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ᖟᜲਢж Hard Times

ॻ஼຾ԩ֯ਛࣤನЀȅ‫ـٲ‬෻‫ݺ‬1854 Ր኷ϭҁߞࠜ ፔЈሲȮᗞ᝱੡ѵȯ(Hard Times)Ȅሲߞ࣏Ѝ྽ভ ‫ࢢۻ‬Ҫদᅁ‫׀‬փѷЙᗾఐ၍Ȃ֋‫ۻ‬ЙϲȂѽґ‫׀‬ѹ ၍֯ऎӠࣿ১ࡋߞి‫ڈ‬ਛ฼ᆳ෻ȅၩ຿ਾȞ Thomas Gradgrind ȟфЄЃߞӠࣿȄᘵ๒‫ا‬েЏႭჅϞϘպ УϩԺՐȂ་ϢϞႤୈ੡҃Ȃэ‫࣏ێ‬Դᑫࣷഺᚳႈߞ ߤྻȂ‫ـٲ‬෻‫ݙ‬෡গߞѵधՀᄊ࣏࢝ቌቈȂ࣏֭ϯ༉ ॻ஼๴ӠߞዷஜȂࡒ෩ᓹϞ‫ا‬েԴᗄᅷԐ་ߞߤྻȂ ЪգКϭ༥ኸȂપ‫־֋ڽ࣏־‬஼ߞೊӔȂԴߤྻКӏ କജ؆ԑత‫ۦ‬ȄԴӠࣿК௱‫ۦ‬࿂ЂᕅϧߞϘ၏Ȃ࢝ਟ ‫ྻݽ‬՘ऎߤྻЙᜦ‫ߞܠ‬ԯ૵Ȅ

Charles Dickens, a notable British author, wrote his novel ɄHard TimesɅ in 1854. The main character Thomas Gradgrind, an educationist, was leading an egoistic and materialistic life with his family after the industrial revolution. 150 years on, we should have come a long way from DickensɅ world into where we belong now to this information age of this plentiful society, yet the riots happened in UK last week vividly remind us of trouble times in modernized societies where many grassroots people in particular immigrants are still being marginalized with the potential of causing instability in the society where they live. In last issue we discussed about the financial crises prevailing in many countries; national deficits would lead to shrinkage of social welfare benefits thus creating more hardship on many immigrants. As a consequence the mainstream society would also be led to perceive these immigrants living on reliance as the societyɅs burden in hard times. Worse still are some politicians who would put oil into fire by blaming these immigrants for their political agenda.

ϯ༉ӎ៼෩фѵधԧ஼၃ᕻ་ϢЙᜦงȂЙь஼ਛবᅆ ୑ࣆ‫ڔ‬ՄȂྻࡇิߤྻᇊ‫׀‬༟њȂփߤྻКߞྲೊӔ݀ ݀Ӡࣿҵҝ‫ـ‬Ժߞњ෯ȂԢ੡༡ѹࣹߤྻ࢝ਟ‫ݽ‬Ӥ‫ݺ‬௟ ঋবᅆᗞ᝱ߞӠࣿȂփྻ௟ྲೊӔഺ‫ڱ‬ቮঋߤྻњࢺߞ Ϙ၏Ȃᙩ‫ۼ‬՘ऎє७֋ЎӠࣿᎳ૵ϭফߞ১ԯȄ‫ـ‬գϘ ‫ྻࢉࣆڱ‬Դഺ੡৏Ȃऎ຾ߋۤᓴӔߞњࢺփయޯׄឡȂ DickensɅ novel reminds us that life is not just about a battle field of survival. Sissy, Cecilia Jupe, another little ԨೊӔߤ၏ၢСϭӮȄ character in the novel who was a humble circus worker, ‫ـٲ‬෻ԴЈሲК෩ᓹ‫ا‬েȂϠӠЙඏҪ࣏ऻۖϠӠҪ࣏ tells us a gracious facet of life with her positive impact on others over such hard times. ߋᡋᄳ‫׀‬ȃ਴և௻঴ߞߏᎳѵधȂ੩К‫ێ‬КϘৎ‫֘֒ڎ‬ ບȅզ઒ȞSissy, Cecilia JupeȟȂᘵ๒Ҫ࣏๑ᡋ๑ཕ In the midst of hard times, I believe what a society needs is not finger pointing or fault finding which is not conducive to ߞ୺ᕚᄥЍϠȂࡒਣӯҍϠ‫ݑ‬Кᔹग़ԍᏂߞϘবȂ዆ᠩ problem solving. What we need are cooperation and mutual ຾੩Кߞ‫֒ڎ‬ȂԴᗞ᝱੡ѵᅆϠӠߞߺ‫ܠ‬Ȅ respect. As an immigration community in multicultural Australia, we must demonstrate our concerted effort in ‫ا‬हࠫবᅆᗞ᝱੡‫ے‬ȂߤྻቮঋߞЙ࣏ТहࢽയȂ‫ݕ‬᎞ collaboration with the other ethnic groups in the interest of Ⴥ‫ݺ‬ϠȂԯऎഺൌٟ‫ޱ‬ႋயᛟȄକႋٙயᛟߞȂ࣏݃թ the society. Ԣ֐ԒᕻфТहපদȄԴᑫࣷԺЮћмߞߤྻНКȂ֯ ऎೊӔ၏ᢜȂ‫ا‬ে‫ـ‬ᕕঋਣӯҍሃߤྻКЙԢ౉ႁȂԢ ѕԪྍऎ‫ڗ‬഍ߤྻߞՀ഍փ‫ׅ‬ϧȄ मᅇȈϯ༉ӎ៼෩фࠫ໷ໞૺᑟᅹᒗচȂᅁऎዾ࿤෼ᆬ НሱȂߺԨᡝ߰७ᆆ

