫ڗ‬Н഍Ȅ ‫ݸ‬ೀᖖಧȂҙႿໄକҝߞԳў‫ڭ‬ЙԺȂփ֋‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬ ༟ᐼѽ‫ڽ‬ȂᅆҙႿໄԴϾᔝϯњࢺ൵գϧߞ஼ਛታ ᐱϠȂည៳܎аင‫ݛ‬ᗁ೚ࣤম෻ȄԴࣤম෻ऻ‫ڽ‬Ȃ ग़஼ߞԇ֣஼ቫ֖ஜൌ࣏ў࠮‫ێ‬Ⴄӎࠬ֫ҁ஼Ⴄ ࿚Ȃԯթҁி㤩хᅆӤग़஼ѹᐱߞ၃ᕻ૩ؔȂӇ຾ Ӯ޵ߞ़๕՘ऎȶхग़һϠȷȄԴഺϘᙇϯࣤম෻ ۶ҙႿໄҞѽሲ࣏ࠧ௱ह֬ȂԯթԴࣤম෻ऻ‫ڽ‬Ȃ њࢺҙႿໄබ࣏хग़ȄබԴхᅆँ‫ؽ‬ϢҙႿໄ‫ࠗܡ‬ ࢢȂࣤমЪ෻ࠑӯȂҁҪ‫ݚ‬ሮȶӤҁߞ‫ވ‬у۶Ԣဖ ҙႿໄታᐱϭߞ‫׀‬ѧ‫ܹࣆڲ‬ȷȄ๒փȂ෷ሲ࣏Ϙ԰ ‫ڰ‬Ȃ෷Й෷இϫ࣏ҩϘ԰‫ڰ‬Ȅ܎аင‫ݛ‬஘ҳӹൊࠜ પռᆬȅޯ‫ݛ‬෻ 19 џሲȂҙႿໄҞକ঒܎аင‫ݛ‬ ߞඡႽ࣏ȶ౮๑ੲᑂߞཇ‫ڏ‬ȷȂ࣏Ϙৎ஻ਇȂ࣏ȶ ‫ޱ‬஼ўবᅆҙႿໄ๴୓ߞࠫਿᐼȷȄऻ‫ڽ‬ȂҙႿໄ ௄ӎϯ៳‫ظڕݺ‬๑ႮϞȄ ࡣњႀ຅ਢфդўդ௃ȉ ग़஼ᗁ೚ླྀѐ୺ 22 џ๴ࠑᗾ႖ᇍȂҙႿໄࣆᡋӒ ԴೣຕȂ֭‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬؊ཕӫࡈ‫ڶ‬๒Йᜦ‫ܠ‬ȃЙፁ ‫ܠ‬Ȅླྀѐ୺Դᗾ႖КሲȂ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ᎏॎЏ၃ۖϞᗜ धᙇȂҙႿໄԴ֜ߞ੡џЏ၃ЙԺȄҁሲȂҙႿໄ ࣆᡋӒԴೣຕȂ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ӏ‫ڽ‬ԴҹߞϠӔјКȄ֭ ࣏Ȃླྀѐ୺Ԣ੡់‫ט‬Ȃᐼ୽ᘘٟգຕ‫ف‬Ȃ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬

؊ཕЪ๒Йᜦ‫ܠ‬ȄҁሲȂ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬؊ཕᘘգϘ‫ܠ‬຀ ࢘ߞЙፁ‫ݑܠ‬ȂᘘգϘ‫ࣆڱ‬ᡋߞร᏶ϧ༓ྻ௲‫ࢃڽ‬ ଎Ȅҁ෶࠳‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬хᅆँ་֖۶ӀȃҒਟ۶Ӓ၍ ߞჅอȄ ᘵ๒‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬хᅆँЏԴᡌዉർ‫׀‬Ȃ֭Йь௞ਛ់‫ט‬ ሲȂᅆхᅆँߞւᢚЖৣৣ༟‫ܕ‬Ȃ‫ێ‬বᗜߞࣄᐼѹ ঋգ‫ی‬ўবȈϘ࣏Ղཱ֣ႃҙႿໄࣆᡋࡲሂࢢߞᡋ ϧૌߩȂ‫ڨ‬Ѥ؊ཕ൝Ϣ಄གྷȇϟ࣏Ղ֣ᕓԪ஼аԧ ँߞࣆ޼ж‫ޡ‬Ȃᅁ಩ࣆᡋӀᜦჅอ۶ࣆ޼দ࢙Ȅԑ ஼Ⴥอ܎৶ྻЏۘ‫ܠ‬Ϟᐼࢢদ࢙Ⴎ㤵ᄦȂ‫ࠑڭ‬ӯ௟ ԴჅอ੡ง‫ڶ‬࿰ȶᐳ‫ڏࢆޱ‬ȷഢ‫ܠ‬ᗝ֖ЂᓴȂౕؓ କ൵ೣ࢙ӲϘৎӔѹ஼ਛȄ֭Դ‫ۍ‬ᢜᅁࣉഺϘႮ ።ᄦߞჅ຀КȂхᅆँ௟ЙҞᘖֺԳᏎჃԧᇌቪ ᜣȄ ൵಩ᅁߞயᛟ࣏Ȃхᅆँ‫ޠ‬ႅаൊँ‫ޒ־‬ӲȂᖔఀ ധԺ஼ਛ‫ݚ‬ሮȃᗁൊനԴ઱Ґ֘ߞԑ஼Ⴥอ܎৶ྻ ᅁቫϯҪକ҃ࠑ‫׀‬ѧ‫ތڲ‬ൊԳ஡ߞхᅆँȄϯѡȂ хᅆँ‫ޠ‬ႅࢽ෭‫ܡ‬эҺ෻Դ઱Ґ֘ജླ౭බዷᠨҍ Ϟхᅆँаൊߞླ୽ȄӤ‫ݺ‬ԴయᚙҙႿໄயᛟϯӲ ඞϘ७Ȃ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬хᅆँۖӫࡈऎѤࠑ಩ҍहᅆᄥ ຕȄ๒փȂᔌ຾ҙႿໄࣆᡋߞࡲሂȂԧँН༡ߞж ‫ޡ‬Ӆ௟দྲ‫ݶ‬ᔝȂՂ‫ލ‬഍ನЙညȂ࢝Ҟକྻє๴а ୽Ȅ ᘘգՉԑ௞ਛሮऎȂ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬хᅆँᕕ‫ۤכ‬ग़কԴӿ ‫ߞֹݛ‬၃ᢚి୊Ȅ2003ՐȂग़কԴ֫ታӿ‫ֹݛ‬঵ ൌѐ੾ႿࢢȂႋ෸Ϟӿ‫ֹݛ‬ক༤ȃϭ҄ူѤӿࡈᗁ ೚ᚠႿ‫ܒ‬ታᐱߞࠠ‫෇ֱݛ‬ᒸߤྻ៨՘৶ា᠈ᑉԇг ᚚຈȄഺ‫ڱ‬ទদᓾሱߡతᐱ७ӿ‫ֹݛ‬Չԑ؊ཕࠜง ҵఠȄԯթȂ௞ਛ࢙៉Ȃ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬хᅆँᅆ‫ݺ‬ҙљ ໄࣆᡋ઻ϭߞᓷȂҒࣁࡈࣆܹ‫ܡ‬৶۶Չԑൊ༤՘ ৶ȂঋգᓴᑄԳ‫ૼכ‬ȂഺዹϘўবҞѽ࠳་۶ႋȂ ҩϘўবҞ൵Ђন࢘Գิь಄གྷȄ ϵգϠሮऎȂᐼࢢߞ‫׀‬ѧ‫ֺ᝱ڲ‬ж໘ߞϭඞȄ࠻ᜲ ෻஼ቫࣆ޼ᡦ‫ࠜݙݙٿुܠ‬ၧшੲҺȅ‫ށ‬๣ॊࠑ ӯȂԴ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬಩ࣆᡋࡲሂࢢȂ஼ਛ௟বᗜӞႋԟ ᔍȄ‫ށ‬๣ॊሮऎȂՂ‫ލ‬ҙႿໄࣆᡋࡲሂȂ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬࿂ գҞକж໘ऎϬৎൊжȈȶ൵գҞକࢷ࿰ᑢҫ‫؛‬՘

05


ዥᘈடᚠ

ցШ‫ٳ‬Ꮉ๼‫ٺ‬ᓢЀଔཱིᄯቾ

Π‫ڋ‬υᗉဎЉ

Іᄇࣂኊઢ‫׾‬ഞ‫ޟ‬Ꮝ‫ݰ‬٨

ߞཇ೚᝝ध㤵ж໘ऎϬৎ஼ਛȈߞᐌޯ‫཰ڧ‬Һ‫( ڲ‬ ֘Ҕൊ)Ȃ‫᠋ݼ‬ҺҐ(‫ތ‬Ҕൊ)۶໱ᝒ(ࡑൊ)ȄԴ࢝ࠜ ߞϘࣱ੡༡㡯Ȃ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ϯগϬৎ֖ࣆ஡ൌ࣏ԧ֋ ᑾӲ๴ਣȂ‫ݙ‬ѽȂُৎषᑾӲߞҞକ‫࢝ݑ‬ЂȄ‫ݕ‬ ധȂࣙ‫ڱ‬ൊ౉ϵྻ༟‫޼֋ֶࢆܕ‬Ȅȷ

‫ێ‬ᅁȂ࢝ԺϠྻᅆҙႿໄ৆ሂྏۖ‫්ק‬Ȃѹঋߞ১ ԯ࣏ٟգ‫ر‬৞ҙႿໄࣆᡋ۶‫ێ‬ҁᑾ໗ࣆᡋН༡ߞಳ ԢȄంࠑবϯऻȂҙႿໄሃࠛӒџԢ៳ᑾ໗߰Ȃ֭ ᅁቫఐ޶ࡒЂЙहԢȄԴҔᘹȂࠛӒџԴԧৎԳ஡ ߞ೚޼ϧ࢘Ђ७हԢȂ‫ڭ‬๑‫۽‬գߞхᅆϧ༓ȂփԴ ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬Ȃ‫ތ‬ൊԧൊၢం‫ڽ‬බЙ໴ҙႿໄߞ௳Ȃ‫ܕ‬ೣ ࠲ࢺ຾хіϘᕝߞҞକ‫ݑ‬ȄҩҳȂҔᘹ࣏ࠜง‫ۦ‬ᐏ ਛࢥྐ዆ᠩߞԳ஡ȂࠛਛѭЄᅁࣉߞ࣏ȶ‫ז‬ѭՑȷ ߞ೚޼Ȃѽਛਲߞ࿢ఐ‫ڽ‬ᡕປӔಿȂକ௉ఀۖϘ‫ܠ‬ ߞњࢺȂփҙႿໄᘵ๒ᐯ຾ѽȶஈЂታഞȃஈЂᐱ ਰȷ֋‫ܧ‬Ȃ๑‫׀܉‬ѧ‫ڲ‬Ӕಿٟգթᇌཇ೚ȂЙщ‫ۦ‬ ၢȂྣఀҙႿໄ๪ࠎЙ՘х᝷ѲȄ

֘ў஼ਛՂྍЂ‫׀‬ȃ‫ޱ‬஼۶ॻ஼ߞгҦٟயᛟȂ֭ ‫ا‬ে۶࠻ᜲ෻ȃК஼۶ѐ֘գϘ‫޼ࣆڱ‬யᛟȄȷ࠻ ᜲ෻ȃК஼۶ѐٟ֘գЂϧњࢺۘ໗ҙљໄࣆܹߞ నࣉȂ‫ڭ‬њࢺ഼Ⴥ᎘ֿຕ‫ف‬ഺඞаᐼȄ

њႀ຅դоΙ෉஫ዛȉ ᝯ‫ݺ‬ҙႿໄऎ֣‫ڝ‬ിࡲሂഺৎயᛟȂգϠ‫د‬യԇᙩ ‫ݺۼ‬ҙႿໄ֋࿑ࠜࡱȄգ௞ਛᇍȂȶҙႿໄჅҝУ бՐ੡༡ऎϞ‫ؼ‬ຠႬग़஼ȃገࣷϘ‫ڱ‬஼ਛߞᝯ࠼Ȃ ҁहည‫֋دݺ‬Ў১‫ڽ‬་֖ߞ੮‫ޠ‬ᐡȃӠм‫ޠ‬ᐡߞु ‫ٿ‬Ȃຜ֋֖኿ఫϞȄۖЦኃ຀࢘۸ȉҝՐՐܺȂҙ ႿໄҞକྍᝊۖࣙ‫ڱ‬ўবߞԟᑟȂҁฅ၃‫ر‬ϞϘৎ ஼ਛߞক҃ࠑҝ‫ێ‬КϘਛӠм‫ޠ‬ᐡЍዄऻȂሲգ ٟգ৒෇ߞҞକȄည੡ఀۖߞຍ੯࣏؆ԑЙҞକȂ ԯऎ੮ѕൊԆജҁ֋Ў૔᛼ఫϞȄҩҳഺৎ੡৏Ȃ ҁԴߞᐌޯ‫ڧ‬ЙҞକᔼՅԺьᐟߞӠм‫ޠ‬ᐡȃ੮‫ޠ‬ ᐡȄഺৎЏ၃ЙҞକϞȄȷ ᕕႍሲȂഺৎሲ‫ޱ‬գ‫࣏֬ڱ‬փࠧȄߞፁȂԴჅҝ ϟϩՐ㡯Ȃٟգ১Єዅ۶Ӡм‫ޠ‬ᐡߞᚠႿ‫ܒ‬৆ሂ ϞȂռः߽ᇯ‫܈‬ϵ৆ሂϞȂҙႿໄ৆ሂ௄ӎЏ՘‫ܠ‬ ؊Ȃփᐾգ੮‫ޠ‬ᐡߞࠛӒџᘵ๒ُُജग़஼፩֯ȶ ࣹ‫ޣ‬஼ਛȷȂࡒՌӲЙ৆Ȃऻ֬১Єዅ‫ܧ‬ґ֌ஈȄ ‫ێ‬ᅁȂࠛӒџНЙ৆Ȃఀૈ‫ݺ‬К஼ߞњዣ۶ӎ‫ڭڗ‬ ๑ग़஼ቮঋߞᐼರႤ࿚ȂՂ‫ލ‬Й‫ۍ‬൯ഺ‫ی‬ৎ౧ԆȂ ১Єዅ୺ϯᢏ૽ցࠎȄҩҳȂҙႿໄᅁቫϯবᅆߞ ѹঋхᅆϧ༓࣏஼аߞхᅆँ‫ޠ‬ႅȂփЙ࣏Ҕॗক ༤Ȃϵබ࣏ሲȂ஄ՂҙႿໄԴаᐼК‫ڹ‬ӡ১Єዅ‫ݕ‬ ߰Ӡм‫ޠ‬ᐡȂхփຜҔॗߡతँֻВઘ୙ϯϾᅁȂ ‫ـ‬Ґ֋ۤ࿝ϸȄ

Іᄇࣂ‫׾‬Σߡቆቆ‫ٳ‬ռᕊ

06

ᏽࡣү‫ݶ‬ᝯ‫ތ‬៩ᆒক գ྽аϠЀࢽҍȂᔌ຾аᐼߞുَຕ‫ف‬Ȃ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ ১޵Ӡಯ௟ྻുَࢭ෇ۖӒ௱ѪӀȄஜᒿ᜕๴ࡈ‫׀‬ ѧ‫ڲ‬Ӯ޵џ‫׮‬ಯ༓ॗऎ160ေ౜Ȃ֫ԑಧ‫ڻ‬ᕕ༓ߞ 2%Ȅхᅆँ஼ਛჅอ܎৶ྻЏ၃ࠑӯౕؓ۶‫ޱ‬஼ ᑼઈгҦȃႽႿᆬӮ޵гҦȃॻ஼Ӯ޵гҦȃྍ Ђ‫׀‬਄Һ༰ᄥȃҙ཰ᆬӮ޵гҦຈӮ޵гҦ་֖᎘ ֿȂৄթᐐ‫أ‬দ࢙۶ࢭ෇‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬Ӯ޵ӠಯȄ‫׀‬ѧ ‫ڲ‬хᅆँЏ၃‫ݚ‬ᓚ௟ྻ‫ݚ‬ሮҳ஼Ӯ޵гҦሃҙљໄ ࣆܹᜪ၌ߞԪԢȂࡈ෩࣏ٟգ་֖ႦႩȄ

փК஼ࣆܹԴթࡈߞٙຉКȶ૭ᓾ༤ȷȂԴᐼࢢߞ Ӯ޵ឮߋК഍‫ݺ‬ജஜߞߐᅗȄџࡈȂК஼ࣆ഼ܹ ჅК஼॓ϩՄྻԨ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬෩‫ڻ‬Ϟ঵‫ز‬ᇦࢧϠႽѹ၍ ా෯ߏႤȂ୙݀хᅆँߞЂӎᖉ઱Ґ֘Ȃౕؓѽթ দ࢙ᛕўߞࠫԇȄК஼஥சൊҳ໶Ҧ஘Ҧࠜћԅࠪ ሲȈȶК஼Դ‫׀‬ѧ‫ظߞڲ‬ႤȂપ‫࣏־‬Ӯ޵ўবߞ‫ظ‬ ႤȂᢜ಩ϞК஼۶‫׀‬ѧ‫یڲ‬ৎ஼ਛН༡ߞ၃ᕻТ‫׀‬ Ԫ֯ȂփѷഺᇌԪ֯ᅆК஼ϠӔ۶‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬ϠӔൌգ ૈȄȷҁᘘሲȈȶК஼ౕؓԴ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬؊ཕᜦ‫ࢢܠ‬Ȃ ‫׀‬ѧ‫ྻڲ‬ា᠈࠲᠕К஼‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ߞ‫ૈ׀‬۶ᡋ‫׀‬ȂК஼ ϵౕؓӏ‫ڽ‬ា᠈Դ‫׀‬ѧ‫ظڲ‬Ⴄ۶༟ਣ၃໶Ԫ֯Ȅȷ ЙჅ႖ᘵՂթȂК஼ЫࢢԴ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬༟ళӮ޵ߞ᝱ ࢘Ȃߺ‫ྻܠ‬ѧᐼࡈЂȄ

ϵգ௞ਛࢽҍȂᔌ຾ࢢҙႿໄ੡҃ߞۖ‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬ ऎϞᕓႃ୑ࣆ՜ϢȂࠨ༷ᙖЂ১޵༟ࠚȄԢ੡ԧЂ Ӯ޵һᔝᅆ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬Ӯ޵Ⴄ࿚Ԣዹ࣏ࠎ໛ẵẵȄߋ ᄳࣆᡋߞऻఀ‫ڍ‬๻㣈ߞᐼߋӒԴຕ‫ف‬ȂߋᄳӮ޵ߞ ऻЙ‫ڍ‬๻㣈ߞᐼߋ‫׈‬௟ϯᆊȄхᅆँఠۘߞࠠ‫ֱݛ‬ ઔᣉӮ޵гҦ(Agoco)๴‫ڏ‬Ϡ୺эшሲȈȶ‫ا‬ে۶

Ҕॗ๴‫ڏ‬Ϡ 23 џԴҔॗᅆ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬ক‫֖ڰ‬ஜߞࢽ෭ Кѕ‫ݙ‬ԴԳ‫ڤ‬Йங෻ᗝ֖ྲᇷ๴ֶྻሲȂҔॗԴ‫׀‬ ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ক‫֖ڰ‬ஜ‫ܥ‬ӏຕ‫ف‬ȂփҙႿໄ‫ڭ‬Й࣏֖ஜߞ ൵ೣӫዾȄഺ֜๴‫ڏ‬ϠሲȂ‫׀‬ѧ‫ߞڲ‬ᎏॎ௟ѽࣆ޼ ўՑႋٙȂҙႿໄЙྻҍ಩Դӏ‫׀ߞڽ‬ѧ‫ڲ‬Ȃԯթ ҁЏЙԓ࣏ഺඞᎏॎߞᝯᘣϠߏȄᢖ๒Ȃ๑ᎢҙႿ ໄԴᐼඞജᕝᕧȂ‫ظ߰ݕ‬ফȂ‫ࣹ߰ݕ‬ϸ‫߰ݕ‬᚟஠Ȃ ൌЙକ‫ؼ‬ᢏҙႿໄ੡҃ຕ‫ف‬Ϟഺৎ‫ڰ‬ᅁȄ‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬ೣ ௟་Ϣྲߞ੡҃Ȃᘵ๒ഺৎჅ຀щჅ֕ၗȂНࢢߞ ႽႮᘘϩжᆝࠜȂ֭‫׀‬ѧ‫ྻڲ‬Դ஼ቫߤྻ‫֋ۖر‬Ў ྲߞ‫֒ڎ‬Ȅ

ѕघีِΡፙցШ‫׋ٳ‬༖

ҕಀӵທᓞኊઢ


ּቸΡЖ Ԃ‫ޟ‬ᅈᖐȂ଄ᓃΟΙএѠՂҕఊ‫ޟ‬ᐣѬᇄМϽȂ೅ ᝒՄԊ၏ȇԂ‫ޟ‬ᅈᖐȂྛܻՌณȂઍၖฒᗴȂџо ऎആ໴ᎨȂᒊܻЈӴȂ‫ޢ‬ΣЖ᡹ȇԂ‫ޟ‬ᅈᖐȂᡱ ፴ᐔ‫ޟ‬ҕᗁӵ๼ᝋ‫୽ޟ‬ሬᇆᇃΰσܹӎிȇԂ‫ޟ‬ᅈ ᖐȂᡱΡঈ໠ۖ१ཱིቷຜҵѶ‫ޟ‬༈ಛȇԂ൷࢐‫پ‬Ռ ᇃᢊѮ‫ݍ‬ন՞ҕ‫ࠒڠ‬ఊ‫ޟ‬τᅈ୮ড়कᐎ֗Ȅ

ॱ Ϟ ᠗ ‫ޟ‬Ј

ቀ ᡹ Ρ Ꭺᐂ

‫ז‬ ᑍ ॔ ௴೤/እМȈԧງ ყаҥೝ೤‫ޱ‬ඪ‫ټ‬

੕౛ถ౰ࠢ ࠢ

ശଽ ॳΨ ႀ‫ڗ‬

1200mdz/hr

ӒՌଢ଼఼ࢿ

Hi-Grade Industries Pty Ltd Manufacturer, Importer and Distributor of Kitchen Rangehoods and Appliances

Ѯ ᢊ ᇧ അ Ȅ፴ ໔ ߳ ᜌ Ȅட ཾ ‫ี ׳‬

᠍ ߔ ‫ ڗ‬ങ Ӗ ࡉ ୤ ᢎ

10ԑ ଻ႀ߳Ꮄ Ꮄ

Ⱦ֜ȿ‫ྭݶ‬ᐠ

ӻ෡ᝥᓞџ‫ټ‬ᒵᐅ

Ӵ֭ Unit 3, 50 - 54 Howleys Rd, Notting Hill, VIC 3168 (՝ܻMonashσᏰClaytonਪ଱ࡣ७) Ⴋၗ (613) 9545 6233 ᆩ֭ www.hi-grade.net.au 07


ּቸΡЖ

೽‫܁‬ন՞ҕᅈЙϞၯ ॔ᑍ‫ז‬Ȃϯѵ॔ 70 Ր҃ҍӠ‫ݺ‬ሂᣉҭ‫ߞތ‬১֝Ӕ ਛਲȂ‫ێ‬ѭऎҿႺ౉Ȃ‫ێ‬ӓऎ۟ࡑ౉ȂՁգϘৎࠧ ௱Հᡘߞ۟ࡑӓሬԩՄSamingadȂྍऎȶᑾϘ๑ ϟȷȄग़ដߞҭ‫ތ‬Ӏ১գ຾ᇬܼઔ‫ܫ‬۶ЋଔȂ۟ࡑ ౉ȶࡑѳȷϘ‫ߞڀ‬ћмሃᇟૠȂంᆇᘀȃህᘏۖ೫ ࠸ൌ࣏॔ᑍ‫ז‬Ӡ‫ۻ‬՘ࠜߞȶྭឰȷȂ౳ᑓߞЂ֋ ๒۶ӔলຜПϞՁೇ۶ኵዃߞ଒ᝅ۶๑ፎ๑ᆽߞϧ ༓ȂՁߞ֕౵ႆԢዹࣹ౷຾౉Ϡཇ‫ޟߞݚ‬ඈȃ෌ཋ ሃࡌ෷ȂഺᢰՁߞᆇᗏҞѽЙᅫϘບᛔᎳȂ๑Ꭲֲ ᒿቅࣘȂ‫ݕغ‬ிᅁሹᘙȂൌକಝஜᡘ߰аѕಎ഍‫ڤ‬ Ϙੲ‫ڶ‬᡽ߞܽȂࡶҍԒኀНরȄ

Չѕ ঴ӡ

ჳᦺ ᛱ ᝝ፆ ᷛ ᚅ ᖃ ! ပ␱ ᨦ႑Ꮙ ᦽ

‫࣢ݘ‬શॵ

台灣松珍生物科技股份有限公司 已有三十多年的歷史,是台灣目前 生產素食品的第一大廠,是擁有 符合食品GMP的工廠

‫࣢ݘ‬શॵ஠୤ё 2011 ԑᐬσ ց ‫ ୽ ٳ‬ሬ ॵ ࠢ ৤ 2011 Fine FoodȂ᠍ߔኄσ៫ࡊȃ݉Є ᇍᖝ᠋՝Ȃ୤ᢎၐॵЅࣁፙ ҡཎȄ ਢ໢ȈΞТϤРՍΤР Ӵ ᘈȈഡ ఩ ོ ৤ ϛ Ж! Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre

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OK຺ѿ

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ཱིΡΡ

Hong Phat຺ѿ

Tue Tam

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台灣松珍生物科技股份有限公司素食產品

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08

松珍生物科技產品, 安全無虞,截至今主 動送驗結果,確認全 數商品皆不含以下各 類塑化劑,請消費者 安心食用! DEHP, DBP, BBP, DINP, DIDP, DNOP 等六項

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ּቸΡЖ

‫پ‬ՌᇃᢊѮ‫ݍ‬ন՞ҕ‫ࠒڠ‬ఊ‫ޟ‬τᅈ୮ড়कᐎ֗

॔ᑍ‫ז‬԰ᐸȂՁ‫ۊ‬੡ߞᄱྐ‫ࠧڭ‬՘ऎϘৎ১֝Ӕᆇ јȂփ࣏ྐ՘ऎህᘏցਰȃЂ‫࣐ށ‬ȃм‫׶‬ग़ਟਰຈ ᚚ྽Ȃᙏ݀ҳবߞѵधȄ॔ᑍ‫֋ז‬ኚᘵ๒ਛϠൌ࢝ ྻ஭ᆇȂ֭֋ЎЈ੡৏ࡒඈᡌȶྣ‫ݎ‬ȷȂ௱ജӓᓐ ሲిЙঋӡȶᔲЄᗏরȷ஭ᆇȄЙჅȂԴ۟ࡑ౉ᆇ ᘀߞཇ‫ࠑ҃ݚ‬Ȃ‫ێ‬ҳ૟ӓฅ৒ࠅЃЀߞ዆ᠩ۶ిᐱ ϭȂ॔ᑍ‫ז‬ᅆ‫౉ݺ‬Ϡཇ೚ߞ‫פ‬஭ȂօᖃӫࣖȂӇѕ ܺႆබ࢝ඈྑȄ 16 ࿐‫ڤ‬ՐȂညԳߞి௅ᗝᓱ෇ࣿ ြরጄྻȂ֋ࠫѕЙ௻ߞ॔ᑍ‫ז‬๼຾ᔝөϯඞȂϘ աᆇ፪ࡒྍҳԳ๴಩Ϡেᇍᣙ֋Ўߞᆇ඘Ȃሮऎ‫ێ‬ КៃಉϞૌఐȂ૟ӓत֌጖๒ಊϭȂഺᢰՁգϞி ࢺ஭ᆇߞࠫѕȂፚ೫‫ـ‬ҐཔᐬȄ

16 ࿐Ȃ‫ܥ‬௲຾ϘບьЃ‫݋‬ᄷߞ॔ᑍ‫ז‬Ȃᑾ֋ϘϠ ࡈ݀ሂҔӇࢸȂᅆ‫ݺ‬পӠЂࡱҾߞЙՉԑྏȂਛਲ ၃ᕻ๑‫ޱ‬ា᠈‫ڻ‬ՁпᐯߞᕅϧȂ൵ࠐߞ੡৏Ȃᢰ Ձ୵ϞգϘ஘କྏஜϠߞՀཚЄȂфᑾપߞӔ౉० ฀НҳȂЙჅ࣏‫ݸ‬ೀϠ၏К๑‫ޱ‬௲գщԺ֋ࠫߞЃ ࢅНϘȂԴЙᙝԳӇЍ۶ِӠՅКᗞ᝱ః࢟ȄԴ১ ֝Ӕᔠᣇஇ‫އ‬சӠߞ॔ᑍ‫ז‬Ȃԯऎஊփቮঋᕒӏ କф੡ቁۖߞӔᆇјᄫඞȂЖྻգϯሂ஭ᆇߞᑟ ྻȄ1996ՐϘըஊ๒ߞᑟྻȂ॔ᑍ‫ז‬ജরጄሦ֯ ϠᏑథԇ๴ధȂുᆙ༟‫ܕ‬ϞՁԴሂҔߞরጄӠࣿȂ ᘵ๒ȶ୓ᙇህሂȷЙჅ࣏ሂҔߞԳϭႽ۶Ј࡭ߞ᜹ ћ୧‫א‬ȄҩϘўবȂԴ஭ѯߞሦ֯ሃ๴֖Ⴥ຀КȂ Ӥ‫ݺ‬ՁிࢺӔಿᅆ১֝ӔরጄߞሮԢȂփЙඏඏ࣏ ஭ѯҾඞߞߺ‫ܠ‬Ȃ‫ـ‬ᢰՁ၃ᑢϞཇ೚ሃࣹ֖ᅆٞߞ ᑉዎȄ1998ՐȂሂᣉ຾ԩরጄሦ֯ϠႥూ਼ᡘۖ Ϟ॔ᑍ‫ߞז‬࿤൯К௞ᓭȂӺᏩᢘ‫ݺ‬ՁߞᆇᗏԢর ጄȈȶॎ๒༡ᢰ‫ا‬ᡘۖᑍ‫ߞז‬ᆇᗏȂ֬Ѽᄊ࣏ᅆ֋ ЎߞϘᇌ෩ᓹȂ෩ᓹ֋Ў֯রጄߞӫߞȂᢰ‫را‬԰ ֋Ўജ໸‫ڽ‬໸Ժߞ዆ᄊȃᗏরȃ֒௾Йᙝ‫ە‬ᑬփઐ ҵߞྏ‫ܡ‬Ȋȷ‫࣏ݺ‬Ȃҁٙ‫ܠ‬་Ϙَ๴ధ॔ᑍ‫ߞז‬র ጄጕକȄ

1999 Ր 9 ѡК՟Ȃ॔ᑍ‫ז‬ሃോॻ‫ۦٷ‬ᘛணҐџӎ ϘՐϘ࢘ߞȶྑሃᄱরጄြȷࠑᆊȂ‫ࢽߡێ‬Ϡᢸቿ ಎ഍ߞчᡖग़ᗏȂᢰџӎᡘಿऎНྏஜٕᏕȄԢՐ 12 ѡȂᠲ‫ܬ‬஭ѯ๴֖Ϟ‫ێ‬೐Ϙ௺Ȯщ༧ȃলȃନ ১ߞᗏরȯ௞ᓭȂ॔ᑍ‫ז‬ў‫ۖر‬Ϟᅆ֋ЎরጄሮԢ ߞњࢺ߰Ȃുᆙ௟฽ౕЏϳߞᄱྐȂϘََ༟‫ܕ‬ሃ ѵϠж‫ڳ‬Ȅ2000ՐߞࠛաጨȂഺ௺๴֖ЙۖҗՐ ߞ௞ᓭබᖔఀϞб༵রጄጨ༵ߞϢඛȂ‫ڭ‬ᢰՁѽག ୺Нࡻᖔఀȶ൵‫ྲڸ‬Ϡጨȷȇ 2001 Ր 9 ѡ๴֖ߞ ೐ϟ௺௞ᓭȮൎѫȃ࣋লȯԓ࢘෩ԩ‫ࠛുڎ‬աጨ൵ ‫ڸ‬ў‫ڏ‬Ѓᆊ஭ϠጨȄ॔ᑍ‫ߞז‬রጄНႮȂҼ‫׻‬Գᐖ ᇸϞࡑѳҟᎠߞ১ӗ১ۧȂєϢ൵஼ቫмߞরጄሦ ֯۶๴֖ᢜ‫ڀ‬Ȃ୼Фใग़ߞᆇᗏ؆ग़ྥ୨Ꮃྏᇟ፜ ߞরጄȂ໹໸Ϟ‫ݙ‬ᓜࣹ֖রጄߞध።ȂЙ֭ജѹࣹ ߤྻ‫ݙ‬ሮԢȂ‫࣏ـ‬Դࣙᇌ຀࢘ϯۗ୓ϞϘୱྲߞȶ ࣹ֖লȷȄЙ཈཈࣏Դџӎ۶ሂᣉȂྲҐ‫֖ࣹߞ܂‬ রጄవ֖ᅳȃ୺‫֖ࣹߞڲ֘ڽ‬রጄჴጨ‫ۏ‬ᚃȃ዇஼ ߞѵधরጄ௞ᓭȃК஼ߞরጄྻȂൌକऻ‫ڍ‬Ձࣿ᠙ ߞ‫ڗ‬዆Ȋ ᅈᖐध॒ҕఊ‫ޟ‬༈‫ܛ‬ ๑Ꭲ࣏Ȯщ༧ȃলȃନ১ߞᗏরȯ௞ᓭᘘ࣏Ȯൎ ѫȃ࣋লȯ௞ᓭȂ‫ێ‬КࡑѳϘ‫ߞڀ‬ᆇաԴ॔ᑍ‫ߞז‬ ᆊᜯϭൌ؆ग़ԓ಩ϞࡑѳҟᎠ۶ᆇᘀߞᇟᢛȄᘵ๒ Ձ‫ڹ‬ӡߞ࣏۟ࡑ౉ӓሬȂЂൊԊߞᡘಿྐঋᡘᕖՁ ߞᆇԑቮᐴᚣྏះ۶ྐᄊȂ๒փȂ൅Ⴥ‫ڤ‬ᓶᘮఊቈ ߞᗏ።ȂҞѽྏ‫ۖۦ‬ϘৎӔ౉ߞඈࢤࡖጄȂி༴փ ࡌ෷Ȃᄾᔖϫ࿢ࣘȄ ԴҭᣉȂ֌Ы১֝ӔЪജᇍऎЋԳϠȂЙьѵϠ݀ ݀ሱႋ১֝ӔӠࣿўՑၢࢢȂরጄֲ࠸ȂЙࢥ་ ۤȂ‫ێ‬ᅁЙ๒Ȅ॔ᑍ‫ࠑז‬ӯȂ֋Ў௞ᓭКߞᆇաȂ ϘൊԊ‫֋ڽ‬ၞၞȶࠛաᆇѳȷ൘࢙Րߞ൹֯ȂփЂ ൊԊࡋ࣏౉Ϡཇ೚ߞୃ‫פڰ‬஭Ȃऎ୵ନȃऎࢅຆȃ

ᇃᢊ‫ࠒڠ‬ఊӫྱ

ऎ೉‫ۏ‬ຈഺ‫ڱ‬ћм۶ӠࣿўՑȂൌୃႶԴϾօहཇ ߞህَ۶ᆇᗏȶୃᐸȷКȂ࣏ϩжૠၐߞȞЙԢ‫ݺ‬ ‫ڱڤ‬ӠࣿКߞߕ૯ᆇȟȄ॔ᑍ‫ז‬ᘘႋ៖ȂԴҭᣉȂ ১֝Ӕ࣏൵՝ߞҭᣉϠȂգ຾ఊϳߞᑢҫ۶ћмȂ ൊၢаൊգ຾ទ੾ߞഢ૏ȂྰցපᎰȂ۟ࡑ౉ߞ‫ٷ‬ ЄԴьՐ੡งత‫࣏ߞۦ‬෻ѐႿՑߞి‫ڈ‬ȂѽைᏳҁ েԺЖփϫிጋߞࡡ੾Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽȂൊၢћмӎ‫࣏ڗ‬ഄ ទߞȂփӠࣿКߞ஭ᆇႯህࡋҞ࣏ᡌጄߞȄৄӤ֋ Ўߞ၃ᑢ۶রጄȂ॔ᑍ‫ౕؓז‬ѵϠԴྏ‫ۖۦ‬аѕӀ ᔖೇ۶ߞԢ੡Ȃ‫ـ‬କদྲ኶໛ᅆ‫ݺ‬১֝Ӕߞऻ‫ޱ‬Ȃ ႋ༟ࠜงѽ‫ߞڽ‬ሱྻȂంࣆܹۖӔ༡ൌକ‫ـ‬Ґদ໛ ᅆ‫ݺ‬১֝Ӕཇ೚ћмߞᇯ᠕ȄփҩϘўবȂՁϵؓ ౕକᄁᔽۖሂᣉԧ౉ߞ১֝Ӕ૭ҍ‫ڽ‬஭֋ЎӔ౉ߞ ᆇաȂՀᢰЂਛߢႽሂᣉ১֝ӔћмߞᐃϧȊȶ‫ا‬ েߞ૟ԐຜϞ‫ا‬েขዊ۶ћмȂ࣏ᆕգϧ༓۶዆ᠩ ϧߞȂ‫ا‬েᕕညඵ԰ཇ೚КߞᔹᙇȂᄥຕ୓‫ڽ‬Ȃў କ‫ۍـ‬ᐖᇸϧȄȷ ԰ᠪϩԺՐ‫ߞڽ‬ᆇ஭Ӡ౾Ȃ॔ᑍ‫ࠑז‬ӯȂᘵ๒֋Ў ഺᙇ዆ᠩϧ۶యஜϧᘘቈቈЙ௉Ȃ࣏֭‫ڶ‬๒ऻۖྔ ‫ྔڽ‬ԺߞϠ༟‫ܕ‬ᝯަ১֝Ӕরጄ۶ћмȂҭᣉࣆܹ Դᕒׄ১֝Ӕ࠲᠕ᑢҫћмཇ೚ўবϵ֯ҍϞϘ‫ܠ‬ ߞ‫ׅ‬ϧȄ಩ԴߞҭᣉȂգ௞ࠝߞ১֝Ӕც໛ሂȂӡ ЙԢߞ౉ሬ‫ݸ‬୙ྲᇷ۶ြӫȇ১֝ӔంࢅຆۖࠦՐ Ϡൌുَ༟‫ܕ‬ᐯ೫֋Ўߞћм۶ሬ‫ڏ‬Ȃᐯ੭㡯༟‫ܕ‬ գ১֝Ӕӓሬిᐯȃ౉ሬሮᝋցਰȂࠦՐϠᘘҞѽ ་ϢൊၢЂᐯȇϘ‫ڱ‬ཇ೚ߞ‫ث‬᜹Ղ‫ە‬ᚔȃ፠ࠅຈȂ ᐯ೫ߞϠϵᆙᆙኧԺȇᆇ஭ध۶዆໛धϵ༟‫ܕ‬ᝯަ ১֝Ӕরጄ۶዆໛ᛟ‫ل‬Ȃ১֝ӔরጄϠȃጄᄥ༟‫ܕ‬ ࣿ᠙୓‫ڽ‬ȂЙь১֝ӔরጄϠӡӓሬ஭ྭᆋ۶ኘࡣ রጄȂϵᛐҍϞϘѯྲчԳȌȶࣆܹ۶ѵϠᕕႍຜ Пҁে‫ـ‬Ժߞᕒׄ۶ᄁᔽȂᢰҁেգ֋ࠫจ຾ग़Հ ߞўԨࡈ་Ȋȷ

09


ּቸΡЖ

ॱዅϚཆࢇ‫ ݽ‬һฒ୽ࣨ ԢЙьᆇјӤӎϿҾඞ๴Ⴟ་փ༟‫ݤ‬஼ቫҾඞЙ ԢȂ॔ᑍ‫࣏ז‬Ӥҳ஼Ҿඞ୓ਛȂԴҳ஼ߞԩઈӇᠩ ϞНࢢȂЖ෩пϞ‫ێ‬Դҭᣉߞജᝯަ࢘Ȅ᎘ф 99 ՐԴџӎߞҍႽѽфࢢ‫ڽ‬Ϙ‫ی‬Րߞ๴ਣȂ॔ᑍ‫ࠑז‬ ӯȂӤ‫ݺ‬১֝Ӕরጄ࣏ьዴӔ౉রጄȂҐϯည੡ҭ ᣉӔಿ۶ጄᐪᅆ‫ݺ‬১֝Ӕф‫ێ‬রጄߞᖢႋᘘЙ௉Ȃ ȶϘ༟‫ܕ‬Դҭᣉߞ஭ѯҾඞ࢝᝱ജత‫ۦ‬Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽՁᓴ ᑄҝۖϞদ໛۶පদћмߞ஼ਛșșџӎȄȷည॔ ᑍ‫ז‬۶Ձߞ১֝ӔরጄԴઔҳዃऎࣹཇНࢢȂҭᣉ ϵുᆙ༟‫ܕ‬ᅆ‫ێ‬ಯӠϞᒸᎷȂ‫ێ‬КЙѻࣆ޼धϠ ЀȄ॔ᑍ‫ז‬ฅജᘛ᎛‫ ݺ‬2004 Ր 10 ѡ 10 џКົӔ ஼஼ዉ౎ྻ஭КົӔ஼஼ᆇȂѽዉ໲ҭᣉКົӔ஼ ࡈᗁ೚൘Ѫࢴබᚚȇҭᣉ಩ԇКົӔ஼ᗁ೚୺ॻϝ ϵ࢝ඈᡌՁߞᆇᗏȂ‫ی‬Ϡ‫ټ‬ӹतՀȂЙჅȂഺ‫ڱ‬Դ ࣙᇌ຀࢘ϯϵࠡѤϞ‫ێ‬་কК஼Ђ൙ҾඞߞҞକȄ ᅆթȂ॔ᑍ‫ࠑז‬ӯȂȶ‫ا‬Йᕖࣆ޼Ȃ‫ا‬ሮऎЙᇒЮ ঵Ղ֣ȂൌᕕညපদȂЮ঵Ҟѽऻఀ୓֋ЎȂ࣏Ϙ Ԇԍᅷߞ‫ڰ‬ఐȂӺྻᢰᑋৎൊၢྏۖᅷឹȄȷ ЫՐ࣏КົӔ஼࢙஼Ϙպ۹ՐȂ॔ᑍ‫ז‬ሃAMਛ౉ ጄᄥᕕ֖ࣆ୰ྲᇷ؊НᘛȂࡈ݀ઍ஼ȃ୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬ ѽфᑫࣷ‫ڟ‬୞ࠑᆊ‫ڭ‬ዉૡ࢙஼պՐȄԴᐍᆬӎߞ ൵ࢢϘඞᆊҍȂඞবѫ᜕ȂॗࠕϼϠۖඞᣍᎫȂ

10

ᇯԺ‫ڲ׀‬Ս៉৶֢㡯ȞMartin Foleyȟȃࡈᐍᆬӎ ҾࠜែᏩ֘ѽфџӎȃॻ஼ȃၬ່Ѱຈ஼‫҃ँ׮‬ ࠑࡈ݀Ȅ຾ԩᑫࣷ১֝ӔЃᆇј‫ن‬ᓚћȞ Emma DonovanȟȂሃ॔ᑍ‫ז‬фAMਛ౉ጄᄥԢҭឥ᜹Ȃ ж‫־‬ѽ஼ሬȃॻሬфԧ֋ߞӓሬȂऎᡘಿឥϯϞധ Ժ၃‫ߞۏ‬ᆇաȂᅓᢖϞᑫࣷ۶ҭᣉᚳනԺ௾ߞ১ ֝ӔћмȄȶЂൊԊߞ১֝ӔЙᕖጄನȂЙᝊጄ ᝉȂ֭գ֋ЎϘਇୃᐸ۶஭ᆇߞўՑȂॗ‫ݑف‬хփ ‫ـ‬ьȄȷᅆ‫ݺ‬թըᑫࣷН֖Ȃ॔ᑍ‫ࠑז‬ӯ‫ڽ‬ᑫࣷះ ఀ࢝ᅷܶȂҞѽԢᑫࣷ১֝Ӕ་֖রጄϯߞћмӹ ࣹȂϵᢰՁྐঋᖢႋ‫ـ‬Ժᑫࣷ১֝ӔߞরጄȂҟց ߞጄᐡ۶ћм೫࠸Ȅ ԴᆊҍჅ຀КȂᘘգϘࣱу᎖ߞЈ෧աȈࠑᆊຕ‫ف‬ ࢢȂ֋๒ತߡߞ॔ᑍ‫نۖऻז‬ᓚћ‫ۂ‬ᕛߞϘ౧‫ۍ‬գ ᑫࣷ১֝Ӕল੾ߞ༵॓֒ᘤȂߡ۲ᆓࠪȂጤఐߞ‫ن‬ ᓚћӲ‫ے‬ᅘූԳႋϭ༵ᘤ୙ຜϞՁȄᖔఀྍҳᢘඈ ߞ॔ᑍ‫ࠑࡋז‬ӯȂຈՁ԰ۖሂᣉࢢȂϘ‫ܠ‬ঋ࿤൯Ϙ Ԋգሂᣉ১֝Ӕપ֒ߞᚃߏ԰ᝑ‫ن‬ᓚћȂӺྻ঍ᄑ ᘛ᎛‫ن‬ᓚћൄണሂᣉȂணҐࡑਫরጄ೉ຈࣿஜȂᢰ ሂᣉᡘಿሮᝊഺ֜ᑫࣷ১֝ӔЃᆇјȄ‫ی‬ԩ১຾ԩ Ѓᆇјᘵ๒‫ڏ‬ሬϯЙ഼ȂҞᅆ‫ݺ‬রጄߞጤྑѽф১ ֝Ӕጤఐሹಜߞ‫੾ݑ‬ᢰՁেҞѽѽᆇྻуȂഺ‫ږ‬ѽ ᢖ಩রጄ֯ऎԑϠ᝷ԒԢߞ୑නȂٟգ᝝धȊ

कᐎ֗‫ॱޟ‬ዅȂ຺ູΟ‫ܚ‬ᒝࢺ՗ॱዅ‫ࣨޟ‬ጣ


ܹಁжࣨ

ଽ଱ӫដ৳‫ُࡡݲޟ‬Ψᇄ෽Ջ‫ٱ‬Ӈ ‫׈‬ኊ༕ȾSBS੫տ݈୛ኄኬႫᇃኄኬষȿ

ଽ଱ӫដ৳௡៝ᚖП‫ޟ‬ങຠ ᗑ‫୼ڣ‬ຈ‫ޱ‬୰Ԫ៉ਲӒබᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬ሃф୺‫ࣆڲ֘ڽ‬ ܹᜪ঎ߞᑫࣷ೺Ӕӹ෱᝱Ӕ‫៉۝‬Ȃਣ༟Ҧ‫ޱ‬೮ୈȂ ఠ᠜ᛕўԕᗝನᑂȂৼᆀ֎ᐼȂԪ៉ਲЏ၃ࢆֶ௟ ‫ݺ‬ϭ࣐งϬϭо2੡15жгֶ೮ୈຕ‫ލ‬Ȅ಩੡҃ࠑ ᝱ӔᡋૈᑟᅹߞࢠਰȂ෩ҍ௟๑՘ՐϠ㨙௲ߞ೺Ӕ ‫ۊ‬ຆ୙ۖ୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬་֖ᆶ‫־‬Ȃ௟ྻҍ಩වৎԴ‫ޱ‬ ನሃϠႽӲඞहჁ०ߞ؊বȄϘȂᗑ‫ڣ‬ೊӔൊࠜភ ༳๑ᡋ௟೺Ӕ‫ۊ‬ຆ୙݀୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬ȂԯऎညԳ‫ڭ‬๑ԇ ֣ᅆ೺Ӕ෩‫࠲ࢠޱߞڻ‬ቪȇϟȂթᗝ௟ྻჁхᗑ‫ڣ‬ ೊӔൊࠜᖔᆾ᠕Ϡ‫ڼޱ‬ᎬПߞᡋ‫׀‬Ȃӏգᅆӏ՘Ր ߞ೺Ӕ‫ۊ‬ຆȂ෩‫࠲ڻ‬᠕ȇϬȂӦ໦Ϡߞࢠਰࠑӯൊ ж೺ӔգࠫҺँ԰ిਵ०฀ȂჅ݀ҁেฅ၃ࠧ‫ޱ‬Ϣ ᄩ୺‫ୃߞڲ֘ڽ‬ᔂȂࣇթ਻‫ྻݏ‬ജѽЦၧँऎѹߞ ୺‫ܹࣆڲ֘ڽ‬ᜂᇳȇऎթ൵ࢢߞຕᎢ࣏௟ഺ‫ز‬೺Ӕ ୙ۖ୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬Ȃᅆ೺Ӕည‫ڰ‬Ϡփ‫ڏ‬Ȃ‫ࠧڭ‬൵ՀߞՉ వȄՂ‫ލ‬ѽϯߞನӤᖔఀ୼ຈ‫ޱ‬୰Ԫ៉ਲȂ7Ҧྻ ኶ߞత‫ۦ‬Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃබᅹ՘ᑫࣷᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬ჁхᗑԪ஼᝱ Ӕгॗߞ‫ܠޱ‬ՉవȂգჁᗝϲԇ֣Ϡ་Ϣᑫࣷᄩ аȂҞѽඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕Ȃሃфᖔఀᗑ‫ߞܹࣆڣ‬ᆶ‫־‬ ߞᡋϧȄ ֌‫ࠑ҃ݺ‬ᗑ‫ڣ‬ೊӔൊࠜߞᗑ‫ࣆࢠڣ‬ൊЂࢠਰබѽ‫ی‬ ЂನӤਣ༟᠜᠕Ȅ೐ϘȂᗑ‫ڣ‬ೊӔൊ‫ێ‬ᅁҪঋԴ ‫៉۝‬ϯȂӒՑࢆֶ୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬ऎϘৎԪ‫ߞޱ‬೐Ϭ՜ਟ ஼ȂЏ၃‫ږ‬ѽԴ‫ࢠޱ‬ϯۤఀ‫ږ‬௉ߞӲ‫ږ‬ᙇȂੲӎබ Йྻҍ಩ఠ᠜ᛕўᅆᜨг௅ߞఐ‫؛‬ȄՂЫᗑ‫ڣ‬ೊӔ ൊࠜ༰К഍ನඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕߰ߞᅁቫቮঋȂ֯ҍ ՉవȂԴ‫ޱ‬ನϯᅁ៳๑ሱȄ೐ϟȂࡈ֣ົ዇ࣆܹ௟

೺Ӕ୙ۖੋၝਫ་֖ᛓ‫ܫ‬ᆶ‫־‬ȂညԳӺࠧ᝱Ӕгॗ ஼ᜪՄ஼Ȃᅆ೺Ӕ഍ᄩ‫ـ‬Ґ౮๑‫࠲ࢠޱ‬ቪߞ᏶ԳȄ ຘ㣪๖‫ݎ‬Ґጿ ಩੡ఠ᠜ᛕўា᠈‫ڎ‬ϧȄӏߢຕ‫ލ‬Ղ֣ȉ֭‫ݙࡈݚ‬ গȂՂ‫୼ލ‬ຈ‫ޱ‬୰Ԫ៉ਲ֯ҍЙ‫ܹࣆ׀‬ሃ୺‫֘ڽ‬ ‫ߞ៉۝ߞڲ‬႖Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃȂࢢ‫ྻލ‬हညᏩᑁȄϘȂᗑ‫ڣ‬ ࣆܹᑋৎ഍ನᛓ‫ܫ‬ᆶ‫־‬೺ӔߞࣆຉȂ௟ྻӞႋȇҩ ҳȂхᅆ៨ߞᛓ‫ܫ‬ᆶ‫ࣆ־‬ຉȂӺൌྻԢَӞႋȄ ຊ߰ѽऎȂ‫ێ‬ᅁഺ‫ی‬ᙇᅆᑫࣷ஼Ӕබ഍ನ೺Ӕᆶ‫־‬ யᛟߞ᠜ᎢȂхփգՀ഍Ȅԯऎ࣊๒ᛓ‫ࣆܫ‬ຉթ ႮЙ഼Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃจൎ‫ی‬៨බঋԴӎϿȂऎ೺Ӕ་֖ᆶ ‫־‬Ȅ୵ࠧџࢢߞேࣆ៨Ȃ๑Ꭲᗑ‫ڣ‬Ѝ៨‫ݕ‬ᗑဖ៨Ȃ 㤩ྍଡ଼ҍᗑԪ஼᝱ӔгॗᜪՄ՘৶஼ߞ֖ԕȄຊ߰ हࠫจൎЙྻഺዹஇȂԯऎՂ֣ҞѽࡓᛞȂ‫ݕ‬ԓգ ᛞবȂ᠚‫ڗ‬Џ๴Ⴟ஼ਛߞ֖ԕညКȉ ‫ٱဴࢧۄ‬Ӈ10‫ں‬ԑ ӎћবѵ੡Ȃৣৣ࣏ 10 Րࡈ੗ࢃറᏇ‫ࣦ܃‬ၳ‫ڰ‬Ԇ ϩ۹ՐȄ 10 Րࡈߞ 8 ѡ 26 џȂഺԆ‫ڰ‬Ԇᢰည੡ߞ ேࣆ៨ᗑ‫֋ڣ‬Ӥ៨ф஼ਛ៨ᗑဖȂࣿᆊϘඞᢘѕஜ ᐄߞነఐȂɆપᇌൊ༤ϧֹ೺ӔɇߞලЄᕚ‫ޱ‬Ȅ‫ی‬ ৎѡࢢȂԓ᜕๴ҩϘඞȂɆ೺ӔЙఓ௟ЄЃ‫ݦ‬ϭ ઔȂϵঋ֖‫ܧܠ‬ᑫࣷߞϘᅌɇȄంթȂจൎ‫ی‬៨ බѽ೺Ӕऎࣆ޼‫ڎ‬ϧߞӀሂȂᎡ෋Ȃබ៏ఀӔᎠ ߞ෠ᗏȄ௟ቮঋᇦࢧ‫ج‬ԟߞ਴ཕϘ၏Ȃ֯ऎ֋Ўឹ ‫ޠ‬ෳࢃߞᅆ໪Ȃ҇ж๴෭ᕘш֖ऎߞᕕգӎ֒Ȅ ᖒ٤ࢇ‫ۺ‬ԃդ೎౩෽Ջ‫ٱ‬ӇནΡᜰ‫ݧ‬ ᗑ‫ڣ‬஼ྻ៉৶฼֊ജࢽԴ2009Րҍԇ૸षᛁசЍ

ྻঋ৶ߞ੡৏Ȃജࢽ‫ڹ‬ӡࢺգߞЍྻࠫԇҙҡ‫׿‬Ȅ ฼֊ӎϠ‫׎‬ሮሃहᝯࢽയգᝯȂ‫ࢽڭ‬ҩգ‫ێ‬ϠȂՂ ЫႍϠЏ၃ᔺᘘ‫ڹ‬ӡЍྻࠫӡҙߞൊжࠛᓿȄഺԆ ‫ڰ‬ԆᘘԴᎠࣤညКȄం฼֊ࠑবߞႋ៖ȂҞᓜᆷᙇ দদȄంࣆ޼ߞ‫࢘ڎ‬փ‫ڏ‬Ȃ฼֊‫ڰ‬ԆᅆԠ‫ݛ‬዇ࣆܹ ԓը௲‫ڽ‬ҩϘৎϩжॴ෗ߞ؊বȄԯऎᗁನԠ‫ݛ‬዇ বᅆߞயᛟȂᅁԴЙьȄᇆወກ঍ᄑ‫ڶ‬๒ЙऎЂൊ ж஼ӔߞњࢺȂӔᎠ‫ڶ‬๒ֲԋȂ৘ѷ൵ࠕገग़ߞѹ ᡋཅசயᛟ֋թઙ಩Ȃ၃ᕻயᛟЏ၃দྲ‫ݸ‬Դ঵ঋ ഍ನߞ៉‫ڰ‬џ຀ϯȄᑫЮ୼ԋȂ‫ی‬࿂၃ᕻߞ๴ਣ௟ ళឩ྽Ȃሃࠧళឩ྽ߞ໼ᛓȂྔ‫ྔݦ‬ቈȄࠧళឩ྽ ߞ഍ᄩྔ‫ྔڽ‬ᗞ᝱Ȅҵ྽ϠዴᆙԺȂࣆܹߞನ୑ຉ ರҍ಩ቪᜣȄԓҐϯԠ‫ݛ‬዇ജᗑ‫ڣ‬хᅆ៨Ϙјऔሦ ߞࠫ႕யᛟȂᢏӎҐኖȇьዴँࣆܹҍ಩ᡘ‫ݺۻ‬ᑾ Ӳ๑៨ँ៉৶ሃфᇥ៨ߞ‫؛‬໪ຈȂൌԴ᢭঴Ԡ‫ݛ‬዇ ߞᇒ޼ࢃࠫȄ ՂЫԓ᜕ҍ฼֊‫ڰ‬ԆȂᅁऎԠ‫ݛ‬዇ߞЙܶȄԯऎՂ ‫ލ‬џࢢ฼֊‫ڰ‬Ԇា᠈๴ቔȂຕ‫ލ‬൵ೣЙ‫׀‬฼֊ߞ ႖Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃࣆܹබঋ་֖ႃᓴȄѽӫࡈᗑ‫ڣ‬Ѝ៨ߞӔ ྍᎠࣤȂӅᏎӇీȄ୵ࠧџࢢႃᓴȂᗑ‫ڣ‬Ѝ៨៏ఀ ៉ਯȂϫ‫߰ݕ‬ᗑ‫ڣ‬ᇥ៨៏ఀ៉ਯȂϫ‫߰ݕ‬ϘԩᑾӲ ๑៨ँ៉৶Ȃ՘ґ៏ఀഺৎ៉ਯȂ๒ࢢҐဖЍ៨ߞ ьዴँࣆܹȂ‫ࡋ׎‬ᗑ‫ڣ‬Ѝ៨ߞьዴँࣆܹබྻऎթ ࡲሂȄᗑ‫ڣ‬хᅆ៨಩੡௟฼֊੯ԆߞहᝯႤਫ਼Ȃӹ ѧ૸ष់ўਣ༟ᎠࣤȄ૸ष់ச഍ࠜ Scipione ࠑ ӯЏ၃ӹຜ់ўаൊȂ་֖ໞ֤Ȃ൵ࢢ㤩‫׎࣏ܠ‬෩ ҍ୓໦ሃ‫׎‬Ȅ࢝ЙܶԠ‫ݛ‬዇ߞࣆ޼‫ۻ‬ႻȂබঋႬ฼ ֊ߞࣆ޼‫ۻ‬ႻȂంթభ㣦ϞȄ

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஋·෵·й·̃

ങၖ ԅ᜝ও ੖԰ߧҤ 1898 ș 1965

৘М ԅၷϞȂဴ໋цȂΙૡᆎ৘ϛό ኄ‫ॷݍ‬ό

12.11.1866 ș 12.3.1925 ᆎဴ ϛ๼ҕ୽ȶ୽Юȷ ϛ୽୽ҕឩȶҗሉ‫ޟ‬ᖂ౩ȷ ๿հ ҕ᠌ߑ؏ȃ৘МᏰᇳȃᄂཾॎหȃ গභᇌᜲ଄ȃέҕкဎ

՝Ր‫֘ۦ‬ўྲՑి‫ڈ‬ȂఀॊᐯћмࣾᚃȂࢥྐзᅁփ‫ۍ‬༟൹‫ݑ‬Ȅ1895Ր ۖশสȂҡ༰᚞у൙๶‫ތ‬ຈȂ՘ӲȶশสᒸКྻᗁྻȷȄ1905Ր8ѡȂᗑ ԪᒸКྻȃົᒸྻȃྑ஼ᐯߤȃࠦՐྻຈೡᚐȂԴџӎ‫ڴތ‬՘ӲϞК஼Ԣဖ ྻȂജయऎԢဖྻᗁನȂፁ‫ܠ‬ȶᠭ୵ᡩၲȂࢭ෇КົȂ࢙ӲӔ஼ȂӀ‫׮‬Գᡋȷ ߞভ‫ࣆۻ‬ᇩȂ‫ڭ‬঵ը෩ҍȶϬӔѹ၍ȷᐯሲȄం1895Ր֌1911Ր‫ڙ‬ӻভ‫ۻ‬՘ ґߞϩбՐ༡Ȃਗћ๴ஜϞϩը‫ޠ‬ႅ୓၍Ȅ

КົӔ஼൙কϘૺϯ௟Ȃᑢԇҭᣉषࣆܹѹ ਯȂ֖ࣆ୰୰ࠜȂКົӔ஼஘ᗁ೚ຈᚚȄ՝ ՐணሃჅಁᆡྻᐼȃ‫ޠ‬ᆔྻᐼຈȄۖҭᣉࢢȂ ѹ௺ȶϠӔ֌ϯȂӔӠ೐ϘȷȂᅁ֖ϿԳ‫ؼ‬ ভȃϬϛУิ૧ȃ‫ؼ‬ভᅋۘȂ๴֖ྲҭᅋȃ Нࢢϫᅁ֖ଆ߰գ‫ێ‬ӣȂ෩ҍȶѽႺ྽ை นЍ྽ȂѽЍ྽๴ਣႺ྽ȷȄԴӔӠȃ ক‫ڰ‬ȃ၃ᕻԧўবरգࣆᖻȂᅆ ᜦ‫ܹࣆܠ‬Դҭ೚޼֯ӡत ЂȄ

ጾᗮ ԅ‫ۃݘ‬

1911Ր10ѡ10џȂ‫୓ݾޠ‬၍՘ґȂ՘ӲุҔকࣆܹȂ‫ڗ‬Դग़஼ߞਗћᘒ ᚼᙩ஼ȂജయᓴऎКົӔ஼ᗜ੡Ђᗁ೚Ȃ‫ݺ‬1912Ր1ѡ1џԴࡑ‫ࢆڴ‬ሰබ

ᗂ‫ݍ‬ໞ Ռဴؑҡ ѮᢊᄔϽ 1908 ș 2001

ԇȄ๾ࢢሃҔࣶক೚࢔ିѵ൶۶᎘Ⴟ՘‫៉۝‬Ȉᗜ੡Ђᗁ೚ӤିతԇȂ ିঝ‫ڹ‬౻จऱ࢓ଡ଼֜Ȅའࢢିѵ൶෇ႹȂК஼ࣆ؊ஜᖜȂਗћԐ ࢢ๴ஜȶϟըভ‫ۻ‬ȷȃȶ᠕‫ޱ‬ႻஜȷຈȂ‫׮‬ӏᖔ՘ґȄ1923 ՐȂሃែᗑࣆܹԑᡋ҃ࠑ໸঳ྻবȂ๴ࠑȮਗћ໸঳ᗑ Ԫࢆ‫ڏ‬ȯȂ‫ؼ‬ൄК஼஼Ӕ៨Ȃ࢙Ӳ៨কߞࣆຉȂᒕ ࿂ឯᄑҔԂȄ1924Ր‫ۦ‬༾ӜೇНᘛҔϯ Ԓᗷ஼‫ڰ‬ȂըՐീ‫ݺ‬Ҕ‫ڴ‬Ȅ

ങ࣒݂ ԅᝯԆ

ኄՙ਴‫ݓ‬ 1888 ș 1985

ԅυ࡯ ᒷჿ೽Ͻ 1907 ș 1937

ኄ‫ݍ‬ඏԎ੕ᙴ 1878 ș 1933

1910 ՐணҐԢဖྻȂѽᅁϧকϠȂҐϢԴ ዃՍߞਗћୱᖉȄНࢢሃӨ௣ᖩȃཀ೜ổԪ ֯Ȃ೚Ϙዃ֘ȂᐾᕛዃՍ஼ӔࣆܹȄҔԂ੡Ȃ ௲ታዃ֘ক༤ϘႮӤุࡑ་‫֌ؽ‬ЋઔᝯȄ1936 ՐȂ๴ࠑȶ‫ߞا‬ѹ௺șș๏Ͽ‫ة‬ᐼȷϘћȂ៚ গКџԑবᐼߋϘӌ᜕๴Ȃ൵ࢢߞർ‫߰׀‬Ӆ ࣏К஼Ȅ‫ة‬ᐼ੡Ȃஜ৶ዃ֘௟Ѐ‫ة‬џȂ ࢽ෭ԺըЂᐼȂԴҭ‫ۊ‬ഄЂథКԩ ᏩϘ੡Ȅ 1948 Ր֖ᐳȂည ᓴ஘ᗁ೚Ȅ

ԅॊђȂՌဴ੕ᠷ

1937Ր੡ԇߩকЂ༤ࠜȄ8ѡ14

Ԋᔕฒ࣏ 1904 ș 1942

џ‫ڴࡑݺ‬ϯߩᕝၢџক‫ؽࣛی‬ᕝ ᑟȂ७џকȶϩϣࣛ঳ᑟКȂգ ϩϬࣛҵҝᗑປȷȂ᠛ஜԑ ஼Ȃ 8 ѡ 14 џജ‫ܠށ‬ऎ ȶߩকြȷȄ

1939 ՐԴዃ֘௩௬ᝯᕝᕧџক੠ ᄥࠜК‫م‬Ӓ༯ь௟Ȃ៏ఀ௩௬ᝯЂ థȄತਰቈ݁፞‫ٸ‬ȂۤఀԢҟ࠲ᎎ ᐼർ‫׀‬Ȅԯཋઽീ‫ݺ‬፞‫ٸ‬Ȅᖔग़ ஼ᗁ೚ჴ๴ȶҳ஼Ԣဖক௟ ታНকᄥґᐙൢȷȄ

КົӔ஼ࠐՐ൰ҍক‫ڰ‬ታഞȄхᅆ ିѵ൶ᇍ࢓Ȃ஄ႅ୛᡽᜹‫׿‬Јኂ҅Ȃ ጕୟҍ‫ڴ‬԰ۖ༳ࡑȄೡᚐ᠕஼কȂ ๴ஜ᠕஼ᐼߋȂԴұЌᕝీᔹཕ ିকȂঝିۤઐ࢓ۘȄ‫ۦڳ‬ КົӔ஼஼ၨኇՑ೐ ϘϠȄ

ԅኈ᎑

ଽ‫ס‬૞

1937Ր ணҐȶಁ ತ‫ݙ‬ൊ‫ݺ‬ Շұ్ ՘ऎ

෹ࠒ᝘ኊ 1882 ș 1916

‫۠؃‬Ϧ

КົӔ஼೐бԇ஘ᗁ೚Ȃ࣏ҭᣉӎषϠЀК ೐Ϙ֜ᑉԇթঋᚚ߰Ȅ՝ՐҐϢК஼஼Ӕ៨Ȃ Դᇊ࢙ం‫ةڰ‬џࣿஜȄ1945Ր԰ҭᣉЍ֯Ȃᑢ ԇ୼༯ᒩ঵ԇᒩࠜȃषࣆܹి‫ڈ‬ᣇ஘ᣇࠜȃषࣆ ܹ૪੩ࠜȃष៉ྻ៉ࠜȄ 1972 Րҍԇҭᣉष ࣆܹ೐ϝԇѹਯȂ 1978 ՐҍԇКົӔ஼೐ бԇ஘ᗁ೚ȄӤ‫ݺ‬ᘁ‫ތ‬༝ሮऎਛਲऎ஼ਛ НӎȂҁ‫ݺ‬1957Ր൹ᓱКົӔ஼೐ Ϙ‫ݙ‬ਛࣆᐯ੭șș‫ټ‬ӲᅁᎹਛ ࣆ௞ॊᐯ੭Ȅ

ᔜԊᝢ

‫ڀ܇‬কቧታഞ я‫ڰ‬Ԇࢢាԇ Ҵࣆܹ౧ԆȂ ࢺ፼КӒȂϢ ๴ӠࢢȂঋِ ᔅՍȂџক࢝ ՐȂሃ࿅ࠎ ҳȂ‫ؼ‬ᢏ ᢏȷ

К஼७г៨঵ԇᗁನȄฅண ௯୓၍Ȃࣆ޼ϯѹ௺ੜग़஼ ࣉȶᗑष֋޼ȷȄњࢺਗћ хᅆȶҔԂȷȄԴȶбϘ ᢏȷКȂኀऔ់ӯਗћᛓ ዃ‫ތ‬Ȅ៳ߋ៉ϠߏȄ

‫ؙ‬Ӑሜ ԅཱི۟Ȃဴᆠፏ ੖԰όഛ 1883 ș 1944

ࠦՐ੡҃ҐϢਗћߞভ‫ۻ‬ೡᚐȂᑉ ԇਗћদঋׄјȂԴভ‫ۻ‬៨аԳ֜ त୼Ȃዴ࢘ҍԇታᐱঋᚚȄ‫ة‬џᐼ ߋง༡Ȃѹ௺ȶա።ా஼ȷȂሃ џӎԪ֯Ȃҍԇџஂࣆܹታ ഞȄ‫៉ߋࢢڗ‬࿂ЂȄ


஻Ᏸ‫ي‬

৘ҳΡ

ԅᅕধȂဴዌஹ

ԅክҕȂဴӆ૖

‫ۈ‬Ј(Ϭᒷჿ)੕࠲

Ԋᔕᛂ԰ 1900 ș 1990

1901 ș 2001

‫ڀ܇‬কቧታഞ௺֯ᔑߞࠜЄȂ 1928 Րऱܑ 1942Րತক་ᏸ፞‫ٸ‬ȂۤఀХՉ߮ ЂథȂѽϘৎᄥНֻϧȂᕝଡ଼ዴ঺Н я‫ڰ‬Ԇࢢាԇऎ‫ތ‬Ҕ൵୼ታഞȄԢՐత‫ۦ‬К ԅϭүȂ҂Ӫ࿅ϯȃ ዲϠȂాҍࠕϩ঺‫ݺ‬ЎНуকȄᖔ Ҵࣆܹ౧ԆȂࢆֶ‫ތ‬Ҕ‫ݽ‬ኽȄԴК১ЂᐼКњ ᜊӪ‫ں‬੎ȃᏰӪ‫఼ס‬ ፼КӒȃग़஼ᜲ෻ᇊᗁ೚Ȃॻѳ ࢺ፼КӒȂϢᝯணᐼȄ1931ՐȶϝϘϣȷ‫ڰ‬ᢏ ੖԰‫ۈ‬Ͻ ඕ޼бѵຈታഞჴఱᐙൢȄ ๴ӠࢢȂঋِ‫ێ‬ತታߞ‫ތ‬Ҕকϧᘖᎏॎȃଡ଼Շ ș 31.10.1887 5.4.1975 գȶ‫ތ‬ў༩ग़ᆬȷН ᔅՍȂџক࢝‫֫ࠬأ‬Ϟ‫ތ‬ϬषԑᄩȄ 1936 ᆎဴ ȶ୽ҕ८‫ڼ‬ॖϞЮȷ ๿հ ϛ୽Ϟ‫ڼ‬ၼȃϛ୽ငᔼᏰᇳȃऋᏰ‫ޟ‬Ᏸஷ ᠖Ȅ ՐȂሃ࿅ࠎࡱֻᓔ፼КӒȂൄ՘ᏩᢘК ҳȂ‫ؼ‬ᢏК஼‫ۻ‬Ⴛ‫ڕ‬Ԩߞȶ֘Չ‫ڰ‬ ՝ Ր Դ ਛ త ‫ ۦ‬К Ց ి ‫ ڈ‬Ȃ 17 ࿐ Ϣ ‫ ܇‬м ኂ ឋ ᐯ ௅ ᐯ ೫ ॻ ћ ȃ ᇖ ങ ຈ ֘ ᢏȷȂའࢢജ࢖ူ֌ 1990 ᐯȄ1907ՐϢޫҔ࠲‫ܠ‬൙কി՘ᐯ੭Ȃత‫ۦ‬ক‫ڈిڰ‬Ȃജᓴۤ‫ܡ‬໱઻џȂ Ր‫ܕ‬দᖔ֋ӤȄ ѹ බᡝџӎ‫ڴތ‬੎‫ޠ‬ᐯ੭Ȅ 1908 ՐȂԴ‫ڴތ‬ҐϢԢဖྻȂ 1911 Ր԰ϯઔண ԅղҝ ՝ Ґ‫ڙ‬ӻভ‫ۻ‬Ȃ‫ࢢێ‬ᒕ࿂ணሃਗКЋታᐱНভ‫֖ۻ‬ஜȄ 1924 Րҍԇཀਂক੭ ଵՙ๼ᑪ ࢢȂ ੭ࠜȄ1926ՐȂညᓴऎ஼Ӕ៨ȶ௱ச܎৶ྻѹਯȷȂ՘ऎК஼஼Ӕ៨൵୼ታ 1907 ș 1977 Գ‫ؼ‬ ഞȄԢՐԇ஼Ӕভ‫ۻ‬কᗁҦ҄ȂҍਰҔԂȂҔԂർ‫ࢢ׀‬බԇ஼ӔࣆܹѹਯȄ ‫ة‬џᐼߋ੡Ȃ‫ݺ‬།֘࠲ᎎᐼКժՇ ȃ Ӯ๕ঋཫȂࠡѤџক་ᒚদዉȂᖔ 1928Ր୓ȂታᐱК஼َϢ஼Ӕ࢙നȶཀࠛϩՐȷȄ1937ՐȂៀ࿛ᑜ‫ڰ‬ᢏ ை ࠦчӨџᐙൢȄࠛࠝ‫ڨ‬ᎎҦ҄ൊ ๴ӠȂԴկ֘ᜁЋ๴ࠑȶ൵ࢢᝯᔝȷᆊሲȂࢆֶԑব‫ة‬ᐼȄ1942ՐȂК ԅϛҕ Ҧ҄‫ܡ‬ԇаȂࢽ෭ҟᄾᔝᐼ‫؝‬ ग़ॻែຈ26஼ᜪ঎хࠬರԒԢࢆ‫ڏ‬Ȃ፼‫ۦ‬యᗝऎԢဖ஼ȶК஼ᐼ஡൵ ኄ‫ݍ‬ᒂᔐ ՘ґᕝీ๳൙НԒকȂ‫۽‬ 1905 ș 1941 ୼೚࢔ȷȄ1943ՐȂࡈ݀ணሃ༟ᜲྻ៉ȂྻࢢКग़ॻϬ஼ԒԢ๴ ՇҭᣉࠝїȄ ࠑȶ༟ᜲࢆ‫ڏ‬ȷȄ 1946 ՐȂ԰ࡑ‫ڴ‬ѹࢺࣆ‫ڰ‬Ȃҡ༟ۘᐳ஼Ӕ 1937Ր੡ԇ஼কК੭ᄥ஘Ȃᔌൊ ЂྻȂ1948ՐȂ୼ೈညᓴऎКົӔ஼ᗁ೚Ȅ஼Ԓᐼߋҵ ணҐȶಁᆡྻᐼȷȄ10ѡ26џȂ ‫ࢢ׀‬Ȃ‫ݺ‬1949Ր঒ҭȂթࢢԴᑢըᓴᗝКാᓴാ ತ‫ݙ‬ൊ‫ݺ‬ұ֖ৗ਱ࠡᕝџকȂி ԇᗁ೚Ȅ1975Ր4ѡ5џо‫܆‬ԯॎ๴‫ݑ‬ѕ Շұ్‫܆‬Ȃ࣏ऎϣպ‫״‬ЀȂ ᡙઽԴҭҔЀ‫ࠗܡޒ‬ീѵȄ ՘ऎϯઔ಍൝஡ߞ‫ة‬џ ԅ֗⭫Ȃဴҳᘍ

ጽϛғ

नⱔ

ᗂਣϯ

஻ოි

ᇟૠ໪ወȄ

ԅ࡚ᙴ ੖԰‫ۈ‬Ͻ 1910 ș 1988

ങ࣒݂ ԅᝯԆ ኄ‫ݍ‬ඏԎ੕ᙴ 1878 ș 1933

঵ԇᗁನȄฅணҐཀࠅ ޼ϯѹ௺ੜग़஼ᢜۘᅁ ޼ȷȄњࢺਗћভ‫֭ۻ‬ ԂȷȄԴȶбϘб‫ڰ‬ ኀऔ់ӯਗћᛓ༟ ៳ߋ៉ϠߏȄ

ᑉ ֜

԰ឃ(Ϭΰ੕)᝘ό 1887 ș 1969

ጽင୽

፼КӒߞࠜЄȂฅԇКົӔ஼೐бȃ೐ϛԇ ᗁ೚Ȅѹࣆҭᣉ੡งȂҭᣉ၃ᕻ๴ਣ‫ڝ‬ിȂ Ϡ‫׮‬஼аӠಯᗁৃ໹Ⴥ 6000 ग़ЮȂ‫ڹڭ‬ҭᣉ ᠚‫ڗ‬ȶ‫ࣷڲ‬ұЈᔷȷȄேࣆ౎Ր༟‫֋ܕ‬Ӥмߞ ‫ؼ‬ভȂ 1987 Րࢆֶႋ୵ҭᣉ‫ئ‬ទȃ༟‫ݸ‬ҭ ᣉҳषឱӔಿ঒К஼Ђ൙ణᓐȂ1988Ր༟ ‫ݸ‬ඡူȄ‫ډێ‬Հߞ‫؛‬໪ᖔϠӔ࢝୼ߞሮ ԢȂҭᣉᑢըᎠࣤᢖӯȂ፼၃஼ ‫׮‬ऎҭᣉϠӔ൵ᜃ݇фߺ ‫ߞܠ‬ᗁ೚Ȅ

‫׈‬υМ ኄ‫ݍ‬੕ࠒМܿ

1894 ș 1971 ฅԇ஼Ӕࣆܹ֖ࣆ୰୰ࠜȃ୑ࣆ

ൊࠜȃҳࠜȄ1930Ր҃ࠐȂሃԕ ௻ᜪ঎ྲᝯກ౧ॗȂ՜԰ᝯກ֋ѹ ᡋȄ֘Չ‫ڰ‬ᢏ੡ҍবᎠႋգґȄ ‫ة‬ᐼง༡ҍ‫ڹ‬ग़஼Ȃᜪ၌૧ ৄ‫ܠ۝‬Ȃᖔఀग़෯໹Ⴥ 8ኆग़ЮȄ

К஼Ӕѹߤྻ៨঵ԇѹਯȄ 1945 Ր ҃ࠑК஼ᜪ၌ᗑԪ஼ᐳൢȄ 1946 Ր ᑉԇࣆ޼‫۝‬஥ྻ៉҃ࠑȂѹᐱ୓ନ ȮКົӔ஼ᐳ‫ޱ‬ȯȂ‫ڹ‬ਗћᅹࢥ ߞУᡋᐳ‫ޱ‬ፁӲऎཉԨаቦ ۘߞУ୰ۘȂۘॗᗁ೚ ߞᡋϧȄ

ԅߦၻ

៫ᆰ໙ ԅЍύ

໿ҝಈ ԅྶണ Ԋᔕறᑪ 1882 ș 1948

Ӕ஼কቧȂࣆ޼ϯจ૨ድ྾Ȃգȶ ৆і௟কȷНᇍၳȄ‫ۦ‬௄ရిࣾ ᚃȂ‫ڭ‬ѽ‫ిܟ‬ϧ༓ఠۘক༤Ȃࣇ գȶ௄ရ௟কȷНᇍȂฅ๴ ஜޫࡑԑष࿑֢ႻஜȄ ៳ߋ៉ϠߏȄ

ᔜಎ

԰ឃოۡ 1891 ș 1969 ᆎဴ ϛ୽౪фѬΰശ‫ޟູڟ‬ѴҺড়

1919 Ր֯ऎК஼҃ࠑᄥ՘৶ணҐѐᐌ۶ྻȂ ෩ҍȮЋ‫ތ‬யᛟሲܲȯȂϧ൘К஼Йକ‫ݸ‬ౢыш Є᎚ӠԳЋ‫ތ‬Ȃ๘Ղ௄ရਵЙକ‫ݸ‬ౢၐԳॠႮዩ ֽȂᏩᑁገग़҃ࠑȂ‫خ‬ᚼᘕᎢ‫؛‬ཕȄϟᐼࡈࢢࠜ งҍԇᏸग़Ђ‫ڹ‬ȂऎК஼‫ة‬ᐼ‫ڕ܋‬۲ၳߋۤ෯ ׄȄ1945Ր6ѡ҃ࠑК஼ࣆܹ঵Ԑᜪ၌ϞȮ ᗑԪ஼ᐳൢȯȄ஼ܹᏏҭࢢȂ‫ݺ‬1954Ր ሃҳӹൊࠜၧг໹҃ࠑКົӔ஼ሃ ग़஼ᜪ၌ϞȮКग़ԒԢ‫ڨ‬ᒔ ౧ॗȯȄ

੖԰԰ό 1897 ș 1946

ఐඡᑟᝯ௟ታȄϘј࢙Ӳক೚؊‫ڭ‬ ࠜงᑉԇ؊ࠜȂ‫ة‬ᐼ੡งߞዲࢢᓗ ඡ஍ྩᅆᐼߋߞർ‫׀‬գ๑Ҟ‫ݠ‬࿝ߞ ୒ឥȄӺԯ‫ێ‬ఐ޼Ѝ֯પᙇȂ ௱ѽࠧ௱јࣱཐ୵ዲϠȄ ‫៉ߋࢢڗ‬࿂ЂȄ


ΠΪжकΠȃέΪԑ фȂϛՙМϽҺࢺުࠉᖅ ᄸȂϛ୽МϽఀ‫ࣨى‬ΡϗᎆюȂ෰ ౪Ο჋नᎌ೻ኺ‫ޟ‬МϽӪড়ȂՄМϽӪ ড়‫ޟ‬໱ϛю౪Ȃάுઉܻ჋ጾϯஉ೻ኺ୉ σ‫ޟ‬ఀ‫ى‬ড়‫ܚ‬ጚഅ‫ޟ‬Ᏸ೚ᕗცȄМϽӪড়ঈ ӵМᏰȃᇭِȃਪห้П७‫ޟ‬റюଓᝦȂӓ ӣࢎ᠜Οȶ༁ߜΪԑȷ‫ޟ‬ᐣѬᎃྵȄ᎐ѮϞ ࡣȂΙ‫ٲ‬ఀ‫ى‬ড়ӵѮᢊ᝷៉ᖠЬ༈‫ٱޟܛ‬ ཾȂѮᢊஉᎴΟՌϏ‫ޟ‬МϽӪড়Ȃ хϛ๼ҕ୽‫ޟ‬М݂ᆠડџоҗ ж༈៉Ȅ

৸‫ס‬ኞ নӪണ὆Ȃԅ⯤ිȂ ࡣ‫׽‬ԅ‫ס‬ኞ ੖԰੕ჿ 1897 ș 1931

஡·ӑ·ஔ·ᐲ

യ඼ԑ

‫ݓ‬ᇭஆ নӪҝஆȂࡣ‫׽‬ᇭஆ

фߒհ ‫ٵ‬๼ྭ໴ȃᇭِᏰ፣ᘎȃ ҡࣀ‫ޟ‬᛺೚ȃ࿋фᅕ़ຠ‫ڐ‬

নӪቆસ߀Ȃဴ෻఼Ȃտ ဴச๷ՂΡȃҩүόΡ ෹ࠒ෷ዕ 1864 ș 1957

ည҃К஼຾ԩߞК஼๪๪ਛȂሃ௺Ђ ϼ‫ڭ‬ᇍȶࡑ௺ҔኅȷȄኅӨӮߞ๪֋ ՘ൢ‫ޱ‬Ȃѵ༡ေߏᆽҞϢ๪Ȃ๒੾ ᎠᑾપȂ҃ࠑ֯գһ඼ȮࠅҘ ᚪ൧ᄦȯȃȮૈᄯᄦȯȃ Ȯ‫ޗ‬ᄂᄦȯȄ

ћᐯਛȈ‫ޒ‬ሬ௅ᅆ‫֘ތ‬ўћм‫׮‬գಎࡓߞൄ႔ሃᑾۖ ߞ‫ڍ‬ႋȂ઻ϭϞዴ༓ቲᚳѷઘᙷቲዃߞКॻћ຾֯Ȃ ҒࣁЈሲȃ෸ћȃћмໞᎢȃॻሬి‫ل‬ȃ᝜‫ۏ‬ȃᚙ៌ ֯ࡡຈȂҁ෩্ȶѽ֋‫ا‬ऎКѕȂѽ༢Ꮛऎ੾য়ȷߞ ЈࡡћȂᅆћᐯध዆ᠩಎቈȄሬ‫ڏ‬ᐯਛȈҁ፠գȮ ༟‫ॻށ‬ћᡝӎȯȃȮည҃ॻᆔ᝜‫ۏ‬ȯຈి‫ل‬۶᝜ ੩Ȃ‫ڭ‬঵൹ϞᆔՄຊᄑȃຊ༶ȃஐ੟ൊ঵ߞ࿄ ݇Ȃ‫ـ‬Դթ௄ᚂϯ൹ӲϞȶϯϭ‫؛‬ᕭՄ ‫ޱ‬ȷȄ๴‫ށ‬ਛȈҁ՘ґ๴‫ށ‬ҍȶ ‫أށ‬КћӇՄᑟȷȄ

ጾϯஉ ԅ៸ধȂάԅӆҧȃҕЄȃφҕȂ ‫ٮ‬ෆϽӪጾਏȃ‫ں‬υᎷ ੖԰ಝᑹ 1868 ș 1940

θѡӈ

ᆎဴ ϛ୽ߖфശ࣏റю‫ޟ‬ఀ‫ى‬ড়ȃ ѕσ८ཱི᡹ቀΡ‫ސ‬

নӪղඉȂԅᇶΡȂ ࡣоᒙॱȶѡӈȷ࣏ӪȂ ఏԑՌဴȶЊҁՂΡȷ

๿հ ጾϯஉᒵ໱

ᆎဴ ϛ๼ҕ୽໠୽ϯാϞΙȃ ȶ࿋ф૩ထȷȃȶߖфਪထȷ фߒհ ኿ྥ૩ਪνԅМȃѡӈၑԆȃ ѡӈМԆȃѡӈᏎԆȃ኿ྥ૩ਪ

ϷҠԇ՝Ր‫ڀ‬Ԣဖྻ՘৶Ȃ֯ऎভ‫ۻ‬ඡϠȂҁ‫ݺ‬1909Ր༟‫ܕ‬ാ᠈ ‫ݙ‬ᓱϬжඡ૽ȈȮӔ۲џඡȯȃȮӔᣰџඡȯȃȮӔӲඡȯജᇍऎ ȶᎨϬӔȷȄКົӔ஼՘ӲНࢢࠜՐԴࣆܹᑉԇ୼ૺ‫ܡ‬৶Ȃэᑉ ԇᆾᅅ୰୰ࠜࠜႿ34ՐȂ࣏஼Ӕ៨দঋٙຉϠߏȂ1948Րฅண ᓴӔ஼஘ᗁ೚Ȃ‫ێ‬ҁϘӠ౻྆Ȃ‫ݺ‬៨஼аᅁЙԺ‫ڍ‬ȄԢ੡Ȃ ҁᘘ࣏К஼ࠕ҃ߢԩߞ੩‫ޱ‬ਛȂэᐽନ੩Ȃҁ‫ ݺ‬1932 Ր Դϯઔ൹ᓱዾ࿤ନ੩ߤȂѽ‫ݽ‬ᝊȃ‫ݽ‬኷ȃ࿤ፁȃग़ដ ऎ১ࡋȂᑋನȃु‫ٿ‬ሃయዃନ੩Ȃᑋನ՘‫ڀ‬೚ߞ ନ੩҃ࠑ೑ၳȂ༰Մ፠՘Ȯዾ࿤ନ੩ϼ ՄћȯȂ዆ᠩಎቈȂ֌ЫЪԴ দԞȄ নӪᓀেȂԅኈዖȂ

ᓀҜӣ

К஼಩҃๪ਛȃग़ങి‫ڈ‬ਛȂК ஼಩҃ग़ങߞට௄߰Ȅ‫ݺ‬ᜱ๪൹ ֯ϯ෩্ȶᆽᇟྋȂ७ዃЂȷȂ ᐽࠜ޵๪ȃК஼๪Ȃэѽ๪୺ ჺ᠖КҳȂᓉԪК֘‫ޱث‬ փ֋՘লሻȄ

ф

௺Ђϼ࣏чЖ࡭๪ਛȂ‫ێ‬ ដȷȂ༰ћϠ๪ȃ֯ਛ๪ ๪ϠߏЋѪȃࠅ൧൦ᚪ ੩‫ݥࡏޱ‬ៜ༊Ȃᑾ‫ۍ‬ল ЄԒԢ՘ӲȶЂল௅๪ Ԫ‫ݑ‬ᜱ๪ࣹँНϘ Դា‫ݚ‬৫҃ѳऀ ֘ገᜱ๪ߞ֒ ϘᇌЋѪ

੖԰֔ᑹ 1887 ș 1939

಩҃ћՄᐯਛȂྲћмႻஜԐᠭ߰Н ϘȄᓿӛԢԴిᐯ۶ᐯങु‫ٿ‬ўবߞ୒ ឥᢖ຾Ȃ‫ݙ‬຾ȮћՄᐯরፔȯ࣏К஼ ୼ຈᐯ੭൵՝ߞর᝶ᐯిॊ੩Ȅҁ ‫ݺ‬1935Ր୓ନߞȮ೐Ϙ‫ز‬ᚎᢜ Մࠑȯ՘ऎՂЫᚎᢜՄ ߞԐ‫ڼ‬Ȅ