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Issue No. # 251 # 252 # 253 # 254 # 255

Publication Date 26/08/11 02/09/11 09/09/11 16/09/11 23/09/11

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ኄ֙ᖒ๜Ȉഡ఩ Andy Lau 0416 290 918 Ѕ ᎒‫ ஀ס‬0412 440 863ȇߡுႪு ED & Associates 08 8132 1670 Edmund Ng 0413 089 833

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14 - 15, 17 - 18

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22 - 23

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ख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬ட೤ )ϛ* Level 2, 395 Collins Street, Melbourne 3000 ႫၗȈ(03) 9620 0888 email: info@canaanlawyers.com.au www.canaanlawyers.com.au

ყМȈҏѐጡᒮഋ

‫רۻڗ‬ঈ೻‫ٲ‬ωѿҕᔖԃդ൶‫ײ‬ԁ‫ࡡޟ‬ ৱ‫ڹ‬ȉᐬࢸάԤࣥቄᔖ੫տ‫ݧ‬ཎ‫ࡡݲޟ‬ ‫ڹٽݲ‬ȉ௥ΰ෈Ȃ‫پ‬Ռख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬ ‫ॶޟ‬ৰࡡৱİီ‫ٱ‬ᑋ‫⑓ۦ‬Derek LoȂ՗ࢇ ᖂᅿİီ‫ٱ‬ങᚊ‫ݡ‬Derek

ChanоЅ੫տ

៫୰ࡡৱഌжϯJasper Kwok஠᝷៉࣏ ȮӣၯΡȯ᠞‫ޱ‬၌๎оΰ‫ޟ‬ᅸ୰Ȅ ӵ‫ޟݽݲ‬ᐬࢸȂձሯौΙএட‫ܻݧ‬ձ‫ܚ‬ሯ݈୛‫ࡡݲޟ‬ღ໥Ȅ

଄‫ޱ‬Ȉ! ‫ޣר‬ၾձঈέΡ֯ΪϷࣀ៚ܻ‫ޥ‬ღࣀଢ଼Ȃԁ჋ Derek Lo ձ࢐྾υོ ‫ߝོࠉޟ‬ȂDerek Chan ձ࢐ҩ଻‫ٳ‬၂୦ོ‫ߝོࠉޟ‬ȂՄ Jasper Kwok ձࠌ࢐౪ӈ‫ޟ‬ᆰࣸ๼Ρடཾ୦ོ‫ޟ‬಑Ι୙ོߝȂଶΟоΰ‫ޥޟ‬ ღࣀଢ଼Ȃձঈᗙོ୤ᇄ‫ڏ‬т‫ޥ‬ୢࣀଢ଼༝ȉ ങᚊ‫ݡ‬Ȉԃᑋࡡৱ‫ܚ‬ඪ‫ڗ‬Ȃ‫ר‬ঈख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬ΪϷ१ຜȶӌཾ‫ོޥ‬೰ӈȷ ॎგȂӰԪଶΟতϗձඪ‫ޥޟڗ‬ღϞѴȂ‫ר‬ঈᗙᐊ࿋࡞ӻϚӣ‫ޥ‬ღ ‫៫ࡡݲޟ‬୰Ȃѓࢂᄇ‫ޥ‬ୢԤଓᝦ‫ޟ‬ཏ๡‫ߨܖ‬Թցღᡝ (‫ٽ‬ԃ:ϛᚂᏰོ ȃ໽ॵ‫ོڞ‬ȃᡝ‫ོڞى‬ȃᏰਮЅ‫ڏ‬ѺӴП୦้ོ)Ȃ‫ר‬ঈ഍ོ࣏тঈ ඪ‫ټ‬ջາ‫࠘ࡡݲޟ‬ၚȄ