ᓿៗ ᐯԕ К м

ጽჲ

নӪჲᅪ տဴ‫۝‬᎑

ဴᅸѠ

԰ឃۣᑹ 1895 ș 1953

፽ЮைऎϠኵࡓȃුᘳऎᜃȂᅆК஼ߤྻф঩࠸գ൅ᅔᣍᅅȇ‫࢘ی‬Ⴜᐯገࣷȃ ᓐ߉ћ᜹෇ᒸࢢߞॊᐯᇟૠф‫ޱ‬஼Ђভ‫ࢥߞࢢۻ‬጗Ȅ‫ڙ‬ӻভ‫ࢢۻ‬Ȃԇࡑ‫ڴ‬ᗜ੡ ࣆܹ۶Ҕ‫ܹࣆڴ‬৫೜ኇаቦి‫ڈ‬ᗁࠜȂऎКົӔ஼঵ԇి‫ڈ‬ᗁࠜȄሮऎి‫࣏ڈ‬஼ ਛᒸ‫ݻ‬НੲӎȂ࣏஼ਛන௻Нੲ௄Ȃѹ௺ి‫ڈ‬ᕕంൄ՘಩ѵܶᇊҍ๴Ȃ७ϧভ୵ ȶᡝ੩ऎ‫ܡ‬ȷߞ᚞࠸ȂऎթዟӼ֘ўႤӎѹ၍ి‫࢘ۘڈ‬Ȃ෩ҍ኿୵ᡝ၃ຈ‫ؼ‬ভన ࣉȄԢ੡Ȃ෩্ӔᡋሃЃᡋȂࢆᐱ֋ӤࢥྐȂদ໛гӔႽ዇ి‫ڈ‬фࠢ௲ߞѵधᣍȃ ϠӠᣍȃग़ᐯి‫ڈ‬Ȅ1916Ր֌1927ՐȂԇҔ‫ڴ‬Ђᐯ੭ࠜȂভྲҔЂታᐱᢜۘ۶ ᐯॊȃᐯۘന၉Ȃ൹ᓱॊुᑟᅹȂࢆᐱӀӔి‫ڈ‬Ȃ঵֖‫ٷ‬ЃԢ੭ȄళۤȶᡃࣁЂ ‫ۏ‬ȂᇨᜲಿਛȂࢥྐ֋ӤȂहਟ‫ڭ‬Ғȷߞў୫ȂЙԯᐯങߋ៉փవӋȂЂ༓є ་ྲϠߏȂЙ‫ݲ‬Ϙ੾‫ݢ‬ၑಿਛȂ༟ȶᐯങȷሃȶ֋ӤȷНলȄᘘњࢺџૈ ᒸಽߞྲћмႻஜȂ෩্Ө႖ћȂᝒ՘ћᐯভ‫ۻ‬Ȃхᅆࢋ࢙෇ҟѹ၍Ȃ ࢆᐱѽॊᐯ۶Ӕѹऎаਟߞྲࢥ጗Ȃೣ‫ڹ‬ҔЂ՘ऎȶУұȷ੡งྲ ћмႻஜߞКѕȄҔԂ੡งȂ஼Ӕࣆܹ‫ܠ‬ൌࡑ‫ࢢڴ‬Ȃѹࢺి‫ڈ‬ ֖ࣆ܎৶ྻȃឯനКົӔ஼Ђᐯ୰фКҴु‫ٿ‬୰Ȃѹᐱ ి‫ڈ‬фᐯങᢜۘ‫ؼ‬ভȂ1928Ր֌1940Ր௞ԇ КҴु‫ٿ‬୰୰ࠜȂരᅔᅆᐯങु‫ٿ‬ ߞѹ௺Ȅ

ଵՙ੒໨ 1879 ș 1964

৸ඍᘄ

ҏ ဴ ή

԰ՙҗᙴ 1896 ș 1950

ᑢҫᐯਛȃᐯങታᐱϠȃУұႻஜᐯ ӠታഞНϘȃКҴु‫ٿ‬୰ᑢҫሬ‫ुڏ‬ ‫ߞݙٿ‬൹ᓱ߰Ȅ൮෻ՐদȶӔ౉ઈ ြȷѷऎϠଊߡȄ‫ێ‬ԇ஼Ӳሂᣉ Ђᐯ੭ࠜง༡ϧ੖‫ٳ‬ឡȂऎҭ Ђџࢢߞ֋Ӥᐯങ‫ޤ‬ඛ ࠲ଝգґȄ

಩�� ஼՝ ֣

ԅ‫۝‬ઍ

ᆋ࡚ᓸྩ 1895 ș 1976

ቆҩү

К஼຾ԩྲѡँ಩҃႐ϠȂ෸ћਛȂ ࢆᐱྲ႐੾ࢠȂᅆК஼ྲ႐ߞ๴ਣ இҍϞদঋߞ୒ឥȇփ਷‫ؠ‬ዝߞ ϠӠ۶ྑఐԢҁߞԩ֯Ȯԓ‫־‬ ௵ᑜȯϘዹ҇ᆕϞறग़ ۶෌ཋȄ

஻࡭Ы নӪЖሉȂ࡭ЫΝ๋Ӫ Ԋᔕዖό 1897 ș 1967

௺ࢬѪ࣏຾ԩൢ԰ЈሲЂਛȂϵ࣏ ᔴᔱᎄᎅँ҃ࠑ֯ਛȄ‫ࡡ֯ێ‬ఐြ ա‫ض‬᎑ᛔȂຕᅹֶ؊ទᚰ؆ᑋȂ ௟К஼ཇ೚ߞൢ԰ᢜЈሲሃ ࣶ֘Јሲߞྲ‫ޱث‬ᓉऎ ϘᢜȄ

੖԰յࡂ 1886 ș

К஼຾ԩి‫ڈ‬ਛȂ઻ग़ ਰంৰᐯਛ‫ࢃن‬Ȅ፼ ҫϯԇง൵ࠜߞ੭ࠜ ϳȂ 1949 Րۖҭࢢ ҭᣉညԳ࢙നȂԴ ྽ўবቲգґ


â€ŤÜšâ€Źáƒ„á‹ ŕťł!ŕŚ‡ŕ €ŕˇ¸ŕ˝Ž ŕŞŞâ€ŤÖžâ€ŹŃąÖ‡ŕŤ° Ôşŕ¸ ŕť¸Ő‘Ö˝ŕźź

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ਛȂ ๴ਣ ߞ

ቓјၻ নӪቓჰᄔȂࡣ‫׽‬ӪፒȂ ߑԅјቌȂࡣ‫׽‬ԅјၻȂ ဴԢஹ

ሁϯӈ

԰ឃ԰ഛ 1891 ș 1934

԰ឃ‫໌ݡ‬ 1892 ș 1982

಩҃຾ԩ႐Ϡȃᛔћਛ۶ሬ‫ڏ‬ᐯ߰ȂК ஼՝ง៷዆ನᎢਛȂ‫ێ‬႐֯Ȯి‫ا‬Ղ ֣ЙྐՁȯऎК஼ࠕ಩҃၃‫ۏ‬ఐ႐ НϘȂ‫ێ‬຾֯ȮҗႺ᎘዆ȯȂ ࡋ࣏К஼೐Ϙൊ‫ڀ‬೚ߞ៷ ዆ग़ᐯ௞຾Ȅ

஻σν ҏӪ஻ғ᠌Ȃࡣ‫׽‬Ӫ஻ࣗȂ ဴ۟ࣗȂտဍσνۨρȃ ή٨БΡȃᘍӪσॳஆ ኄ‫ݍ‬ฬऊ 1899 ș 1983

ᆎဴ ᅕᇭِᏰϞЮ фߒհ ᅕᇭοᇭᇭ‫ݲ‬ȃ୽ᇭཱིၑ᜷ȃ ౪ф֔ᇭ‫ـंޟ‬ȃኄՙᅲᅈ଄ॱ

К஼ሬ‫ڏ‬ᐯਛȂӺ࣏К஼ሬ‫ڏ‬ॊᐯߞ൹‫ܕ‬ϠȂജᇍऎᆔ ሬ‫ڏ‬ᐯНѭȂК஼ॊᐯߤ൹‫ܕ‬ϠНϘȄቀЮԇ‫ۍ‬գȶᔂর ᑟߞօէȷ۶ᐯሲሬ‫ߞڏ‬କϧȂྻᗾ33ᇌᆔሬў‫ڏ‬Ȃྻሲ ॻȃ‫ޱ‬ȃ዇ȃџȃ֘઱ѰሬຈԺᇌҳሬȄ1925֌29ՐȂҁ ᕕၑऎ౻ົ౻ົ஼ᐯु‫ٿ‬୰ᐱਰȂऎည੡੡ᇍߞұЂᐱਰ( ‫ێ‬ҁϬϠऎѳ஼ᇯȃౖు໹ȃ൘௘ࢲ)К൵ՐቅߞϘ֜Ȅ ঒ग़ࢢȂҁฅᑢԇग़஼ሬ‫ڏ‬ᐯྻྻࠜȃ௜ேՉЂᐯȃ ҐՍЂᐯຈ୼੭ሬ‫ڏ‬ᐯిఱȄҁϘӠ຾੩۶៿ሦ ᔂর௲๑ዴȂ๴‫ށ‬У࢘ዾর‫ޱ‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬௟Ȯ௵ᆧ Մ‫ۏ‬ȯႆ‫ی‬ေԺՄᑧᖺऎ 2000 ৎ௱ ӡՄȂۤԩȮ഼Մў੯ȯȄ

ᆎဴ ΠΪжकϛ୽หᏫശ‫ڎ‬༈‫ۉ‬Փி ‫୽ޟ‬หσৱ

஻དྷ࣡

ᓀមਪ/ԅ঱‫ي‬ȂᓶԆȂဴᅀᆹ ྆๠/নӪ྆۟ஶ ԰ឃฒᓂ ᓀមਪ 1910 ș 1998 ྆๠ 1911 ș

ᓿៗ੩ऎК஼֯ਛȃћᐯु‫ٿ‬ਛȂᑍᅰԺᇌҳћȂ֘ ᐯԕ‫ݺ‬К஼ϠН೐ϘࣹȂћ‫ڏ‬Ө႖रᇟȂҞᓜ༰ҟЫ КҳᐯயНขዊᆦឤȂԴћᐯ஼ࣇȂѧႵћᐯȂћ м‫ز‬ໞຈታாߞ՘බȂయ௣߰त֌ࡄѽȶᓿᐯȷ Ȅ‫܍ێ‬࿅ຟऎᕚነਛȃᚙ៌ਛȂ‫ݙ‬຾Ȯ௅Ԡ ໨዇ȯ៌ӎऎҫϯ೐Ϙৎం֘઱Ѱሬ১ ћ៌ҍߞᆔሬԑ៌ӎȂജгሮऎ ᔹ‫ߞٽ‬ᚙ៌‫֯ڸ‬Ȅ

੖԰յࡂ 1886 ș 1964

ԩి‫ڈ‬ਛȂ઻ग़ి‫ڈ‬ᐯൾЀȂ ৰᐯਛ‫ࢃن‬Ȅ፼ᄱᢢऎҔЂᑢ ԇง൵ࠜߞ੭ࠜȂႿ 17 ՐН 1949 ՐۖҭࢢȂᒕ࿂యஜ ҭᣉညԳ࢙നȂԴѪ‫׀‬۶Ⴚ ྽ўবቲգґᖻȄ

К஼ి‫ڈ‬ਛȂᑢҫᐯਛȂȶУұႻ ஜȷߞ‫ۻ‬ԩ߰фᐯӠታഞНϘȂฅѽ ϘЬ੩Ӡ‫ظ‬ຊంՕணҐҔԂকȄҁ Դԇ஼Ӳ౻ົЂᐯ੭ࠜ۶஼ӲК ҴЂᐯ੭ࠜง༡ȂᑋჲգўȂ ‫ی‬੭џࢢߞᗄᅷȂ‫ێ‬ґ ЙҞٟȄ

नᎌ ԅᎌϞȂনӪ༡⻕Ȃ ᏰӪࢹㆰȂԅ‫ה‬ᛠ

ᆎဴ ཱིМϽၼଢ଼‫ޟ‬к஠ϞΙ ϛ୽Ռҥкဎ‫ޟ‬ӑ៮ ๿հ МᏰ‫ૢي׽‬ដȃკၐ໱ȃϛ୽঱ᏰѬσᆪȃ नᎌМᒵ

‫ں‬ᐙΡ

фߒհ ൜࠲ȃᆓᓅጡ / ᆎЖԃཎȃཆਮ ϲ଄ȃஆӡຩኈ ឍҏȃ‫ר‬ঈᩯ

নӪჲᅪȂԅӐ፱Ȃ տဴ‫۝‬᎑

੖԰ಝᑹ 1897 ș 1969

१Ꮛऎࠕ಩҃຾ԩᐯ߰ȃ႐Ϡȃᑢҫਛȃћᐯਛ۶ৰᐯਛȂь੡ւۤ‫ܡ‬໱઻ ग़Ȃਰంৰᐯਛ‫ࢃن‬Ȃ25࿐‫׈‬՘ऎҔЂిఱȂࢢԇҔЂ੭ࠜȃКົӔ஼ᏸग़ ஼પ‫ۻ‬ԑᡋЂ‫ڹ‬ȃग़஼஼ྻᄦ੩ᔡ‫ތ‬ўൊԩ᠖ᠪயȃКົӔ஼КҴु‫ٿ‬୰୰ࠜ ຈᚚȄҁಲӠ্‫ڏ‬ȶЂᗙ஄നȂЈѕِᝋȷߞ޼ᐯў‫ޱ‬Ȃ෩্ᜃᆷѹ၍Ȃࢆෳ ֋Ӥѹ၍Ȃ‫ڭ‬ѽȮྲࠦՐȯѡҏऎୱԳȂࢆཇӔѹሃॊᐯȄ१ᏋߞᑢҫԳ֜۶ ֯ӡȂѹঋᢜ಩ԴћмࢥྐўবȂ1917ՐȂ१ᏋԴȮྲࠦՐȯϯ๴ࠑȮћᐯ ‫ډؼ‬ଡ៉ȯȂ෩্‫ڹ‬ӡӨ႖ћ኷֯Ȃ༟൹ϞУұྲћᐯႻஜߞԐޫȇҁҍߍ ϞК஼ྲћᐯҫϯ೐ϘൊӨ႖႐༰Ȯᄘႏ༰ȯȂ೐ϘৎӡӨ႖་֖ᕚነ൹ ֯Ȃ‫ێ‬ᑾᅌነȮೣ‫ڗ‬Ђ‫ڰ‬ȯፁӲϞ಩҃႖ነߞྲ‫؛‬ՑȂҁߞЈሲȮϘৎ யᛟȯ༟ుϞК஼಩҃Јሲߞ೐ϘৎࣹँȶயᛟЈሲȷȇԴК஼಩ ҃ᐯങўবȂҁ࣏Ⴕ՝єϢ֘ўў‫ޱ‬ѽ‫ٿुڽ‬К஼ᐯങߞȂට ‫ܠ‬Ϟ಩҃К஼ৰᐯु‫ߞٿ‬௄ᚂȇթҳȂҁᘘ࣏ྲ॓ᐯँș ւᑂँߞ൹‫ܕ‬ϠȂҞѽሲ࣏௟ЈሲૼϢϞᐯങु ‫ٿ‬Ӓখߞ೐ϘϠȂۤ҃፽Юைऎ҃ࠑߞ ȶ૶ᘳँȷ᚞॓ᐯȄ নӪ‫ں‬ኻჰȂ

ᓀមਪ ྆๠

ጽჲᡣ

ԅ‫הס‬

ᔕԎᕼྩ 1891 ș 1962

фߒհ དྷ౷෹ȃߝ԰࿲၇ყȃѲࡎσ೉߆ȃ Τࡎՙ༪໯໱

чЖ࡭๪ਛȂ‫ێ‬൹֯ȶҒಿᢜНࠜȂ৘ࡑҔϟ‫ܟ‬Нන ћϠ๪ȃ֯ਛ๪ȃਝ‫ؗ‬๪۶Ӕ༡᜹ങऎϘᢜȇ‫ݺ‬К஼ Ѫȃࠅ൧൦ᚪȃЍຊຈ๑ϘЙᇟȇ႐ћૌತሹ‫ݸ‬Ȃ ҏӪ஻❨ ‫ݥ‬ៜ༊Ȃᑾ‫ۍ‬লࠚȄϯѵ॔20Ր҃Ȃ௺Ђϼ۶௺ຠ ΰ੕ ՘ӲȶЂল௅๪ँȷȞЂϼ๪ँȟșșऎК஼ᇢ 1920 ș 1995 ᜱ๪ࣹँНϘȇҁ57࿐੡‫֋ـ‬൹ጐ௾๪‫ޱ‬șș К஼಩҃ߢԩЃ֯ਛȂՁ‫ݺ‬ϯઔ Դា‫ݚ‬৫҃ѳऀߞጐᐍ๪‫ߞޱ‬௄ᚂϯȂ෤Ϣ ಍൝੡งാ᠈๴ࠑȮཉࡱН᡽ȯ ֘ገᜱ๪ߞ֒ԍᝯ࠼Ȃփ๴ਣҍ‫ߞڽ‬ ȃȮѕ၃ȯȃȮࠛᛆୃȯຈԺ ϘᇌЋѪ๪ຊᐍ‫ޱث‬Ȅ ፔ Ј ሲϘᗝ՘ԩȂൊԊЈ ሲࢢജ‫ݮؼ‬՘዆໛֯ ࡡȄ

੡ ஼ ୵ న ȃ ۶ Ђ

ᛳড়গ

๋ӪᏇٞȂԅᒣόȃ ᒣߪȂࡣ‫׽‬Ӫ࣏ᒣϗ ੖԰ಝᑹ 1881 ș 1936

ϟϩѵ॔К஼দঋ֯ਛȂྲћмႻஜߞታ ᐱϠȃҽᗍћмႻஜߞњࢺ߰Ȅ֯ࡡҒࣁ ᛔћȃ๺ፔЈሲȃໞᎢȃ෸ћຈȂᅆ‫ݺ‬ УұႻஜѽࢢߞК஼ћᐯಯӠϞಎ‫ے‬ ߞ዆ᠩȂ‫ێ‬КȮ‫ٳ‬Ϡџୃȯऎ К஼಩҃Ө႖Јሲߞ༟ ЋН֯Ȅ

ങष᝟ নӪങ‫ؾ‬छ ᇃѕҗ‫ڷ‬ 1938 ș

ҭᣉ຾ԩ಩҃Ѓ֯ਛȂࠦՐ੡ԢӨԐ ࡌȃገ༧ЄȃѳћᒸຈϠ൹ᓱȮ಩҃ћ ᐯȯᛔራȂ‫ێ‬Јሲ҇ᆕ಩ᅁࣆ޼֒௾۶ ྏ੡ዎӔߞఐᜃȂ‫ڭ‬ிࢺ኷ᅁѹ၍Ⴎ ።Ȃ‫ێ‬ЈሲȮОᒩࠜȯ༟൹Ϟȶ ཋಶћᐯȷԐޫȂփȮዊѕ ፷ȯ‫࣏ـ‬ඝᇍ၃‫ۏ‬Ȅ

దະว ԅТొ ‫ޢ‬ᗵЈࢻ 1889 ș 1962 ᆎဴ ఼๼җሉ‫ޟ‬ਮߝ

ь੡ጢᡝҫ੩ȂඈྑॊᐯȂࠐ୓ु‫ٿ‬ცᑟЍ຀Ȃࢢ ᚼऎ௞‫ߏؽ‬ನȄ౥໯๦ 1916 Ր‫׈‬ᑉԇ౻ົЂᐯߏ ನిఱȂ1931Ր୓ᑉԇ౻ົЂᐯ੭ࠜȄ౥໯๦࣏౻ ົЂᐯ(‫ף‬Ҕ‫ڴ‬ȃྲջ)ᑢҫϯԇง൵ࠜߞ੭ࠜ(1931 Ր-1948Րȃ1955Ր-1962Ր)Ȅ౻ົϠපᇍ‫ێ‬ऎ ȶӖቈߞ੭ࠜȷȄ‫ێ‬ȶ‫ిڗ‬দ‫ిڏݺ‬ȷфȶ‫ݙ‬ᓜ Ђᐯ߰ȂࠧᓜգЂጁНᓜϵȂգЂਰНᓜϵȷ ߞి‫ڈ‬ԩ‫ڏ‬ಎऎѵϠయ௣Ȃϯѵ॔ 50 Ր ҃ࠐࠔሂࢢฅԇКົӔ஼ి‫ڈ‬ൊൊ ࠜȃКҴु‫ٿ‬୰୰ЀȄ


ଽߜશద ԰ឃலԎ 1965 ș

фߒհ ൉ঢ়ȃϲএჲȃ઩߱

ӵϛ๼ҕ୽‫ޟ‬ԻԑᐍѬ ϛȂ௃‫پ‬ϚીЍ᛺೚ࣨ‫ۉޟ‬ ုȂ௃༈ಛᔛቑ‫ڗ‬౪фᅈᇆȂ௃ င‫ڐ‬ᇆᇃ‫ڗ‬ПψᒉࡎȂඁнؐΙ໶ ᛺೚ሴ୿഍ོ෰౪ЕሴΙфॳឣ‫ޟ‬Ѽ ӞȄӣਢȂϛ๼ҕ୽‫ޟ‬ᡝ‫ีى‬৤Ȃം ᅚөжࣨശଽЫҁᎬᛈȂ፛ҡΟΙ ‫׳׳‬ᓺ‫ޟؾ‬ၼଢ଼ষȂөжࣨ৤ Ұ୽ҕᕤ୊‫࠼٘ޟ‬Ȅ

஡·ᓨ·ʹ·ᐲ ᎓ᝋ֗

ԧሜ

Ѯᢊ໴‫ݓ‬

29.1.1953 ș 8.5.1995

Ѯᢊऻਸ 1938 ș

ᆎဴ Ιфᅈӭȃॖϛ௑Ρȃ‫ࢸٳ‬ᅈ৑ фߒհ ω࠲࢈‫ٱ‬ȃద߆ȃ Т߫фߒ‫ޟר‬ЖȃդР֗Ӕ‫پ‬

фߒհ ‫ޟؓޖ‬τࡆȃ Њྃ‫ف‬ӖȃΡ໢‫ف‬Ӗ

྆༈ኄ ѮᢊѮ‫ݍ‬ 1933 ș 2007 ᆎဴ ‫ࢸٳ‬១Ρ ԙ൷ ༹ၼོ Ϊ໶Ӓ૖Шᗉሚถ

୺᠋ൊၢߞࠠग़౉ϠȂѽႯ୼ȃႯቈᎼϢ ᢜᐪȂ‫ؼࢢێ‬ፚϩ༵ԑକȂ‫୺ݺ‬Һ‫ݛ‬ȃ‫ތ‬ ‫ڲڴ‬Ⴛാᖔϩ༵Ⴛஜࠛ๕Ȃജࡄϯȶ‫ڲ‬ ࣷᠠϠȷᇍၳȄ 1960 Ր‫ླྀ୺ᜲݺ‬Ⴛ ྻᖔϩ༵ԑକѧᘈ቙๕Ȃऎ೐Ϙ ֜ԴླྀႻྻКᖔఀጨ๕ߞ ҭᣉႻஜ৶Ȅ

௟ཇ೚Ѣᔎሃ಩҃ᔎཬߞᇟૠᓉԪȂുᆙ๴ ਣҍ໹໸‫ߞ߰ی‬ᑾપল੾Ȅ 1976 Ր‫ݺ‬஼Ӳᑢ ҫൾߏᔡᗝᓱ঵ըѢᔎ֯ࡡߞৎϠਣȂ‫ݙ‬ᖔ‫ڸ‬ ໞՂ጗ȇԢՐ‫ـ‬ᖔ೐ 14 ‫ܨ‬ϩЂ൰ҍࠦՐߞᅷ ቟Ȅփ‫ࢢێ‬ᓉԪћмᇟૠሃщ࿂‫ݢ‬Ցߞȶщ ࿂‫ڀ‬ԕȷȂѽфѽৎᢜ‫ݕ‬၏ᢜऎᛟ‫ࠑڽل‬ ಩Ϡ༡պᅗߞȶϠ༡‫ڀ‬ԕȷຈ֯ࡡȂ ж‫־‬Դԧ஼ਣҍȂ՘බϞԴѵ ध᜹ᐪߞԳ֜Ȅ

ᐯӠ੡҃‫׀‬ӡᐯ੭ᅁᢚ࢈ߞცၝ኷Ϟ๑ ዴৎЈႼᕚȂփ‫ێ‬КҒࣁࢢ‫ڽ‬՘ऎКћႼ ᕚҫϯ൵ᅰᏚߞ‫ڀ‬ԕႼᕚȮЂනଃȯߞ೐Ϙ ҃Ȅ 1995 ՐȂయҍѽҟ҃К஼ऎ०฀Ȃѽ‫ޠ‬ ࠯ऎᛟ‫ل‬Ȃ௛‫ۻ‬ऎѹ༄ߞ‫ط֒ڎ‬ᆊႼᕚȮ҅ ና‫࠯܈‬ཇȯȂЙ֭ۤఀࠧ௱Ђߞ՘ґȂփ ѷᅇᖔઅᅷȂႍ҄Ⴜᕚ՘ऎКћცၝႼ ᕚ๴ਣϯߞ‫ڧ‬຀ါȂत֌ജ‫ݮ‬՘ ც໛ነȂജ᠖ऎȶ҅ናН ѭȷȄ

фߒհ ๘фᚖᠮȃཿ੼ॷȃ ω‫ॴ؃‬Φȃചωቃ༈‫ۉ‬

1963 Ր୓తാ๴ࠑϞȮ—ࠅࣾናᔂȯȃȮ ԩናলࣹȯȃȮ‫ޒޠ‬ҳҫȯ۶Ȯທ҃ᛕᡭȯ ຈбൊࠜፔȂӒՑ᠙๳ऎྲँ‫࠯ޠ‬ЈሲұЂ чѳНϘȂփ‫ࢢێ‬๴ࠑߞȮ྾઻শཇ‫܈‬ȯ‫ڀ‬ ԕȃȮԺఐናࢉ๑ఐናȯ۶Ȯ൙Јኂȯ‫ڀ‬ ԕຈ֯ࡡ‫׮‬ዃ‫ۦ‬ᡝ߰ᡌࠓȂЙь֯ࡡ ‫ـ׮‬ജ‫ؼ‬፠՘ც໛ȃც዆Ȃऎҭ ᣉ༟൹Ϟ‫࠯ޠ‬Јሲߞᅈྲ ўԨȄ

ѮᢊѮࠒ

19.2.1947 ș

фߒհ ഏ૩໣߆ȃॷഡ੕ȃ ડτȃӔོ֑Ȃΰ੕

фߒհ σ൲ૄȃцቔ‫߰ۉ‬༈

фߒհ ҩ೐༈ȃΞᅈȃЫТ

1930Րҍᆊც዆Ȯࣇൌ࣋ᄱȯȂѽჹᆊ‫׿‬Ѓ ᑷᑷϘᗝ՘ԩȂට‫ܠ‬Դ዆ᐪߞԳ֜ȄԴ‫ێ‬ϘӠ ‫ݙ‬ѹᆊߞ29ൊც዆КȂգЃЍȃ‫م‬௎ȃి৶ȃ ህЃȃ‫׿‬Ѓȃ᜹Ϡȃ֯ਛຈȂѽᇟีߞᆊ‫ث‬ ᆊࣿϞߤྻԧ༥ኸЙԢߞЃ‫؛ݑ‬໪ȄԴ30 Ր҃ߞК஼዆ᐪϯȂѽদ‫ݮ‬ըዴ൵ьփ ՘ऎᐱᆊেጄ‫ݺ‬ሃНԪ֯ߞᆊ৶ȇ ‫࣏ـ‬ညՐ൵գೈ‫ݗ‬ၳҡϧ ߞᆊ৶Ȅ

д࡚ҕ ᢊѮࠒ

31.3.1980 ș

՝ՐԴկែ ᝯ࠼‫ݺ‬࿂࢘ աȮઽК‫פ‬ ൹֯Ԣ੡Ȃ Пѽ‫ؼ‬ভ Ӕ౉ཇ೚ ֯ա

‫ݓ‬ᛄҕ

ኄ‫ݍ‬ϛό 1910 ș 1935

Ѯᢊ߆ጸ 1969 ș

԰ՙࠒܿ 1938 ș 1985

ѽ‫ێ‬ᆇ஭чж֋Ӂᅈᠨᔝ‫ڎ‬Ȃ14࿐ӒՑ៿ᔂ೐Ϙ௺஭ѯ Ȯኂ༧ࠅᄁȯȂᔌࢢऎЙԢߞც዆ᆊ஭ѹᛟաՂȶЈࡱࣇ ‫ڰ‬ȷȃȶ১༏ϠȷȃȶಮመመȷຈȂ‫׮‬Ђ‫ۦ‬ᡌࠓȂ՘ऎҭ ᣉ஼ភૺᆇ࣐ȄփՁࣘ۶ߞᆇᗏ‫्ـ‬൅Ϟ‫ܫی‬Ȃ՘ऎК஼ Ђ൙಩ࣹ֖҃রጄߞుላԐᠭȄᐐᇒ‫ ݺ‬1995 Ր 5 ѡۜീ ‫ݺ‬ઍ஼౻ᘙȂЙჅ‫ێ‬ԴົϠѵध㡯‫ݙ‬ᐾգߞԳ֜Ъ௣୼ փЙҞᑁஜȂ‫ێ‬ᆇ᜹՘බЏ໹໸ࣹ֖রጄߞፑ᜞ሃኸ ըȂӒՂȶҪঋգົϠߞԳўȂබգᏒដ‫ߞז‬ᆇ ᗏȷሲ‫ޱ‬Ȃᐾգȶϩኆৎ෠ᗏȷԩၳߞᏒដ ‫ז‬Ȃ‫ێ‬၃‫ࠛۏ‬ա֌ЫЪԴົϠѵधК ಎนϠѕȂዃ޾Գཇ஭Ȅ

٪࣡ҝ

ࡂֵᏴ

Ѡᓸ

ҭᣉ১֝Ӕߞࢢ҃Ȃઍ༮౉ԩԠࡾ෻ȅ ដȄ 17 ࿐ᎼϢᆊ᜹஻Ȃ՘ऎᆇјȃᆊ৶ ѹࢺϠȄ֯ऎ১֝Ӕߞࢢ҃Ȃ୵Ϟ‫ڕ‬჆১ Ӕᇸ‫ߞܧ‬Գ஡Ϟႋ‫ێ‬ӠՅߐ޶Ȃऎҁে‫܋‬ ઼۲ߋۤᡋૈȂணሃ‫ڭ‬ညᓴ೐У‫ܨ‬ЋԳ১ ֝Ӕ஡Ӳ‫܎ޱ‬৶Ȃփ‫ێ‬ऎ১֝Ӕ‫ݙ‬இ ߞϘз‫׮‬ജ‫ۦ‬১֝Ӕߞߺ‫ܠ‬Ȃ൹ ϭ᜹ϠӲ܎றϘϬാᠦߞ ࠪೀࠑ಩Ȅ

ҭᣉ಩҃ህᘏࠑᆊᄥᢜ༳ࠝህ༰൹ᓱϠȂ֯ ህᘏਛሃ፠ህਛȄ 14 ࿐༟‫ܕ‬኷֯Ȃ 22 ࿐ߞ ҍߍϞȶᚩȷϘ੩Ȃ࣏Ӕ஼ 6 ȃ 70 Ր҃ћᐪᣘ ਛȄ1972Ր‫ݺ‬ग़஼؆՘‫ؽ‬ᡝᇇЀᐯ֜ߞ೩ՐȂ ൹ᓱ஼а೐Ϙৎ಩҃ህᄥȶ༳ࠝህ༰ȷȂ๑ᎢԴ ҍ஼гᆊȂ‫ݙ‬ᆊҍН഍ᅇᅇൄ՘᠛ஜȂ‫ݙ‬ᖔ‫ڸ‬ໞ Ϟജ‫ۦ‬ԧ஼ߞᡋࢃህໞਛѽфᛔራ‫ݙ‬ᣙᎫȂฅ ༵۶ᅷ቟ȈҒࣁᖔ೐Ϙ‫ܨ‬ѵधϩЂ൰ҍࠦՐȃ ࣆܹћм؊ȶೣ‫ڗ‬՘බጨȷȃգȶ‫ࣷڲ‬ᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬ Нᇍߞ൪੾ཫཫጨຈຈȂ 2009 Ր‫࣏ـ‬ᖔ዇ ህஜ஼ቫህᘏြჴ๴ೣ‫ڗ‬՘බጨȂಎಎ ዆ᠩҭᣉत֌ઔҳߞ᜹ങ๴ਣȂ ࣏ҭᣉߞᡭཆȄ

ᆎဴ ѮᢊϞӎ

຾ԩߞ੠ग़ดಧ‫ظ‬јȄ֋Јᐯ༟‫ܕ‬ҐϢᐯ੭ดಧ༤ ᑉည‫ظ‬јȂփѷӺ࣏ԴԢϘ੡งϢᓴ஼јҍ஼ѧᘈȄ ‫ࢢێ‬๑Ꭲ࣏пϯ஼КȂࠦด੡งȂत֌ϢᡝҭҔᢜ୰ ࢢȂѳ࢙Ӕ‫׮‬త‫ۖۦ‬Йь෩п‫ظ‬ಧ‫ث‬ങߞࢽᐱф୊ፚȄߡ ۖ2000ՐȂԴЂෳवᘛ᎛ᘈф࣋‫ܞ‬ᗑᘈࠑ಩ҍ֒ߞѳ࢙Ӕ ೣ‫כ‬єۖ஼аҳಧణߞަྍȂ‫ێ‬КҒࣁҭᣉЂᗑဖȃџӎᚚ ดКџᔷ༤ȃ‫ڲ‬પ᠋ЂࡌЀ༤фሃ૸ॗࣶ௄༤ຈЂಧ༤Ȃ ൵ࢢӤ‫ݺ‬ஊᄊֹ຿ࠝ෻ߞᝯ࠼ѳ࢙Ӕᓴᑄ‫ظ‬Ϣࣶ௄༤ߞ ࠝϭȄԴ၃ჅԺՐߞ‫ׅ‬ϧࢢȂѳ࢙Ӕೣ‫ݺ‬Դ2005Ր ӒՑпϯЂᗑဖȂ՘ऎࣶ௄༤ߞ‫ܠ۽‬Ԑ๴‫ظ‬јȂ Ԣ੡࣏ҭᣉ೐3֜๳ϯЂᗑဖߞดಧᓴјȇ փ‫یߞࢢێ‬Ր‫࣏ـ‬ಧ༤൵Ժർߞ‫ظ‬ јȂ࣏༤Кߞѳ๕AceȄ

कࢇ ᆋ࡚ਣ԰ 1944 ș ᆎဴ ॴ៚‫ޟ‬಩Հ ԙ൷ ༹ၼོ τυ80ϴЏၮួማถ

17࿐Դԑ஼ႻஜྻϯӇ૔Ⴏ୼ȃႯቈ۶ϣ ϩгюֲ៼Ϭ༵ୃᔂȂ 1968 Րᐍ֘৯ླྀ Ⴛ҃ࠑҭᣉᄳఀӣਸ਼ЃЄ 80 гюႭ៼ቚ ๕Ȃ՘ऎ঵ԩԴླྀႻྻϯᄳఀጨ๕ߞ ҭᣉЃႻஜ৶ȄജᇍऎȶԳಧϯ ໿ఀ൵‫ߞأ‬ЃϠȷȃȶ঳ ᠙ߞ೨տȷȄ

17 ࿐

ணҐ কȄ ቈ


શద

‫ߧݓ‬ᗸ

ᛝᅲ

ό‫ྭݍ‬ᇃ

෹ࠒᒋ໨ 1938 ș

3.11.1954 ș фߒհ ΤԻֵρȃᅌᅌऔშȃ‫ݍ‬ПϚఁ

ঢ়ȃϲএჲȃ઩߱

1973 ՐԴ୼Кಲ྽ࢢ་Ϣ዆ᐪȇԢՐҍᆊ᜜ᆱЈሲ

༮౉ԩԠࡾ෻ȅࠠ ՘ऎᆇјȃᆊ৶ф ҃Ȃ୵Ϟ‫ڕ‬჆১֝ ߐ޶Ȃऎҁে‫ڕ܋‬ ᓴ೐У‫ܨ‬ЋԳ১ ‫ێ‬ऎ১֝Ӕ‫ݙ‬இ Ӕߞߺ‫ܠ‬Ȃ൹ Ϭാᠦߞ Ȅ

১ԩ൘㦯Ȅ 9 ࿐ЏԴϯઔȮЂгඡȯ‫ۊ‬ຆߍ ๴ࠑ๺ћȮҞዔߞЈࠦȯȄ୼К༥ࣱԴԧඡ ҏ๴ࠑЈሲȃ෸ћȂ՘ऎҭᣉգԩߞКᐯӠ֯ ਛȄ 1963 ՐȂҍߍࠜፔЈሲȮຄҳȯȂϘᗝ ᇷԩћᐪȄ֋թ๴ࠑ 60 Ժൊ‫ڏ‬ఐЈሲȂ‫ڭ‬ हា‫ؼ‬፠՘ც዆ც໛ነȂ‫ࣷڲۦ‬ԧ༥ኸ Ϡে‫ݙ‬ඈྑȂӺᢰົሬћᐪ‫؛‬՘Ϟ Ϙᇌᑢ੡30ԺՐփЙଽߞȶ ᜜ᆱ಩໪ȷȄ

‫ؼ‬፠ߞც዆Ȯຄҳȯ‫׈‬Ђᖔ՘ґȂ‫ࢢێ‬Դც዆Ȯϣպ‫״‬ ЀȯКҍ֒ߞᆊᜯփዃ‫ۦ‬ՀໞȂ‫ـ‬ԯթᖔ೐22‫ࣷڲܨ‬዆ਣ ൵‫ڸ‬Ѓѹ‫ڎ‬ጨȂ՘ऎҭᣉߞȶ঵ਯћ᜹Ѓ࣐ȷȄ1976Րࢢ ՘ऎ᜜ᆱЈሲ‫ؼ‬፠ც዆ߞఄӡЃѹ‫ڎ‬Ȃሃ‫ޒ‬ኂኲȃ૨ᆔȃ૨ ೇ‫ڭޒ‬ᇍȶϟ‫ޒ‬ϟ૨ȷȄ‫ڰࢢێ‬྽দѕᚼೊۖশสȂ‫ݺڭ‬ѽ Ȯᆋᆋ॓ᄧȯᖔఀۖ೐27‫୺ࠛܨ‬ጨ൵‫ڸ‬Ѓѹ‫ڎ‬ȂԴȮ૯ཆ կุ˶Н‫ތ‬ўЙీȯც዆КȂѽӺ‫ٷ‬ӺЃȃৣࣘ‫ڭ‬ᕻߞ ᇟग़ᆊᜯཬൄϞϘৎ၃‫ߞۏ‬቙ᅌ‫؛‬໪Ȃࠓ‫ڽ‬Ϟᆊ᜹Ӡ ౾ϫϘৎᡆਪȄం዆ 21 Րѽ‫ڽ‬Ԓҍᆊ 100 Ժൊ዆ ѯȂ࣏࿂ьዴକᑖႭћ᜹ȃ���ی࠯ޠ‬ᇌ࿂ᇑც ዆ল੾ߞЃ‫࣐ށ‬ȂԢ੡ϵ࣏වѼంӏ ജ੡҃጗ࣹຜ‫׌‬ٟߞཇ‫܈‬Н ϘȄ

фߒհ ‫ۇ‬ΰ੕ȃդР֗Ӕ‫پ‬ȃ ЈిᅈτȃѲ۟ᅈ

13࿐Ϣ‫ށ‬ѡᆇህᄥȂ‫ۖۦ‬ᡘಿጤધᣙᎫȄ‫ێ‬ ࢢ୵Ϟ༟‫៿ܕ‬ᔂ஭ѯȂ‫ـ‬՘ऎᆊ৶ѹᆊȮ୺ Ⴎч‫ڹ‬ȯ‫ڭ‬ЂᖔՀໞȂొ‫׈‬՘ऎϯઔ߉јҞ ጤߞЂ‫࣐ށ‬Ȃ॓჆ЂկࡑҔȄփ۹Ⲓᆊ஭ߞ ᆇաӺᠩ჆Ђ໖Ј࢒Ȃ 1945 Րฅ‫ی‬ըᗝ ֖ᆊ஭ྻȂᐐᇒࠝೈ‫ހ‬໳֭Ъജྫྷᘉ ϘߩȂ᠛ஜԑϯઔȂգȶࠛཚ ЄȷфȶᆇԬȷНᇍȄ

фߒհ ӎ݂՗ȃުόനᇭȃ ‫ي‬য়ȃ੾ϛ֥

՝ՐԴկែȃ௱ՍߞКᐯిরጄȂԯඉѭߞ ᝯ࠼‫ݺ‬࿂࢘ॴ෍НК؆՘Ϟ഍Ѓ֯ϟ१ᑾࡶ աȮઽК‫פ‬ȯȄԴం‫ڰ‬রጄి‫ڈ‬ѽфߞরጄ ൹֯Ԣ੡ȂऎϞᐯ೫К஼ཇ೚রጄȂ‫ـ‬௟Н Пѽ‫ؼ‬ভ۶൹ྲȂԴ൹֯КϘўবា‫ݚ‬ Ӕ౉ཇ೚֯ա‫ޱث‬ȂԢ੡ϫৄᡦࣶ֘ ֯ա‫ޱ‬ȂऎК஼Ӕ౉রጄߞ๴ ਣణِҍϘ౧ྲႮȄ

ș

ద៌޿

ህ༰൹ᓱϠȂ֯ਛȃ ኷֯Ȃ 22 ࿐ߞ੡৏‫ـ‬ 70 Ր҃ћᐪᣘӫߞ֯ Ѐᐯ֜ߞ೩ՐȂ԰ۖҭᣉ ህ༰ȷȂ๑ᎢԴҭᣉत֌ ᠛ஜȂ‫ݙ‬ᖔ‫ڸ‬ໞ๑ዴȄ୵ ᛔራ‫ݙ‬ᣙᎫȂฅᖔധԺጨ ϩЂ൰ҍࠦՐȃ૸ॗҾ գȶ‫ࣷڲ‬ᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬጨȷ 009 Ր‫࣏ـ‬ᖔ዇஼ ‫ڗ‬՘බጨȂಎಎ ᜹ങ๴ਣȂ Ȅ

ኄ‫ݍ‬Ϥ๼ 1905 ș 1979 ᆎဴ ‫ࢸٳ‬౨д ԙ൷ ೿៉Ѳ۩ሉ‫ݍ‬ၼଢ଼ོ ٗ౨ࠅॖ

17 ࿐ЏࠐᠨᏡ‫ڊ‬Ȃ೩Ր೐ϘըϢᓴК஼‫ږ‬ಧ༤ ணҐ೐б‫ܨ‬ቈ‫ތ‬ႻஜྻȂ‫׈‬௲ታಧ༤ۤఀࡄ কȄ௲ታสᆡ‫ی‬Գ‫ږ‬ಧ຺ॻᇍᠦ‫ݺ‬ᔌࢢߞ4‫ܨ‬ ቈ‫ތ‬ႻஜྻȄգȶऻᕚঋऻ౥᠋߾Ȃऻಧ ঋऻ‫ق‬෎௅ȷНሲȄଡ଼ԃࢢѽిፚ‫ڗ‬ ԊತታКົӔ஼҃ࠑ༤ാᄳ‫ی‬ ‫ڲܨ‬Ⴛྻ‫ږ‬ಧࠛ๕Ȅ

఼֔ྛ 12.6.1941 ș

԰ឃ੎Ԏ

ᆎဴ ࢍ‫ڷ‬ෘထ

22.10.1894 ș 8.8.1961

фߒհ ཱིշ‫ݲ׋‬ȃ఼֔ྛӒ໱ȃ 21жकの㠮ȃϛ‫ޟ‬ᆠડ

֋ 8 ࿐༟‫ܕ‬ᐯᕚȂ 10 ࿐๳ሂȂ 1913 Ր঒ϯઔᆊҍȮᒗࣟ ᅂȯ੡Ϙᗝ՘ԩȂ࣏К஼ࠕ҃൰ҍߞ‫ݿڴ‬ӌ֖ࠑᆊ᜹ങ ਛȂᗝѵᇷԩߞК஼ᕚա᜹ങЂਰȂӺ࣏ሃ຀๽ौȃ‫ܥ‬Ј༳ ѽфରዊӠ‫ڭ‬ᇍȶұЂԩӌȷߞ঵֜ȄԴា‫ݚ‬Ϟᔹ‫ډ‬ཇ೚‫ڴ‬ ነߞົដሃ‫ࣱڗ‬Ԣ੡Ȃ‫ؼ‬ᢏϞ‫ڴ‬ነჅ݀Ҫদ‫؛‬ՑȂ૿ѻఐ ྏᢸቿߞࠑᆊўՑȂ௟НަϢ‫ߞٗ҇ـ‬ఐᇰྏఐ‫ࠑݺ‬ᆊН КȂ൹ൄϞ‫ۍ‬գᑾપল੾ߞࠑᆊ᜹ങࣹँșș౥ँȄ Դ࠳་‫֘ތ‬ўћмӹࣹўবӺ֯ҍϞ۞໸ߞ୒ឥȂ Ԣ੡ऎԨઔҳཇያК஼‫ڴ‬ነ᜹ങߞԐᠭȂ࣏К ஼‫ڴ‬ነҫϯᄀಽง۶КົӔ஼՘Ӳࢢᗄ ᅷ੡ง‫ݚ‬ϯుϭ൵‫ۍ‬գ҃ࠑ‫ݑ‬ ߞϠߏȄ

ԅӎగ

Հໞȇփ೩Ր‫ߞ៷ݮ‬ȮඈਜȯЙ֭Ϣඛࠛಧጨ ۶ླྀ෻ҙጨ൵‫ڸ‬ҳሬѯጨȂ‫࣏ـ‬঵࢘៏ఀࣦ‫ޒ‬ ც዆ြࠛᆩጨȂ⬋ᗏ஼ቫ዆ᐪȄփ‫֯ڸࢢێ‬ Ғࣁग़஼ᑢҫϯೈ‫ݗ‬൵୼ߞҳሬѯȮ߻ ࠎ᚟ᔷȯȂѽф‫ڹ‬Н՘ऎ঵֜‫ࣷڲ‬ Ϡᖔఀླྀ෻ҙ൵‫ڸ‬ᐱᆊጨߞȮ ᙝ०ЋȯຈຈȄ

ᆋ࡚ሦ߮

фߒհ ິԀ᎖ନȃ៧дտ৑ȃԇۤᎢ

‫؃‬ඏஆ

1992Ր੡యҍ഍Ѓ֯ȮయјȯȂԴҭᣉЂᖔ

ӪᝢȂԅ➍๼

ᆎဴ ȶѲσӪҍȷϞॶ

೐༈ȃΞᅈȃЫТȃ՗૩

фߒհ ௰Йȃ൉ঢ়ȃ ޼ߏᙠᓸȃᘞधόȃ ՓȂ‫ק‬

԰ឃலԎ 1918 ș 1957

԰ឃ԰ഛ 1895 ș 1932

‫؃‬Ԋ Ѯᢊࡎ‫ݍ‬ 1954 ș

‫ⱓں‬

ቓЈ๼

ҕ

ϣ ླྀ ቚ

фߒհ ৳଱౏౏ȃϲএჲȃ ద߆έ‫י‬ȃᗙੵਿਿ

7࿐༟‫ܕ‬ႬѭᓐᐯทȂ12࿐੡ЏԴК஼ทᐪ๑ዲјȂգȶ ඛทૠຆȷНᇍȂည੡ߞҔ‫ܹࣆڴ‬ᗁನࣱီင‫ـ‬ฅၑ᎛ҁۖ ܹКϭทȄ‫ـࢢێ‬ജџӎඛทࠜցᜐ໸ᐳ֯௟Н՜‫ࠝݺ‬ϭȂ Ր཈ 14 ࿐‫ތ‬อџӎȂ༟‫ێܕ‬ᚚ྽ทјӠ౾Ȅ1933 ՐȂሃџ ӎทјѢ‫ڐ‬ᅁϘ୓൹ൄȶྲֶ؊ȷȂЙ֭‫ڹ‬џӎทधష୓Ϙ ඞভ‫ۻ‬Ȃ‫࣏ـ‬ට‫ܠ‬ҁԴทᐪߞԳ֜Ȅ֋ 1939 Ր༟‫ܕ‬Ȃᑾ ᠦജඔऎȶយ௧ϯߞӨϺ੾୽ȷߞϩ๫ทᑅሂȂാ᠈15 Ր௟џӎ‫ݙ‬գϘࣹߞทЀൌӇ֌ফૺȂЙ֭ജ᠖ऎȶ ࣌۶ทၐȷȂԴഺ 15 Ր‫࣏ـ‬գȶ‫ד‬౻࿚੡҃ȷ НᇍȄ20ՐᑾَчϭߞඛทҫȂᢰҁԴท धԩࣹѕӫКϘߡᐾգЙҞஜྭ ߞ૞୼Գ֜Ȅ

ቓМғ ‫ݬ‬ѕӈй 1952 ș фߒհ έТ၇‫ޟ‬ωߦȃ ߡछȊߡछȊȃ ៌߆૩

1975 Րయҍ঵௺஭ѯȶᓚ‫ڏ‬ȷࢢ‫׈‬Ϙऔփ ॓Ȃ՘ऎ‫ݑٷ‬ȶஊᄊᆇјȷߞኄ૟Ȃ՘ऎ۶Ꮢ ដ‫ڭז‬ᏼኅᠭߞ൵॓ߞ‫ٷ‬ᆇ࣐ȂฅᖔఀϬը ࠛៗጨ൵‫ٷڸ‬ᆇјጨȄᆇփᔹࡋ዆Ȃሃ‫ޒ‬ ࠦᘷԪ֯ߞȮᑼᑵ‫א‬Ȋѫ൧ȯ‫࣏ـ‬ജ ‫܇‬ऎ၃‫ۏ‬Ȃ՘ऎҭᣉ঵‫ܦ‬Ϙࢽߞ ஊᄊϠߏȂᗂᑖ਎ጄ‫ڰ‬྽ ϩ᏶ႶȄ

߮‫׃‬፱ ኄ‫ݍ‬దᑪ 1974 ș фߒհ ඍ௑࠲ѿȃ੕ΰ߆ȃ ṟ⓿ਢӎ

1973 ՐᎼϢც዆धȂ 1980 Ր༟‫ܕ‬ேᐱᆊ ຌȂ 1989 ՐѽȮ෌ఐࡱҾȯᖔఀ஼ቫϬЂ዆ ਣНϘȂࢃҺ෻዆ਣߞࠛ࿽ጨȂ࣏ႍ዆ਣ೐Ϙ ൊᖔጨߞົሬც዆Ȅ 2004 Ր࠭‫؂‬Ꮀ‫ـ‬ѽȮẞ ┾੡ԍȯᖔఀ୭Ћ዆ਣჴ๴໪ወೣ‫ڗ‬અᅷߞ ȶՐ࢘‫ࣷڲ‬዆ϠጨȷȂ‫ێ‬ᑾᑘϘ੾ߞ࣊኷ ᅁϫ‫ش‬ఐߞც዆ј‫ޱ‬Ȃ‫ڹ‬ҭᣉც዆ෳ ࢃઔҳȂට‫ܠ‬Ϟҁҭᣉც዆Ђ ਰߞԳ֜Ȅ


дҗኊ ӵϛ๼ҕ୽࡚ҳϞ ߑȂӖ஼ᕗթ‫ޟ‬ඌӛ‫ל‬༖ ήȂϛ୽‫ޣ‬ᜋӋυዌณ፽ΰȶᄂཾ ௿୽ȃऋ‫׬‬ᑹ୽ȷ‫ޟ‬ၾၯȂച៉෰౪Ο Ισ‫׳‬ᓺ‫ޟؾ‬ऋᏰড়‫ڷ‬ӌཾড়ȄՄ೻ᆍี ৤ᄂཾᇄऋ‫ޟ׬‬༖ᓞᆭ‫۽‬Ϛ๘Ȃ‫ڷ‬ҁ࡚೩ԑ ф᝷៉ีපӎσȂತܻ፛ҡΟӻ՝ᒛٔᅭዩ ுк‫ڷ‬жࣨ઻‫ޟ‬ӌཾড়Ȅӵϛ๼ҕ୽‫ོޥޟ‬ ี৤ᐣแϛȂ۠ఀࣨΡρһ࣏‫ོޥ‬ԊۡΡ Жө๡հюଓᝦȂтঈ‫ڷ‬ऋᏰড়ȃӌ ཾড়ΙଔȂಢԙΟ‫ีོޥ‬৤ଢ଼ ΨྛȄ

ѮᢊѮѕ 1917 ș 2008 ᆎဴ ѮᢊငᕊϞડ

ሙ·੿·ᇫ·͘

ភ࢑໴

‫ࢇ؃‬ၾ

԰ឃ԰഍ 1927 ș

԰ឃឃԎ 1926 ș ԙ൷ ี౪৵ࣺϣհҢήԇᆎϚԈ࡯Ȃ ᕕᒛٔᅭ‫ސ‬౩Ᏸዩ

ࠀᘄ໙ ό‫ݍ‬Рྱ 1936 ș

КົӔ஼୼ૺ‫ܡ‬৶Ȃ୑၃௞ਛȄҍ ԇϯઔҾ୑ࣆ؊҃ನ؊ࠜփᘙϢࣆ ᐪȂѽ൰ҍॻሬକϧ۶୑ࣆ௞ࠜփߢ ԩȄ‫ة‬ᐼർ‫ࢢ׀‬తԇКҴ቙֖ᗁ໗Ȃ ‫ݺ‬ஜ৶ྟགྷ੡ѹࢺ௟ཀࠛᔼ൯Ⴛ݀ ҭᣉȄᏏҭࢢ৘ԇҴ֖ᗁ໗ሃӹ ഼቙֖ȃК஼ႺӔ቙֖ȃҭ ᣉ቙֖ၭ‫ࠜڰ‬Ȅ

1943ՐւϢકկЂᐯߏನ‫ڀ‬Ȃ1944Րᚼᐯۖ‫֘ߞށݿ‬ ࡑᗑԪЂᐯȄ 1946 Ր঒ग़་Ϣ߿Ґ৯ЂᐯȂਰం໱ռి ఱȄ 1950 ՐᖔఀൾЀᐯ֜Ȃం‫ڰ‬೚঍ߏನߞहᢏѽфᐖᇸ ᅗߏನߞ࿂мЄߞु‫ٿ‬Ȅ1953Րԇ৯৖ѧ‫ڲ‬ЂᐯׄನిఱȂ ѹঋु‫ٿ‬ೕЄߏನ۶ඞᎢታாȄ29࿐੡՘ऎ৯৖ѧ‫ڲ‬Ђᐯᑢҫ ϯ൵ՐቅߞӒిఱȄ ᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬߏನᐯጨȂನᎢӤ‫ד‬உ༯ߞᅁᢚ໠ᅁȄ‫ࣆق‬Ⴝ۶ ࿅੎ᄾ࣏঵‫֜ی‬ᖔᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬጨߞКົӔ஼ឱ۶ົϠᓚ‫ړ‬ ᆬጨఀѹȄ1997Րऎ॔݇ҝѵߞшϠȂ੕ภ՘ Ӳȶ૨෎⍃ሃ‫ࣆق‬ႽК஼ЂᐯӠ‫ڍ‬೫་৒ ௄ࠛȷȂњࢺᔹ‫ٽ‬ЂᐯӠ་֖௄ ᚂॊᐯु‫ٿ‬Ѝ֯Ȅ

஻҂ቈ

ԅഏᖐȂထӪ߳࿰ ό‫ܿݍ‬١ 1901 ș 1978

԰ឃ᝘ό 1900 ș 1988

ԙ൷ ॶ՝Јкఀࠒ‫ٵ‬ᖂкఀ

14 ࿐ࣾᚃȂۤၐԩ࠲ုȄ 19 ࿐Ӳ‫ؠ‬ೣ‫ڰڗ‬ѹȂ་Ϣ৒ Ⴝ୰ᐯ೫Ȅ 1924 Րജ࠲୙ۖᜲ୺ཇࠫЂᐯुᡝৰᐯȃૠ ᐯȄ 1928 ՐജૡၐऎૠѭȄ 1933 Ր԰஼ԇКົԑ஼гి་ ֖ྻᗁᆾရȄ 1934 Ր‫ۦ‬ၑऎҔӀቃХЂᐯၭ‫ࠜڰ‬ф৖ನᐯి ఱȄ1936Ր๴୓ऎ‫ة‬ᐼȶឥᑟȷႻஜȞ੕ឥ঳ᑟȟȂ‫ؼ‬ᢏϞധ ԺϠчѹిਵЙྑ஼ߞ՘‫ڍ‬Ȅ

1936Րജԇ‫ۻ‬ऎࡑ‫ߎ҃ڴ‬஡ѹిȄ‫ة‬ᐼง༡Ȃϣըࡈ݀ገग़ ஼ਛߋۤ஼ቫԢఐ۶෯ׄȄ1943Ր঒ग़࠳՘ग़஼ࣆܹ৒‫ؼ‬ ‫ޡ‬໛ົϠߞೊӔ‫ޱ‬Ȅ 1946 Րпऎࡑ‫ڴ‬ᗁѹిȄ 1959 ՐȂԴҭҔ་֖ቃХЂᐯ෇੭‫ڭ‬ҍԇ੭ࠜȄ1969

Ϙ֜К஼Ѓ቙֖ਛȃԋ྽ਛȄ௺‫ז‬ ⮪ȃ௺гᡋߞ܏܏Ȃ႐Ϡ਷‫ؠ‬ዝߞ೐ Ϙԇ‫܍‬ЄȄ 1928 Րతᇒ၃ᖉϯઔЃЄ ஥྽ᔼሊ቙֖Ȃ࢝‫خأ‬ᗪऎळȄ༟ᓱȶ ༳ሡ‫އ‬ႅгҦȷ‫ڭ‬ԇᗁ၃ನȂєϢྲ ጗੡ႅՑዹȂԢ੡ϵ་֖ߵೈӹ ‫ݽ‬Ȅ 1934 Ր୓Ȃᕒׄ௺‫⮪ז‬ ߞК஼஼ਛߤྻ៨ᇒನ ୑சȄ

ՐȂ‫ۻۦ‬ऎዽᑟѹిȂԴౚၠ‫ܪ‬ᗝ֖Ґࡄ‫ۏ‬ ᚃȄ 1978 Րീ‫ݺ‬ౚၠ‫ܪ‬ȂᙩၨቃХ Ђᐯ੭ཀྵȄ

ҏӪVincent LebbeȂ ԅਏᖐȂထӪ‫ڨ‬ቨᕒ Шցਢ 1877 ș 1940

1901Ր‫ົڽ‬Ȃ‫ׅ‬ϧᐯ೫К஼ћмȂକሲ ϘϾࣹ‫׀‬ዾ࿤ߞ஼ሬȂӡѨຊ኷ᆓࠪߞ ֖੩Ȃ෩ҍȶК஼ᙩК஼ϠȂК஼Ϡᙩ ௄ရȷߞϾၳȂᒕ࿂యஜి‫ؗ‬ԇ‫ۻ‬К ஼ឱѹిȄ1927ՐҐϢК஼ឱȂ ‫ة‬ᐼКീѵ‫ݺ‬দዉᆇጄЋȂ ϢߥКົ݅ધ૝Ȅ

ᗜᕻӒ‫ܟ‬೐ұϩϣ҃ཇϠȄᏏҭࢢ ҐϢК஼஼Ӕ៨Ȃฅԇ៨சᠪயȃ஼ Ӕ៨КҴ௱ச܎৶Ȅ֢ԍЋ༟Ћ‫ࠜܟ‬Ȅ ಩‫ݺ‬ѵधУЂࣷ՘ӲՊ୰ф‫־‬ж୰260 ᏶‫ݙ‬Ȃ᎝ਵ 1300 ֜ҍਛ‫ޱ‬ਰȄ‫ݺ‬ग़ ஼՘Ӳ஼ቫ֢ԍྻѵधᗁྻȂӫࡈ жྻӺ჆ѵधԧԳȂॗգ600 ေԩྻ৶ணሃ‫އ‬சȄ

Դ 1920 Ր ᔡȂҍߍԺ ѽȶి‫ڈ‬ ୫Ȃᅆ ӡȄ

дғ‫ט‬

1957ՐȂሃ࿅੎ᄾϘ୓ԯ਴֯ӡϭՆᇍЙՇࢮߞ๴಩ᖔఀ

θ⑓

Ⴊቁሉ

16 ࿐੡ѽ 200 џЮ༟ᓱϞϘਛռܸȂ Нࢢฅ၃ᖉჅፃռዄȃᒑӞዄȃѢ‫ل‬ ֖ຈȄ‫ݺ‬1954ՐឯႤ൹ᓱҭᣉཬ፱ гҦȂӤՐಯ༓཈ 4 ေᐟߞ PVC ዄ୓ ਛȂϘႮԨϯห๴ਣȂ؆՘࡬ߡᑋ ԪߞӮм‫ڻ‬ᕕᝥȂ‫ڰ‬྽ߍᄦϵ ంӮмᙖфცЄȃᛁᖚ ຈፑ᜞Ȅ

নӪғ৳ȂԅᏐஆȂဴυ ੖԰‫ۈ‬Ͻ 1882 ș 1961

ԙ൷ ϛ୽༹‫ݓ‬Ͼպၼଢ଼

1896ՐϢᡝчࣺҔࣶ֘ᐯ௅Ȅ1901ՐϢч ೫‫ࢠޱ‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬ԇి‫ݺ‬чࣺྲᐯ੩୰Ȅ 1905 Ր Ր൹ᓱКົ઻џ௄ရిࠦՐྻȂᑉԇᗁ྅‫ڰ‬Ϙ ԢဖྻȄ1907ՐȂϢग़஼௜࿏ੲЂᐯ‫ؽ‬ᡝ‫ࢠޱ‬ ᐯȄ1910ՐȂᖔॠᐆЂᐯൾЀᐯ֜ࢢ԰஼Ȃ ՐྻЍ֯Ȅ

‫ة‬џᐼߋർ‫ࢢ׀‬Ȃԇ஼Ӕࣆܹ஼ຉᠪயȃ ॓ϩՄྻྻࠜȄ 1922 ՐȂജᓴऎ஼ቫླྀ ೣ‫܎ڗ‬৶Ȃ࣏К஼೐Ϙ֜ȃቈ‫ތ‬೐ϟ֜ ܎৶ྻ܎৶Ȅฅԇ೐ϣ‫ܨ‬ቈ‫ތ‬Ⴛஜྻྻ ֿȂ1936Ր۶1948ՐತК஼ᢜ‫҃ڈ‬ Ґ೐ϩ‫ܨ‬ȃ೐ϩұ‫ླྀܨ‬ႻྻȄऎ ླྀ‫ޒ‬нֹႻஜ೐ϘϠȄ

ങࣸ٘ ੖԰‫ؾ‬Ы 1911 ș 2004 ԙ൷ Ꮝ୥ࢺ‫ޟל‬ଽ඼-ിϱΙૡϴԒ

ഌѮሜ όՙਣ࠲ᐩԎ 1950 ș

1974ՐѽϩေЮྲҭᅋ՘Ӳȶᙃઔ ཬ፱ԋ྽գনгҦȷȂంགӨც໛ᑟ ొ༕ሦൄ୓ਛȄ 1981 ՐȂ՘ґ༟๴ാ తᐡಯࡡȂᚼ࡭ӠಯৎϠცၝȶാత ᐡȷȄ1982Ր‫ؼ‬ԩȶᙃઔᇟ௜Ѝ྽գ নгҦȷȂႤӎᛝ1600ေȄ2005 ՐȂᖉ՜ॎ૔ϘေኆྲҭᅋȂ ᖉႻӫዾࢽԨ‫ی‬ေኆྲ ҭᅋȄ

1926 ՐϢࡑ༟Ђᐯዴᐯ‫ڀ‬Ȃ 1930 Րಲ྽Ϣ౻ົЂ ᐯԇׄిȂ 1931 Ր༟‫ؽܕ‬ᡝु‫ٿ‬ӠȂु‫ٿ‬ਡ዆ྋжව ֣Ȃ1934Րಲ྽ᖔᇇЀᐯ֜ȂऎК஼֋ЎைᏳߞ೐Ϙԩዴ ᐯु‫ٿ‬ӠȄԢՐ঒዇஼ᆔජЂᐯᐯ೫Ȃਰం຾ԩව֣ᐯਛҿ ‫ؓݛ‬༟Ȃಲ྽ࢢҝѐᐌႬం਄‫׀‬ȅᄜညु‫ٿ‬ྋжව֣Ȅ

1937Ր԰஼ᑉԇ౻ົЂᐯిఱȄ1943Ր‫ۦ‬ᘛۖ෼‫ޒ‬෻ჲ୼ ૺु‫ݙٿ‬Ѝ֯Ȃ؆՘୼ᇯߞ୼෻-ൾагՑߞᝋ‫ށ‬Ȃᅹൄ಩ Ы෼჆‫ڹ‬ӡߞȶ൘᝷ȷȂऎᑋᢜྋжව֣ට‫ܠ‬Ϟ௄ᚂȄ ‫ة‬ᐼർ‫ࢢ׀‬԰஼ѹࢺКҴु‫ٿ‬୰ዴᐯु‫ߞݙٿ‬Ѝ ֯Ȃ1949ՐᏏ݀ग़஼Ȅ౎ՐԴҐՍЂᐯֹࣦ຿ ж੭ឯ࢙ग़஼஼ਛዴᐯु‫ڭݙٿ‬ԇ‫ࠜݙ‬Ȅ ՘බሃገව‫ڧ‬዇ȃ୼෻ȃᐌதȃ ᄜည‫ڭ‬ԕȄ

ਰంൻ ఱȂ ᑟ௜ Ȅ


008

ភᜌᝒ

ငᕊϞડ

‫ဴݲ‬ኋዬ

ϞϘਛռܸȂ ᒑӞዄȃѢ‫ل‬ ൹ᓱҭᣉཬ፱ ᐟߞ PVC ዄ୓ ؆՘࡬ߡᑋ ‫ڰ‬྽ߍᄦϵ ȃᛁᖚ

ѮᢊѮϛ఼Ы 1937 ș

дϞ࿅ ԅ໴Ϥ ኄ‫ॷݍ‬ό 1888 ș 1979

՝Րᣢु֢‫ޱ‬Ȃ 1962 Ր֋֖ၢ᐀Ȃ಩ ْᕓҺहȄ‫ݺ‬1966Ր՘Ӳȶ֢ిֹ᝱ྎ ᕻґ዇ྻȷȂ༟‫࢙ܕ‬Ӳȶྎᕻ܎৶ȷȃ ȶྎ႕ȷۘ࢘Ȅࢢ‫ݺ‬ઔҳ࢙ӲྎᕻϠᑂ ᙇȃжྻȂঋِྎᕻϠକᜃȶۤН‫ݺ‬ ညԳȂӡН‫ݺ‬ညԳȷȃȶᔝ൤‫־‬ ϠߞчȂබঋ԰㖝ညԳȷ ຈನ݇Ȅ

ᆎဴ ࣀ‫ޟ‬ԻऋӒਪ ԙ൷ ี݂Ѳُဴጆᔮԅ‫ݲ‬

Դ 1920 Ր҃֌ 1930 Ր҃ѹನ஥சԞ੩ ᔡȂҍߍԺᇌໟ‫ۏ‬ȃպॊԑ੩фᙍ੩Ȃ ѽȶి‫ڈ‬෼фȷ۶ȶᐯങᑾӲȷऎў ୫ȂᅆК஼ߞߢᝊཇያգᗝ‫֯ږ‬ ӡȄᏏҭࢢѹࢺҭᣉ஥சԞ ੩ᔡȂ຾֯ຈ‫ڗ‬Ȅ

ғ‫ט‬

৳ȂԅᏐஆȂဴυҩ

Ͻ ș 1961

֔σ྽ ኄ‫ݍ‬ฬऊ 1907 ș 2000

Ќኈԙ ԅҝԭȂဴႀҡ ό‫ݍ‬Ԣߟ 1920 ș 2008 ᆎဴ έΪΠфॊထϴ

ϬϩϘ҃উၐгы҄໯ᓷၛЄȂᡚউၐг ᖑȄգྏѵᡚᖑ֜ЙԪ੡‫ܢ‬Ȃѹஜ᎛ِࣆ ܹᅣᏚȶউၐгȷᖑၳȂ‫֯ؼ‬Ђ՘֌ၐԐ ਰ‫ܡߥ܇‬ȂऎКົӔ஼றϘѵᡚપԇ ‫ܡ‬Ȅ֋ 1955 Ր୓Ȃ‫ݺ‬ҭᣉЂᐯᗾ ఱȶϬᚃु‫ٿ‬ȷຈ᎝຀Ȃ֌ 2008ՐԯઽᏄిȄ

ᆎဴ ϛ୽‫ސ‬౩ᏰϞЮ ԙ൷ ӻϯϷυϞਏଢ଼ӎᜊ Ѕ‫ڏ‬๖ᄺ

ฅԇ֘ࡑᗑԪЂᐯిఱȃКҴु‫ٿ‬୰୰ ࠜȄ࿅੎ᄾ۶‫ࣆق‬Ⴝ࣏‫ێ‬ᐯӠȄ 1967 ՐȂ‫ۦ‬፼КӒᗁ೚Н‫ࠔۻ‬ҭᑉԇॊᐱ ྻѹ܎ȂணሃКЋॊᐯ୰‫ݙ‬ᕢȶྲ ջ঍ᄑ(੮঍ᄑ)ȷȂ֭൵ೣឍ ሲ፼КӒ‫ݸ‬ౢȄ

‫؃‬ሉ঱

ҿ

ԅज़Ϟ ໴ࠒᔔ୚ 1893 ș 1969 ԙ൷ ᅪЪฒጏኵ

К஼ࠕ҃ዴᐯԐᠭȂԐࢢԇిԺ‫ݙ‬ЂᐯȂ ༟൹К஼୼ຈዴᐯᐯॊȄฅႤׄᐯӠទᕻ ྎۖѐᐌ‫ؽ‬ᡝൾЀȇԴ౻ົЂᐯ‫ݢ‬՜ ൘ष‫ڗ‬ऎ೐Ϙ‫ܨ‬ᇇЀु‫ٿ‬Ӡȇ‫ݥ‬ᕤ ົᜲܷᑉԇׄನȂඝᇍȶК ஼ዴᐯधߞֱጄȷȄ

֔୊໰ ԰ឃឃԎЊঘ 1912 ș 1997 ᆎဴ ਯυं‫ـ‬τдȃ ϛ୽ۨᙄЉΡ ԙ൷ ୤ёȶ୥ࠤႳॎგȷ

ਰంൻ৖෻ȃཫ੾ငȃླྀӎઔᔵຈి ఱȂ1944ՐѽӏϢឱ‫ڗ‬ԊணҐग़஼ ᑟ௜ሦൄ১Єዅߞȶதࡣჲ঍ᄑȷ Ȅ1956Րᢚᝋȶ਴हТ֯ӡϭߞ ՆᇍЙՇࢮȷȄജሮऎನᕕ ᖔఀᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬጨȄ

ᆎဴ ϛ୽ҕఊϽᏰώཾϞЮ

൹ӲК஼೐Ϙਛ಩҃мЍԋ྽ϳЂᇟᣃ гҦȇ൹ᓱ‫ࣷڲ‬೐Ϙਲ਼૷ᣂЍዄӖ‫׀‬м ᐯгҦᣂዄȄ1926ՐȂᅮϭȶ॓Ϭ‫ڎ‬ȷ ๕૷ᣂ་Ϣग़஼໱ࡱေ஼ൾ᠓ྻ‫ڭ‬ᖔ ࠛጨȄ 1937 ՐȂᅮϭӖ‫⿣ڴࡑ׀‬ ዄӠҍК஼೐Ϙ‫ز‬ೄቕઊ ࡡȃК஼೐ϘҒмᐯ߲ ਫ਼Ȅ

ᆎဴ ‫ސ‬౩ϽᏰࣨ‫ޟ‬ೃҒ੫ ԙ൷ оϷυُ࡙‫ـंپ‬ϽᏰІᔖ ‫ޟ‬ଢ଼ΨᏰȂᕕᒛٔᅭϽᏰዩ

1959 ՐϢ஼Ӳ౻ົЂᐯȞྲջȟ১Єॊᐯु‫ݸݙٿ‬ਡм ᐯೡᇇЀ઱Ȅ1967Րࡈ݀ࡣ֢ЂᐯԴሿࣉѐሿߞࢽᐱϭ་ ֖ൾЀࢢु‫ٿ‬Ȃೡႅ؆՘Ϟѵधϯ೐ϘൊӹϽжЄኇȂ‫ݤ‬ਣ ϞӹϽжЄ‫ߞޱف‬ᕕӡፑඛȂԢ੡ϵԴߏನмᐯታாϯȂ༟ ‫ݤ‬ϞϘৎԑྲߞु‫ٿ‬ታாȄ1986ՐȂѽग़ឱ‫ڗ‬Ԋᖔఀᓚ‫ړ‬ ᆬмᐯጨȄ1994Ր‫ݸ‬ౢग़ឱȂࠔ஼ᑉԇКҴु‫ٿ‬୰୰ࠜȄ

ᅪኊ‫پ‬ ᆎဴ ϛ୽ኵᏰࣨ‫ޟ‬ղዅ

ܹ஼ຉᠪயȃӲ‫܎ޱ‬৶ȃК஼ ജᓴऎ஼ቫླྀ‫ޒ‬нֹ܎৶ྻ ȃቈ‫ތ‬೐ϟ֜஼ቫླྀ‫ޒ‬нֹ ‫ܨ‬ቈ‫ތ‬Ⴛஜྻྻࠜ৘ᗁ໗ ՐತК஼ᢜ‫ࠑ҃ڈ‬ᄥண ұ‫ླྀܨ‬ႻྻȄऎК஼ ஜ೐ϘϠȄ

෹ࠒ෷ഛ 1883 ș 1945

ѮᢊཱིԼ 1936 ș

ϛ୽༹‫ݓ‬Ͼպၼଢ଼಑ΙΡ

௅Ȅ1901ՐϢчࣺҔࣶЂᐯᐯ ੩୰Ȅ 1905 Ր঒џӎȂ 1906 Ȃᑉԇᗁ྅‫ڰ‬ϘᚚȂ‫ڭ‬ҐϢК஼ ࿏ੲЂᐯ‫ؽ‬ᡝ‫ࢠޱ‬ȂࢢᚼϢॠᐆЂ Ѐᐯ֜ࢢ԰஼ȂணሃКົ௄ရిࠦ

ऱԡ‫ݍ‬

1982 ՐȂ‫ق‬ቈৰ෩੯՘ӲКҴु‫ٿ‬୰১ЄሃжЄॊ ᐯु‫ݙٿ‬Ȃ80Ր҃Ӑง֌90Ր҃ࠐȂ১ж‫ݙ‬ϘϾ ઈܼᢦϞࠕϟϩ֜ᔹ‫ࠦߞٽ‬Րॊᐯਛ԰஼‫އ‬ சȂࠕՐ‫ڽ‬Ȃ১ж‫ݙ‬ϵЙᙝԳҸ‫ڈ‬ҍ ࠧ௱൤ՋߞࠦՐु‫ٿ‬ϠЖȄ

Λᆺϛ ό‫ݍ‬Рྱ 1936 ș ԙ൷ ี౪‫ڼٮ‬ӪȶJಖυȷȂ ᕕᒛٔᅭ‫ސ‬౩Ᏸዩ

1955 Ր୼Кಲ྽ࢢȂւ་ҭࡑҾ஼Ӳ՘ґЂᐯᑟౠЍ ຀‫ڀ‬Ȅ1956Րࡈ݀ग़஼௜֘ੲЂᐯ৒೫Ѝ຀ᐯȃዴᐯ۶ ߏನᐯȄ1959ՐȂᖔዴᐯ۶ߏನᐯᐯЀᐯ֜Ȅ1962Րᖔߏ ನൾЀᐯ֜Ȅ1974ՐȂሃग़஼ҐՍҫМᇊЂᐯిఱֱჲȅ‫ڧ‬ ֹપවѼԢ੡ᑾӲ๴಩ J/ ͭ௄ӎೕЄȄԯթ‫ݺ‬1976ՐϘԢᖔ ఀᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬߏನᐯጨфग़஼ࣆܹߞൻ৖෻ጨȄӡКћԴჴጨ‫ۏ‬ᚃ ϯ๴ࠑᆊᗾȄ ϚᇹК࣏ਛКࠜЄȂգϘ‫ؙ‬Ϙ܏Ȃж‫ۤ־‬ԩऎϚᇹົфϚ ᇹӔȄϚᇹКత‫ۦ‬Ђ൙КҴც໛ҭ���ണ੡ȂԴജயۖ Ղ‫ލ‬գ೐ұৎ҈‫܏ܗؙ‬Ȃ࣏‫ۤ׎‬ԩऎȶ౉ȷ੡Ȃ ҁಜ‫أ‬ሲȈȶЙȂҨϚᇹ஼ȊȷۤԩȶКົ Ӕ஼ȷ࣏ঋ॔݇ऎ൹ӲКົӔ஼୓ ၍փ᠁गߞҳ૟ѭȄ

໇ਏ‫ط‬ ԅϴ߫ ѮᢊᄔϽപ෫ 1917 ș 2005

ҭᣉߢԩԋ྽ਛȂฅԇઔਦӹࣹ௄ࠛྻ ၭ‫ࠜڰ‬ȃᗁ೚ܹႤࣆȂӺऎ۶ࠫ༰ᄥ঵ ၝȄ1993Ր4ѡȂ҃ࠑઔ௄ྻሃઔ‫ྻ۝‬ ྻࠜ٘ႽಉԴྲҐ‫܂‬ᗝ֖Ϟᗝѵᣘӫߞ ȶ༆٘ྻ᎘ȷȂऎ1949Րѽ‫ܫیڽ‬ ঵࢘་֖ߞӒՑ‫ܡ‬ўૺྻ౏Ȃ ໪ወ‫ܫی‬ᝯ࠼ߞႋড়۶ ๴ਣȄ


ϛ๼ҕ୽፛ҡ‫ޟ‬ԑ фȂғ࢐Ӓ౨Ͻ໌แଔ؏ ‫ޟ‬ԑфȂϛ๼ҕ୽௃ԙҳϞߑ ଔȂ൷ᇄж࡚ࣨҳΟ஝ϚџϷ‫ޟ‬ᜰ ߽ȄΙԻԑ‫پ‬Ȃᓜᖅ‫୽ޟ‬ሬҺࢺȂ࣏ϛ ୽ҕ୽ள‫پ‬ΟжࣨӨ୽Ρρ‫ޟ‬ЄፗධօϞ ЙȂ௰ଢ଼ϛ๼ҕ୽ᇄжࣨӓӣ໌؏ȄΙ Իԑ‫پ‬Ȃϛ๼ҕఊ‫ޟ‬ယ؏һႇЅжࣨ ӨӴȂ๼Ρ๼჌࣏ϛ୽ҕ୽հюΟ Ϛџᑑྞ‫ޟ‬ଓᝦȂтঈ‫ޟ‬ԙ ൷хжࣨᢙҬȄ

ඇᇌඏ Doris Brougham छ୽

1926 ș

Ө·Π·Ԥ·̡

ϱҤ‫ي‬ҁ

೉଻‫؃‬ Homer Lea छ୽

1876 ș 1912

ູॴ

ҍӠ‫ݺ‬ग़஼ົಽჲՍ֘༮ᄦȂ௄ရి ਛȄ12࿐੡ȂӲ‫ؠ‬ঋԨົϠԳ஡ཇያᇊ ‫ݯ‬ႿК஼ϯઔȂփࢢۖশสȄ1951ՐȂ ిȂ‫ࢢێ‬ᑉԇԧ᝷ॻሬి৶֌1982ՐȄ ሬც໛ిᐯြӫȮѵधॻሬȯȄ 1994 Ր ‫ڈ‬ጨᐯࠛȷȄ1960Ր4ѡȂሃ‫ق‬ਾီш௎ф ԒԢ൹ᓱКົాѵዃያᄥȇ1962ՐȂ൹ᓱ ߩКॻሬћᅡȯȂ‫ڭ‬ѷ༟‫ܕ‬Ϟዃያॻሬి ћᅡȯᑢ၃40Րߞ‫ߍؼ‬ȃ፠ᓭȂᆊмऎ うちだ りょうへい ࢈ȯȂ࣏ҭᣉ൵෼჆ߞॻሬిᐯᛔራ Рҏ ෎ԯᅆҭᣉॻሬి‫୒ߞڈ‬ឥȂ‫ݺ‬19 1874 ș 1937 ҭҔҾᅷ᠖ҾӔጨȇ2002Րᖔ ၳ๼ӮȂџӎᇊ‫ܪ‬ᒩϠȄ‫ࣶތ‬ሬᐯ੭ಲ ຘ֒Ђᇲ฀࣐ᐙൢȷȄ ྽Ȅ 1897 Ր၃ਝ௥࿧чЬ೜Ȃሮᝊਗ ћȂ‫ێׄ۝ڭ‬ভ‫ڰۻ‬྽Ȃணሃ෎ՍН ‫؝‬Ȅ1901ՐೡᚐགᔷྻȄ1905Ր7ѡ ਗћ֌џӎ‫ڴތ‬ȂԴаӣ‫ډ‬Ӏߞಝ ።ϭឯ൯՘ӲК஼ԢဖྻȂ‫ݺ‬ Alexander ‫֝ێ‬഍ᗝ֖ឯ൯ྻȄ von Falkenhausen

ҍӠ‫ݺ‬ग़஼ॊᜲ‫ݛ‬ԺՍМ֢ȂฅϢ֘ᙇ ক੭ȄԢဖྻྻ৶Ȃᑉԇਗћ঵ਯক‫ڰ‬ᠪ யȄ 1912 ՐКলઽീȂϭၨ੡‫्ڗ‬Кົ Ӕ஼ߞ௟ক‫އ‬Ȃ1969ՐȂ୻շ֋ग़஼ः ‫ى‬ᖧᏏ԰ҭҔ༧‫ށ‬Ћ೐Ϙгᄪ્ࠜȃ ᄪါ੩գȶ஼ѭক‫ڰ‬ᠪயഈ୺‫ق‬௟ কш௎НᄪȷȄ຾գԳ፡ࣆ ޼ᐯु‫ٿ‬ຈ੩ឱȄ

Adolf Abramovich Joffe ߼୽/ឃᖒ 1883 ș 1927

࠻஼ভ‫ۻ‬ਛȃҿᆬЦᇯֹࣆ޼ਛȃែᗑҳӹ ਛȄϩѡভ‫ࢢۻ‬Ȃం‫ڰ‬ҳӹЍ֯Ȃऎែᗑҳӹ ൊ஘ൊࠜȄ1922Ր঒ϯઔȂሃਗКЋྻবȂ๴ ࠑȶਗћ໸঳ᗑԪࢆ‫ڏ‬ȷȂ༟‫ܕ‬஼Ӕ៨ሃែᗑ фԒಯ៨ߞԪ֯ᝯ࠼Ȅ‫ׄ۝‬ਗћєϢҳ෯‫ؼ‬ ൄК஼஼Ӕ៨ȃ࢙Ӳ៨কߞࣆຉȄԴ1923 ՐሃԒಯ஼ቫԪ֯ࢢȂែᗑўবຜПਗ ћЂ༓‫ޠ‬ᐡ۶୑ࣆ෯ׄȂ‫ँڭ‬ҍ ক‫ڰ‬ᠪயᕒׄਗћ࢙কҔ ԂȄ

‫޻ݲ‬ᇺි ኈ୽

1878 ș 1966

ങઽኈ Claire Lee Chennault छ୽

1893 ș 1958

዇஼௟কȄ1897ՐϢԁȂ೐ϘըѵधЂᐼНࢢ ᠈઻Դক༤‫އ‬சȂ 1927 Ր༟‫ܕ‬ᑉԇ዇ೢ෻ჲֻَ ੭੭ࠜȄ1930Րଡ଼ԃࢢȂۖК஼ᑉԇ፼КӒߞক யȂ঑യທЂൊжক‫ڰ‬୊ፚ঍ᄑѽфК஼ߞ‫ڨ‬።ന Դ‫ߺޱ‬ሹฑߞ‫ׄ۝‬ϭȂॗ 4 ေϠత‫ۦ‬Ϟ዇஼ి‫ܡ‬Н ፚ‫ڭ‬ತԐ‫ؼ‬ᢏൊ༤፠ۘȂ፠՘Ϟిᐱᗁ༤ȃ87ȃ ȃ36ਰұৎൊ༤Ȃϵබ࣏࠸ᇍߞ዇ౠਰȂ዇ౠᇟ ᏟਰԴಁᆡᐼ‫؝‬ѽфࡑ‫࠲ڴ‬ᎎᐼК๴෭Ϟһ Ђߞ֯ӡȄ1937ՐȂ዇஼ᅣ԰ᅆК஼ ߞњ෯Ȃ‫ߺޱ‬ሹฑ᝜ҝᠪயᚚ ச‫־ט‬К஼Ȅ

ग़஼ߩকК௟Ȃ঳֖৶Ȅ 1918 ՐौȂԴ೐Ϙըѵध Ђᐼ੡ԴকК‫؝އ‬Ȃ1920ՐӒՑ՘ऎ঳֖৶Ȅ1937Ր ࠐԯҵҝൊжᡘះȂϫሃϯҦЙ۶ȂփѽཋรকϠ‫ڗ‬Ԋଡ଼ ‫؝‬Ȅ1937Րᕕᘛ঒К஼Ȃ‫ׄ۝‬К஼๴ਣߩকȄ‫ة‬ᐼӒՑ᜕๴ ࢢȂऎК஼‫ؠ‬᝸‫އ‬சȂ‫ݢ‬དྷ঳֖৶‫ڭ‬ೡ՘К஼೐ 14 ‫ؠ‬᝸᠛ओ ᑟК༤ȂணҐϞಁᆡྻᐼȄ1938ՐȂԴ‫ށݿ‬ឯᓱଝߩᐯ੭Ȃ୊ ፚК஼঳֖৶Ȅ1941Ր8ѡ1џȂȶК஼ߩকग़஼‫ؠ‬᝸Ђ༤ȷ ӒՑ՘ӲȂӤ൘ૼ዇ऎЂ༤ࢽ෭‫ܡ‬Ȅ 1941 Րਆч֌ 1942 Ր 5ѡง༡Ȃग़஼‫ؠ‬᝸༤ߞϬৎᐼ୽ᑟК༤Ժը۶ߩᡚߞџক ֯ᐼȂ၃௱ۤఀർ‫ލ‬Ȃ҄К஼কӔЀઈЂኧȂജᇍऎȶ ঳ࠎ༤ȷȄ1945Րᛓ༟К஼ࡈȂജఱПКົӔ஼൵ Eric Henry Liddell ୼ᅷ᠖ࠦчӨџЂᚡᇲ௲Ȅ‫ة‬ᐼง༡Ȃȶ঳ࠎ Pearl Sydenstricker Buck ឃਿ៌ छ୽ ༤ȷѽ500ࣛ঳ᑟߞ҃ኊᕝ࿑໹Ⴥ2500 1902 ș 1945 1892 ș 1973 ࣛџᑟȂԢ੡ᕝٕऎዴЙьߞ ஥೺۶কុȄ ែ੾᠋Ⴛஜ৶Ȃ௄ရిཇిЀȄҍӠ‫ݺ‬К஼ч ग़஼֯ਛȄҍӠԴग़஼֘ӄԠҺ‫ڲ‬ՍȂҍӠ4ৎѡ੡

‫؃‬དྷᎠ

ᗉ࣢ੵ

ᔌѭӓ‫ۖڽ‬К஼կែ౻կ઒Ȃࢢ‫ۖྦྷڽ‬ᛉկȂԐᐯྻ ᆔሬ۶೫ᅚК஼ল࠸ȂంӁՐ୓බ༟‫ܕ‬኷֯Ȅ1921Ր୓ Ꮟۖࡑ‫ڴ‬ȂԴࠛൗЂᐯిఱॻሬћᐯȂ‫ڭ‬৘ேి‫୼ࡑݺ‬ȃ ‫ތ‬Ђ۶КЂ੡งࡑ‫ڴ‬Ђᐯॻሬ‫ڀ‬Ȅ 1931ՐȂ኷Ϟ຾ԩߞЈ ሲȮЂԳȯȂ‫ݺ‬1932 ՐᖔఀϞ෼‫׀‬ຉጨȄՁߞ‫ڰ‬྽ంթሐ ሐџϯȂ‫ݺڭ‬1935ՐᖔఀϞࢃ྆•চ•ሹࢃᆬᐙൢȄԴ؆՘ Ϟ෡኷‫ێ‬ѭӓߞ֯ࡡȮࣹϸȯ۶Ȯྨ୽ߞч‫ڹ‬ȯНࢢȂ ‫ݺ‬1938ՐᖔఀϞᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬћᐯጨȄᘈड઴ӠࡈฅϢឱК ஼ȂᅆК஼գಎࡓߞྏఐȄ‫ة‬џᐼߋ᜕๴ࢢȂऎК ஼ϠӔߞхࠬರᐼߋ‫ڕ܋‬ȄധധԺԺग़஼Ϡ Ӓ഼࣏Ⴥᘈड઴ߞЈሲϞႋۖК஼Ȃ ऎК஼ϠӔߞ‫ة‬џᐼߋႋᡃ हׄȄ

ങო۸ ଻‫پ‬ՙ‫ٳ‬/ཱིё‫ۃ‬ 1874 ș 1961

1910 ՐҐϢԢဖྻ‫ڭ‬ᒕ࿂њࢺਗћߞ ভ‫ࣿۻ‬ஜȄ‫ة‬џᐼߋ᜕๴ࢢȂࡑࣶົᄋឯ ሽ૟஼᝱Ӕᗁྻ՘ӲȂജయᓴऎѹਯȄ௲ᔝ ੕ภ‫ڭ‬ೡᚐԧ᝷ࣿஜȂ௲ታࡑࣶົᄋබԨ૟ ஼བྷภȂԒ঍੕ภॗ 15 ኆЮȂ࿂ЂԳњ෯ ϞК஼஼аߞ‫ة‬џϧ༓ȄԴ஼Ӕணࣆྻ೐ ϟըЂྻϯ෩ҍȶዲӏҍ஼ϿࡈȂ‫ڏ‬ ۶‫׈‬ᆔԾȷߞ຾ԩ෩੯Ȃᅆ‫ݺ‬ည ੡দዉߞѹᐼँ୓຾࢝Ђ ߞᄁህ֯ӡȄ

ࣺȄ1924ՐԴѐᐌླྀႻྻϯᖔఀ400ռ໿ߞࠛ ๕Ȅҁߞഺৎࣇ‫ڰ‬Ȃജ‫ؼ‬፠ۖც዆Ȯધѫᐼ‫ژ‬ȯ КȂႍѯᄳఀϞҒࣁ൵‫ڸ‬዆ѯጨԴаߞұ༵ླྀ෻ ҙጨȄ 1932 ՐജӒՑࢷӲऎߎਰȄ‫ة‬џᐼߋ ᜕๴ࢢȂۖള‫ޫߞק‬ҔႺ‫م‬Ѝ֯Ȃ 1943 Ր ജџক‫ع‬ᖔȂᝯ‫ݪ‬ԴЋ‫ތ‬ᖇ‫ת‬ጄႽ୰༰ КᖉȄ 1945 ՐӤ‫ݺ‬ജঝჅ࢘ൻஜ ۶ᖉᏳЙ‫ډ‬Ȃԯၝၚጳઽժ Դ༰КᖉȄ

১ԩ ҾȂ ៧Ȃ գ


Ք୉ኈ

ٔՇሜ

Gladys Aylward

छ୽

ඇᇌඏ

़ਿ៌ 1902 ș 1970

1917 ș

is Brougham

ग़ឱົϠ࢙ᒝਰȂ 1983 Ր෼‫׀‬ବֹጨఀ ѹȂജ᠖ऎȶ಩҃ѹ၍࢙ᒝߞ൵ࢢЂਰȷȄ ҍӠ‫ݺ‬ዃ‫ތ‬षዃՍҾȂ18࿐঑₯ग़஼Ȃ1946 Րۤఀࡣ֢Ђᐯ࢙ᒝᇇЀᐯ֜Ȅ֯ࡡѽгԒ࢙ ᒝȃћి࢙ᒝऎѹȂജᙩ᝷ऎ಩҃ѹ၍࢙ᒝȂ ຠӡᔀ‫ل‬ȃ಄ᐖϿȃटጬሃӮ‫ل‬Ȃ҃ࠑ֯ࡡ գग़஼ົಽჲપ஡஼ਛ᜹ශ‫ތ‬සȃ‫ޱ‬஼ѐᐌ ᜲઙਝᙖ࢙Ѝ຀ȃК஼শสК஼቙֖Ђ ྇ȃ 1970 Րџӎေ஼ൾ᠓ྻКົӔ ஼ᔡȂࠕง֯ࡡգҙႿԺࡣӿ ෻᠋᜹ങൾߏᔡȄ