ӵࡡৱ‫ڧ‬౩ਰӇࡣ಑Ιԩ໠ོϞਢȂၚ୰‫؁‬ӻ၏ಠ‫ޟ‬ၥਟȂ࿋ณӣ ਢौԁԁΟ၌ࡡৱ࢐ԃդԝາ‫ޟ‬Ȅ౪ਢѿൟΰࡡৱ‫ޟ‬ԝາ৯ຽྃσ Ȃ࿋ณ೻ᇄӨࡡৱஈཾၥᐣϚӣһԤೃσ‫ޟ‬ᜰ߽ȂϚႆ‫ר‬དඪᒺӨ ՝᠞‫࢐ޟޱ‬Ȃ࿋‫ٱ‬Ρԃ‫ݎ‬ጂۡሯौ‫ۏ‬ӈࡡৱȂϫᔖӱᘪࡡৱடཾ૖ Ψᇄ݈୛ᄘ࡙Ȃࠈቋᝯ‫ތ‬ԃ‫ݎ‬ኇ៪Ο݈୛ࠢ፴ȂശӬᖫ‫ޟ‬ᗙ࢐࿋‫ٱ‬ ΡȂ‫ܚ‬оᗙ࢐ᅾџ૖Ο၌ࡡৱधශоЅ‫؁‬ӻ࿋‫ٱ‬ΡᄇԪࡡৱ‫ޟ‬ຟቋ Ȃϗ࢐བᒵࡡৱ‫ޟ‬ശ‫ٹ‬П‫ݲ‬Ȅ

Derek Chan

଄‫ޱ‬Ȉ! ‫ڏ‬ᄂ࡞ӻΡᄇܻ‫ײ‬൶Ιএӫᎌ‫ࡡޟ‬ৱཐ‫ᜲ֨ڗ‬ȂձঈԤ‫ؠ‬ԤΙ‫࡚ٲ‬ ដ‫֙܆ޱܖ‬๝Ϡ‫ר‬ঈ‫ޟ‬᠞‫ޱ‬Ȃᔖԃդ൶‫ײ‬ԁ‫ࡡޟ‬ৱ‫ڹ‬ȉ

଄‫ޱ‬Ȉ! ߖРฒ፣ӵϛМά‫़ޱܖ‬МൢണΰȂ഍ࣼ‫ڗ‬ձঈфߒΙ‫ٲ‬࿋‫ٱ‬Ρ҈ ۢѧȂ‫ڏ‬ϛ‫؁‬Ԥѓࢂ໱ᡝວ೪ȂҐ‫ޣ‬ձ૖֏ᇄ‫ר‬ঈ᠞‫ޱ‬Ϸ‫ٴ‬Ιή೻ ‫ٲ‬ਰӇ‫ڹ‬ȉ