༮ᄦȂ௄ရిࢆిЀфి‫ڈ‬ ົϠԳ஡ཇያᇊরȄ1948ՐȂ สȄ1951ՐȂ‫ۖڽ‬ҭᣉࠅ፷ཇ ৶֌1982ՐȄ1977ՐȂѹࢺॻ ሬȯȄ1994ՐȂനӲȶෆላ෎ి ሃ‫ق‬ਾီш௎ф৫ѹᗽߎਰш௎ 1962ՐȂ൹ᓱॻሬిᐯᛔራȮ ‫ܕ‬ϞዃያॻሬిᐯȄȮߩКॻሬ ȃ፠ᓭȂᆊмऎȮߩКॻሬి ߞॻሬిᐯᛔራНϘȄෆላ ‫୒ߞڈ‬ឥȂ‫ݺ‬1996Րᅷᖔ ጨȇ2002Րᖔჴᝑȶ ࣐ᐙൢȷȄ

ߜ࠲‫ݡ‬

ग़஼೐ 24 ԇൻЍൊࠜȃаቦК঵֜‫ڲ‬ ႁЃ‫ݑ‬ȃ೐Ϙ֜ົႁൊࠜȄҍӠ‫ݺ‬ሂҔ ҾȂ8࿐ᔌ຾ѭᓐᗝਛೊӔ֌ग़஼Ȅ1979 ՐԴࡣ֢஥ᐯ୰ۤఀԋ྽ᇒನᇇЀᐯ֜Ȃ ‫ڭ‬ᑉԇည‫ܨ‬ಲ྽Ӡ҃ࠑȄ 1987 Րᖔఀग़ ஼10Ђ൰ҍЃࠦՐȄ1986Ր་Ϣग़஼ ᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬Ȃ1989ՐԇႻᓮൊ஘ൊ ࠜȂ‫ ݺ‬2001 Ր՘ऎग़஼೐ 24ԇൻЍൊࠜȄ

ԴҭҔҾေົ஡ҍӠȄ 17 ࿐་Ϣᆊ᜹஻Ȃ ೐ϘൊӎϿც໛ነ࣏‫ޒ‬ᇊԳᐱᆊߞȮନԳߐ ЮȯȂНࢢϫ๴֖஭ѯȂҍᆊც዆Ȅ‫ڭ‬ฅ۶ ‫ؠޒ‬ᒖȃ‫܈ד‬༩фែգ‫ڭވ‬ᇍऎȶұЈчѳȷ Ȅ1998ՐԴџӎᆊҍȮૠ஬Ȋ᎛Ժຜ‫ا‬Ϙᙇ ੡༡ȯփ॓჆џӎȂ‫ـ‬ฅജџӎЃ‫ݑ‬ᓴऎ൵ ‫ۦ‬ᡌࠓ‫࣐ށٷࣷڲ‬ȄԴ 2007 ՐϘ༵ᅆ Դົҳ஼Ѓ‫ߞݑ‬ᎠࣤКȂҁജໞऎ Դົҳ஼Ѓ‫ݑ‬ѕӫК൵࠷࠱ ‫ٷࣷڲ‬ЀȄ

ᐼ‫ژ‬ȯ ༵ླྀ෻ ᐼߋ 3Ր ༰

ѧ৶Ⴊิ

Рҏ

1910 ș 2007

১ԩ‫ד‬պᇊȂӠ‫ݺ‬ҭᣉᄜ၍ᒩեЄ ҾȂฅ‫ډؼ‬៧౧Ȃሦ՘಩҃мߞ޽ ៧Ȃ‫ڭ‬൹ᓱџ౻঴ࡡ઀ՑྻߤȂ գȶി঴៧НѭȷНᇍȄി঴ ៧ജሮऎ࣏џӎϯৎѵ॔ ൵দঋߞ๴‫ށ‬Ȅ

дᡵᗿ छ୽

ᐬσց‫ٳ‬

1940 ș

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դσΙ 1902 ș 1970

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ѵधЂᐼНࢢȂា ԇ዇ೢ෻ჲֻَᐯ ᑉԇ፼КӒߞক‫ڰ‬ᠪ фК஼ߞ‫ڨ‬።ന঍Ȅ ‫ۦ‬Ϟ዇஼ి‫ܡ‬Н୊ ిᐱᗁ༤ȃ87ȃ88 ዇ౠਰȂ዇ౠᇟ John Leighton Stuart ᐼК๴෭Ϟһ छ୽ ᅣ԰ᅆК஼ 1876 ș 1962 ᠪயᚚ ग़஼ཇిЀȂᑷ‫ڴ‬Ђᐯ൹‫ܕ‬ϠȂࡈग़஼ᏸົЂ ‫ڹ‬ȄҍӠ‫މݺ‬ՍȂᇍ֋Ўȶ࣏ϘৎК஼Ϡ‫ـ‬Ժ‫ݺ‬ ࣏Ϙৎग़஼ϠȷȄ1919ՐȂജၑ᎛ऎᑷ‫ڴ‬Ђᐯ঵ ԇ੭ࠜȂདྷ੕ఀۖЂຊ੕ภȂऎᑷ‫ڴ‬Ђᐯ࢙ൄϞ ྲ੭ཀྵȂদܼࠛ᎛Кҳ຾ԩᐯ߰ԇిȂ෩пᑷЂ ߢԩ࢘۶ᐯങԳ֜Ȅ 1941 Ր୓Ȃജџকᝯ‫ݪ‬ ߡۖ1945Րᖔ៖Ȅ1946Րҍԇग़஼ᏸົЂ ‫ڹ‬Ȃౕؓକ௟ϟᐼຕ‫ߞࢢف‬К஼єԨ۶ Ӏ࢙നߞўԨӏକ՘ґȂ 1949 ஼ч Ր4ѡജҡ԰ग़஼Ȅ ໿ߞࠛ

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sen

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டཾড়ۨ೩ॎ ၆ওЅ৤ҰϛЖ டཾๅᛨȂShuttersȂᎍ ໨ෞЅኁȂੜᘣᇧഅȂ ‫ี׳‬ЅႭ୵Ȃջາ೩ॎ ЅൢቋȄ

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affney Street, ҏ۹՝ܻ14 G 0) 58 (mel 17H1 Coburg VIC 30 787 ࢥၚ 4 28 00 13 Ⴋ ᠍ߔम s.com.au www.atisupplie

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Ѯ ᢊ ૯ ဨ

Ⴄ‫޷צ‬ሸ

‫׷‬Ԛଽႀ

40%

Јณȅ୊ஶȅΡ௑‫ڨ‬ 51:ਭͲ

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214ਭͲ

ઈ֖ࡹ୦ਭ

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ܹಁжࣨ

ћ0 ҏѐጡᒮഋ ᄦ0 Xinhua & Wikipedia

1

РҏంĂଢ଼ȶ୙ॶ഍ȷॎგ

Рҏȶ 311 ȷσӴᎪࡣȂѴࣨ኏ኌॶ഍‫ོܖٵݍ‬ ‫ڧ‬ӴᎪፐᔞȂᡩᅽࢇ‫ۺ‬ᐠᄺȂ࢈Рҏࢇ‫ۺ‬ॎგӵ σ٬‫࡚ۺ‬ҳȶ୙ॶ഍ȷȂ‫ٮ‬௃݂ԑ໠ۖӵσ٬অ ҢᒲϴዂȂ೩ညࢇ‫ޟۺ‬ᖝਢᒲ‫ٱ‬ᐠᄺȄൢၾᆎȂ ୽πҺ೽ࣸϐඪю፡ࢥາҧ፜ൢ֙ȂॎგӵήТ

σ٬ѿৠ

ᓡਹΰ‫ޟ‬ᐸᆐ

଄՞೻஻ᖛ

18

ԙҳடড়‫ۏ‬ষོȂं‫ـ‬ȶࢇ‫ۺ‬ཨড়ȷ‫ۣٱ‬Ȅ୽π Һ೽ࣸॎგӵσ٬ӴୢનঅΙැᒲϴዂȂ଩ညശ ཱིፏ࢑೽ଉ‫ڷ‬Ⴋຜོដ‫ف‬ಛȂΙҍ‫ีٵݍ‬ҡσӴ ᎪȂ߯૖оσ٬ᒲϴዂհ࣏ࢇ‫ࡾۺ‬ථ௿㦪‫ڞڷ‬፡ ϛЖȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ൖൌࢽϘৎ஼ਛԴ঵ൌНҳҩҳനӲߞൌࡱȂϘଠ ЙനКҴࣆܹᑟᅹȂ഼௱Й࣏ԑ஼ߞࣆ޼КѕȄൖ ൌ֌ьൌ࣏஡ா‫ߞݑ‬КѕࡱҾȂৎ‫־‬ൖൌᅁቫබ࣏ ԑ஼‫޼ࣆߞݑ‬Кѕ‫ݕ‬ᅁቫϯߞ঵ൌȄሃթहᝯߞൖ ൌ࣏ۘ࢘ҟ҃দঋߞࣆ޼ۘ࢘НϘȄ‫ށ‬จᏏൌҔ‫ڴ‬ ࢢࡑ‫֯ڴ‬ऎ઻‫ڴ‬Ȅ1937Ր11ѡԯКџԑব༟ᐼȂ КົӔ஼КҴࣆܹᏏೊۖদዉȂНࢢদዉ՘ऎӖϳ ൖൌȄ

࢙നȶ஘঵ൌȷᅆ‫ݺ‬џӎഺዹԺ‫٭‬Ժ᝱ߞ஼ਛ‫ڽ‬ ሲȂϩжߞӅঋȄӤ‫ݺ‬ԳᏩ۶ઔኣߞࢃ଎Ȃ‫ڴތ‬ Գ஡ॎ๒ജᅨ࿑Й࣏ᗒϠᡘᇷȄЙჅȂџӎᖷᒣߞ પઅఐ޶࣏ȂЂ‫֯ګ‬ऎᝯ֘Գ஡ߞКѕȂ࢝Ժўব ֋֖‫࣏ێ‬Ȃत֌ാ‫ڻ‬ცߞცᕅൌሃ‫ڴތ‬ЙϘዹȄҩ ҳȂџӎ஼ϿবᒕબЈȂՂ‫ލ‬ᏎჃትলϘ᝷Ђഢጀ ‫٭‬ਚȂ‫ڴތ‬۶Ђ‫ګ‬ҞକԢ੡‫٭ۦ‬Ȃۖ੡৏ᎡϵాЙ ϞᎡȄ

2

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଻‫پ‬ՙ‫ٳ‬ၻཾഋ୙ഋߝጾසࠍ 21 Р௥‫ཱིڧ‬๼‫ޥ‬଄ ‫௴ޱ‬೤ਢᇳȂᐸᆐѫԤࡐᐸᇄࢾᐸϞϷȄтᇳȂ‫ؠ‬ ԤᐸυӥՖ೻ӱ‫ٱ‬ȂȶՖᐸȷѫ࢐୦ড়࣏Οᕕ‫؁ڥ‬ ଽցዜՄᇧഅ‫ޟ‬ᏤᓞȄ଻‫پ‬ՙ‫ٳ‬ᐸᆐ୦ᖒӫོફਪ ଻࿅‫پ‬ᇳȈȶΙ‫ٲ‬ӿ୦࣏Οᒗ‫ڥ‬ଽցዜȂ҈๿ȺՖ

ᐸȻ‫ޟ‬ӪஆȂᗀᆎᐸυശࡣΙԩᑞᆐਢӥюՖ๛Ȃ ‫ܚ‬оᐸᆐ࣢ິฒШȂ೻‫ٲ‬഍࢐ฒጋϞፙȄȷΙ‫ٲ‬ட ড়ᇯ࣏ȂȶՖᐸȷ‫ޟ‬ᆎᒝᔖ‫ࢾ࣏׽‬ᐸȂоջᡱΡᇲ о࣏࢐ᐸυӥՖ‫ל‬ԙȄ

���ශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

࢏ᑷжऎ‫گ‬Ө֒۶໪Ѱ֒ȇࣽᑷࡋж‫־‬գշག֒ȃ ཀ֒ȃࠛບ֒ȃ॓֒фຘ֒Ȃѹঋ‫ڽ୺ތݺ֜֋ڽ‬ ֘‫ْߞڲ‬ዢ໸Սߞч๒ࣽӱȄᑷᇏКգᇍऎȶ֕ ᑷȷߞȂ࣏ԯऎȶช‫ࠛ؍‬ບᑷȷߞ঴ߏКҒ‫ף‬ઔូ ຈߏ‫ێڹ‬එ౵‫ף‬ᛔᎳȂઉмᠠ‫ף‬༓Ⴕ୼Ȃԯփᛞ ֒ᘿ॓Ղ֕Ȃ‫ࠧڭ‬ԯऎϠেሱႋȂѽऎ‫ێ‬ӏ؆՘൧ ௰Ȃ‫ء‬຾Йಯ‫׉‬ȂԤ֕փ‫؛‬՘Ȅ֕ᑷѧ୓‫ێ‬ҹߞᑷ ᝷Ȃ‫ـף‬ԺߞឩߏᎳȄ

‫ێ‬ᅁȂᑷᇏߞᖉᏳኊৃգনȂ‫҃ށ‬ग़঴ਛି‫ޚ‬ᅆᑷ ᇏգᑾપߞऻ‫ޱ‬Ȉȶᑷᇏ໳ߏȂ১ЙቅӡȄՂӡ НȂُဦӅ༷ϟ㢧ȂԐӡчࣵѪ޽НȂ௟቙୫ࣄҝ གບȄӡᄷᛗ฼ȃՀѫᇿ฼ȃྲើ◔ϬዹᆋНȂऻ ᑷᇏᢏ՘Ӝ֒ऎ࢘ȄȷҞ‫ڍ‬ȂԫᑷᇏҪЙჅ࣏ৎԩ ӫȂᅁቫԫߞ࣏ᄷᛗ฼ȃՀѫᇿ฼ȃྲើ◔Ȃգ຾ ϬዹȂබᇖٟգᑷᇏϵ࢝գᖉᏳϞȄ

3

຅ࡡᇽᖂಛ‫ܢ‬๘൷ॷ෫Ρ፴ᄞਰၾᅇ

ӵ଻ѻ‫ܜ‬Ρ፴‫ٱ‬Ӈ23РΙ໊ԑȂড়឴‫ڷ‬۷Ԇ‫ޱ‬23 Р१ӱ౪ൟᖞ՗௕‫܈‬ቈԒϞሬȂ຅ࡡᇽᖂಛߡஅᒛ έжӔԩᒑο‫ܢ‬๘ၾᅇȂ‫ٱࡾٮ‬Ӈ࢐ΙӪȶѶலᅁ ЙȷഅԙȂ຅ࡡᇽฒџ૖ौ࣏‫ٱ‬Ӈ॒೰ȇтά஠Ρ ፴‫ٱ‬ӇШൕΰТ‫ޟ‬ਘࡄᅁᔞਰȂ഍࢐ᜲоߢХȄт

άࡾ࿋Р‫࡞ีٱ‬एณȂᅁЙߞӻᙡ‫ޟ‬ҳൟһᡐு࡞ ‫פ‬ȂϴಀϚ૖‫ׇ‬Ӓ܏೰຅ࡡᇽࢇ‫ۺ‬Ȃծ१ҧ຅ࡡᇽ ϐё஼ឌᄆᔖᡐӠᐠ‫ޟ‬૖ΨȄড়឴‫ڷ‬ҡᗙ‫ߡ׳ࣜޱ‬ அᒛέжȶӵড়឴༌οΰ᠎ᢄȷȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ໄࢠሼϠᎳ‫ڰ‬Ԇ๴Ӡ‫ݺ‬2010Ր8ѡ23џညԳ੡༡ ϯо 10 ੡җҽҠȂᏎভᚚߞࡈໄࢠሼ஼ਛ់ᅅ୼ ૺရᅅᜲ᠋ԺȅࠝԺᚠјࢺَᆀȂ๳ϯশส௵ઍ ੠֖ߤԴໄࢠሼ୺Һ‫ߞݛ‬੠ႼѐЀȂ੍ࢺ‫ژ‬ϯ 23 ԩϠᎳȄ‫ڰ‬๴ࠕ9Ј੡ࢢȂ၆৥ሃໄࢠሼ់ᅅપᇌ ‫ޠ‬ᐡ۶ᐼങൊ༤фપ‫֖־‬ஜ༤᜕๴ᆀᐼȂቺѫ჈1 Ј੡ࢢ၆৥ജᕝᕧȄ‫ڰ‬Ԇࢺ᠈ 11 Ј੡ࢢѽࣹ֕‫ט‬ ೣȂ൵ࢢ15ԩജ੍ࢺߞϠᎳКȂ8ժ7ཋȄ

ഺৎໄࢠሼᗁ೚ߞ‫ڏ‬Ꭲፁᅁࠧ௱҄ϠዙූȂЂਛൌ ߢႽȂൄ՘ϠᎳᅝ੯ߞЙඏ࣏ȶҵ௱ᆀјȷȂᘘգ ໄࢠሼࣆܹࣶहպҍߞᖉాჅ຀ȄഺϘ‫ڰ‬ԆНࢢȂ ҒࣁК஼Դаߞѵधԧ஼់ў۶પ់ൊ༤Ȃൌ૾૾ ᅆᖉాჅ຀ߞ‫ݬ‬Ԛј‫ޱ‬෩ҍᎳᆷȂ֭ໄࢠሼᗁ೚۶ ࣆܹϘ஘ժᎩЙ‫ݏ‬༟ѪᑺߞዹЄȂ‫ݡ‬Йత‫ۦ‬ԇ֣‫ز‬ ໞȂϵٟգ֯ҍԇ֣ႽᆆȂੲӎ࣏஼ቫૺߞफ़๑ ᓥȄ


ܹಁжࣨ

ϛ୽ӗ‫ٱ‬ວ೪‫ݲ‬

4

ϛ୽ᔣও‫ࡡݲ׽‬ġೝ֙Ρߖᒑџо‫ܢ‬๘հᜌ

ΪΙ㦘Ӓ୽Ρσல‫ོۏ‬಑ΠΪΠԩོដ 24 РΰϿ ቷដӗ‫ٱ‬ວ೪‫ݲ‬ওғਰ૩ਰȄᇄ౪՗‫ࣺࡡݲ‬ШȂ ૩ਰቨёΟΙనೣۡȈငΡҕ‫ݲ‬଱‫ݲٷ‬೽‫ޣ‬Ȃᜌ Ρᔖ࿋ю৳հᜌȄᜌΡ‫ؠ‬Ԥғ࿋౩ҥϚࡸΡҕ‫ݲ‬ ଱೽‫ޣ‬ю৳հᜌȂΡҕ‫ݲ‬଱џо஼‫ڗڏڙ‬৳Ȃծ

࢐ೝ֙Ρ‫ޟ‬଩ୋȃЮҔȃυτଶѴȄடড়ࡾюȂ ೻Ιనೣۡߒ݂Ȃқဌ༼ᅸΡȃೝ֙Ρ‫ߖޟ‬ᒑӵ ਰӇቷ౩ϛџо‫ܢ‬๘հᜌȂ‫ࡡݲ‬ϚӔ஼ؑȶσဎ ྞᒑȷȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ȶЂ၍࿝ᓐȷሬҍҽѸ‫ށ‬Ȯҽཇ•ᘳгұՐȯȈȶ Ђ၍࿝ᓐȂ‫࣏ێ‬НᓜѼȉȷሲߞ࣏࣋ौ੡ᎎ஼Ђш Ӯ⟯ฅ၃ឍᓔᎎഄгȂౕؓి‫ڈ‬ՀഄгНЄՍᣰȄ ഄгժȂᎎੱг‫֜׈‬ȂՍᣰሃӮ⟯НЄӮࡓ௜ᓖ౭ ਚੱгᒠ֜Ȃऎፁ࠲ѳ֜‫ױ‬ᜦȂँӮࡓҝ᎛ిӮ ⟯ȄӮ⟯ࢬ‫ۊ‬ЄЂ୚ЙႽȂന঍ᢰ൘஼൘ੱг୵ఫ ϞՍᣰሃӮࡓȄȶЂ၍࿝ᓐȷԴК஼ജ໛ऎႽ዇୼ ‫ߞܥ‬໪ወȄ

К஼৫҃‫ࢠޱ‬ഢ‫ܠ‬ȂȶԢ‫ܧ‬हᘳЙऎ။ȷȂྍࢥ࣏ ሲϘ୓‫ߞ֝ܧ‬ਛϠȃᓐజՂ‫ލ‬ᘳᒍ੯Ӛ။֖Йᅹ՘ Ӛ။ȄঋِȶЂ၍࿝ᓐȷȂ֋ҟѽ‫ڽ‬බ࣏ϘᇌᅆϠ ߞႽ዇ॳِȂ࢝ਟ‫ݽ‬ᢏ՘Ⴝ዇ऎ‫ז‬Єެԩ൑᠖ߞј ࣱȂПѽ኿୵࣏Ϙᇌ་َᗝஜȄ‫ـ‬գȂ಩҃ߤྻਛ ਲаൊᝯ࠼ϵЙԢ‫࢙ࢋݺ‬੡҃ȂਛϠ഍‫୑ݺ‬ಯ‫ૈ׀‬ ຈ১ԯࣇྍ֯ҍᅆജ‫ט‬Й‫ڻߞ׀‬ໟϵ੡գ๴ӠȂࣇ թళࠫਛϠ֯ᝋᕕ‫ـ‬ऎྕদȄ

5

ߜғРܰႀ෉߼ॶသོఐӴ

෉ᘀശଽሴᏲΡߜғР‫ޟ‬டӖ 23 Р఑ܰႀ෉߼ॶ သོፙӴᘈ੩៌੩ኈȄ 20 РȂߜғРॸடӖܰႀ ߼ሉ‫ݍ‬ᔻ੕᜞ᛠୢȂ໠ۖᄇ߼໌՗ߨғԒ೤୰Ȃ೻ ࢐‫ ڏ‬10 ԑ‫پ‬಑έԩ೤߼Ȅ෈໢ȂߜғР‫ޟ‬டӖӵ

ߜғРܰႀ੩៌੩ኈ

Ȯԙߝ‫ޟ‬ယ؏ȯϱॲ

ಒ‫ܜ‬ज़‫آ‬඼ԜպȃࠤБᛳЉ඼պȃߡᑘᅭ‫۬ݼݬ‬Ӵ ୢоЅߡᑘᅭԎҀӖ‫้ٳ‬Ӵୄ੼Ȃ୤ᢎ೤୰࿋Ӵσ ࠮ώཾ೩ࢊ‫ڷ‬ӪഽȄᐃொȂ߼ᖂಛదኈ९റЉ஠ӵ ੩៌੩ኈᇄߜғРᖞ՗ོఐȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ࠛӒџ‫ݺ‬2010Ր5ѡ3џണК஼ȂᑂሲঋِК஼෩ ‫ڻ‬൵ྲᐼᑟຈক‫ڰ‬෯ׄȄᑂሲࠛӒџജ‫ݡ‬ທࢢᗜ੡ ۤઐԴҔ‫ڴ‬۶१ᔅᕾϘ୓ᣍऻᆇነȮ॓ጁᄱȯȂғ ғ԰஼ȄࠛӒџ‫ݺ‬2011Րԓ࢘ണົȂЪٟକᖔఀ จᘿ‫ݙ‬ง࢞ߞ၃ᕻԪ֯ຈȶЂᚃҒȷȂК஼஼ਛѹ ਯ१ᔅᕾᅆࠛӒџ௻ᎠȶঋᙖЂᛕ៏ߞ၃ᕻԪ֯ȷ Ȃഺജႋ៖ऎК஼Йྻգจᘿౕؓߞȶ෯ׄՑȷ၃ ᕻԪ֯Ȅ

ᑂሲࠛӒџஉ௵ߐ޶կޫџϭȂԴѵߞџЄ਻‫ݏ‬Й ԺϞȄࣇթұ഍་֖ȶм፡Н੠ȷȂऎ‫ۊ‬ЄࠛӒਾ ༶‫׀‬త઱ᆽ൵ࢢߞ‫ׅ‬ϧȄሲ࣏ұ഍Ȃ‫ێ‬ᅁ୵ϞК ஼ȂࠛӒџକҝߞϵබ࣏࠻ᜲ෻ϞȄҪЙჅจᘿᅆ ‫ᜲ࠻ݺ‬෻‫ڽ‬ሲȂᐼರኊৃ‫ֲـ‬Ȃփ‫ށ‬Րϫ࣏࠻ᜲ෻ ᓴᗝНՐȂౕؓ౥዇ম൰шӡૌࠛӨ቙‫ڽ‬ᕒׄ֋Ў ܼ᠈ਛ౉೚޼ȂҪକሲ࣏ӨџஇᄱȄ

6

ѕ‫ٵ‬భ௰՗ωᏰҡ‫ܒ‬ఀ‫ى‬᠞ҏЕีዥដ

ϛ୽ѕ‫ٵ‬ΙৈӪ࣏Ȯԙߝ‫ޟ‬ယ؏ȯ‫ޟ‬ၐᘈఀ؅σ ᆪ‫ط‬ΙϴշȂ։ೝ൬ᡝᆎ࣏ȶॶഋएક༈ಛЏ ࡙‫ޟ‬ωᏰҡ‫ܒ‬ఀ‫ى‬ȷ‫ࠉޟ‬ፏఀ؅Ȃӵϛ୽ϱӴЕ ีኄ‫ݿ‬ዥដȄϚЍᆩЄ‫ڷ‬ড়ߝᄇఀ؅ϛΙ‫ٲ‬ԅಁ ‫ڷ‬ඨყၷΣ࡞ᜲ௥‫ڧ‬ȂծζԤΡᄇ೻ৈఀ؅ߒҰ

ᇯџ‫ڷ‬ЛࡻȄΙ՝༾༾ᐊЖᄇܻԂΤྑ‫ࡆޟ‬υ‫پ‬ ᇳȂ೻ҏఀ؅ོഅԙࡆυԞዣȂࡆυωωԑकϷ ᒱ࢐ߨ‫ޟ‬૖Ψ৯Ȃԃ‫ࡆݎ‬υᇯ࣏࡞ડ‫ۉ‬Ȃ໌Մྱ ๿ўᏰȃўკၐȂଏϚ࢐ுϚᓻѶȉȶᡱࡆυӵ ‫ܒ‬П७‫ޣ‬ၾுູӻȂІՄԤџ૖ູᚽ‫ٱ‬Ȅȷ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

Ҕ‫ݑڴ‬உ௵ి‫ྻٿुڈ‬ᅆҔ‫ ڴ‬14 ‫ݙ‬ᐯ੭ 453 ԩЈ ᐯұȃУՐૺߞᐯӠ་֖ߞϘը‫ߢݑ‬ᝊᎠࣤຕ‫ލ‬ᢖ ӯȂҪգЙۖ20%ߞᐯӠంᐯ੭ᖔఀ‫ߢݑ‬ᝊȂ5% ߞᐯӠҞѽӒፁᝊ‫ݑ־‬ᘳ‫ټ‬ൊ֜Ȃփգ 16% ؆ԑ Йᝊ‫ݑ‬ᐡ‫ܡ‬Ȅ໹Ⴥ 14% ߞ‫ۦ‬ണ߰ሲҁেЙߢՂ֣ ഍ನ‫ࠬݑ‬ӚȂփҩҳ4%ߞᐯӠះఀ‫ࠬݑ‬Ӛȶ๑‫ݙ‬ ᓜȷȄК஼‫ڈిݑ‬ԴКЈᐯࠜง഍‫૿ݺ‬ҵߐᅗȂࢅ ЄেӤ‫ݺ‬ᅆ֋‫ڗ‬๴‫ڈ‬ЙϞႋȂۖϞࠦ࣋งྻಯӠ࢝ ԺѕನயᛟȄ

‫ڈిݑ‬ԴК஼Ȃ࣏࿂ᇑᗞ᝱ߞ႖ᛟȄᝯᘣߞឨຕԴ ‫ݺ‬Ȃ࢝ԺК஼ϠሮऎȂᅆ‫ߢݑ‬ᝊߞᖢႋබ࣏‫ࠬݑ‬Ӛ ߞੲӎ১ԯȂంփవӋ‫ڈిݑ‬Ȅ‫ێ‬ᅁȂϠᢜ‫ݑ‬ᎏஜ ߞੲӎ১ԯ࣏ᑬ૵жީȂ‫ڹ׈‬ٟգԇ֣‫ߢݑ‬ᝊߞࠦ ࣋งьՐϵྻգ‫ݑ‬ᎏஜȂవӋ‫ڈిݑ‬౮๑ੲᑂȄ‫ـ‬ ঋ‫࣏ߞۻ‬ȂᐯӠՂ‫ލ‬ЙႬᐯ੭ߞցਰᐯ೫Ӓፁߞ‫ݑ‬ ߢᝊȂ‫ڤ‬බҪକҝႬሔСߩցਰᐯ೫ЙӒፁߞ‫ߢݑ‬ ᝊȂѭӓᕕႍՂ֣ᓴᑄ۸ȉ

19


ዥᘈடᚠ

‫؃‬պ஼೤෫஼ᔆཱིᆸՌҥ

Ι୽‫ڙڍ‬ĶıԑϚᡐ ༉࢐এჲȉ ћ/ ҏѐጡᒮഋ ᄦ/ Xinhua, Weibo

ΰ໊ϛ୽୽୛଱୙ᖂ౩‫؃‬պ஼‫ڗ‬೤ॷ෫3РȂөॷ෫ѿҕଚюӻ໶‫ޟ‬ငᔼࠔᙄȂσ‫ڧ‬෫ Ρ‫ߔ᠍ޟ‬ȄծᇄԪӣਢȂ‫؃‬պ஼‫ڗܚ‬Ϟ೎‫ᝒޟ‬஝߳Ԋ‫௴ڷ‬೤Ԋ௶Ȃॷ෫ឌП‫ޟ‬೎౩Й‫ݲ‬ ࠓЕଔྃσ‫ތޟ‬ដȂଶΟΙ‫ٲ‬ฒ໇ѿҕᎏ‫ڧ‬ឌП‫ޟ‬ಗኸᄇ࡟ȂԤ଄‫ޱ‬ӵ௴೤ਢೝ‫ڧ‬ឌП ‫ߢޟ‬ኧоЅฒ౩ཪࢥȂ‫ࡾޢ‬ȶॷ෫ষឌᡐϴԊȷȂॷ෫‫؁‬Ԥ‫ޥ‬ຟࡾΙ୽‫ॷޟڙڍ‬෫஠ੑ ѶȄӱᘪϛ୽༉14ԑ‫ॷޟ‬෫Ȃά၎դўդ௃‫ڹ‬ȉ ‫؃‬պ஼ӵॷ෫ө൬ᡝ଄‫ޱ‬ථЙ

К஼஼ச୰஘ᗁನ‫ֹق‬௻‫ݺ‬ϯ༉ϟ(16џ)‫ݯ‬Ⴟশส ਣ༟ऎง3чߞ֖຀ȂԴണสง༡Ȃҁж‫־‬ҍਯϞ ஼ਛȶϩϟУȷഢᄑሃ‫ی‬Գ၃໶ࠛᓉԪ֯๴ਣᎢ ᐪȃ‫ڍ‬ᝋаԳሃশส၃໶Ԫ༵֯ӫᜪॗѽфҍਯϠ Ӕᅋ஼ཅԴশสߞ๴֖ኇՑȇփԴᛓสࡈ‫ֹق‬௻Ӻ գҍਯশสЂᐯߞպՐࣿஜȂ‫ڭ‬ѹࢺ౹୺ុࣆܹᗁ ൊЂጁၢ՘ߞ‫ۏ‬ᚃȄ‫ێ‬КԴȶϩϟУȷᎢᐪϯȂ‫ق‬ ֹ௻гֶϞԺ༵௻мশส֯ऎϠӔᅋᛓ‫ܫ‬КѕߞԺ ༵ࠛᓉྲనࣉȂҒࣁਟധᄩҳϠӔᅋ԰ࣹК஼аԳ ߡత‫ظ‬ႤȂਟധЂ൙ᛓ‫ܫ‬ϠӔᅋ၃শส‫ظ‬ႤAߵҾ ඞȂশสࢽዴӹ‫ݙݽ‬ӹ‫ݽ‬௄ࠛȞ ETF) ҞԴаԳభ ๕ȂਟധЂ൙ԋ྽‫ڽ‬ส๴ཅຈຈ‫ە‬ᑬสߵϯпߞඈ ୈȄ σᏰਮ༪ЎԃೝឌП௥ᆓ ᐐᇒ‫ֹق‬௻ണสԢ੡ЂँȶᚃߏȷȂЙჅশส់ў ߞទ௜࠲Չ۶ళണՉవࡒє୓สϠߞЂЂЙᆕȇ‫ق‬ ֹ௻ണสง༡Ȃ់ў୵Ϟ௟ӯࢃ஡നԴቈ഍Ȃ‫قڹ‬ ֹ௻ੲӎᅆӯࢃН‫ڰ‬౮ЙߢఐН᏶ȂԴ‫ֹق‬௻ۖണ শสϘ‫ټ‬Ϡ֝Ո࢏ॿ་֖ਛണ੡ȂϘԩ཈‫्ڗ‬ȶӀ хбұȷTࢳȂᅁᎳ‫ڭ‬๑ӇᇖࠑႿԇ֣૶ِߞ‫֝ٷ‬ ࢉॎ๒ജ់ў௻֖௲‫ڕ‬Ȅ୵թНҳȂգඡᐱࢽȂ՝ Դ‫ֹق‬௻ҍਯশสЂᐯպՐࣿஜညџߞ౻౐Ȃশส Ђᐯߞұ۹Џֶᆕ់‫ژ‬фᠠ୺Ȃ‫ڭ‬ന၉Ⴎቪᕭࣤ‫ژ‬ ᏃȄ ‫ـ‬ទদߞ࣏Ȃ੭ཀྵаҳэՂညՐԴশส಍൝ߞџ޼ ੡งȂൊж࢙ᒝജџকወӡߞఐ޶ȂশสໞᎢ৶ጝ Јᕾ‫࣏ـ‬ѽȶ੭ཀྵаҳУَϘ௯ȃϩَϘ৪Ȃ࠲Չ НទȂࡈ‫ݙ‬ӏ‫ڍ‬ȷ‫؛ڽ‬ਟည੡់ў჆ֶ੭ཀྵȂࢽӀ ੡ᅆҳ༟‫ߞݸ‬੭ཀྵȂȶညџ֬ജ់ўతᇒȂᢏ՘؊ ൊȺ‫ئ‬ទ஡ȻȂ‫ݙ‬գϢϾൌգ់৶‫د‬ՇȷȂ୵Ϟ഼ ݀੭ཀྵߞчᑜգ់৶‫د‬Շф໛ᅅȂԇ֣Ϡ་Ϣ੭ ཀྵȂൌӅ༷ҍӯᐯӠᝋȃᚚ৶ᝋ‫ݕ‬੭уᝋȂ෼഼Ҿ Ӕജ‫ݡ‬᎜ࠝҳȄփ൙֦௅ഺਲ਼࢙‫ݺ‬պՐࡈߞ‫ܠޱ‬ҟ ᚹȂӺӤ‫ֹقݺ‬௻ߞۖണփᢏఀȶӠϠлࠕȷȂ஄ ॶ‫ڭ‬ӏࢺգ᎛ࣚȂທЙҞҍ಩ԴўཪϘպռаȄ ‫ێ‬༡ȂգϩԺԩ࿤൯ӯࢃȂࠑႿӀхбұ໦ِߞส ЂᐯӠȃ੭уфᐯᗑ՘৶Ȃ‫ـ‬՝Դ໼ᛓ൙֦௅պԺ

20

ռߞщҟᑜȂജ಩ඞࠕҗպߞ৶់ᅟஃȂࠡѤҁে తࠕȶూྏԳ௲ȷȄփϬԩ्ϯӀхбұ Tࢳߞӯ ࢃᐯӠӺജϟϩԺԩ់৶ф࠲Չయ԰ࢢጁ౗๑ࣇȶ ူᔈȷ჈ϘЈ੡Ȃգ់৶‫࣏ـ‬ЂҨȶধࠝȷపϯ‫ڨ‬ ѫࠝȂ҄಩ඞߞཇණ๑‫ࠝ៷ݮޱ‬аߞૌᅁఐ޶ȇϘ ߡۖ‫ֹق‬௻ᛓ༟൙֦௅ࢢȂ់ўЖ഼ߢ࠲Չ৶៖‫ݸ‬ ӯࢃ߰ȄสЂ੭ࠜ਷ӲНജ๭፩ऎ෱ۤ๴ਣߞឯ ፅȂਟധ់ў֫ታ੭ཀྵȂԇྍҍᎱЂᐯᇟૠȂჀ‫ڹ‬ ਷ӲН‫ځ‬գԳ‫ݺ‬ӎ༉ϟ(23џ)Դඡൢϯҏ๳၌ԩᗏ ‫ࠑށ‬ӯᆆྍН᏶Ȃশส់ўэՂК஼аԳгՉߞֽ ֕ј‫࣏҄ـޱ‬ϠྏۖѕධȄ ཱིᆸՌҥೝ஼ᔆ ୵թНҳȂ‫ֹق‬௻ۖണশկН੠Ӻ෬ӯশส់ў ᕅۘྲᇷ֋Ӥߞ෌޶ȇ჈300ԩ៷዆ȃћՄȃც໛ ҭ۶ცҭୃ߰‫ݺ‬ϯ༉б(20џȟȂ्ϯག֗๴୓Ⴜ ֖Ȃশสୃ߰‫ࠑྻ۝‬ӯȂ‫ێ‬ᅁԴჅҝߞϘৎѡȂཇ ණ၃௱Դ་֖ళണ੡Ꮞۖ់ў๑ನࠡዦȇփ‫ֹق‬௻ ണส‫់ڹ࣏ـ‬ўᢏӎҐኖȈҒࣁँҍЂ‫ز‬ᆷ֬់৶ ߞȶག֗ϠȷদদҒඛታᐱϠфᄜሼȂգც໛ҭୃ ߰‫ࢽـ‬Դళണ‫ֹق‬௻੡Ȃգȶག֗Ϡȷ‫د‬ҁ‫ۖݛ‬Ϙ ੟Ȃҁ႙யᅆў‫ڗ‬ԊȂᅆў‫ݡ‬ທ൅ᠨȂ‫ڭ‬ӡјᏌᐿ ᝡᔝȂј‫ޱ‬գՂԴаԳళണ੡ߞȶЙ‫ڗށ‬жӇјȷ Ȅҩҳ់ᡋ‫࣏ـ‬ᙖ௺֌Դ໖ϯၒྍᠭቁӒ௱ళണߞ ୃ߰Ȃᅆୃ߰֯ҍЙԪನߞྩࣤȃྩ‫ڗ‬ຈȂत֌Ꮜ ᐿᝡᔝࠡѤୃ߰‫៷ݮ‬৶់௻֖‫ڕݶ‬ҾӔ੡ߞఐ‫؛‬Ȃ ϯগߞสЂ‫ڰ‬Ԇ࠮࣏‫ێ‬ϘȄ ֯ऎᆾᅅࣆܹߞȶ๑கऱ࢓ȷȂཇණജ‫់ۦ‬ўߞᕿ ᡋјࣱ‫ݙ‬዆ᠩȂԴԑส၏ఐዙූԳ௟ӬᔝߡࢽԨশ ส់ўȂঋِ់ச഍ࠜฅஈ༯ႽᆆНቫȂϬ֜ᆷ֬ ϭԇપ঵ߞ৏ᓴϠȂҒࣁࣆசҦࠜ৫ॻՐȃ֖ࣆྻ ៉ҡ༰Ϡౖ੎ॻфԑ஼ϠЂ௱܎॰਷ដઍࡒ‫׮‬Ԑࢢ ༟ວϧ੔់ўȇ৫ॻՐԴҍਯࣿஜ੡Ȃබ‫ڰ‬ԆԨ಩ ඞණᢜࠑӯࣆܹ؆ԑපদཇණߞళണ֋ӤȂ‫ࢢێ‬Դ ԰ຍգᝯ࠲ՉՉవჁх‫ڏ‬Ꭲ֋Ӥфྲᇷ֋Ӥߞ෩ய ੡Ȃ৫ॻՐ‫࣏ـ‬ѽॻሬࢽയգᝯ‫ز‬ໞȶ؆ԑ࣏‫װ۾‬ (that is completely rubbish)ȷȂ‫ڭ‬௻Ꭰ‫ֹق‬௻ҍ ਯߞُඞࣿஜൌգՉవཇණళണȂȶ࣊գ๪বӺൌ գаਟߞ०฀ȷȄ

‫؃‬պ஼ӵॷ෫юৰ୽ড়ɆΪΠϤɇೣგЅ፣Ꮻ

‫مވ‬۹ѴȂ‫ݡ‬ឌમரᝒଲо࡟ (ѕ‫ٵ‬ᆩЄཌിྱа)


ዥᘈடᚠ

Ȟ01ȟ8Т16РȂϛ୽୽୛଱୙ᖂ౩‫؃‬պ஼ӵॷ෫َོ੫ୢ՗ࢇߝۢෆጺ᠌ Ȟ02ȟ8Т17РȂ‫؃‬պ஼ӵɆΪΠϤɇೣგЅ፣Ꮻϛีߒкᚠᅋᖿ Ȟ03ȟ8Т18РȂ‫؃‬պ஼ӵॷ෫୽ሬᐠൟөଚ՗ΡတථЙၾտ Ȟ04ȟ‫؃‬պ஼ӵॷ෫ᇄΙಀॷ෫ۢষོ७

யᛟ࣏Ȃ୵Ϟ‫ֹق‬௻ਛണຈг༟ඞԪ৞ധཇණళണȂ‫ֹق‬௻Ԓ 20 ༵ߞࣿஜ КȂညКգ10༵ࣿஜੲӎබٟգ‫ڰ‬Ԑ഼ߢཇණՉవళണȂสϠᐐᇒЪକԴඡ ൢც໛ϯᣍऻۖࣿஜߞ๪বȂ֭১‫ڰڽ‬ᅁϯ‫ڱڤ‬ԑ࣏শสࣆܹྲᇷ഍෩‫ྲߞڻ‬ ᇷፇȃᄦѯф၃஗ᓭߞᔂ዆ѯࣱȄ‫ڱڤ‬ജࣆܹྲᇷ഍၃јߞ‫ܡ‬ўѯࣱȂۖܺ ജׁิϞЦኃаਟȉϫ࣏Ꭱٙ‫ׁܠ‬஗ߞаਟȉබѽ‫ֹق‬௻ሃฅ፹ᡋྻবऎ‫ڼ‬Ȃ สϠऻۖߞЏജׁ஗‫ܡ‬ўѯࣱȂЙߢఐߞϠྻѽऎȶ஘ᗁನሃપ঵‫ڏ‬᎘तᡌȷ Ȃ֭‫ڰ‬ᅁϯȂ‫ࢢڰ‬аԳߞ‫ܡ‬ўྲົߤࡒ๴ҍඡᐱȂࢽ‫ֹق‬௻ঋِฅ፹ᡋঋȶз ᅁգ‫֯ݙ‬ऎȷȂӺ‫࣏׈‬ȶ஘ᗁನ୊ӯપ঵ȷȄՂթদঋߞϘᅌȂൣജྲᇷ഍ȶ ޫᝂȷȂॶࠧаԳߞඡᐱȂสϠੲӎබ๑ంఀߢ‫ڰ‬ᅁߞૌहȄ‫ڤ‬಩੡শสߞཇ ණȂϫሃК஼аԳԢ྽ജȶ඘֎мȷߞఐ޶գ֣ж‫־‬۸ȉ৫Ҧࠜߞȶ؆ԑපদ ཇණߞళണ֋Ӥȷϫ࣏ం֣‫ߞڽ‬ຕᎢ۸ȉ Ι୽‫࢐ڙڍ‬༉឴ܻॷ෫Ρ‫ޟ‬ჲȉ փҩϘԩᆷ֬ϭԇપ঵৏ᓴϠ॰਷ដઍࡋࠑӯสϠᕕȶᠪԑЂ؊ȷȂэ‫ق࣏ێ‬ ֹ௻ЫըണสऎสϠ෩‫ڻ‬Ժ༵ࠜቈߞ၃ᕻనࣉȂԯթᕕᢰ‫ֹق‬௻઻ϭϘৎ‫ډ‬Հ Ԟ໪Ȅहѧ୓॰਷ដઍȶգϞૈ഍࠮ᕕߢ‫ږ‬՜ϾȷߞླӯȂౖ੎ॻԴცҭ԰ᕕ ෩ய੡ࠑӯहࠫ់ўߞֿᙝକϧȂࢽُညգ஼ਛૺታᐱϠ‫ݕ‬ঋ৶ണสȂ់ўൌ ྻԐྻੲᑂఐඡȂՉవ࠲ՉЍ֯Ȅҩҳҁϫєӡ஼ҳߞ‫ڼ‬ЄȂࢽ஄ॶК஼ታᐱ Ϡۖ֘ўЂࡱҾണயȂညԳߞ࠲ՉЍ֯Ԣዹऎहညទ௜Ȅ ‫ڰ‬ᅁϯȂౖ੎ॻߞєӡतऎࢫညȂ‫ـ‬໭зԳሲȂᕕႍ࣏э‫ێ‬Ꮛӡ‫ݺ‬ሃК஼हᝯ ߞϘзࣆ޼ϠߏȂ୵ϞК஼ታᐱϠۖ஼ҳߞЂవඞȂҳ஼ታᐱϠۖണК஼੡Ӻ ജ‫ۦ‬൵୼࠲Չߞత࢞Ȅϯ༉ұ(18џ)Ȃग़஼஘ᗁ೚ࢵ๳ۖണҔ‫ڴ‬ȂۖണϘӀӔ Ј঴߇‫ܸڄ‬ԫओᛂবȂӎ‫࣏ڽ‬ϘԆ࿂ऎᓐӔߞ‫ڰ‬ԆȂЙჅԴྋൾϯȂࡒգညԳ ߞҾӔϯႶϘ௺࿰ѯȂ߇‫ܸڄ‬ҳϵՂᗜЂዲȂࢋᛆӹ഼‫ڭ‬നϭϞ់‫ئ‬።НҳȂ ᘘգЂ༓‫់ޠ‬ᐼЀ૭௯Ȃទୱѽ࢞Ȃ዆ᠩցպ‫ߞܖ‬Ӏ௱ӠࣿȂգЙьҾӔ‫ࢩݱ‬ ࢽੲӎ๑‫ڕޱ‬་ႍ߇‫ߞܸڄ‬ұ۹Ȃ‫ـ‬ംᎢႍܸۖ་঴оᔠȄփ‫ࢢڰ‬ཇණӺ཈କ ൅Ⴥྋൾѽф߇‫ܸߞܸڄ‬ѹȂᖢႋ‫ڰ‬Ԇѽ֯ඡᐱȄ हѧНϭȂ஼ҳߞ‫ڼ‬Є‫࣏ـ‬ᢖఀК஼࠲ՉЍ֯ߞ႒௺ȈҝՐ6ѡȂ࠻ᜲ෻ᗁ೚ ౥዇ম൰шۖണग़஼੡Ȃᗁ೚ླྀѐ୺ѕ֕‫ڽ‬጗௲ታ౥዇ম൰шۖົܹঠ஡Ϙਛ ᆔජܸ་঴оᔠȂܸ֭ҳࡒӏգ૭ᆕ់ᎎȂփܸаߞᠪࢉӺබՂᗁ೚ЙԴ‫ڗ‬᝝ ϘዹȂԧ֋೭чȂࡡᄘग़঴ȇཇණӺକ་Ϣᆔජܸа‫៷ݮ‬ѽф֯ඡᐱȄѽϯ‫ی‬ Ԇ‫ڰ‬ԆՂҍϘᚽȂ֭ऎ֣К஼ߞȶዾ࿤ȷ࠲ՉЍ֯ȂྻՂթ҄ϠྏۖԫϧЙ୅ Հ۸ȉԓ߰Ȃࢵ๳ԫओᛂব‫ڰ‬ԆȂ‫ߞۖۦݙێ‬ទᚰ࠲ՉȂϫሃ‫ֹق‬௻ണสߞ࠲ ՉՉవգ֣ж‫־‬ȉ‫ـ‬Ҟ‫࣏ߞݏ‬Ȃশส់ўԴಿӫᇀᇀϭȂҒඛสЂȂ๑ನԳူ ᔈј๑ЇᠠߞᐯӠȂ಍ऎаԳгՉЙԴ႖ϭȂ֯ऎႼ֖НൌߞশสȂҁџߢᝊ ԊЄȃ‫ݙ‬գ᎛᝸ӯࢃߞҾӔȂᘘକգႼ֖ӯࢃ֯໦ِߞᑟྻཛྷȉᎡକ࠲ᝋഺ‫ڱ‬ ৶់ȂЙྻѽዷϧయ৆‫ڭ‬๑ࣇူᔈ‫ݙ‬գ��ࢃ߰ཛྷȉ

01

8

02

03

04

ညՐᏒЈӀ‫ܠ‬ϭȶϘ஼‫ۘی‬ȂУϩՐЙᢏȷഺৎ‫ݚ‬ᓚȂౕؓԴУϩՐаȂаԳ ‫أڕ‬ϘᙇȂশส‫ڕ‬ᅙϘᙇȂ‫ڤ‬Դҗৎѵ॔ࢢȂ‫߰ی‬ᕕႍҞѽ༶ನ՘ൢԳᓉԪȂ փӺౕؓ‫ܨ‬੡ϛպԺေশสϠକᅔܺᙩ༶К஼Ȅ֭ࠜงత‫ॻۖۦ‬஼ᇒ޼ߞশ สȂ൵ऎަদ‫ڏ‬Ꭲѽфྲᇷ֋ӤȂҞఓѽϯഺ‫࣏ࡒ༵ی‬КҴࣆܹ൵ऎѣ૿ߞȂ ԓҐϯฅ፹ᡋࣆܹ֋‫݋ڗ‬਴ȂКҴறգӡ‫ܡڴ‬ጀՑࢥᇯ޼สȂ‫ڰ‬๑ЂЈȂߡత Ԩশสࣆܹ֯ҍࢽӯȂᅆ‫៉ةݺ‬ӯࢃ߰Ȃබ཈କӡՂԢгՉϘዹȂӡ‫ݬ‬Ԛ௻๼ ߞўՑᅆѾх‫߰ة‬ѽᇯ᠕ࣆᡋȄ֌ЫЪՅգ‫ڏ‬Ꭲ۶ྲᇷ֋ӤߞশสȂۖܺᘘକ ዣԺϳȉ

21


Ԥᜰࢥၚџᖒ๜RBSMorgans‫ཾࢸٳ‬୛кᆓങ੝৳

଒ငੑ਀ ӈդᅸ୰᠍ߔᖒ๜ҏ՗ࢥၚȄ

Ι໊଒ငӱ៫

Raymond Chan www.raymondchan.com.au

Raymond Chan Head of Asian Desk RBS Morgans ྏᘁϯ࣐งУࣦ෻ࢉїߞጤఐภ࢞Ȃᐐᇒညчᑫߵ ϟպᇢԪࢽዴԓ࢘ࢧ੘3.5%ȂӤ‫ޯݺ‬ஜҾ޶՝Դ‫ا‬ েჰਫ਼НКȂ๑ࠡຊ߰ሃࢉїේ‫ߞأ‬ӹ᎘Ȅ ࣦ෻ߞ၃ᕻߐ޶ቈѧఉҺঋՀȂంӠࣿࢽዴҞ‫ڍ‬Ϙ ෹Ȃ

ԴധԺЙ‫׀‬Հߞ၃ᕻ಩໪Ȅϯ࣐ง෌ᣍఐᇰា᠈ೢ ᒕȂ෼ዾУպࢽዴϬըϯႏ1200ᙇȂൌӏକॎ૔ ᝯϾȄग़஼၃ᕻዴᑂਮࡏȂ໱ࡱᗑᔼ቙֖ሦൄ྽ࣿ ஜࢽዴᢖ຾՜ᖺȂग़஼ྲӦታҵ྽ాᕻϠዴদࠔұ ϩေϠȂ‫د‬Ҿඞൺϭ‫ڤ‬ϚᙇߞጄᣍఐᇰϘబփߩȄ

ৎϠᣍᅅ፪ϞȄ

ညК૔᛼ϧ൵ЂߞȂംჅ‫ݺ‬ग़஼ઐ໱߰ኊ੾ࢽዴࢷ Րп3.6%Ȃѧჰง୼Ȅ࿢۶ߞ഼ຫӎ‫ڽ‬ᕕႍ࣏Հ ‫ڰ‬Ȃ‫ڰ‬ఐ᛼Դग़஼၃ᕻӒবᗜଽଡ଼ࡒҍ಩഼ຫȂည ؊‫ݕ‬௟ജჀԴ၃ᕻЙ฀ߞఐ޶ϭయ֖ᇦᖺࣆຉȂ҄ ၃ᕻൠϯҐᘶȄዝੲҫМ‫׀‬ሲఀՀȈȶग़஼ໞૺജ Ꭰֲߞѹঋ১ԯȂЙ࣏஼Ӕ՜ϢЙನྐȂփ࣏ग़஼ ۶ገࣷߞࣆຉҵሱȂҐϯ2012ՐҞକঋయ֖ᇦᖺ నࣉȄȷ

԰ۖࠛᓉҾඞȂ‫ا‬েϫ၃ᑢϞነધޯஜߞϘ༉Ȃ‫ظ‬ Ⴄ߰ᑉዎ၃ᕻኧࠜЙាȂԧԳߵҾዷᙫȂᑫߵ‫ױ‬ ϞϘৎ࣐งߞჅЋ‫ژ‬ȂᑫߵϟպᇢԪࢽዴԑ༉ೢༀ 1.5%ඡ4110.8 ᙇȄည๒Ȃഺѧ୓ग़ߵϘৎ࣐งዷ ༀ჈4%ՀԺϞȄ

‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ᑉѕ၃ᕻ‫ݸ‬፤ӇᕝቮِȂႤࠛᅣҍߵҾ۶஥ ࡡȂࣹϢജ໛ऎᘖᔍႤಯߞཀࠛȄࠛኊԓ൹ᑢҫྲ ୼Ȃඡ1852 ग़ЮϘ૊ҦȂпཕϵ࣏2007 Ր4 ѡ ѽ‫ڽ‬൵ࠜȄႤࠛӺࣹҍ޵ҾȂ૸ॗϝѡง޵ༀ2.3% ُ౜ඡ82.72 ЮȄ

Դग़஼Ȃ഼ຫȃჅ࢘ኵ᛫ߞ୑ࣆࣆຉ۶ཅ‫ۓ‬ථਿತ ϭༀϬᇌ಩໪Ԣ੡ҍ಩ȂփѷԑಧԧԳൌԢ੡Յ

ငЀҴ֖Вჰငডབྷತߞ֖ஜԴϯ࣐งϬᏎۖ੘ ీȂႤࠛា᠈ฯϢငЀ‫ޱ‬ডȂငডָገЮфग़Юབྷ

(1) ঴ߏ୧ѪቈѧఉҺ‫ހ‬໳ȂϘ‫ޓ‬ЂலӀ‫׮‬ѧఉҺ໳ 2 Ю֌4 Юȇ (2) ࣦ෻֘‫ܫ‬ᔌ഍Ҟ‫ڍ‬ന঍੡‫֝ૺ୼ߞܥ‬Ո‫࢏ݗ‬ȇ (3) ঍຀‫ژ‬Ҧᑟٟգ‫ظ‬໦Ӡྍ᝱இȇ (4) Й‫׸‬ԓऻऻᑫࣷгҦߞ྽ᖻȄည๒ഺҪ࣏ຊ߰ߞ

ኊп2ʫȄငЀҴ֖ऎ࠲ႍ஼ߞ၃ᕻ෇ែ་຀ȂЙ ᙝެழငডѽᕅ‫غ‬བྷኊȂላ‫ۦ‬һЂྫҵȄ ߵҾঋ԰෇пখȂཅҾӅԐ԰෇Ӓ௱Ȅϯ࣐งұȂ ж‫ޘ‬৶ᅆߵҾߞऻ‫ޱ‬ԧ‫ڕ‬࿂ᇑȄԴഺ಄གྷߞҾ޶ КȂ‫ا‬েЂҞԐऻཅҾȂԯऎཅҾႵਟ‫ݽ‬෠෪۶ж ‫ޘ‬ȄཅҾߞҾ޶ӒԴ෋мȂBAAҞ‫ظ‬Ⴄૺ‫־‬ԋཅ ਿತߞϯпി࢘Ȃѧग़஼ϩՐง஼ཅਿತଽิߞ ി࢘ᘘঋ‫أ‬Ȃࠫ໷ਿਮᙖЂȄ਻ྖྔЂȂਿਮϵྔ ЂȄ

BAA Ҟ‫ظ‬Ⴄૺ‫־‬ԋཅߞਿਮऎ 3.33% ȂՀઐਿ࣏ ਿਮԴϯ༉У౎՜૫֌ 3.13% ȄԧधൌงౕȞ๏ ࢧԳงౕȟᗑᔼ؊ѹਯֱࡑֹԴӎѡ26џ֌28џ Ȟᑫࣷ੡༡࣐งбҡ༟ȟ‫ݺ‬൰ֹቊᔒᆬȞJackson Hole ȟᗝ֖ߞߞԑಧҴ֖ྻ៉ϯஇ‫ڰڱ‬Ȟ៊Ղయ ҍ೐Ϭը༓мኵ᛫റᅋనࣉȟȄ൰ֹቊᔒᆬ֜‫ݺ‬ग़ ஼ᜃ࠻‫ށ‬ՍȂॻћҨJackson HoleȂ֭၃௱ജ⑷ ඔऎJackson's HoleȞЙঋய‫ا‬ऎЦኃȟ֭‫ا‬ে ሮऎȂӤ‫ݺ‬ग़஼഼ຫዴՄहᅆԳ୼Ȃग़஼యҍ೐Ϭ Ꮗ༓мኵ᛫ߞᑟྻЙ୼ȞҾඞྻҵౕȂ᎛ୃ຾Ȃ༓ мኵ᛫࣏ӡ‫ڽ‬Ӈᕝ഼ᖺߞȟȄ

ज़ࡶॎგᘗ࡚ϛ୽ືܾϛЖ ᑂࠠᗑতȮ஼ӔඡȯඡႽȂ༟๴஥চࢵѵधᅮϭߞชᜌਫ༰ᄥ঍ᄑ௟ജࠠ ᗑতညԳϠᇍऎȶК஼ࡱȷߞᔷࡱЂ࡭ᇢԪᘉߏКѕߞবᒕԴ಩գ௄ᚂϯᙖ ЂϘ঺Ȅชᜌਫ༰ᄥ঍ᄑ௟ᔷࡱ಩գߞ 15 ေӀўռᖉ྽বᒕԓᙖኧ 15.8 ေ ӀўռȂᙖ࢙Ѝ຀௟Ғࣁც዆୰ȃպറ஥ඞȃᔠ༼஡۶Ђ࡭໹ҾȂ‫ྲڭ‬ኧ 5000 ৎஃ‫֜ژ‬Ȅᙖ࢙ࢢߞচࢵᔷࡱ௟՘ऎК஼ӎϿѽҳഢጀ൵ЂߞѽᏚழ К஼ಯࡡऎѹߞ໶‫ݽ‬КѕȄᙖ࢙Ѝ຀ჰ঍௟‫ށݺ‬ՐϯҗՐ༟ЍȄ ᔷࡱ‫ ݺ࢙ܕ‬2002 ՐȂ‫ی‬ՐࢢӒՑ‫ظ‬Ϣ‫ڹ‬ӡȂѽҍழኊ੾हᅆֲ྆ߞ஥ࡡ຾ ᇍȄᔷࡱϵᇍК஼஥ࡡȞচࢵȟжዥКѕȂ࣏ӫࡈК஼ࣆܹѹᓱ൵Ђߞઔҳ ၃໶ӀሂȂϵ࣏К஼ԴК‫ތ‬Գ஡൵Ђߞ஥ࡡ༰෸۶Ꮪழ‫ز‬๴КѕȄӫࡈচࢵ ᔷࡱаգົϠ஥ї໹Ⴥ600᏶ਛȂ၃ᖉߞК஼஥ࡡႿዴϩေᇌȂවѼಉሏϞ К஼஥ࡡߞ‫ݙ‬գЂ᝷Ȅӫࡈ၃ᖉႵՀߞԋ྽Ғࣁ࢙‫ل‬ȃᑶ‫ۍ‬ȃјЍ᜹ࡡȃᑟ ცຈ֖྽Ȃѹঋ‫֋ڽ‬К஼કկ۶ዃ‫ތ‬ຈԳȄ

ႫၗȓĩıĴĪġĺĶĸĵġijĹĴĴġġġġ༈ઍȓĩıĴĪġĺĶĸĵġijĹĺĺ ŘŦţŴŪŵŦȓŸŸŸįŨŸŪůŴŶųŢůŤŦįŤŰŮįŢŶ ijıĶġŔűųŪůŨŷŢŭŦġœŰŢťĭġŔűųŪůŨŷŢŭŦġŗŊńġĴIJĸIJ 22


଒ငੑ਀

ߜᓀ༘ܲѿΙ‫ں‬ᆣक़

༆୛ӠᐠЕีငᔼᐊ኏Ȃछϯ१౪৵༖ ჅҝϘ۹аȂࠛᓉҾඞ‫ڕ‬ཕ๾๾գ‫ݙ‬፤۶Ȃຕ‫ف‬Ϟ թࡈϘ۹Ђ୓Ђၢߞ‫ڕ‬ཕȄՂϭࠑ‫ݙ‬ӯȂԴҾඞઐ мϞग़஼ཅசԟᑟߞ዆ᠩНࢢȂϘ‫ࠧڱ‬ग़റᅋ૾૾ ҍ಩ϞхዅȄҾඞߞ๏ᙇ༟‫ـܕ‬ԺߞᚼԨገࣷߞཅ சԟᑟயᛟȂገࣷߵҾԴჅҝϘ۹аȂӤ቙֖ߵ௲ ታЂ඼ϭ࿣Ȃփग़஼۶‫ࢽߵࣷڲ‬ༀ඼हᅆգনȄ తϭ‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫ا‬েж‫ऻ־‬Ϙϭӎ۹ԧৎѹঋറᅋԴЙԢ ߞ௄ӎব዆ᠩϭߞ‫ۍ‬ᢜ‫ڕ‬ཕ۶ࡈ฀Ȉ छ༆ӠᐠৼབྷႆࡣȂ৵༖छϯӔԙкࢺ Դ၃ჅϞϯ۹ҾඞЂ඼ஜᒿȂэ‫࣏ێ‬ԧৎѹঋറᅋ ж‫ޡ‬ទদȂᐱ७ग़Ю‫ڕ‬ཕ಄གྷНࢢȄӎ۹‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ߞ ఐᇰ༟‫ܕ‬գ‫ݙ‬ᜦ‫ܠ‬Ȅᅆग़஼ཅசயᛟߞઐмನႋ҄ ҾඞྍᝊۖȈग़஼ໞૺϭᎠȂᐱ७၃ᕻࡈ฀Й‫ڸ‬Ȃ ѽф‫ࠜـ‬੡༡ߞኵ᛫റᅋࣆຉȂ൵ೣ௟Й‫ݺ׀‬ग़ ЮȄԯթӎ۹ग़Юԓը԰ᙩ਴ཕȂ༟‫َുܕ‬ϭ࿣Ȅ ӎ۹ࡈϬৎӹ‫ݽ‬џȂԑಧҾඞԑবхዅȂग़Юϵ ᔌНЂ඼ϭༀȄ‫ێ‬༉Ϙ༟ጹኊ74.57‫׈‬ऎӎ۹൵୼ ኊȂ‫ڭ‬Ϙ࢘Դ༉Ϭ൵ֲៈф73.45Ȅᘵ๒༉ұӤ‫ݺ‬ ገग़၃ᕻኧࠜჰงᏎϭᎠȂ҄ग़Юᘖᔍᚚକᢜ಩Ȃ ѷညчग़஼CPIྍҳ‫୼ڕ‬Ȃ‫ڹ‬ఀग़ᗑᔼኵ᛫റᅋࣆ ຉ‫ࣄۖۦ‬ᐼȄԺদԯ૵యஜϭȂग़ЮϘ࢘Ђ඼хዅ ֌74.30ѽϯȄ ዝੲ෻‫׀܃‬๴ҿߞ൵ྲु‫ٿ‬ඡ‫ט‬ᇍȂɆग़஼۶ገ Ю஡ညࡈಎ൝၃ᕻުጔȂᜓᗜ၃ᕻᓂ౧ߞ᝝፡ɇ Ȃ‫ލڭ‬ᙝϭᎠϞѵध၃ᕻኧࠜჰงȂ௟2011Րѵ ध GDP ኧിӤ 4.2% ϭᎠ֌ 3.9% Ȃ 2012 Րѵध GDPኧിӤ4.5%ϭᎠ֌3.8%ȄᔌࢢȂ዇ྍ‫ؠ‬቙ ֖ϭᎠК஼၃ᕻኧࠜჰงȂዝੲЂ഼۶ࠅᅮ቙֖ϵ ൌ૾૾ϭᎠग़஼၃ᕻჰงȄᘖᔍఐᇰ༟‫ܕ‬ԴҾඞϯ ᕓᆝȂߡతᐱ७ϞߵҾߞዷༀȄ փग़஼ൻЍൊ༉ұгֶߞඡ‫ט‬ᢖӯȂӤ‫ݺ‬٠޵ኊ੾ ࢧነхዅȂग़஼7ѡԊCPIኧി୼‫ݺ‬ჰงȄCPIᖖѧ ኧࠜ0.5%Ȃऎ3ѡԊѽ‫ߞڽ‬൵୼ኧിȇCPIԢѧኧ ࠜ3.6%Ȃാ᠈3ৎѡ࠲ࢺԴഺϘ୼֜ȇ7ѡԊ੮ѕ CPIԢѧϯᆚ1.8%Ȃऎ2009Ր12ѡѽ‫ߞڽ‬൵Ђኧ

Julius Wei

ിȄჅ୼ߞ഼ຫᕅϧȂ‫ڹ‬ఀग़ᗑᔼయҍ QE3 ߞ‫ק‬ ᝱գ‫ݙ‬ኧҐȂԯթᐱ७ग़ЮߩᔝԴညчᏎۖӇᕝȄ ۖϞ۹Ӑ‫؍‬ጹȂग़஼ညч‫ڭ‬๑‫ـ‬Ժ၃ᕻዴᑂгֶȂ ࣏֭ग़Юᗁᢜߞ਴ཕា᠈࠲ࢺȄഺ࣏Ӥ‫ݺ‬Դԑಧ၃ ᕻఐ޶Й‫ڸ‬Ȃэ‫࣏ێ‬ग़஼૿ѻ၃ᕻኧࠜஜϧߞఐ޶ ϭȂ഼ຫᢖ๒Йԓ࣏ᗑᔼւዋߞ੮ѕ៉ᛟȄԴЙఀ Џߞఐ޶ϭȂЂԺዴҴ֖ൌྻᡋϧ‫ە‬ᑬ၃ᕻኧࠜȂ ఠ഼ۘຫଡ଼ۖϞ೐ϟ֜Ȅԯթग़Юࢽዴ՜ጹࡈЂ ༀȂ൵ೣ՜ֲ‫ݺ‬74ѽϭȄ Դ QE3 ߞჰงുᆙᑧࡓȂփѷ഼Ⴥ༉УҾඞϘ࢘ хዅȂग़ЮԓᏎᕅϧ‫ऻڽ‬Ȃग़Ю਻‫ݏ‬Ъ๒௟࠲ࢺह ညࠜϘࣱ੡งߞ਴ཕȂ‫ڭ‬ѷЙవ୵দᆊҝՐ QE2 ҍሂࡈാ᠈ዷༀߞ‫ڕ‬ཕȄ ዉछငᔼӣਢ൞኏Ȃ़ᚆཎѴᕕுЛኤ Դग़ЮᚼϢ਴ཕߞఐ޶ϭȂ‫ی‬Ђገ‫ڀ‬റᅋᘵ๒‫׮‬ᅆ ग़Юҍ಩ϯᆚȂ֭‫ࠑێ‬಩‫ڶ‬๒գ຾‫ށ‬ᢖߞ஡‫־‬Ȅገ ЮӤ‫ݺ‬ӎ‫ڗ‬ཅசԟᑟ᠇‫ڗ‬ȂѷԧᇌऎϞႋٙཅசԟ ᑟߞనࣉ௟ߡత᠁गКง၃ᕻኧࠜി࢘ȂփѷငЀ ‫ޱ‬ডϫᅇᏎ྅ჰȂ‫ڹ‬ఀॻᛅ՘ऎЙьገࣷ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰๑ ‫ߞ܉‬ᓴᑄȂԴӎ۹‫ڕ‬ཕ௻ჅገЮȄ ӎ۹ገॻԴ༟ጹ‫ݺࢢ୼ڕ‬ЂԺዴ੡༡഍‫ݺ‬ϭༀჅ຀ НКȄᘵ๒‫߰ی‬हᅆग़Юߞ‫ڕ‬ཕѧႵతࠕȂ࣏֭Դ ገࣷཅசԟᑟ᠇‫ڗ‬Ȃэ‫࣏ێ‬ገࣷ၃ᕻዴᑂԴϟ‫࢘ܞ‬ хዅࢢȂ‫ݺ‬ЫՐϭҗՐԓը༟‫ڕܕ‬ഹȂ҄ఀ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ ᅆገЮ஡၃ᕻ۶ገЮབྷತদྲ༟‫ܕ‬ᑉዎȄ ӎ༉ϟгֶߞᝯᘣ၃ᕻዴᑂКȂ዇஼ߞ GDP ዴᑂ Ђ඼ਮ‫ݺ‬ჰงȂኧ඼ༀ԰Ϟ3%ѽϭȂփѷࡈงዴ ᑂϵജϭᎠȇገЮ஡ GDP Դ዇஼ዴᑂ௲ታϭȂԢ ዹࠑ಩ᖷᒣȂՐತኧ඼཈գ1.7%ȂቈЙՂࡈงߞ 2.5% Ȅփညчгֶߞॻ஼ CPI ࡒា᠈ᜆпȂՐತ Џ၃୼Ⴟ4.4%Ȃ‫ێ‬੮ѕCPIϵЏ၃ႿۖϞ3.1%ߞ ୼֜Ȃ་Ϙَ‫׀‬ՀॻᛅȄԴ‫ߞ߰ی‬ᘿ‫ށ‬ᅆѧϭȂገ ЮָॻᛅԴࡈงៈф୼֜ࢢȂ‫ݺ‬༉ϟ୚ᚼ‫ڕ‬ཕȂ༟ ‫ܕ‬ϭༀȄᘵ๒༉Ϭॻ஼Ҵ֖ྻ៉॔ঋ་ϘَஐԨᙄ ँȂѷබ྽ዴᑂ҄ϠҵౕȂҵ྽ತྍҳϯпȂ֭ည ᎘гֶߞገЮ஡੮ѕ CPI ജЂ඼ϭᎠ֌ 1.2% Ȅᘘ

࣏҄ገЮָॻᛅԴ՝ጹߞхዅ‫ۖۦ‬নۘȂদྲ་Ϣ ༀཕȂ‫ڭ‬ϘႮϭ࿣֌༉ұ‫؍‬ጹȂ༉У՝ጹߞࠕงֲ ֜Ȅ ЙჅ༉Ӑ዇஼PPIྍҳ‫׀‬ՀȂԓҐϯग़Юߞॎ๒Ђ ༀȂ‫ڹ‬ఀገЮদྲхዅȂገፀඡኊԴ‫؍‬ጹգ‫ށ‬ᢖх ዅȄЙჅӤ‫ݺ‬ገࣷўবཅசயᛟ᠇‫ڗ‬Ȃփॻ஼൵ྲ ߞࡇิ‫ڔ‬Մ঍ᄑࠐ‫ڍ‬՘ੜȂԴ7ѡҍ಩୑ࣆळ᏶‫ڽ‬ ऻȂገЮ‫ڕ‬ཕ਻௟ា᠈਴‫ॻݺ‬ᛅȄ ငᔼࠉශഛኇё१ ୦ࠢೲᄌᎏႄ҈ᔞ ᘵ๒ӎ۹ࡈවৎӹ‫ݽ‬џҾඞҍ಩Ϟ‫ށ‬ᢖߞхዅȂ҄ ఀϘ‫୼ڱ‬ᔍႤಯșșՂߵҾȂ஥ࡡȂѽф୼ᔍ஥ࡡ റᅋҍ಩Ϟ‫ށ‬ᢖߞϯᆚȄ࣏֭Դ๺ዶߞхዅჅࢢȂ ग़஼۶ገЮ஡ൌবᗜ຾ទদߞ၃ᕻኧࠜϭ࿣ȂϜ֌ ԓը൝Ϣଽଡ଼ߞᄩԳȂԯթሃԑಧ၃ᕻࣿϧᝯ࠼௜ зߞ১‫ل‬ਫ਼۶କ࿚ኊ੾Դࢢ‫ی‬ৎӹ‫ݽ‬џЂༀȂᔌН ϭ࿣ߞᘘգ஥ࡡറᅋȄ ӎ۹൵ऎ‫ߞ࡭ۏ‬බ࣏޵ኊዷༀࢢȂሃ‫ێ‬ਿਿहᝯߞ ҐЮབྷತϵ‫ܕ‬ೣֲ୛Ȃంѽϭߞ১޵งറ۶ҐЮѹ ጹ‫ڕ‬ཕᄦҞѽऻۖȂᘵ๒ࡈ‫ی‬۹ҾඞఐᇰӀ෇Ȃ֭ ࣏ᅆ‫ࠜݺ‬ง၃ᕻኧࠜߞᑉዎᢖӯϞ޵ኊ۶ҐЮߞᆚ ཕȂ‫߰ی‬ൌգ‫ڕ‬ཕᏩᒿȂϯᆚ๘ᓢߞપወȄփϘӌ ༉ұ༟‫ܕ‬ȂҾඞఐᇰԓըᇦ௺Ȃᅆ‫ݺ‬ԑಧ၃ᕻኧࠜ ߞᑉዎ҄޵ኊᏎۖទদ‫ݦ‬ழȂփҐЮϵԓը‫أ‬ിϭ ༀȄԴϘৎӹ‫ݽ‬џаȂ޵ኊంతࠕ90ग़Ю/౜ߞ୼ ֜ϘႮༀ԰ 80 ग़ЮϯўȂփग़ЮָҐЮϵႃ԰Ϟ Ⴥҝවчߞༀ඼Ȃদྲ԰ۖ1:1ࠢࠕȄ ЙჅం༉Уߞ‫ڕ‬ཕ‫ऻڽ‬ȂҐЮࠑ಩ᘘঋՀ‫޵ݺ‬ኊȄ Ϙўব࣏Ӥ‫ݺ‬ҐੋЂߞCPIዴᑂࠑ಩‫ܥ‬ҞȂѷग़Ю ‫ڕ‬਴ᅆ‫ݺ‬ҩϘറᅋҐЮߞњዣঋЂ‫ݺ‬ᅆ޵ኊߞњ ዣȇҩϘўবȂᔌ຾‫׀‬ѧ‫ڲ‬хࣆܹকӒతࠕҙ೛ໄ ఠۘߞ঵ൌપ㡯ޯ‫׀‬Ȃգઐਿሮऎҙ೛ໄӒԴຉᄑ ҳୟȂ‫׀‬ѧ‫෇ࢭڲ‬Ӓ௱১޵ҍϾߞҞକЙᙝኧЂȂ ϵӇᕝϞ޵ኊȄ

Ղ‫ލ‬ఋᅆӎћКߞаਟգԇ֣ᆷயȂ᎛ᗑᜭ֯߰ Julius Wei Ȃҁߞ༎ԆԳ‫࣏׬‬Ȉjulius.w@baomoney.com.auȂఋϵҞѽ๳ᔂۖࠛᓿ‫ـऻࣤݱ‬ԺJuliusߞћൢȂࠛᓿ‫ߞݱ‬ᇨ૭Գ‫࣏׬‬www.baomoney.com.au

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଒ငੑ਀

ӌཾড়‫ޟ‬โ୛ ඪҰġĩΙĪ ћ/ १ᄜᔷನ୑ྻ঍ਰ Դ൹྽՝ง༟‫ܕ‬ւዋກசயᛟ࣏Ӡྍ՘ґߞᝯᘣȄ ᅆ‫ߞَ୓ৣݺ‬ԋ྽‫ڽ‬ሲȂळ‫׀‬۶ກச࣏൵দঋߞய ᛟȄ୑ச۶ກசᠪயൌ࢙៉ກசயᛟԴӠྍ༟‫ࡈܕ‬ බᕕ֯ҍ‫؁‬ຠՉవȂપ‫־‬ᅆ࢙ӲгҦࣛᅹȂ‫ڀ‬೚۶ ࣹ຀੡ȂഺዹЖକፁ࠲ӠྍႻ֯ఀ‫ـ‬Ґ༶‫׀‬۶ऎ௟ ‫ڽ‬௲‫ـڽ‬ԺߞᓴᑄᑟྻȄ ກசயᛟᅆ‫َ୓ৣݺ‬۶๴ਣКߞԋ྽‫ڽ‬ሲ࣏ࠧ௱দ ঋߞȄցᘲ݀݀বᅆҁেߞກசயᛟ੡ȂൌҪ‫د‬ҹ ည֯Ϙৎ๺งߞ༵ӫ‫ڽ‬ւዋȄ‫ێ‬ᅁଡ଼ࢢϘَȂւዋ Ϙϭҁেԋ྽ߞࠜቈ๴ਣѽфࢨዹ۶ৎϠӫዾह‫ך‬ ԪЙ֭գׄ‫ݺ‬ᘖֺ࢙ӲϘৎྻᅆӠྍᅹ՘ཋਚ‫ྫݕ‬ ҵߞ஥྽ຕᅹȂ‫ـ‬দঋߞ࣏Դ঍ᄑႆ‫ۍ‬գࠜቈ‫ݑ‬۶ ᢸࣿ‫ݑ‬Ȅ ѽϭ࣏ᅆցᘲেদঋߞກச෩ӯȄ

1.ంϘ༟‫ܕ‬੡බళۤԪᏋߞ஥྽ຕᅹȄ၃ᢚᚳනߞ ನ୑ᠪயфྻ঍ਰൌྻ၃௱ᡘۖ࢝Ժցᘲ၃ᖉϘጹ Ӡྍ࢝ԺՐࢢȂۖ൵ࢢൌྐᎱఫҁেߞӠྍȄ֭Ӥ ‫ݺ‬ԴҁেԴ༟‫ܕ‬੡ٟգ࢝ՀԳ঍ᄑ୑சຕᅹȂ‫ݙ‬ѽ ညҁেྐ໴‫ؼݕڕ‬ᢏ‫ێ‬ຕᅹ੡ȂබྻઘфۖϘຊᜀ Ђߞ໱ӡњҍȄԯऎՂ‫ލ‬ঋ‫ؼ‬ᢏ՘ྲߞࣛᅹȂ‫ڤ‬໱ ӡ௟ྻઘфۖԞࠅກ۶ႤӎпৃກȄ

༹ӴցІᄇ࡚ҳዉ Рҏࢇ‫ཱིۺ‬೩ᆧࡨ ϯୢငᔼࢇ‫ีڷۺ‬ அߜᔖᄇРϯЀ঄ ՗ዉϯ༆‫ڔ‬ ћ/ Xinhua

ћ/ Xinhua

џӎ୑சЂ֊ൎӣ‫ ࢜ڸ‬24 џࢆֶȂџӎࣆܹ௟ྲ ՘Ӳᗁᛝ 1000 ኆग़ЮߞȶᕕᅆџЮпৃᇦࢧ௄ ࠛȷȄൎӣ‫࢜ڸ‬Դညчϯоߞᗜ੡ྲᇷ๴ֶྻϯ ሲȂࠕงҳབྷҾඞџЮ‫ה‬಩ඏԨпৃᅗཕȂџў௟ ௜зᝯަҾඞ‫ظ‬ᑟஜԨȂԴӅঋ੡ிٙళۤϘзҞ କనࣉВჰџЮȄ֯ऎనࣉНϘȂџӎࣆܹ௟ᢸࣿ Ⴛӡપ‫ྻ־‬঍༵ӫКߞग़ЮႤࠛȂ൹Ӳᗁᛝ1000 ኆग़Юᇦࢧ௄ࠛȄഺϘ௄ࠛႻӡऎงϘՐȂ௟ӡ‫ڽ‬ ࠳‫ڹ‬џӎԋ྽‫ࢺد‬գߞџЮႤࠛᚼ෱՘ҳབྷȂҐЂ Դઔҳߞԋ྽‫ڭ‬ᘉຈȄ

ླྀԳ‫׀‬ᗑ‫ڣ‬ᗁನᇯᆬૼ•‫ޱ‬ӿத23џ‫ށ‬ፁࠑӯȂླྀ Գ‫׀‬хᅆ዇஼۶‫ޱ‬஼෩ҍߞ࢙ӲገЮ஡၃ᕻࣆܹߞ ѹ௺ȂླྀԳ‫׀‬ϵЙѹ௺๴֖ገЮཅ‫ۓ‬Ȅ‫ޱ‬ӿதԴླྀ Գ‫ܹࣆ׀‬ਆ‫ܞ‬ԃ஄ࢢᗝ֖ߞ঵ըൊࠜನ‫ࢢ៉ྻྻڰ‬ ࢽҍȂϯগѹ௺Й཈ᝯ࠼ۖঋ৒‫ؼ‬ገဖߞϘ‫ڀ‬ԕ౧ ॗȂփѷ཈ገЮ஡ԧ஼ࣆܹКබգ 44 ৎࣆ៨ȂՂ ֣‫۝‬Ꭰທࠧ‫ڰݽ‬Ȅ‫ޱ‬ӿதᘘࠑӯȂ಩Դ‫ـ‬ᕕႍஇߞ ࣏ᐐ‫أ‬ၢᅁЏ၃ٙ‫ڰߞܠ‬ఐ‫ڭ‬ঋ࠲ቪᅆؓ᜷ాׄߞ ҞᏫ‫ݑ‬Ȅ

թҳȂൎӣ‫࢜ڸ‬ᘘঋِ௻мᅆҳབྷҾඞߞᆾᇒȂЫ Ր9ѡܺНࡈȂџӎࣆܹ௟ঋِѹঋࠛᓉᑟᅹඡ‫ט‬ ҳབྷӹ‫ݽ‬ൊࠝࢺգߞҳབྷᔝЇȄൎӣ‫ࠑ࢜ڸ‬ӯȂџ ӎ௟഼Ⴥ஼аȶᗁஜ৶ȷߞўՑᇦࢧᕕᅆџЮп ৃȄ 19 џ‫܆‬Ȃ૸ॗҳབྷҾඞџЮᅆग़Юབྷತ൹ϭ 75.95џЮָ෱1ग़Юߞᑢҫྲ୼Ȅ

2.ُϘ֜൹྽߰ൌྐ࢙ӲϘጹпৃߞӠྍȄՂ‫ލ‬ჰ ঍௟‫ྻڽ‬ҍழഺጹӠྍȂ‫ڤ‬ኃంϘ༟‫ܕ‬බᕕፁ࠲г ҦକԴႤӎпৃກϯۤఀᔹ෎Ȃϫ‫࢙߰ݕ‬ӲϘৎҞ ѽ‫ڹ‬ৎϠᖔఀႤӎпৃກᔹ෎ߞࣛᅹȂ‫ڼ‬ՂৎϠࠫ ୉‫߰ݕ‬ਛਲࠫ୉ȂഺዹԴᎱఫഺጹӠྍ੡බକఀۖ ߢᝊಯᡋ‫ݕ‬஥᠖ϯߞກசᔹ෎Ȅ 3.Ⴄਫ਼ྩ༰۶‫׀‬ӡᅆЈ࡭ԋ྽‫ݙ‬෩‫ߞڻ‬ᔹ෎Ȅࣆܹ ᅆЙԢԋ྽ൌ෩‫ڻ‬ԺўবߞႤׄȂ‫ڼ‬ՂգዥภȂु ‫ٿ‬༟๴ᔹ෎Ȃ۶ҍϾ෯ׄȄྲՍࣆܹႻ֖ߞྲЍ֯ ਛਲ঍ᄑ۶њ෯КՐϠЀᐯਵ‫ݙ‬෩‫ߞڻ‬ᔹ෎నࣉ КȂᒕ࿂࠳་Ϟᄌ৶ߞЍ֯۶ӠࣿӀᓊȄȞ་Ϙَ ߞգᝯႤਫ਼Ȃ᎛Ⴜ᠓ྲࣷࣆܹߞЈ࡭ԋ྽ᇨ‫׬‬Ȅȟ 4.ᕖఀႻӡҞѽయᓵ12ৎѡߞઐ໱ກᔹ෎Ȅԑಧࠛ ᓉԟᑟ዆ᠩϞ࢝Ժྲ۶಩գߞԋ྽Ȃ‫ڹ‬ҁেᅆᇯࢺ Ӓ௱ᜦ‫ߞܠ‬Ⴄࣹࠛஜҍ಩‫᝱ק‬ȄࣆܹԴ୫ᅆഺயᛟ ੡ȂయҍϘৎऎԪႤ੾ϠЀӦ᎛ܼงᜳૼກภ۶‫׀‬ ਿ໱ӡߞ঍ᄑȂϘଠऎง12ৎѡȄ ԪႤ੾ԋ྽Ӆ༷գՐᖉ྽ᛝֲ‫ݺ‬ϟպေȂգੜߞཅ சᎮඏ۶ԪನߞњѾўՑȞգᝯႎ೟Ⴄਫ਼Ȃ᎛Ⴜ᠓ ATOᇨ૭Ȅȟ

ᄪሿ፩ञ˄թ‫஀ܐ‬ᆊ˅ ঐ৓໗໳ႚྈ

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፩࣭ܿȐᏖ‫ڵ‬บȑዸక˄ᇜ˅ Ꮑல࿎࢜˖ᄪሿ፩ञ˄թ‫஀ܐ‬ᆊ˅ঐ৓໗���ႚྈ

Shine Wing Hall Chadwick ໆ৓! ༿ႚ!

੪ፉ‫ !يݲ‬Ꮐᅲ

ᄪሿ፩ञᏮၓ፩ׁ࣭ဌ෇๲৤ ঐ৓໗໳ႚྈፇᇜˈ࠵ႚ቙IJIJı޹ য়łࢼຢ༁࢞ཌྷȂĵı޹য়ცࡰʼnࢼ ञթ‫஀ܐ‬ᆊłŔřຢ༁࢞ཌྷȃ Ꮾၓၑᇜᇜয়፩࣭኷Ⴀߴ࣭ য়ົஅܿঐ৓໗໳ႚྈˈᄪሿ፩ ञ˄թ‫஀ܐ‬ᆊ˅໸೷࣭ৗຟႚܿ ܷऎጚȃ ၓթ‫஀ܐ‬ᆊׁဌ૴ॖ࿎࢜Ꮆኚ ࠵ႚܿ࿷໢ˈ໳໦ጽಖၻ౦ᇓ໸኷ թ‫஀ܐ‬ᆊ፩࣭ခᏁ஀ሇܿअၩጚȃ ‫ݓ‬ፐ˖ġ Level 9, 552 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne VIC 3000 ‫ݢ‬य़˖ġ +613 8602 7300 ‫ۈ‬ጡ˖ +613 9600 1930 ቉ძ˖ġ info@shinewing.com.au ठঞเ˖ġDavid Chu (ᎅ࣭ጸ) , Ken Glynn, Matthew Schofield Ὶ⢪!

䅠⫔⏖⁇!

͒弝⎧╨͓㟜㒴Ὶ⢪㛬ぉ⫔⑈㛜㒮䠱㼤⫃㑂廱㏅䜒҉⫔投⎳ ⢪ⵣ抪⫔⑈㛜㒮◥ヂ⫃廱的䋣冹ⶦ※㼤⫃㑂廱懇⿥ㆮこⵎ ㋻皓⃳㟜的Ὶ⢪ⶦ※◥ヂ⫃廱☹㼤⫃㑂廱䠱ㆮこ抪㟜ㄵ䮜㤮 䠱҉㼤⫃㏅䜒㑂廱㏅䜒的懇⿥䴭䮝ῧ͒弝⎧╨͓҉ ͒弝⎧╨͓㏅䜒⭸※2:::〡҉ῧ㕕⑕㼤⫃㑂廱的Ὶ⢪㛬ぉ☹ 廥ⅰ⃇⏣ⵇ″䢥⌠䠱㛬䴃㛜㒮㣙⣌₮ῇ憈姹⌕䖰⾰ⷭ的▹ 㞣╾⸂㣙⢪☹⢪柲⾯⣧҉ 㢭慾㎽⑌䠱͒弝⎧╨͓㧵ℸ的⒲㒙3116〡6㢵的刁㊠桳⢏㛣 廚JCNῗ⁧䛢劾ῇ⑎皓311:〡3㢵的⁁䦬桳⢏37䅠⋰⌒剎 䅠⫔⏖⁇P[䦬ῇ⌙▥皓311:〡23㢵⌃䦬桳⢏44䅠⋰㛣廚 Gfmjy廱䀽⌙▥皓ₒ╷3121〡4㢵的▶⏖桳⢏29儻⋰211&㛣 廚Wpmwp㸪愓䳶҉ 儻⢪⃍傌⦧捾⃇䠱Ὶ⢪枛橅῀ⵣEfsfl! Tdjttpst䠱䧁䰣娕 㞻的3121〡こῚ⢪㼤⫃㑂廱慫676儻⋰҉⬯㥉▗䢸│ῗ⢪ⵣ

॥ሬۖᅲ˖ թћൢ៳‫ݺ‬Ϙଠ‫ߞݑ‬Ⴄਫ਼Ȃ‫ڭ‬Йକ҃ࠑԇ֣ߞ‫ظ‬Ⴄ‫ݕ‬ನ ୑ߞࢽᐱȄՂգྍஇԇ֣‫ظ‬Ⴄ‫ݕ‬ನ୑ўবߞٙ‫ܠ‬Ȃ᎛Ԑ ԨఋߞໜҊನ୑௞ਛ‫ྻݕ‬঍ਰࣤ႙Ȃ‫ݕ‬ᗑປ१ᄜᔷನ୑ ‫ڰ‬ச‫ݙ‬Ȅც႖(02) 9211 0228; ᇨ‫׬‬: www.simonwu. com.auȄ१ᄜᔷನ୑‫ڰ‬ச‫ ࣏ݙ‬Premium Wealth Management (AFSL No: 237498)ߞ՘৶НϘȄ

‫ޱ‬஼ᗁ೚ᚠॊኅ۶዇஼ᗁನᔵֹᆬ 16 џԴѐᐌࠑ ӯȂ‫ޱ‬዇‫ی‬஼௟ԒԢ෩ҍ՘ӲገЮ஡၃ᕻࣆܹȃ՘ ৶஼ᅁࣉ୑ࣆӀᓊࣆຉȃወ՜ࠛᓉӹ‫ݽ‬ກຈ࢙៉Ȃ ѽҐ௻ገЮ஡၃ᕻ޼ನȂᕕᅆӫࡈገЮ஡বᗜߞཅ ச۶၃ᕻኧࠜԟᑟȄ֭‫ޱ‬዇ታᐱϠ‫ࠑ׮‬ӯӫࡈ๴֖ ገࣷԒԢཅ‫ߞۓ‬੡ᑟᘘЙ՘ጢȄ

歆㿜!