ഌжϯȈ‫ڏ‬ᄂ൶‫ײ‬ΙӪࡡৱᇄ൶‫ײ‬ΙӪᚂҡฒ౴Ȃᚂҡ‫ޟ‬டߝЎ‫ڏ‬१ौȂ୅ ԃϚ۷௉ᕜ੿ရዴՄሯौϸଶရዴЙ೚Ȃ੾ΡོయϚᒶᅸӴ൶ؑѴ ࡡৱ ऋЙ೚ᚂҡ‫ڞޟ‬օЅ‫ݽ‬ᕛȂਲ਼ҏϚོԤ‫ڗ‬ල೽ऋு‫ڗ‬ϸ‫ݽۻ‬ᕛ‫҈ޟ‬ ᆗȄՄࡡৱһ࢐ΙኺȂӵሯौ҈ۢѧਢȂ൷Ϛᔖ၎൶ؑ‫ܘ‬Ӵ౰ີ፲ ࡡৱ‫ڞޟ‬օȂџ૖೻‫ࡡٲ‬ৱһོ᜹ཎ௥Й೻‫ٲ‬ਰӇȂծ‫ڏ‬டߝ‫ٮ‬Ϛ ӵܻ҈ۢѧਢȂ࿋‫ٱ‬ΡҐ҆૖ு‫ڗ‬ശӫᎌ‫݈ࡡݲޟ‬୛Ȅ౪ਢ‫ีר‬౪ ѿൟΰԤ࡞ӻࡡৱ՗‫ޟ‬ኄ֙ΰਢலᖐᆎтঈσഋӋ᜸տ‫ޟ‬ਰӇ഍‫ڧ‬ ౩ȂϚႆ‫࡚ޟר‬ដࠌ࢐Ȃӵᇄ೻‫ࡡٲ‬ৱَ७Ȃ‫ڷ‬ዺԜюਰӇϞࠉȂ ᔖॶӑၚ୰၎ࡡৱઍғ‫ޟ‬டߝȂ೻࢐ΪϷ१ौ‫ޟ‬Ȅ

ᑋ‫⑓ۦ‬Ȉҥܻ‫ר‬ঈሯौ߳ራ࿋‫ٱ‬Ρ‫ؽޟ‬ᗴȂ‫ר‬ঈ‫ٮ‬Ϛ૖ஊആ៩ਰӇ‫ޟ‬၏ಠၥਟ ȂϚႆ‫ר‬џоᇄσড়Ϸ‫ٴ‬Ιή౪ਢϐӵൢണΰϴ໠‫ޟ‬ਰӇȄҬࠉӵ ࡡৱ ൢണശலᇄ‫ר‬ঈख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬೿ᛮӵΙଔ‫ޟ‬ȂϷտԤ4σਰӇȈΙ Ȃ࢐‫ר‬ঈ౪ਢғӵᔓօ࢚Ιཏ๡ᐠᄺөΙ‫ࡊࢇٲ‬ඪю፦ᖽ‫ޟ‬ວ೪Ȃ ՄиਢԤϛȃ़ҏӴ‫ޟ‬ൢ‫ޥ‬଄‫ޱ‬मႫ‫ר‬ঈၚ୰ۢѧ‫ޟ‬ശཱི௑‫ݷ‬Ȃ࢐ Ιଔೝ‫ོޥڧ‬ᢙҬ‫ޟ‬१σਰӇȂϚႆ౪ਢғܻଽ้‫ݲ‬଱໌՗ቷ౩࿋ ϛȂ‫ר‬ঈฒ‫ݲ‬ആ៩өѴࣨ‫؁‬ӻ‫ޟ‬ၥਟȄՄѪΙ۠ਰӇ࢐‫ר‬ঈӵᔓօ ࢚໢σ༈൬ᐠᄺөΙ‫ٲ‬ញқΟ‫ޣ‬ᜋ౰᠌‫ޟ‬ϴѧоЅԤᜰ‫ޟ‬Ρρඪю ວ೪ȂҥܻҬ኿࢐ौ௃ۢѧϛഽюȂ‫ڥٮ‬ӱӻԑ‫پ‬٥‫ٲ‬ϴѧ‫ڷ‬Ρρ ӵ୵፲߭қ‫᠌ގ‬౰ࠢ‫ܚ‬ᗈ‫ߜޟڥ‬ᓀȂ࢐এؑᓻߜ᚞ႀЈМኵԅ‫ޟ‬ວ ೪ȂӰԪਰӇһЕଔ֫໢ϚЍ‫ޟ‬ଆ፣Ȅ