㝝⑍⤎!

㞒㣙

皀冹椋⣝ⓧ皁的Ὶ⢪㼤⫃㑂廱䠱⫡▤㕒㛣⢪㟜䅠⫔⏖⁇的慴 ╨7〡㤒ⶦ䅠䠱捺⫔㑂廱☹▵▹㇨嵎慫⏝451儻⋰҉⁻椋 ⇧⏥㼤⫃㑂廱㤒䢸的努䀽☹䛢⑈ῇ┍㔛″ⶳ慾ᾭ⓷)2-133 儻⋰的┍㇨橊䠱58&*的格▻㟜捾⸋)39&*ₒ╷捾夺☹㏬⣝⁔ῇ )29&*҉憆⁈姹ῇ㇨嵎┍㔛″Ὶ⢪㼤⫃㑂廱䠱:4&҉


ఀ‫ى‬МϽ

37

‫ں‬୉М

ُՓȃএΡᇄတᡝ Ѓ‫ৣۊ‬Դ‫ی‬ৎѡࡈԑᚚϯ઱ȂࡈϘч౎ϯȂՁգϘᙇྏࡂȂய‫ا‬ሲᕕ‫ށ׎‬ч ᎛ઽ஄ϘчȂ‫ا‬ሲᕕႍϯ઱ȂՐࠦϠЙҞᔌ࠮᎛ઽ஄ȄЃ‫ۊ‬யཽཽߞྍ‫ڍ‬Ȃ ཽཽሲЙϯ઱Ϙчϵ๑‫׸‬ȂփѷُϠൌ‫ڳ‬գઽ஄Ȃऎ֣Й‫ݸ‬஄ԃਿϘчȄϘ ᅆϘȂЃ‫ۊ‬७ცည᠕Ѐߞ‫ٷ‬уȂ‫ٷ‬уሲᕕႍϯ઱ȄϟᅆϘȂЃ‫ۊ‬ԫϞ᜽Ȃ՝ ϘᙇԃਿȂ೐ϟч‫ڶ‬๒Ѝ֯Ȃϭ઱ࢢȂ‫ڗ‬ᢜՀϞϘᙇȂሲۖЍ֯࿂ՓȂᘘҞ ᕕѾȄ‫ا‬ѕྐȂঋ࣏Йϯ઱ȂᒕᕅߞЍ֯ȂබҨՁѽࢢዴч‫ॴـ‬ϞȄ ߌߌȃཽཽȃ‫ٷ‬уߞྍ‫ڍ‬Ȃ࣏х࣍Ϟ‫ٷ‬ሃЃᅆ‫ߞߏڰ‬ЙԢऻ‫ޱ‬ཛྷȉᘘ࣏х࣍ ϞЂਛຜྍ‫ڍ‬੡ߞЙԢ‫ڗ‬Ԋ۸ȉ‫ا‬ሮऎՐࠦϠȂ‫ڗ‬ᢜգϘᙇЙັ‫އ‬ȂҪঋ࣏ Й዆ᠩЍ֯Ȃᘵ๒Ҟѽ᎛ઽ஄Ȃࡒྻ዆ᠩ‫ێ‬ҁϠߞЍ֯ȂԯթᆽҞକЙ᎛ ஄Ȃ࣏‫د‬ԴЍ֯ϯߞയԇ‫ݸ‬ԴᔹԐȄщщྻంᝯѕЃ‫ߏڰऻڽ࢘ڎߞۊ‬Ȃ࣊ ๒ૌߞઽϞȂփѷгҦϵգઽ஄ȂऎतኃЙ‫ݸ‬Ȃւዋߞ঵ঋ࣏Ѓ‫ߞۊ‬Հ഍Ȃ Ѝ֯ᄗȂ֋๒գϯҦ֯ҍՉవȄ‫ވٷ‬уߞᣍᙇ࣏तኃȂ‫ا‬ЙᑍఀȂ֭‫ا‬हࠫ ֌ь‫ٷ‬уྻះఀঋЃуᆽയԺ‫ݺ‬ঋࠑႿ֋Ўߞ೟ѕ‫א‬Ȅ ேຊН੡Ȃ՝ϯ՜ۖԢ‫ߞڰ‬๺ୈȂԯऎྏࡂЙକϯ઱Ȅ‫ڤا‬੡ྐȂԢ‫ڰ‬ϘԨ ᆽയȂӅ๒࣏‫ڗ‬ᢜፁᅁЙ֖Жྻዶ੡ᛓ༤Ȃփѷ‫ا‬েЈᑟᅹȂЍ֯ѽϘৎᄥ ༤‫؛‬Ց་֖ȂьϞϘϠȂ‫ێ‬ҁϠබঋжᑉԺҍ‫ߞڽ‬Ѝ֯ȄညчӒԴቁЍȂॶ ࠧЙఀЏȂ࢝ьϠྻ᎛஄Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽ‫ا‬԰Ϟ๺ୈȂ຾ՁՉѕԴਛԃਿȄഺ੡Ȃ‫ا‬ ߞ‫ڗ‬ԊЙԓ࣏֋ះঋిᐱЃ‫ߞۊ‬ѭᓐȂփ࣏‫ط‬ᆊ຾‫ށ‬Ө‫ڰ‬ನߞϯҦߞ‫֒ڎ‬Ȅ

ഺ‫ا҄ڰ‬ᗑྐۖȂᔌ຾‫ا‬েߞ഍ᄩȃ‫ڗ‬Ԋ‫֒ڎݕ‬ЙԢȂ‫ا‬েᅆ‫ߏڰ‬ҞѽգЙ Ԣྍ‫ڍ‬Ȅ‫ا‬েЙକঋِ‫ێ‬ҁߞϠൌϘ‫ܠ‬ঋࢷ࿰‫֯ڽޱྐߞا‬ٙ‫ܠ‬Ȃփ‫־‬Ϡߞ ྍ‫ڍ‬ሃ‫ا‬ЙԢȂ‫ڭ‬ЙϘ‫ܠ‬ঋ࣏‫ا‬ᅆփҁᓾȄည๒ഺٙ‫ܠ‬ঋ࣏ሃ‫ا‬գᝯ࠼ߞȂ ‫ا‬ည๒ྻࢷ຾‫ا‬ሮऎ࣏ᅆߞྐ‫֯ڽޱ‬ҍȂ֭ॶ࣏ഺٙ‫ڭܠ‬Й዆ᠩ‫ߞا‬႖Ȃऎ तኃ‫ا‬ЙҞѽత‫־ۦ‬Ϡሃ‫ا‬ЙԢߞٙ‫ܠ‬۸ȉ ഺዹߞᣍᙇȂ௱ӡ‫ݺ‬഍ನৎϠ‫ڰ‬சȂ֭ᕕӡ‫ݕྻߤݺ‬஼ਛ‫ڰ‬சНКȂබЙକ ᏋӡȂԯऎߤྻ‫ݕ‬஼ਛ‫ڰ‬சߞٙ‫ܠ‬Ȃ௱዆ᠩ຾ߤྻ‫ݕ‬Ϡ᝷ᑋᢜ‫ૈ׀‬ȂԯթЙ କඏѽᅆৎϠ዆ᠩ‫ڽ‬ւዋȄ‫ڼ‬Ղ஼ਛঋҐກȂЂൊԊߞϠൌЙྻఐ᝸Ȃ֭ॶ Ґກକ௲‫ڽ‬ᅆߤྻᑋᢜߞ‫ૈ׀‬Ȃ࢝Ժ੡Ҫঋࣆܹକढ़ѕሃ஼Ӕ࿛഼Ȃ஄ѽ੡ џȂൌྻକఀۖЂൊԊϠߞሮԢфњࢺȄည๒Ȃॶࣆܹૌߞ߭ᠪӔྍȂ௻๼ ഼Ⴥ዆ᠩᓴӔतЂߞࣆຉȂҞକබྻԴϭϘըЂᓴК‫ۖۦ‬ᓴӔߞᜂᇳȄ಩੡ Դᑫࣷє୓࿂Ђߋ៉ߞՂ᝱ӔՉ၉঍ᄑфወᇆກߞനӲȂൌ៳‫ݺ‬ഺϘ᝷ఐ ޶Ȅ Դւዋۖߤྻᑋᢜߞயᛟ੡Ȃգ੡‫ا‬েቮঋ‫ݸ‬ౢѽ֋‫ྑݕૈ׀ا‬ՀऎКѕߞ ࢥྐጀՑȂ‫ـ‬Йକඏඏᓊ༓‫ڰ‬ఐᅆৎϠߞ዆ᠩȄҞఓߞ࣏಩ЫߤྻৎϠѹ၍ ᒸ୓Ȃକѽւዋ၏ᢜ‫ૈ׀‬փ֯ҍᓴᑄߞϠȂՀᄊᢏ՘ϞЙ‫ۦ‬ᡌࠓߞϠϞȄ

‫ݢ‬ຜȈӵᐬࢸώհ‫ࡆޟ‬υ༌Ϛଔ ՝බྐ኷Ϙፔᝯ‫ݺ‬ԴᑫࣷЍ֯‫ޡ‬໛ߞᣍᅅඡ‫ט‬ȂЙჅϘߡщჅՓဨȄգߞ੡ ৏ૌྐِِЂਛൌຜ‫ا‬ᙇ੡༡Ȃࡈ‫ی‬чऻۖϘ‫ވ‬у኷Ϙፔ֋ЎԴЍ֯Кߞྏ ‫ۦ‬Ȅ‫ا‬ᅁԴࢷढ़Й֝ϞȂఀ኷ҍ‫ڽ‬ϞȄ ᑫࣷۖܺգٟգ‫ޡ‬໛۸ȉഺৎயᛟՂ‫ލ‬ంࠑবϯऻȂҞକգ࢝ԺߞϠൌྻ԰ ຍٟգ‫ޡ‬໛Ȅ৆࣏‫ا‬ে֯К஼ϠȂЂൊжൌᘘ‫ޡ‬໛‫ێ‬ҁᇌ౉ߞϠߞȂѧՂԞ ࢘ϠȂѐ௄෻‫܃‬ϠѽфൊжК‫ތ‬ϠȄ‫ا‬ে‫د‬Ԟ࢘ϠᇍНऎࠠϬȂփѷᗁཻౢ ‫־‬Ϡ‫ڗ‬ϯۧႽԺȂሲ႖᝱ᡘȂЙ᝸ྍ۶Ԟ࢘ϠϘ୓Ѝ֯ຈȄ ‫ܺۖڤ‬գٟգȂᄊ‫ا‬ে‫ޡ‬໛Ԟ࢘ϠϘዹϠ‫ޡ‬໛‫ا‬েК஼Ϡߞ۸ȉ Դ‫ا‬ഺ㡯Ȃຍ੯࣏ߺ‫ߞܠ‬Ȅփѷ֤঍ᘘྻѧႵទদ‫א‬ȄᘘٟգԴᑫࣷணҐЍ ֯ߞ‫ވ‬уȂ᎛ЙঋሮऎഺᗒϠᡘᇷȄ‫ྐا‬ӡϭব‫ا‬ᣍᅅۖߞවৎ಩໪Ȃᝋ‫ށ‬ ຜְऻऻȂഺ؆ԑЙ࣏ᗒϠᡘᇷȄՂ‫ྐְލ‬ѽࢢЍ֯ԴᑫࣷȂְঋԺஇ‫ࢥڱ‬ ւȄ ‫ޡ‬໛ԴЍ֯К К஼ϠԴᑫࣷԴЍ֯Кߞ‫ޡ‬໛Ȃ࣏൵ऎទদߞȄ‫ݙ‬ѽ‫ا‬ᙚԴ೐Ϙ֜‫ڽ‬᎘Ȅ঵ Ԑ‫ྐا‬ంԩՄሲ୓ȂՂ‫ލ‬Դᑫࣷ‫ر‬ჅЍ֯ߞ‫ވ‬уְϘ‫࢝ܠ‬౻྾Ȃ๑Ꭲߞְߞ ᚎᑢ኷ఀԺՀȂ‫ر‬Ѝ֯‫د‬ᚎᑢ๴ჅҝࢢȂൌԺьྻჃۖգҝ๑԰ߞੜ‫ލ‬Ȅྍ ࢥ࣏ሲȂᚎᑢ๴ჅҝϞȂփࢢබٟգԇ֣রୈȂᗂ‫ڹ‬գ੡৏ְᅆႍЍ࣏֯ࠧ ௱ߞգࠫѕȂះఀ֋ЎщᏋԪЙჅϞȄҞຕ‫ލ‬ᘘ࣏ഺዹȄ‫ט‬໦ְ‫א‬ȂϘଠԴ ְߞᚎᑢϯȂՂ‫࣏ލ‬КћԩՄȂ‫ॻ࣏߰ݕ‬ћҐКћ‫ߞܖ‬Ȃ௄ӎϯൌྻჃۖഺ ᇌੜ‫ލ‬ȄԴවՐࡈംૼЦЂᐯȂஇߞϘৎु‫ٿ‬КᢖӯȂᚎᑢϯ኷‫ࣷڲ‬ԩՄఀ ۖߞবႏᑟತѧ኷ৎԳႽ֘ўԩՄ‫ڽ‬ఀֲఀԺȄഺৎ๑‫ޱ‬Йജᙩ‫ޡݺ‬໛Ȅ ೐ϟȂՀϞȂְం֘Ϡ৹‫ۖرڧ‬ϞϘԊЍ֯Ȅഺ㡯බྻҍ಩‫ވ֜ڤا‬уᓐӠ ၃ᑢߞ‫ڰ‬ȄҁԯԴгҦతც႖ӡКћщԺȂജϠӇϞЈඡ‫ט‬ϞȄְߞ೐Ϙሬ ‫࣏ڏ‬КћȂ᝱ֺգ੡৏ְత‫ވ‬уც႖ӡКћሲ႖ȂՂ‫ލ‬ӡКћщԺȂ࢝Ժ֘

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Ϡ࣏࢝Й୼ᒸߞȄְҞକ಩ԴգᙇྐᑆϠϞȂЦኃҁেӡ‫ێ‬ҁሬ‫ڏ‬ᗾ႖Ȃ‫ا‬ েՀ֬Ҟѽత‫ۦ‬۸ȄҁেࢨබЙକత‫اۦ‬েሲКћϞ۸Ȅٟգ‫ێ‬ҁ১ԯȂഺ බՂЂԺዴК஼ϠЙඈᡌԞ࢘ϠߞۧႽϘዹȂҁেЙඈᡌȂҁেЙ‫ऻְد‬՘ ႬҁেϘዹߞϠߞȄ১ԯ࣏ЦኃȂ‫ޡ‬໛Ȅ ೐ϬȂְକሲϘϾࣹ‫ॻߞ׀‬ሬϞȂփѷְߞ഍‫ڰ‬ўՑϵ࢝֘ўмϞȄҞ࣏Ȃ ഺ੡ᘘգ‫ޡ‬໛ȉգߞȄഺ੡৏ߞ‫ޡ‬໛Ȃᅆְ‫ڽ‬ሲӇᕝҞକ‫ـ‬һЂȄညְ‫ॴڙ‬ Ѝ֯ఀۖϞϯҦߞ‫ݚ‬ሮȂຜְпᚚ੡ȂְԺҗྻჃۖ൫࿭ȄգϠྻవᕟְȂ գϠྻሲְߞЈ႖Ȅ๑ᎢְՂ‫ލ‬ҝߋۤȂҁেϵᗁྻຜְϘᇌЙࠫԇྏȄ ‫ޡ‬໛ԴӠࣿК ᝱ႽԴӠࣿКϵգ‫ޡ‬໛ȉգߞȄҝҁཽߞȂ‫ޡ‬໛ԴӠࣿКȂᑫࣷߞК஼Ϡൌ ‫ޡ‬໛К஼Ϡ֋ЎȄ‫࢝ا‬Հ‫܈‬ᐦȂഺዹϘৎ֋ЎϠඈᡌม঑֋ЎߞϠߞӔ౉Ȃ ֋ЎϠඈᡌ‫ޡ‬໛֋ЎߞϠߞӔ౉ȂЙജ‫־‬Ϡ‫ޡ‬໛ȉഺዹϵщ᝱ఀϞȄ‫ڰ‬ᅁϯ ٟգഺ᝱ఀߞ‫ڰ‬ఐҍ಩ȂӤ‫ݺ‬К஼Ϡ֋ЎϠН༡ߞहТ‫ޡ‬໛ȂЙࠫԇȄԴҳ Ϡߞೀ㡯ȄК஼Ϡ֋Ў֋ஜබ՘ϞϟຈґԩϞȄ‫࢝ا‬Հ‫܈‬Ȃգ‫ڱ‬К஼ϠȂᅆ ցҳྻՀఀҍ‫܈‬Ȃᅆ֋ЎϠҝॳ‫֌ے‬࿂ȄഺዹϘ၏ϠȂକЙജϠ‫ޡ‬໛ȉ ॻሬӎ‫ڽ‬බЙ࣏К஼Ϡߞ೐Ϙሬ‫ڏ‬ȂҞְᗁྻऻۖ‫ڤ‬ᇌК஼ϠȂԴഺዹ‫ޡ‬໛ ֋ЎϠȄѧՂȂࣙџְҝࣙৎᔠᔡԫ༺ȂְЙ౻྾ᔠඏϯߞ້ԩࢨኃᡝȂՂ ‫ְލ‬ႅᄷᄊৎࠐᐯ߰Ϙዹᅆ‫އ‬ச৶ᡝഺৎඏໟߞ႖Ȃְ੟᝝ߞࣙ֜ϠȂබྻ ਃϭᔝȂְ֋۟۶ᗚ॓Ȅգ‫້ڱ‬ඏϯߞඏໟാցҳൌЙྻȂЙྻᡝщӒ௱ ϞȄᗚ॓ৎ↉۸Ȅ Ղ࣏ഺዹߞఐ㦑๴ӠఀщԺϞȂК஼ϠҝցҳߞԳўϵᗁྻ֋‫ྏا‬ះֲϠϘ ຈȂഺৎֲϠϘຈȂ‫ڭ‬Й࣏‫־‬Ϡ㤩‫ߞܠ‬Ȅබᇖ࣏Ȃϵൌᘘٟգຈۖ‫־‬Ϡ㤩 ‫ܠ‬Ȃ֋Ўබߺ‫ܠ‬Ϟ֋ЎֲϠϘຈϞȄҞዔߞࢅЄȂְૌߞ࣏ཋЙ୓஬Ȅ

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RACVӔԩᖞᒲɆᆦୢၐᎽɇ GreenZone driveࣀଢ଼

‫ޥ‬ღੑ਀

ҝՐԴᐍᆬӎᗝ֖ߞᑫЂ‫ڲ׀‬঵ըֲవ‫ݸ‬٠‫ژ‬гಿႏᏼ঍ᄑۤఀϞߩࡈ՘ ґȄ 2011Ր8ѡRACV௟ԓըᗝᓱഺϘࣿஜȂ‫ܨ‬੡௟գϘ‫ڱ‬પ‫־‬ᄜሼᕕᘛҍ ਯȄRACVѹᓱߞഺϘࣿஜ௟‫ڹ‬гಿգᑟྻႏᏼ14ᇌྲ࡭ֲవ‫ݕݸ‬წవ‫ژݸ‬ ᏃКߞϘᇌȂѽϞႋᏼᏺϘᏃᖖ࠲࡭٠‫࣏ژ‬Ղ֣࠮థਟ‫ݽ‬Ȅ

RACV 2011Ɇᇥ஡ႏᏼɇࣿஜం8ѡ29џ࣐งϘ༟‫ۖܕ‬9ѡ2џ࣐งУຕ ‫ف‬ȂԳᙇ࣏Դᐍᆬӎࣟ‫ޒ‬෻໖525ၳߞ‫ڲڧ‬୉Ђ྇ȞRialto PlazaȂ 525 Collins Street, MelbourneȟȄ ‫֋ڽ‬ᐍᆬӎ Vixens ๑‫ޕ‬ឰಧৌጄൊߞࡄক༤৶೻ᆬ຿ • ൪ֹ୺ࣸȞ Sharelle McMahonȟ۶ռ൶‫ࢃ•ݛ‬ᆬቊȞMicaela WilsonȟഺϘը௟ԴўԨጹࢢবփ Й࣏ಧඞϯਣӯՁেߞলࠚȄՁে௟Դ8ѡ30џ࣐งϟϯо11ᙇ಩ඞႏᏼഺ ‫ژྲڱ‬Ȅ

RACVᖖᄩ༵ӫ၃ನȃᇥ஡ႏᏼ঍ᄑ๴‫ڏ‬Ϡ֘ላ•൪ֹচ෻ȞSimon MikedisȟሲȂЫՐߞࣿஜ௟ᢖӯֲవ‫ݸ‬٠‫ڀژ‬ԕߞኧҐȄ ൪ֹচ෻ԐӠሲȈɆЫՐ‫ا‬েգ‫ی‬ᇌწ‫؍‬ઈవ‫ݸ‬٠‫ڻژ‬гಿႏᏼȂϘৎ࣏ Ϭຼߞ iMiEV ȂԴҝՐߞᇥ஡ᏼᏺࣿஜКȂഺภ٠‫ۤژ‬ఀϞһЂ՘ґȄԢ ੡‫ا‬েᘘ௟యҍԑྲߞџಯȞҺ੹ȟ LEAF Ȃҹ࣏ࠧ௱‫ۦ‬ᡌࠓߞУਲ਼ష०‫ژ‬ ȞhatchbackȟҾඞКߞ೐ϘภЈ࡭წవ‫ݸ‬٠‫ژ‬ឮߋ߰Ȅɇ ɆႬϬຼiMiEVϘዹȂྲ࡭џಯȞҺ੹ȟLEAFϵணሃϞᇯԺ‫ڲ׀‬Սცஜ٠‫ژ‬ ႏᢚ঍ᄑȄഺ‫ی‬ภ٠‫ژ‬પ‫ށࠑ־‬٠‫ژ‬ሦൄ྽ӒԴ‫ڝ‬ിԨ๑వ‫ݸ‬ᏼᏺߞӏ‫ڽ‬๴ ਣȄɇ ‫ێ‬ҹҞ‫ڻ‬гಿႏᢚᏼᏺߞ٠‫ژ‬ҒࣁԑྲߞӎӣCR-Z಄Ԫஜϧ‫ژ‬Ȃҹ࣏ѵधԢ ᝷٠‫ژ‬Кߞ঵൹ȄᘘգԑྲయҍߞླྀচA6฻Ꮗ੻޵๴ஜᑟሹົ‫ژ‬۶ӎӣJazz ቅ࡭ష०‫ژ‬Ȃѽф‫ڹ‬ӡ੻޵ஜϧߞሹົ١ᆬ١XC60 SUVႻஜ࡭Ժґକ‫ژ‬Ȅ Դ൵ࠕᅆᑫЂ‫ڲ׀‬ᏼ‫ژ‬Ϡ་֖ߞᜲӿ•ዝੲᎠࣤКജᓴऎ൵҄Ϡᆕྍߞြକ୼ ੜ੻޵ஜϧ‫ژ‬ɯ ١ᆬ١۶ჩᓚ٠‫ژ‬ϵ௟ԴӎըࣿஜК‫ڻ‬гಿႏᏼȄ ౕؓԴɆᇥ஡ႏᏼ঍ᄑɇࢽ‫ܠ‬Ⴎ።ϯᄘႏᏼᏺഺ‫ژڱ‬ᏃߞᐍᆬӎϠҞѽԴᇨ ϯ་֖๳ୃȂᇨ‫࣏׬‬www.greenzonedrive.com.au Ȅ‫߰ݕ‬Դࣿஜ༟‫ߞࡈܕ‬ 8ѡ25џ࣐งұф8ѡ26џ࣐งУ‫ی‬чКȂ‫࣏߰ݕ‬8ѡ29џۖ9ѡ2џϘ۹ࣿ

ஜง༡ۖ‫ڲڧ‬୉Ђ྇ȞRialto Plazaȟ಩ඞ๳ୃȄԐۖ߰Ԑ๳ୃȂᛝᆕऎѤȄ ൪ֹচ෻ԐӠሲȂᐐᇒᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬ᕢ៉Кߞᇆກ঍ᄑٟգҒࣁ٠޵ԴаȂ࣏֭ ᅆᐾգ٠‫ߞژ‬Ϡ‫ڽ‬ሲȂᏼ‫ߞژ‬༟њ۶ফֲ٠‫ژ‬኿ઈߞవ‫ݸ‬Ъ๒࣏ࠧ௱দঋߞ ‫ڰ‬ఐȄ ҁሲȈɆည๒ȂᏼᏺϘᏃწవ‫ݸ‬٠‫ژ‬බԓϵЙӡҝҐ޵૭ϞȄഺዹߞࣿஜԴ ԑѵधൌҪ࣏೐ϟըȂԓըࠑ‫ށ‬ᑫЂ‫ڲ׀‬ϠԴϞႋሮᝊ኿ઈవ‫ݸ‬ўবକ௉๴ ෭ѹᐱ֯ӡȄɇ ɆҝՐணሃᇥ஡ႏᏼࣿஜߞϠКգ࢝ЂϘൊжൌ࣏RACVߞ՘৶ȂഺϵᝋᅁϞ ‫ا‬েߞु‫ٿ‬ຕ‫ލ‬Ȉ RACV ՘৶ౕؓళۤзᅁߞ֖ஜ‫ڽ‬ফֲҁে٠‫ژ‬኿ઈߞవ ‫ݸ‬Ȅɇ

2011ՐRACVᇥ஡ႏᏼࣿஜӤRACV۶ֲవ‫ژݸ‬ᏃԪ֯ᄰ֡Ȟthe Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Automotive PartnershipȟԒԢѹᓱȂ‫ڭ‬ᖔఀϞล ๕Ӯ޵гҦȞShellȟȂռ‫ޒێ‬Ꮗ३гҦȞMichelinȟ۶ԑಧᑼ޵၃ᕻ঍ᄑф ‫ـ‬ՀᖖᄩೡᚐȞthe Global Fuel Economy Initiative and Better Placeȟߞ њࢺȄ

ᔖ ੡ ᄦ л ஋ ߰ ΁ Է Ի В ϲЈ Multi Art Design & Print Pty Ltd ᕊཾ ፜Ⴋ

info@multiart.com.au / www.multiart.com.au

:43:!4944

33 Racecourse Road, North Melbourne VIC 3051

ȆӪаȆ߬ࡌȆ߬ાȆϴѧМӇֶȆωыυȆีಉ0ԝᐃᛩ! Ȇ൐஻ȆᚕᇬȆ෈ѐȆਪᛩȆਪѐȆຮાȆᆄຮȆ੕ൢ

2111!੫տਝ‫ݎ‬ᴭ ᚖ७ிӟ!+!൐७ !੫ਝӎ७!!$219 !ዦߜ0ᐭя!$239 !ጲᴭ!!!!!!$269

B5!6111!༈൐ ᚖ७ிӟ 226htn!ӎ७ા!

$488

2012 ԑᐍ Ӫаԑᐣ

ᝆ ᬥ ᣱ ⇫ ᧱ ᱹ

ઢΏņш͔ඟ௢ࢌတņώ‫ܤ‬ცᒻ ⇫ ᷯ ࿡ Ӄଊш͔ᆶˬ˟ϟԅ࡙‫۝‬έི ᐢ ࠶ˬᇝᏏ‫۝‬໬ᇍ!ኚӇᄂቼ͈ྍኗ ụ ྱ ݈୛ዥጣȈıĵijIJġĸĺĴġijķĴġİġıĵĴIJġĺĶķġĴĺķ ΙএႫၗȅᒑᖝ‫ڗ‬೤ȅᆠЖԊ௶ȅхௌԊЖ ༈ઍȈıĴġĺĹĶĸġĹĹĸijġġŽġġႫ໏ȈŪůŧŰŁŦŮŪŭźŤũŰźįŤŰŮġġŽġġᆩ֭ȈŸŸŸįŦŮŪŭźŤũŰźįŤŰŮ

кРதࡶġ ҂‫ڋ‬İЍԑкРᏰġ ᢚछइᛥོġ ߧЍԑღ࠶ġ

࢑෈РġijĻĴıġűįŮįĮĴĻĴıġűįŮįġĩဃᇭġĮġල೽ၗᙚឍĪ ࢑෈РġijĻĴıġűįŮįĮĴĻĴıġűįŮįġĩဃİ़ᇭĪ ؐТ಑Ιȃέএ࢑෈ϲġĴĻııĮĶĻııġűįŮį ؐТ಑ΠȃѲএ࢑෈ϲġĴĻııĮĶĻııġűįŮį

ᆹོӴ֭ĻġġIJIJıġŘŰŰťġŔŵųŦŦŵĭġŕŦŮűŭŦŴŵŰŸŦ ᖒ๜ΡĻġġᒦҕ୊‫ޏ‬ৱġġġġᖒ๜ႫၗĻġĩıĴĪġĺĹĵıijĺIJķġİġıĵĴĶĹķĸıĸĶ Ⴋ໏ĻġūŰũůŠŭŢŪŁźŮŢŪŭįŤŰŮġġġġఀོᆩ֭ĻġŸŸŸįũŸŤŤŤįŤŰŮ

26

1000 $100

ᆄຮ ᆄຮԑᐣ

1000 $288

ᇃᐣ

௮ᕓ

1000

$480 250 $3.98 500 $3.00

ؐএ ؐএ

Тᐍ ؐএ

઱ા $1.88 ҽ᛽ $2.88 ༈ಛ $3.88 ശЍ300এ

‫ܚ‬ԤቋਿϚ֤HTU‫ڷ‬೩ॎ;ԤਝР෈Ս!4201903122

Ȇ୦኿೩ॎȃ౰ࠢីኇ Ȇ୦ⲵኁๅȃߞ७ȃ‫ܣ‬ถȃᐷ጑ Ȇ‫ܚ‬Ԥኄ֙೩ॎȃ‫ڙ‬հ‫ڷ‬Ԋ၆ CC25

NUNAWADING & WAVERLEY LUTHERAN CHURCH ఀོĩ೿ᙄஆĪȂ౪џඪ‫ټ‬அ࿜ఀღᡝનҢȂ ၏௑᠍ߔࢥၚȄ Ӵᘈȓġ œŰŰŬŴġœŰŢťĭġŏŶůŢŸŢťŪůŨ ᖒ๜ΡȓġőņŕņœġʼnņŚŏġġġġıĵIJĺĴĵĺIJĸı

96 Essex Road Mt. Waverley Vic.3149

11:45am (03)9833 3553 / 0400 530 823 (03)9727 3026 / 0411 163 706


Western New Community Baptist Church

325-327 Mitcham Rd, Mitcham

ᕫᲕᥕ ጆ᫴ кРதࡶ 0417128669 ᛥོ֙ ߧԑღ࠶ ŇŢŤŦţŰŰŬ

࢑෈Рġ10:00 ୽ᇭᆹོ ࢑෈έġ19:30 ࢑෈Ϥġ19:30 அ࿜ఀ௿жॖछ࠲ఀོ

़ᇭEnglish Sunday Morning ServiceȈ10:15am ູࠒᇭVietnamese Sunday Morning ServiceȈ10:00am ဃᇭк���(๼ᇭ༈ឍ) кРதࡶᆹོਢ໢Ȉ1:30 - 3pm ᖒ๜ȈϛМഋོ‫ޏ‬Ȉ྆ࠒॴ‫ޏ‬ৱġĩőũŪŭŪűĪ ႫၗȈ83901925 ЙඪȈ0401010366 Ⴋ໏Ȉduongphi68@gmail.com Ӵ֭ȈCnr. Larkspur Drive & Protea Cres, St.Albans, Vic 3021 Po Box 123 St. Albans (Melway 26 C4)

CC36

ՙᏎᅭҏཱི‫ޥ‬ୢ੔ོ߬৿‫ڐ‬ஆ

2-6 Oxford Street, Box Hill

кРதࡶȓഇ࢑෈РΰϿΪਢғ ‫็ڋ‬кРᏰ)़ᇭ*ȓഇ࢑෈РΰϿΪਢғ ࢥငइᛥོȓഇ࢑෈ΠήϿΠਢғ ծо౩ߧԑღ࠶ȓഇ࢑෈ϤήϿΜਢЁϷ घਪ‫ٳ‬ღ࠶ȓഇؐТ಑ΠЅ಑Ѳ࢑෈РήϿΠਢғ :

: 0 4 3 4 1 9 2 2 2 8 ; E-mail: rebek rebekah.tong@ gmail.com : (03)989885 (03)98988591

ПЄဎ‫ޏ‬ৱ!!ങ⑓༈ၾ 11:30am 15 Hay Street, Box Hill South, VIC 3128

11:15am 19 Holland Rd., Blackburn South 3130 03) 9877 9588 (03) 9877 5333 newlife@ecc.net.au CC13

Burwood Community Presbyterian Church

6:00pm 19 Holland Rd.,Blackburn South

Chinese Lutheran Church of Victoria

53 Victoria Street, Doncaster, Vic 3108 (Melway 33 J11) 0413 807 668 www.chineselutheranvic.org.au rev.paulkam@chineselutheranvic.org.au

(03) 9801 7645 03) 9886 4268

Ҡ᠌ኈ‫ޏ‬ৱ Rev. Paul Kam CC16

CC33

Australia for Christ Fellowship

St. Matthias Angli can Church North Richmond

1070 Stud Road, Rowville, Melbourne Vic 3178(Mel 72 J12) 10:00 am 1:30 pm 1:30 pm 1:00 pm

11:00 11:00

2 A William Street, Abbotsford 3067 P.O. Box 1056, North Richmond 3121 03 9427 9764 info@stmatthias.org.au

613) 9764 8330 www.acfchurch.com/chinese

613) 9764 8011 admin@acfchurch.com

11:00am

17 Livingstone Close,Burwood Vi 3125 03) 9888 7114 (03) 9808 8388 www.cacv.org.au ) cacv@cacv.org.au 0ߝஈོкৰ; ‫ޏ‬ৱ Rev. Colin Wun Mr. Jim Wong ୙ Mr. Eden Law ņůŨŭŪŴũġőŢŴŵŰųĻ Pastor Nelson Koh

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:

9:45am

cc40

67-71 Spingvale Rd, Nunawading Vic. 3131(Melway 48F8) cccv@cccv.org.au www.cccv.org.au 9878 2368

‫ޱޏ‬ȋ‫࡚ݓ‬ဎ‫ޏ‬ৱ (

LifeSpring Nunawading ĺĻĴıġŢįŮįġ IJIJĻııġŢįŮįġ

‫ڏ‬тᆹོĻġߧԑღ࠶ȃߝ‫ޱ‬ღ࠶ȃइᛥོȃಠफωಢ้

Evangelical Chinese Church

{

642 - 644 Elgar Road Box Hill North, Vic 3129

кӈ‫ޏ‬ৱȓġ œŦŷįġńũųŪŴġłűűŭŦţźġ ıĵijijġIJĹĸġIJijĸ օ౩‫ޏ‬ৱȓġ ༁ო‫ޏݠ‬ৱġ ıĵijĶġĹĶĹġĵĴı ஆᅿȓġ ഫሁీ॑τρġ ıĵĹĹġĴĴijġĵĴĹ vicar@stthomasburwood.org.au www.stthomasburwood.org.au 44 Station St, Burwood, VIC 3125 (Melway 61C7)

9898 5358 9898 5066

http://www.ecc.net.au eccbh@bigpond.net.au

Templestowe Baptist Church

South Camberwell Uniting Church Gospel Hall

10:30am ĩ़ᇭİဃᇭЅල೽ၗĪ 10:30am

)

Pastor Joseph Teo ஻घ࿄༈ၾ 0402 163 855 0408 464 737 Rev Lawrence Ng ֔‫ٹ‬ᓒ‫ޏ‬ৱ 910 Toorak Road, South Camberwell, Vic. 3124 (03) 9889 2899 (03) 9889 2899 scucgh@hotmail.com

310 Elgar Road, Box Hill, 3128 9890 6727 / 0419 132 078

ᓩ‫ס‬ԙ‫ޏ‬ৱ

़ᇭதࡶ ़ᇭ౪фதࡶ

ߧȃЍԑ0‫ٱ็ڋ‬ώ IJIJĻııġŢįŮįġ Ĵġȗġķġྑġġ‫็ڋ‬кРᏰ ġ ĸġĮġIJijྑġЍԑதࡶġ IJĻĴıġűįŮįġ ़ᇭߧԑωಢġ

CC01

10:00am ( 10:30am 7:30pm 10:00am

:0433 777 455)

кРதࡶȓ! ΰϿΪΙਢ!)ဃȃ๼ᇭ* ! ήϿΠਢЁϷ!)๼ȃ़ᇭ* ԙΡкРᏰȓ!ήϿΙਢЁϷ!)ဃᇭȇ๼ᇭ*

11:30am

CC21

The Salvation Army Chinese Corps

CC07

Chinese Christian Church of Victoria

St. Thomas’ Burwood Anglican Church

Chinese Alliance Church of Victoria

10:45am

Resonate Service 11:00am OLD ORCHARD PRIMARY SCHOOL 88 Koonung RD, Blackburn North 3130

CC06

CC10

9:00am 10:45am (

Envisage Service( 5:00pm

CC08

Crn. Greenwood & Tennyson Sts. Burwood 3125 (Melway 61 E6) Rev Dr John Elnatan Elder Jensen Low

Rev.Peter Misso

CC18

10:00 - 11:30am Pines Community Centre, Doncaster East (Cnr of Reynolds Rd & Blackburn Rd) 9:30 107 Andersons Creek Road, Doncaster East, 3109

03 9842 8776 03 9841 8486 www.tbc.org.au chineseministry@tbc.org.au 0433839315 / Shirley Chan 0412 541 088

Crossway

2 Vision Drive, Burwood East, Vic 3151 Crossway

CC28

Chinese Immanuel Church of Melbourne кРཱࡶȓ! ࢑෈РήϿΠਢ!)୽0ဃ0़ᇭ* кРᏰȓ! ࢑෈РήϿΠਢ ़ᇭߧԑȃԙΡღ࠶ȓ!಑ΠȃѲ໊࢑෈ѲήϿѲਢ ࢥငᛥོ֙ȓ! ࢑෈έΰϿΪਢј ߧԑღ࠶ȓ! ಑Π࢑෈РήϿѲਢ

10 Power Street., Hawthorn Vic 3122 53 Grove Road, Hawthorn 9886 1468 0431 559 837

ϛМஆဃᇭதࡶġĹġĻġĵĶġłŎȃIJIJġĻġĵĶġłŎ ϛМஆල೽ၗதࡶġIJıġĻġIJĶġłŎ ᗺᇭஆதࡶġIJġĻġIJĶġőŎ ӟѻᇭதࡶġķġĻġııġőŎ ़МஆதࡶЅ‫็ڋ‬ટࡶġĩ़ᇭĪġ ĹġĻġĵĶłŎȃIJıġĻġIJĶłŎȃIJIJġĻġĵĶłŎȃķġĻġııőŎ ŊňŏŊŕņĩ‫ٳ‬၂ϛᏰҡ़Мღ࠶ĪġIJIJġĻġĵĶġłŎ

ϛМஆȓġ кӈġ ġ ഺཎ‫ٱ‬ώġ ġ ߧԑ‫ٱ‬ώġ ӟѻᇭஆȓġ ᗺᇭஆȓġ ġ

դ߸М༈ၾġ ጾ‫ؾ‬໳༈ၾġ ŊŢůġŃŰůŨŦųŴ༈ၾġ œŦŷįġŎŢťŦġŔŶŵŰŮŰġ őŴįġłŭŦŹġńũŰŪġ

ĹĹĵĸġĵĺıIJ ĹĹĵĸġĵĺĶĸ ıĵijĶġĹĶıġıķĵ ĹĹĵĸġĵĺĶĴ ĹĹĵĸġĵĺĺIJ

9886 3700 9886 3711 Website: www.crossway.org.au

CC06

27


ፙМᇳ᛺

‫ר‬ঈӓӣ‫ޟ‬ড়

ᏎᅭҏġՔԽ

ԴMt Waverley ѫ‫ژ‬૭੟ߞላૼЀߤ஡КѕȞMonash Community Centreȟ 㡯Ȃ8ѡ2џȂላૼЀົϠᗑ᎖ྻӒԴ༟Ђྻᓴᗝ೐Ϭ‫ܨ‬ನ‫ྻڰ‬ȄЂ௅㡯Ϙ՝‫ױ‬ ᆕϞϠȂգϟպУϩৎ۸Ȋࡒᐈൟ๑ᗏԳ௞ѕ೮ᡘ຾⣫ᔖޯྻࠜߞඡ‫ט‬Ȃഺ࣏ Ϙᇌࠧ௱‫ߞڍځ‬಩໪ȄԯऎົϠཚࠝપ୼Ȃϲ࣏ົϠᇸྻߞඞԪȂ๑ЙᄢᗏᏩ чȂᘈჅ໖ҾȂᅆ๴‫ڏ‬Ϡ૿ѻපদȄգըࣙඡወћѧᘈȂϘፔȮົϠ‫ވ‬у᎛ְ ЈᗏᙇȯജჴПϘৎϬຈጨබ࣏ऎթȄഺᇌЙ‫ډ‬೫ᅚȂൄ՘ᐠরճࣖȂૌቮঋ Ђϧ۲ᣰົϠ֋ࢠȂ֋ះ‫ؼ‬ຠᑋᢜᎳ૵Ȃѽ‫ߤ׀‬၏ȂЖҞ៏ఀ‫ێ‬ҁ౉၏ߞපদȄ ഺըۖྻϠዴߩࡈȂԑඞࡒٟգϘᙇංኝȂٟգᙘஜȂৎৎൌᔖੀੀԳӡѕᡘ ሂϯඡ‫ט‬Ȃऻ቙ᅌϯ‫ظ‬዆ኇӇҍ‫ߞڽ‬ᢖӯȂЙӤఀ҄‫ྏا‬ஜȂഺϵዾራ຾ྻ৶ ᝯѕഺৎɆપઅߞਛɇȂᅆՁ‫ی‬Ր‫ۤڽ‬ఀߞ՘බєѽ֋ཆȄ ᗑ᎖ྻ՘ӲЙۖұՐȂӤ൵ࠐߞ40වϠ๴ਣۖЫчߞ500ԺϠȂӤ૧ӡϘ༡ి ௅ۖྦྷ‫ڽ‬ഺ㡯ᑋৎКѕȞ୵ϞЂዀ‫ژڻݗ‬Ꮗ୙ᔠȟȂඞԳന൯ᖔఀЂЂᙖਣȄ Ӥ‫ࣿݺ‬ஜԺዹȂ‫އ‬சᎳ༓ՀȂ‫ྻۖۦ‬৶ᡌࠓȂԩᗏឆ୓Ȃ‫כ‬єϞധԺቈԳߞົ Ϡࡈ‫ڽ‬ணҐࣿஜȄఓѼඞԳ໹঑ഈȂҪఀ்‫ݡ‬ҳ஡‫ܧ‬ӔߞϢྻӦ᎛Ȅ ຊ߰ЏணҐϞවৎցϠྻȂԧգપ֒ȄѽࡈգߞցϠྻգϠߋԩᄳ‫׀‬ȂᎮӫЙ ౻ȂЙऎྻ৶இ‫ڰ‬Ȃࡒߋ຾ညᔝᔝȄत֌գৎྻӤ‫૿ݺ‬ѻТࠫȂ૿ѻऎЂಿ‫އ‬ சᇟૠߞ၍ЍȂٟϠ᝸ྍணᓴ෱‫ࠜྻྲܨ‬ȂҪՀႋ෸Ȃ௟‫ݙ‬ൺ၃໱ф༰ᢜႤϯ ӹࣆܹȂ҄ϠఌఓȄहѧНϭȂ‫ا‬েഺৎྻૌৃఀᐾ᠕डఓϞȄ ຊ࣏߰УѡϢྻߞྲϠȂӒՀჃϯӠџྻȂ୼୼ᒸᒸԳჅϞৎዉӠྻȄϛѡϫ Ⴣϯྻ㡯നਜऎ80࿐ѽϯցϠ໲ᄯȂ‫࣏ا‬ӠӀ೐Ϙըత‫ۦ‬၏ᢜᅆഺᇌӠџߞૡ ᇊȂᓐ‫ྻۦྏڗ‬㡯ྰցߞಽྍȂૌ࣏ቛୃԴѕȂೣӠ᝱‫؞‬Ȅ‫ـ‬ऎપ‫࣏ߞ־‬Ȃನ ‫ڰ‬েం֋Ўߞਲ୰㡯ࠚ‫ڽ‬ᘿߞ॓ମࠅȂ‫־‬ԴցϠেߞ଒ࡈȂ࣍ఀЂਛ॓ԍᆕ বȂ҄ϠᢘඈȂԯऎϘߡѽ‫ߤڽ‬஡ࣿஜൌ࣏ࠅᓿ໴၄ࠅ‫ࠅ૽ݕ‬Ȃഺը࣊ြॗϫ ᖖ࠲ȂৃఀऎഺϘ൹ྲᗝஜҨՀȄ Ӏ੡ࣿஜџȂЂྻϘ༟ࠝබᠩ୓Ϟᡌ‫ߞأ‬রጄȂЂਛஇ୓Ϟ԰࣋ᛁᖚ࠲உᑆȂ త຾Ⴏ୓ϞህȄȄȄᗁНࣿஜԺዹȂ҄ϠඈᡌȄ ЂྻН‫ݙ‬ѽ༟ఀ՘ґȂ୵Ϟྻ৶ߞጤྑᝯѕᐾ᠕њࢺȂ࿤൯Ѝ֯இఀಎϢ೟፜ ϵ࣏ᝯᘣԯዴȄ঵Ԑѹਯࢆֶ៉‫ڰ‬џ຀գϬЂ༵Ȃ഼Ⴥྻൢȇӎ‫ܨ‬ನ‫ྻڰ‬Ѝ֯ ඡ‫ט‬ф୑சඡ‫ט‬ȇ൵ࢢߞদᔝᕚऎᓴᗝϭϘ‫ܨ‬ನ‫ྻڰ‬Ȅ༵༵ൌ֯Ϟ҇ж࿤൯Ȃ ᚎ‫ذށ‬ঋȂᅁ႖ᅁሲȂᑓᅁ๑ົȂٟգ኿႖ਇ႖Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽ་຀༶‫׀‬Ȅ‫ڼ‬Ղൢ຀ନ ੯Ϙৎѡࡈබг༟௺໭Ȃྻ৶գྍ‫ڍ‬Ҟᐐ՝෩ҍ৒‫ڍྍؼ‬ȄഺчҪ࣏দᙇࢆ ᡝȂٟྍ‫ڍ‬බᗝј഼ჅȄЍ֯ඡ‫҇ט‬ᆕನ‫ڰ‬েߞྑѕȂӡѕփᢖఀપ‫־‬ᇟ௾Ȃ ‫ڹ‬Ϡᢜྻۖഺ࣏ৎࣶ࿕຾࿢៟ߞЂਛਲȄ‫୑ߞ֯߾᠋ق‬சඡ‫ט‬ຊຊ౻෽Ȃᢖӯ ҍົϠߞཔኍြॗᔹ‫ډ‬ཇ೚Ȃُжᓿൌ൵Ђন࢘Գӡ‫ݺ‬ऎྻ৶েᓖᇊ‫׀‬Ȃਣӯ ຾ನ‫ڰ‬েЙऎԩ‫׀‬Ȃ၍சऎгಿ‫އ‬சߞᇟૠȂᖔఀЂಿᝒᎫȂሃ⣫ྻࠜϘ୓ ୼ೈညᓴȄ ൵ࢢߞᓴᗝȂ࢝՝බЏៃᢵȂ෩ԩϞ৏ᓴϠȂԞබϞᓴೈȂೈϯ୵ԕԞϞ15ԩ ৏ᓴϠȂᘘգߩ֜ᢰᓴᗝϠ෩ҍ֋ЎѕКߞϠᓴȄցՐϠߞ഼ઽ࣏Ϡߞᗚ۶ԩ ՄᅆЙϯၳȂѹࢺϠᢰ৏ᓴϠϘՄవ༟ȂᅆᕕᓴೈϯߞԩՄുৎ‫ݢ‬۲ȂϘ჆Ȃ ‫ی‬჆ԓϬЬ೜Ȃᆽᢖᅆྻ৶۶৏ᓴϠߞ঑യᇟૠȄ

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ྻඞֶ၉ߞੜತੜ‫ލ‬ϵ࢝ᢘϠȄࡈϘч‫ا‬Դഺ㡯ӇӵӶȂӇ؆ϞЂᣇ՜ࣂఀߩ ߩᒿᒿȄҞ࣏೐ϟчϠে་Ϣྻ‫ݙ‬੡ȂϬպ‫دڽ‬ฎЄф੸ЄЏ၃ᑋኅᙚՀȂԴ ਽৏ྻ৶েϢඞ۸Ȅ࿰‫ߞا‬ಟྐȂഺЂߞЍ֯༓ȂᘘЙఀවৎЈ੡‫ס‬ȂЙ෩ࡈ Ϙч‫ڽ‬༟౎ЍȂ‫ڽ࣏ݏ‬Йфߞ۸ȄҞϘயྻࠜȂሲ࣏ࡈϘըನ‫ྻڰ‬ϯЏ୅Ꭲ౻ ྾ȂϠϠѕКգዴȂࢷൊබ઱Ȃੜತ֋๒୼ϞȄྻඞֶ၉ЈೡϠ৶ϝᙇۖ಩ඞ ߡ‫܋‬ᔼ᚟࢈Ȃయҍ੸ฎࢷന঍ᙚՀȂᢰྻ৶Չ‫ࢢױ‬බЙӡԓ੗ஜȂᓴೈȂ༺಼ ϘзӤЍ֯Ϡ৶୙ۖྻ৶јКȄබᔠۡϵ࣏෩ࡈϘ۹๳ୃҍழՀϞߞȄᗁНȂ ُϘَᢼϘз೟ြൌҞऻۖನ‫ڰ‬ে‫އ‬சߞ೟ѕȂയԇѕȂྑѕȂሮૌ঑യȂգ ᄥ༤Ԫ֯۶‫܇‬ឥᇟૠȄ ӎྻߞՀϠՀ‫ڰ‬ϩжНԺȂৃఀ๴ధȂПѽࢆෳѽ๴ෳ‫ົا‬Ϡߞᔹ‫ډ‬ཇ೚Ȅ ‫ڼ‬Ղ‫ا‬൵ඈྑߞਝ‫ؗ‬Ց༰ᢜህȂЙቮঋ‫ܠ۽‬ህ֡ȂȞ‫ا‬බ࣏ٞ຾ᐯႯഺᇌᏋԪ КȂցՐϠߞஉ‫ڗ‬ህփ‫ߞڽ‬ȂᛁӠ࢙៉‫ৄا‬Ⴏህ‫ڽ‬፤ิ፰ᝯြ๭ȟധԺጤѕϠ ‫د‬ҹྣఀጤѫจчȄ൙ដࠆంᇨϯ‫ر‬ህᘏ୨রጄᔂϭ‫ڽ‬ȂሃࠛӜϘ୓ిЂਛ ႯȂग़‫ߞ׻‬వህӤϘৎኧҐۖϝৎȂϠϠႯఀ࢝༟ѕȄऎᕒׄྲྻ৶۶ցՐྻ ৶Ȃ਷ᔖԴԃਿᣇ༟ϞৎɆࠐૺ઱ɇంᔝి୓ȂᢰྑՀ߰ҞѽႬఀϯȂ‫ا‬බ࣏ ‫ێ‬КНϘȄ‫ق‬౿ћȂཀ‫ܐ‬᝶ຈՀј௱௱ԴӠјКӯፑ௲ታЂਛϘ୓ႯȄᢜ಩Ϟ ྻ৶༡ߞТहᕒׄȂТहᝯѕȂᄥຕуྑߞᇟૠȄഺ࣏ӎྻߞ‫ܟ‬՞Ȉᢰྑ҇ᆕ ྻಿȂᢰ‫ـ‬ԺϠܶᇊ‫أ‬ጄȂஉ௵ࠜᄯȄ ցϠেϵᢜྻۖᐯॻሬߞӅঋ۶Հ഍Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽᓨ᠙ணҐॻሬᐯ೫઱ȄԴ࿅১ࢷవ ϭᐯ೫઱ࢷ຀࢘жऎұৎ઱Ȃᐯ৶ЏႿ90ϠȄ ᜱ๪ೡߞ൘ћѕցਰጤѕిఱȂҍᓿҍϧȂ෩‫ڻ‬ᜱ๪‫ل‬ਫ਼Ȃ‫ڹ‬ᐯ৶Ѫ࿤Ђգ ෩୼Ȅཀྵ᜹ೡೡࠜཀೇ౥۶ೡ৶‫ݙد‬ᇌࠅҘ၍Ꮁఀۖߞ138Ю੕ຜϞྻ㡯Ȅ ১ӎ࣏Ѫ‫׀‬Ѝ຀ਰߞ‫ޒ‬ናӠȂ྽᏶ྑՀ៷዆Ȃ֋‫ט‬ᐬࡌညࢆཇನ‫ڰ‬Ȃ঑യӠ џྻфԧᇌᆊҍߞ࿰ह۶ᔂᄊຈЍ֯Ȃऎྻ㡯࢙Ӳգ‫؛‬໪ߞᑢҫႤਫ਼ȂຜჅ Ӡџߞྻ৶୙ϯϞऺ༟ೀ૯ߞहѯȂЍ֯ሮૌ঑യȂЂ‫ۦ‬ᡌࠓȄ ӮϬ‫࣏ޒ‬ცၝ௞྽ϠЖȂ঑യന൯ᘉ໴ᇒನ۶‫ڹ‬ӡȂᔂሦϞ‫ۥق‬ԢȞӃϘ‫ޱ‬ ਰȟȂᚳЄྞȂ௺ֱঁຈ൰ҍϠߏߞ‫ڰ‬ᚹȂያ‫ݸ‬ҍ‫ڽ‬ᢰྻ৶ᖢႋᑢҫૌहȂ хᕕ࢝ՀȄ᏶Ԕ๝ԴӠџྻࡈᚎጒ‫ذ‬ঋԳᗾႋညѡѵधЂ‫ڹڰ‬ցϠেႬϯ੡ ҃Ȃ༟ᘮೀधȄྻ㡯ᘘ‫׀‬ӡᇦᏐᄦ੩ᔡߞᔹཕȂ༟ᓱცၝ઱ȂӤӮϬ‫ޒ‬۶࿅ ১ԇቃᐱցਰȄᗁփ‫ڏ‬НȂࣿஜᗄԺȂൌ࣏ऎ၏ಿߞ‫ૈ׀‬փᆽѕᆽϧȄ ணҐഺৎྻѽ‫ڽ‬๺๺ߞවৎѡȂຜ‫ا‬Ԟ໪ಎ‫ߞے‬Ϙᙇ࣏ϠЖᕻᕻȂ᚟ᔷ߻ ࠎȂൌ᝸ԧਣ‫ࠜݙ‬ऎЂಿ‫އ‬சȂϠϠ૯ᛞ௱༟ȂТहᝯѕȂТ໦ѕᗏȂૌ࣏ Ϙৎ‫أ‬ጄߞЂਛਲȄ‫ا‬ૡ᝸ՁྲϘ‫ߞܨ‬ನ‫ྻڰ‬۶ЂಿᄥຕуྑȂպюॏᔝ‫ـ‬ ་ϘَȂ‫ޟޟ‬ԨᅷȄ

ጡ‫ࡣޱ‬଄ȈჅҝϩԺՐȂЙьࠜ߰՘ऎᑫࣷೊӔȂᝯᠪࠜ߰ߞӠࣿȂ‫ົ࣏ـ‬Ϡ ߤ஡КদঋߞЍ֯Ȅ‫ـ‬Ҟඈߞ࣏Ȃߤ஡Кࠜ߰Йѻ‫ۍ‬൯ታᐱЖକф၃ᢚНЀȂ ԯթЙьົϠᗑ᎖ྻൌ࣏Ӥࠜ߰యஜȂ‫ێ‬КԴ๺੡༡а๴ਣ‫ڝ‬ിߞϵ࢝ԺȄ֓ ռЃЀ‫د‬Ձ൵ࠕணሃߞົϠᗑ᎖ྻȂՂ֣ജೡᚐ୓‫ڽ‬Ȃ՘ऎົϠߤ஡ߞૡᇊ኷ ϭȂ‫ـ‬ᄁᔽ‫ـ‬ԺϠକ‫ظ‬་ഺϘৎ‫ߤڰއ‬஡ߞ֖ԕȄ


Ж᡹ଟ៪

ĭ͆ᐶˢ౉Ė˗ϟҢՏĮ

˟ϟ

Ꮠ߰

чᔷϣൊߞࣇ‫୻ڰ‬྅գ‫ی‬౧ѹ።ȂϘࣱ࣏᠖ᜡѕୠِѳሬᄻȂҩϘ౧ѹ።බ ࣏ውਟൾሃᓂቈЋߞЩࢬȄࣱ᠖ϘѕୠِѳሬᄻȂᘵ๒၃Ⴥ࢝Ժޯ‫ض‬Ȃᗁᇖ ࣏գఐϠೣ՘ಾ៳Ȅ࣏֭գᝯውਟൾሃᓂቈЋ‫ڤ‬Ϙ౧ѹ።Ȃࡒ࣏ࠧ௱ա‫ض‬Ȅ ውਟൾ࣏ᘿ۟౉ϠȂ࣏੢จ੡҃Ђᑷऱ౉ߞࢢϠȂҁϘӠߞᄱྐ࣏ঋԍ෇ᑷ ஼Ȃԯթҁ‫ۊد‬Єۤԩऎውਟ෇Ȃබ࣏ঋ‫ۊ‬Є੡‫݇ࢥے‬ԍ෇ᑷ஼Ȅውਟൾߢ ႽԴщӀಽཕ੡Ȃҁ࣏ЙҞକႿۖನྐȄϘ‫ܠ‬ঋє୓чϭЂགྷȂҁЖҞѽ໺ ᑟ୓ֻ࢙Ӳᑷ஼Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽҁໍඡࡵМϠঋஏᡚь‫ޒ‬Պ‫ྫྷڽ‬ᄳь‫ޒ‬Պߞ‫ޠ‬ᐯ‫ۏ‬ ឱȂ‫ڹ‬ᓶ஼Ҟѽ୊ፚЀֻᐾգ୼௻‫ޠ‬ґ‫ࠬڽ‬ರ؇஼Ȅውਟൾౕؓᚣթࣄ୓ᓶ ؇‫ی‬஼हߋȂѽ֌чϭЂགྷ੡ҁҞѽ໺ᑟ୓ֻ࢙Ӳᑷ஼Ȅ ᓂቈЋ࣏ውਟൾ঍ᓖߞ‫ۦ‬ਚ߰Ȃҁߞ‫܍‬Є๑༆ജ౭Ȃ‫ۊ‬Єࡋঋሃ֋ЎжᛓȂ ֋‫ڤ‬ըജஏᡚНࢢȂҁබ‫ܠ‬ϭ෇ЩߞӫዾȄϘўবஏҝь‫ޒ‬Պߞ‫ޠ‬ᐯ‫ۏ‬ឱȂ ჰ൯௲԰ᓶ஼୊ፚ‫ޠ‬Ѐѽ࠮‫ؽ‬Ӈ؇஼ȂҩϘўবȂҁᒕ࿂ᎠࣤᎡ࣏။ቾᇋ ঵Ȃѽ࠮ඡЩൠࢬȄ ውਟൾϘӠ݇݇Й‫෇؞‬ᒸᑷ஼ȂਚϞ‫ڱڤ‬ஏᡚᓂቈЋߞК১ሹ൰ȂϵਚϞᓂ ቈЋߞ‫܍‬ЄȂԢ੡‫ڹ‬ᓂቈЋሃ‫ۊ‬ЄжᛓȄᓂቈЋϘӠऎϞඡЩȂ౭Ϟ‫ۊ‬Єߞ ਰѭӛॴЂਰȂѽф‫ۊ‬ЄߞᏳѭӓඕϬᅿш௎Ȃᝌгᝌ௔ຈϠȄӡၐ၃ߞങ ሬȂውਟൾᓂቈЋҁেϟϠ࣏ജ֋ЎϘӠߞӫዾȶઐмȷϞȄ‫ݙ‬ѽԴь࢈ Ћညь‫୼ޒ‬ᄃ஄ႅ౭ϞውਟൾȂᓂቈЋ࠮ჲ๒ះఀҵҝϞϘӠߞӫዾȂះఀ

15 8ѡ10џȂԴൠ౨ࡑ஡ᗝᓱϞϘඞѳ෻ྎຠরጄྻњࢺ౐ԍᝯᜃ‫ߞྻ۝‬యዃ ۶۲ᣰЂಿ੕ឥњࢺ౐ԍߞ၃໱ȂྏᘁȮԢႮϠȯᛔራȃՀЀඛҾࣆܹȃশ ส௓૲៷዆ф‫֋ڽ‬ԧႮߞᝒׄ஥ਛሃ঒ྻሼࢉߞЂϧњࢺȄ ညџȂ‫ا‬ᘘ࣏ᄊ݀௱Ϙዹ՝՝බۖඞᎠႏরᠩȂм‫׶‬фஇՀࠑᆊࡈߞ࿤൯Ȃ ‫ڤ‬чඞবф‫ݑ‬Ꮃᘵ๒ሃщӀࣶ࿽ЄྻȶྑѕᄊѪ෿ଠጮᖘȷߞ‫ڤ‬ඞທ๒Й ԢȂ֭ԯऎᣍಿߞྑѕϵ‫ڹ‬ඞবጤᐂࠧ௱Ȃ‫ا‬૭Դሂϯ஭ϞՀԺϵྐϞՀ ԺȂྏៈ‫ډ‬ԺȌȌྎຠሃ੕ឥ࣏ۖܺࢨዹߞϘᇌ࿄݇ȉ‫׎࣏߰ی‬Ԣ၍‫߰ݕ‬ह Т‫ڶ‬ᓥȉԴЙԢࠫԈߞԧўȂԴྎຠ੕ឥКߞྑѕѕᅗ࣏‫׎‬हԢȉഺ‫ڱ‬࿄݇ ‫ا‬हࠫϠেѕКգಳȂ֭๑ంႋ៖փЏȄ

Цኃൌٟգᝯ࠼ϞȂЩϵЙྐԓඡϞȄࢢ‫ڽ‬ь‫୼ޒ‬ᄃԓ஄ႅ౭ϞᓂቈЋȂ๒ ࢢԓాᓹውਟൾᓂቈЋϟϠȂ‫࣏ݺ‬ውਟൾᓂቈЋ‫ی‬ϠՀᄊ၃ჅӤӠۖժȂϫ ӤժۖӠȂഺዹь‫୼ޒ‬ᄃЙඏѤᛁՀҁেፚґ‫ڕ‬ѫϢᠲߞઽȂ‫ྏـ‬мϞውਟ ൾᓂቈЋȂ‫ڹ‬ҁে‫ݸ‬ϭ෇஼фඡЩߞ݇ᔝȄҁেබЙԓജ‫ڱڤ‬ӫዾȶઐмȷ ϞȄ ၐ၃ሲϘৎϠࠫϞॠᒘȂබ࣏ఀۖϘৎྲӠ‫ۻ‬Ȃԯթ‫ڤ‬ৎϠߞӠ‫ߞۻ‬ӫዾϵ ྻ‫ؼ‬ᢏȂӤऎ֋Ўփࣿᢏ՘ऎѹॠᒘփࣿȂഺৎӠ‫ؼߞۻ‬ᢏȂሃውਟൾфᓂ ቈЋ‫ݙ‬ᏎჃߞգहԢӺգ‫ݙ‬ЙԢȄहԢߞබ࣏Ϡߞӫዾఀۖᅔܺߞ‫ؼ‬ᢏȂЙ ԢߞԳўϜ࣏ውਟൾфᓂቈЋҁেϟϠജ‫ؼ‬ᢏࢢȂ࣏໛Ϙз‫ߏڰ‬ऎᄧϿȃऎ ߩȂ࣏Ϙᇌҍѵߞᅗ࢘Ȅփၐ၃‫ݙ‬ሲߞྲӠ‫ۻ‬Ȃࡒ࣏ᒕ࿂ߞϢѵߞᅗ࢘Ȃԯ ऎࠫॠᒘߞϠȂ࣏ྻ࢝֋๒Գ௟ഺৎࠫѹॠᒘఀాߞՀઐਿཇຜ‫ڗ‬᝝ߞϠȂ ‫ڗۖڹ‬᝝ߞϠϵҞѽգఀాߞᑟྻȂ‫ݙ‬ѽഺৎྲӫዾ࣏௲գӖࢮྍ၍ߞȄ թҳȂࠫॠᒘߞϠ‫ݙ‬ఀߞྲӠ‫ۻ‬Ȃ࣏ϘৎӖቈߞӠ‫ۻ‬Ȅᘵ๒௄ရਵႬ‫ێ‬ҁϠ ϘዹྻժȂ࣏֭௄ရਵԴ௟‫ࣿ෇ྻ࣏ڽ‬ȂգϘৎӖቈЙీ᛼ߞ‫ڗ‬ᢜȂഺৎӖ ࢮߞ࿄࣏݇ሃ֢ిߞᏇ୞෈ᖖ࿄݇ЙϘዹߞȄ ውਟൾфᓂቈЋฅ၃ജ֋ЎߞӫዾȶઐмȷȂϘӠЙᑄјࣱҝୠِႿ՘ӫ ዾȂࢢ‫ڽ‬Ж๴ះ֋Ўߞӫዾ࣏���ߩߞȄְߞӠ‫ߞۻ‬ӫዾϫ࣏Цኃ۸?

ཏ๡ਖᝦ‫ޟ‬྅‫܈‬ ඏӡᓿබҞѽҝᓊ༓փ҄ϠӀՉȂᓿϵທᅆЙକపሏ‫ا‬েߞჅӚȂҪঋ‫ا‬ে ‫܃‬႕ߞবᅆჅᓾȂૌѕߞȂٙѕԳ‫ؼ‬ჅȂᆽ‫ݙا‬କЙদᘏᚬᚽȂᐴ຾ϯ࢓ߞ ྑȂ࠮ҞఀۖᅔܺߞӀՉȄ ᓐྑߞ‫ވ‬уȈ಩Ыѵ༡ϯщԺߞឯภࣿஜȂϵฅ҄‫ا‬୛క۶ྌ࣎๑ߢߞ‫ظ‬ ϢȂ֋มมϠȂЙߢ‫ݙ‬ᓜȄ‫ێ‬ᅁంၐ၃ႆߞૌನ֯੕ឥሃྎຠȂ҄Ϡ๑ᐻҞ ᕝȂ಩Ы‫܃ا‬๒๑៵Ȃ‫ِॆا‬գంϯчփ‫ߞڽ‬ขዊȂЙߠӫ੕ឥȂԴፁᅁߞ ྎຠቮِКȂԴѕᢸϯ੕ఀᅔܺȂգᓿҍᓿȂգϧҍϧȂྏਾ๑ᆽȄ ਖᝦᇄཏ๡ӵઍདྷϛϗ૖ᡗ‫ݧ‬юӎً

ྎຠ࣏Ϙᇌຠ‫ྍډ‬᝸ߞࣿஜȂգϘৎɆࣉП߰ɇ۶Ɇ‫߰ࣉۦ‬ɇߞᝯ࠼ȄЙய ߏᎳ԰ඡԳຜПգቮঋߞߤ၏ᕒׄȄԴߤྻϯȂྎຠ࣏࠳་Ϡ᝷ᇊ‫׀‬་َߞ ‫׀‬ҁᝯᜃȂ഼௱൅Ⴥ੕ᝑࠛᓿȃᝒׄȂ၍சЍ֯ຈ֖ஜȂ‫ݕ‬഼Ⴥྎຠᑟᅹ੕ ᝑПգቮঋߞϠȂ ‫ݕ‬ணሃϘ‫ڱ‬гૈ֖ஜ‫ڽׄ۝‬ᕒׄ‫ێ‬ҁգቮঋߞߤྻϠЀȄ Դ‫ا‬ᘘӏ‫ڶ‬Ꮻϯ࢓ࡈȂ‫ێ‬ᅁ‫ا‬ѕКᅆ֋Ў‫ݙ‬գߞྎຠ੕ឥȂൌٟգԯऎɆ੕ ឥɇϞȂሮऎ֋ЎɆྎຠɇϞփѕ㡯ఀۖӀՉȂ‫ڤ‬੡৏‫ا‬ѽऎ : Ϡ੕‫ا‬੕Ȃ ϠգԊ‫ا‬ϵգԊȂЙঋᗪϞᒕ዇ߞᑟྻȂஇᓾϞ‫ڰ‬Ҟӡഺ‫ڱ‬੕ឥᕓႃȂᕕႍ ҍьᓿᒕຠ‫ݕ‬Ҟ๴Ђ୑Ȃ‫࠲ڭ‬ӀՉȌȌऎतኃ‫ا‬இϞ‫ڤ‬ኃԺȂѕႆᘘ࣏ЙᎼ ᅁȂ࣏ԯऎഺ࿄࣏݇ЂᓾપᓾȊ ညְ੕ឥߞ੡৏Ȃѕᅗٙ‫ܠ‬੕ឥߞྍ၍Ȃၐ၃৯‫ޒ‬Ժࢢ੩9ൢ7ြሲȈȶԧϠ ঋᔌӎѕ‫ݙ‬୩‫ߞܠ‬ȄЙঋ֯᝱ȃЙঋࡍ௻Ȅԯऎ੕ఀጄྍߞϠȃ࣏ૠ‫ݙ‬ඈྑ ߞȄȷ੕ឥ࣏Ϙᇌ֋᝸఺ౢሃຜПߞࠑ಩Ȅ ϯ࢓ຜѵϠߞྑЙ࣏ϠӡᓿҞ໴ߞȂ࣏ঋӡѕᢸҝನྻЖକૌӒታ‫ۦ‬἟ٟգ ࠲઻ߞȂ؆ԑߞྑȄ๒փ‫ا‬েՂ‫ލ‬Դ੕ឥКҍ‫૷ݺ‬Ӓ๑‫ߞڢ‬ѕᢸȂЖྻࠑ಩ ྎຠૌӒߞྍ၍Ȃ੕ឥሃྎຠ࣏࣊हТ‫ڶ‬ᓥȂӺ࣏୫ᏡहᅆȂҹທᅆЙକ

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Ж᡹ଟ៪

ЈߝӴδ

༃Јᚶ σՌณЖ᡹ఀࡉ‫ف‬Ӗ-Ёϲ ᐬࢸ(Australia)ΙຠྛՌ‫ܜ‬ΛᇭȈȶTerra australis incognitaȷȂ‫ڏ‬নཎ࢐࣏ ȶҐ‫ࠒޟޣ‬ПσചȷȄӵ೻༵Ґ‫ࠒޟޣ‬Пσച໠ีᐣѬϛȂਲ਼ᐃ़୽ᐣѬᏰ ড়ოМȆ‫۝‬ՙ඼ȞGavin Menziesȟ‫ޟ‬௰กЅ଄ၷȂ಑Ιএี౪ᐬࢸσച‫ޟ‬Ρ ‫ސ‬ȂྃԤџ૖ଡਫ‫ڗ‬ϛ୽݂෉‫ޟ‬૞੕ড়ɯɯ᎒‫ڷ‬Ȃ1421ԑ᎒‫ڷ‬౥ሴ૞੕಻໥ ήՙࢷਢȂॶӑܰႀᐬࢸσചՙࠒ੕۬Ȃ‫ٮ‬ᄇ‫ݼ‬੕ӴୢୈΟଡ଼௤ЅᇧყȄΪ Μжकߑ෈Ȃᓍ๿ዉࢸ෥ҕ‫ޱ‬ᄇ‫ࢸٳ‬σച‫ޟ‬ଽ࡙ᘐ‫܁‬Ѕᘗ஻ȂዉࢸΡӵ૞੕ РᇬϛȂάӻԩ଄ၷี౪Ο೻༵ࠒПσചȄ‫ޢ‬Ս1787ԑȂ़୽ࢇ‫࣏ۺ‬Ο೎౩ ဌқ‫ܹࢺޟ‬୰ᚠȂ৯ࣂ़୽੕ॖΰ஠ߡ࿄Ȇ຅ցල(Arthur Phillip)಻ߝȂளሴ ȶ಑Ι᝼໥ȷ஼༖ิചཱིࠒࡄᅭρࣸ(New South Wales)Ȅӵ໠ีᐬࢸσച‫ޟ‬ ӣਢȂડફ‫ޟ‬ᐬࢸ੫ԤσՌณଢ଼ේ‫ސ‬Ȃһ౏౏֜ЕЅᘗ৤жࣨଢ଼ේ‫ސ‬டড়‫ޟ‬ ຜഏȂ‫ڏ‬ϛശхΡແકಁᜢ‫ޟ‬ၗᚠ࢐Ȉȶন‫پ‬ȂЈᚶζԤ༃ՓࠢᆍȄȷ ӵ18жक‫ޟ‬ዉࢸΡี౪ᐬࢸ༃Јᚶ(Australian Black Swan)ϞࠉȂ‫ܚ‬Ԥ‫ޟ‬Ρ֯ ஀߬Ϛಋ‫ࣺ߬ޟ‬ȂӒжࣨ‫ܚ‬Ԥ‫ޟ‬Јᚶ֯࢐ዓҩՓ‫ޟ‬Ȃ‫ز‬ঈຫ኉๿ଽິᓺ໯‫ޟ‬ ထዓЅડထȂຫ኉๿ࣺᕄо‫ޟݱ‬དྷ௑Ȅծ೻এད‫ޢݲ‬Սᐬࢸ༃Јᚶ‫ޟ‬ю౪Ȃ ൷‫ׇ‬Ӓ᜺᙭Ο༈ಛ‫ࡦޟ‬ᆰЅӟຫȂӰԪᗙ౰ҡȶ༃Јᚶਝᔖȷ‫ޟ‬டԤӪຠȂ ໌ՄೝЕൕԙ࣏ΙૡРலҢᇭȂඪᒺ‫ר‬ঈ௃ᢎᄆ‫ܖ‬ငᡛϛ‫ܚ‬Ᏸಬ‫ޣޟڗ‬ᜋᏰ ୰Ȃ‫ٱٱߨٮ‬഍࢐ԍҳϚ཮‫ޟ‬ઍ౩ȂԤਢᗙོԤϚ൞Ιᔞ‫ᝒޟ‬१ࠁ३‫ܒ‬Ȅ೻ ӣਢһᙤоЕҧȈȶࣼխྃϚџ૖ีҡ‫ٱޟ‬௑Ȃࠓάᄂሬઍᄂ‫ޟ‬ԆӵȄȷ༃ Јᚶ࢐жࣨ๿Ӫ‫ޟ‬ᢎ፬࣢࿳Ȃ‫ز‬ঈϚծՁՓछȂᡝ‫ל‬छȂ੉፴छȂቈᄘछȂ ೿६ဣЫ७‫࠼ޟ‬༖һᡗு੫տႦৠ๼ິȃ௃ৠϚफ़Ȃζ൷࢐Ӱ࣏Ԥ೻‫ٲ‬ᡝᄘ ᓺछ‫ޟ‬༃ЈᚶȂ‫؁‬᠜ԜюᐬࢸӨ࠲ѿ‫ޟ‬ோ໣௑፡ȂႭຽᚔ‫ޟ‬ཐ‫ڧ‬жѴੀྛૡ ‫ޟ‬ᐬࢸՌณॳӎȄ ᐬࢸ༃ЈᚶԤ๿ȶЫ࿳ິఊȷ‫ޟ‬໯ᆎȂ‫ڏ‬ԙന٘ߝघԤ140ϴϷѾѡȂ१ႀ9 ϴОȂ‫ڍ‬ᖎ໠৤घԤ2ϴЏቶȂᗵ឴ܻനᆪ໮‫ל‬Ҭ໮ᓳऋȂӵᐬࢸσՌณന᜸ ϛȂ༃Јᚶ࢐Ιᆍкौූ਀ܻᐬࢸ‫ࠒݍ‬ᇄՙࠒୢ୿‫ޟ‬σ࠮ЫനȄ൷༃Јᚶ‫ޟ‬ Ѵ࠮੫኉Մ፣Ȃ‫ز‬ঈ‫ޟ‬ᓞഋᆠጝಠωȂ൛ቝϺߝ֕౪౏ᐘऔՓȂ࢐࡬‫ڗ‬ԁ೎ ‫ᢩޟ‬ᝋȊ఻औՓ‫ޟ‬ᕞЌȂխнࣼϧቄ഍ϷѴ఼݂ȂԤ๿ਿѴட‫ݧ‬ᇯઍ‫ޟ‬ಁડ ȄԢጣ୥ּ‫ߝޟ‬ᓛ౱౱᠉ԢȂժᕻՌԃȂ࿋Ԃ஠ߝᓛժюў୩ॵਢȂ᠉᠉Ӵ ࡬խΙၾछᝋ‫ेޟ‬ᐝȄ஼ՄԤΨ‫ޟ‬ᚖᖎࠌџ‫ټ‬༃Јᚶߝഊॴ๢ϞҢȂቶσ‫ޟ‬ ယඡ჋խዖЫӁ‫ޟ‬ຐᎮΙૡȂџᔓօ‫ز‬ঈ‫פ‬ഀӴӵЫ७ΰྤЫ෬՗Ȅ༃Јᚶ ‫ޟ‬໰ርനѴ࠮৯౴‫ܒ‬ϚσȂ୲໰ന౱Шርന஼ֵሿ‫ݡ‬Ι‫ٲ‬Ȃቝ൛ζၶ࣏ߝ‫ޢ‬ ՄቶσȂ‫ز‬ঈσഋϷ‫ޟ‬Ձ՘֯୤ᚕ๿౏༃Փ‫౏ܖ‬ԸՓȂՄᖎُЅᚖૃѴ୏ࠌ Ԥ๿छᝋ‫ޟ‬ҩՓॴՁȄ࿋‫ز‬ঈӵചΰ՗໌ϛ‫ܖ‬ӵЫϛᅞၽਢȂᖂ࢐ध᙭๿߆ ๚‫ޑ‬ԸՁȂሉᢎ჋խϤТ౾໠‫ޟ‬༃‫ر‬ϝΙૡȂ๝ΡΙᆍ೅१ྣ‫ڷ‬ȃ੉ԇߨγ ‫੉ޟ‬༖ȂхΡϚுϚᢚნΰࡔഅ‫ޟސ‬ЈώડѽȄ ᐬࢸ༃Јᚶ࢐શॵкဎ‫ޱ‬ȂΙૡкौоЫҡේ‫ڷސ‬ᕆӴ᝽᜸ේ‫ڏ࣏ސ‬кॵȄ ‫ز‬ঈһ࢐ࣺ࿋ӫတ‫ޟ‬ന᜸Ȃ൉དྷတᆹܻᐬࢸσ࠮෹‫ܖހ‬Ы఻ዢ෹ȂծӰ҆໸ ҡࣀӵસ౑‫ޟ‬ᕗც၇Ȃ‫ܚ‬о༃ЈᚶོѲ೎൶‫ײ‬џԊྐϞ‫ܚ‬Ȃ‫ؠٮ‬Ԥ‫ූޟۡھ‬ ਀ሴ୿Ȅ༃Јᚶؐႄᖅ෥ਢ෈Ȃ൷ོо࢝‫ݒ‬ȃᐙဨӓᑞདྷறܻᖝЫ‫ޟ۬ݼ‬Ӵ ७ΰȂறᆐؐԩ೽லघೃ፛ҡ5ʂ6এᚶೖȂՄ೻‫ٲ‬ωҡ‫ޟڼ‬ჽϽ෈घೃ35ʂ 38ЈȂር‫ܒ‬ЈᚶкࠌჽೖȂՄ໰ֵࡄ‫ޟݡ‬໰ᚶࠌᐊӈឌ‫߳ק‬ԊώհȂ٠ຜܻ ୏ȂхΡఖϞҡࣧȂϚමູႪԱΙ؏Ȅક෦Մю‫ޟ‬༃Јᚶ҂നȂΙ٘఻ԸՓ ‫ޟ‬යሻ‫ޑ‬Ձ՘ȂЈҡ൷࢐Ι୙џདྷฒ໇‫ޟ‬዁ኺȂ‫ࣺߝڏ‬ᗙઍ჋խ็ၗ࢈‫ٱ‬ϛ ‫לܚ‬ৠ‫ޟ‬ᗠωᓳΙኺȂ‫ڏ‬ᇼϚපȄҁਢȂ༃Јᚶӵॴ՗‫ྤܖ‬ЫਢȂୋՄོี

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Мʝጾ‫ۅ‬օ‫ޏ‬ৱ ю៪߫฻ߴԃॖ໥ဴُ‫ޟ‬ቁѩᖐȂ‫ޱܖ‬ճճ‫ڹ‬ൎ‫ޟ‬ሆযȄծӵᑞறჽ‫ى‬ਢ෈ Ȃԃႄᡙᘙ൷ོีюᔃߢ‫ޟ‬ឱቁᖐȂ‫ٮ‬ٞഀо࢝‫ܖݒ‬ᐙဨᎍᇐᗴᙠ‫ڏ‬᝘ٔᚶ ೖȂᙤо߳៖ᚶೖ‫ޟ‬ԊӒȄ ȶЈߝӴδȂҗੜདྷ‫ݬ‬ȷ‫ޟ‬དྷ௑խнೝ౪фஔࡅຜ࣏Ϛџ૖‫ޟ‬༈‫ۉ‬ડၗȂһ ࢐೨ӻΡჲ൴оؑ‫ޟ‬ஔࡅჲცȂծӵ༃Јᚶ‫ޟ‬ஔࡅ‫࡙ڙ‬၇Ȃࠓ࢐ΙᆍᇄЈ঍ ‫پ‬ȃ౩‫ܚ‬࿋ณ‫ྣޟ‬ហȮ༃ЈᚶਝᔖȯȂζ࢐ડ‫ܚ‬ంҰശᙏ൐ζശᇌᆋ‫ޟ‬ஔࡅ ‫࡙ڙ‬Ȅᐬࢸ༃ЈᚶငலюᚖΣᄇȃЉ୮ஏᓍӴю‫ؠ‬ೢॵܻᐬࢸ‫ޟ‬Ө᜸Ы୿Ȃ ӰԪӵᐬࢸӨ࠲ѿ࿋ณϚᜲ‫ڗីܯ‬༃ЈᚶோณՌுӴᅞၽ෹ӎόՓ‫ޟ‬ᆠிห ७Ȅ༃Јᚶತ٘ࡻԈΙЉΙ‫ޟڙێ‬ஔࡅᢎȂ‫ڍڍ‬଩ᄇȂ‫ۡھ‬଩ୋȂ‫܄‬Ԫࣺདྷ Ȃҩᓞ୍ՂȂϚሆܾϷᚔȄ༈ᇳ࿋༃ЈᚶѶўѪΙј଩ୋਢȂ൷ོඍ༌‫ᜲޟ‬ о໠ᛄȂࣥՍϚӬϚെȂ᢮᢮ՄತȂᖝತϞᎷȂᗙོีюైछ‫ޟ‬ቁѩᖐȂӰ ԪМᏫ൷஠Јᚶ೻ᆍైछ‫ޟ‬டΙཐ௑ȂоȶЈᚶ๘୮ȷШൕМΡᏎࡊ‫ޟ‬ᖝತ ๘๋Ȅ ෆԤΡีߒԃԪԤ፸‫ޟ‬໷οྦȈȶоࠉඪ‫ڗ‬๖ஔȂད‫ڗ‬ȺЈߝӴδȻȇ౪ӵ ඪ‫ڗ‬๖ஔȂད‫ڗ‬Ⱥ૖ኤӻδȻȄ࿋ߑོ๖ஔȂᇳ࢐ȺࣼΰಁȻȇࡣ‫ོپ‬ᚔஔ Ȃᇳ࢐ȺٖࣼಁȻȄஔࠉȂདྷ௑࢐ડၗȇஔࡣȂདྷ௑࢐રၗ……ȷӵᐬࢸᏎ ᅭҏᐊӈ‫ޏ‬ৱ༈ၾϐႉΪѲԑȂ௥ញᜰᛄ‫پ‬Ռ੕ϱѴཱིಋҕড়৳Ѕԑሆ௑ߵ Ȃ᠙ႆฒኵএདྷ௑ჲདЅΡҡҬ኿Ȅ౏ཐᠾདྷϛ‫ظޟ‬τ።Ϛད໷ց‫ٖޟ‬өӴ ෧‫ޟ‬٥Ιᆒȉሉᚔড়༪‫ޟ‬Љ‫ێ‬።Ϛ‫ה‬ఖ૖ЈߝӴδȂҗੜདྷ‫ݬ‬ȂӓӣֆΨጚ അछᅖஔࡅȉծஔࡅά໸ඡණࡩኺ‫ޟ‬۷ᆋફ೦ȉӵஅ࿜ఀ‫ޟ‬ஔࡅᢎϛȂஔࡅ Ϛ൐൐࢐Ι໶१ौ‫ޟ‬ၾኈ‫ݲ‬хघ‫؂‬ȂѺᗙѓ֤๿‫܄‬Ԫ‫ޟ٘ۏ‬དྷȃ‫ۈ‬ᝦ‫ޟ‬དྷЅ ЈߝӴδȃತҡϚฃ‫ܛޟ‬ᒛȄઍདྷϚ࢐ΙᆍཐឈȂϚ࢐௑ናȂϚ࢐լԤᄇП ȂΝ࢐Ιᆍ൐સ‫٘ۏޟ‬ȂᡱᄇПӵғጂ‫ޟ‬ஔࡅ෹‫ހ‬ϛோณՌுȄ۷ᆋҏ‫پ‬൷ ԃዘԲȂনҏо࣏‫ޟ‬۷ᆋོೝȶ‫ོޥ‬ዘࢺȷ҈ԙ࿥аȂ୲Ԥᖾ‫ڠ‬ᒳ՗௃ડՄ ‫ޟپ‬ஔࡅনࠌЅఀᏲȂϗ૖ഺഅྣហஔࡅ‫ޟ‬Ȯ༃ЈᚶਝᔖȯȂϗ૖ӵ೻ྦྷ਺ Ѽᡐ‫ޟ‬ஔࡅԑфȂЕଔശхΡແકಁᜢ‫ޟ‬ၗᚠȈȶন‫پ‬ȂஔࡅζԤฒ‫ݲ‬եቋ ‫ޟ‬۷ᆋࠢ፴Ȅȷ


ᒑ ᜜ ᾧ ᶁ ĺ ṇ

ӿ ⸹ ᖀ ቯ

ᮂ ӽ ⌜

ᛳ ۡ ӑ

߆ՓӻᆍһԤॷȂଽິ‫ڐ‬໯Σᢈஆȇ

࠭߆ԨԨӤᆦᘎȂࢋ჋ᐷ᠖ά჋ᗩȇ

жࣨӨӴ൉᠍ѺȂຫ኉‫ڷ‬ᒙᇄछԁȄ

஑্ӻ࠼ԁՓிȂலَӣ឴ΰԻᆍȄ

պԪࠅ১ಯК஼Ȃ಩෼фԑѵधȂऎѵधԩࠅНϘȄ௱‫ߞڍ‬գ ཀӨ‫ی‬ᇌȂࠅ౻ដ୼ጒȂԯ‫ێ‬ᇌᔝӤᢟѯ‫ݱ‬Ԫփ՘ȂۤɆպ‫ڰ‬ ԪྍɇȂɆպՐՀԪɇНྍȂК஼֋ҟѽ‫ڽ‬໛ҹऎ௓ᚃӅЙҞ ьߞԠೇࠅҘȄ

ԣៗઔซϫԩᖦᑶᡕࠅȃ৆భࠛៗȄ১ಯᐍ֘৯ȂऎϘՐӠନӎ ࠅҘȂࠅ‫܈؛‬પȂ֒௾ຝដȂ࿂නᣍᎫȄ

‫ཱི؁‬ఀོࡸҳཱི‫ޏ‬ ᄲġ ġΪ໊ԑኊ‫ڐ‬

‫ཱི؁‬๼Ρஅ࿜ఀོ œŦůŦŸŢŭġńũŪůŦŴŦġńũųŪŴŵŪŢůġńũŶųŤũ

‫ཱི؁‬๼Ρஅ࿜ఀོȞœŦůŦŸŢŭġńũŪůŦŴŦġńũųŪŴŵŪŢůġńũŶųŤũȟ஠ܻĹТijĸРࡸ ҳ‫ڍ‬՝ཱི‫ޏ‬ৱȈ‫ݓ‬ϴҁ༈ၾ‫ߗڷ‬ৎৎ༈ၾȄ‫ݓ‬ϴҁ༈ၾ‫پ‬ՌѮᢊȂԤIJıԑ оΰ‫ٸ݈ޟ‬ડ‫ޟ‬ငᡛȂӵ‫ཱི؁‬ఀོ݈୛ϐႉĶԑȇߗৎৎ༈ၾζ‫پ‬ՌѮ ᢊȂᇄؕ‫ޏ஀ס‬ৱலԑࣺբՄ՗Ȃ݈‫ٸ‬ΰк‫ޏ‬ᎴོಀȄ‫ڍ‬՝༈ၾ౏ுོಀ ߬ᒦȂԃϬᇌડ৿‫ڐ‬Ȃӵ‫ޏ‬Ꮄ‫ޟ‬ၾၯΰ‫໌؁‬Ι؏ȄࡸҳቈԒ஠ܻĹТijĸР ήϿijਢӵ‫ཱི؁‬๼Ρஅ࿜ఀོོஆᖞ՗Ȃ᠍ߔкϱ‫ך‬щۘ‫ڗې‬ൟᢎᙄȄ

Ϊ໊ԑኊ‫ڐ‬ ѪѴȂҏԑĺТIJIJР‫ཱི؁‬๼Ρஅ࿜ఀོ஠ߔ‫پ‬ԙҳIJı໊ԑኊ‫ڐ‬Ȃ۩ਢ஠Ԥ ᐿ‫ཱི؁ڎ‬๼Ρஅ࿜ఀོॳਿ‫ޟ‬ኊઢቈԒȂӣώོȃؕ‫ޏ஀ס‬ৱЅఀོ‫ך‬щ ۘ‫ې‬ዥ‫ߔ᠍ף‬σড়ࠉ‫پ‬ӓӣ୤ᇄȂਢ໢ġĻġĺТIJIJРIJIJਢĵĶϷȄ ‫ཱི؁‬๼Ρஅ࿜ఀོ‫ޟ‬Ӵ֭ȈĺķġņŴŴŦŹġœŰŢťġŎŵįġŘŢŷŦųŭŦźġŗŪŤįġĴIJĵĺ ᖒᛮႫၗȈؕ‫ޏ஀ס‬ৱȞıĴȟĺĹĴĴġĴĶĶĴİıĵııġĶĴıġĹijĴ ‫ݓ‬ϴҁ༈ၾȞıĴȟĺĸijĸġĴıijķİıĵIJIJġIJķĴġĸıķ

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