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о‫ר‬ঈख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫پܚ‬ᇳȂ‫ר‬ঈһ‫ܚߨٮ‬ԤਰӇ഍‫ڧ‬౩ȇ‫ר‬ঈ‫ޟ‬ டߝ࣏‫ڍ‬ᆍȂΙ࢐࣏୦Ρඪ‫ټ‬ҡཎ‫ࡡݲ‬ΰ‫࡚ޟ‬ដ‫ڞڷ‬օȂԃእቸӫ ӣȂનघȂҡཎ‫࡚ޟ‬ᄺ้‫ܚ‬Ԥᇄҡཎࣺᜰ‫ޟ‬ਰӇȇՄѪΙᆍࠌ࢐҈ ۢѧȂѓࢂҕ‫ٱ‬ວ೪‫ڷ‬୦ཾວ೪ (ԃ‫᠌ގ‬ວ೪ȂྒघȂ୦ཾລ᜿)ȃӗ ‫( ݲٱ‬ԃҺ೽ႂೣȃ༌Ρȃᓡᓢႂೣ)ȃড়৳‫( ݲ‬ԃ଒౰Ϸ଩ȃክᎴ᠌) ȄՄՍܻີ፲‫ܘ‬౰ዂԇȃಋҕȃโ‫้ݲ‬ਰӇ‫ר‬ঈ࢐ོ‫ܢ‬๘‫ڧ‬౩ȂϚ ႆ‫ר‬ঈһོ࣏࿋‫ٱ‬ΡϭಝΙ‫ٲ‬டߝܻԪ‫ࡡޟ‬ৱȄ

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ՄӵΟ၌‫ࡡڗ‬ৱ‫ޟ‬டߝȂ‫ؚۡٮ‬ҺϠਰӇ๝тϞࡣȂ࿋‫ٱ‬Ρ൷ᔖ၎

Derek Lo Jasper Kwok

ॶৰࡡৱʟီ‫ٱ‬ᑋ‫⑓ۦ‬Derek Lo

՗ࢇᖂᅿʟီ‫ٱ‬ങᚊ‫ݡ‬Derek Chan

ѪѴΙ۠ਰӇࠌ࢐‫ר‬ঈख़ࠒࡡৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬౪ғфߒӻ໢‫ޟ‬੫೨ငᕊ೿ ᚇ۹Ȃө੫೨ငᕊ᠌‫ޟ‬᏿Ԥ‫ޱ‬ඪю୦ཾລ᜿‫ޟ‬ວ೪ȄՄ಑Ѳ۠ਰӇ ឴ܻ໱ᡝວ೪Ȃһ࢐Ι۠࢐ሳ࣏༌ཐ‫ޟ‬ਰӇȂԤΙတ‫ߨٮ‬ၥ౏‫׹ޟ‬ ၥ‫ޱ‬Ȃೝൢണΰ‫ޟ‬ኄ֙‫֜ܚ‬Е‫׹‬ၥՍΙ‫ٲ‬ଝӄ؆Ȃџ௔ࡣ‫ีپ‬౪ೝ ᜿Ȃӵٖ‫׹‬ฒၯϞήтঈᖒӫӵΙଔ൶ؑ‫ר‬ঈ‫ޟ‬ᔓօȄ౪ਢ‫ר‬ঈғ ӵ࣏೻ੲवкᇄ‫ٱ‬ӇϛԤᜰ‫ޟ‬ሚ՗оЅΡρ҈ۢѧȂҥܻ‫ڏ‬ϛԤϚ Ѝ‫ޟ‬वк಑Ιԩᗊີ‫ࡐܘ‬ϞᎷȂ‫࢐؁‬஠ՌϏ౳ҡ‫ޟ‬ᑖᇋ‫׹‬ၥՍ೻‫ٲ‬ ଝӄ؆Ȃ҈ᆗҢ‫پ‬ԊᎴЈԑȄ‫ר‬һ‫ה‬ఖആႆ೻এ೤୰Ȃ‫ۈ‬ᝎȮӣၯ ΡȯӨ՝᠞‫ޱ‬Ϛौೳωۣ߯ȂωЖӰωѶσȊ

੫տ៫୰ࡡৱഌжϯJasper Kwok

05


ܹಁжࣨ

ଽ଱ӫដ৳ή࢑෈໠ቷ ಻ҕ୰ᚠ‫ࡡݲޟ‬Ѕࢇ‫ُݽ‬Ψ ‫׈‬ኊ༕ȾSBS੫տ݈୛ኄኬႫᇃኄኬষȿ

ᖒ٤ಋҕഋߝ‫ࡡݲޟ‬౩ᐃ ᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬ሃ୺‫ܹࣆڲ֘ڽ‬ᜪ঎ᑫࣷ೺Ӕӹ෱᝱Ӕ‫ࢢ៉۝‬Ȃ௟‫ݺ‬ϭৎ࣐งȂӹ Ӥ୼ຈ‫ޱ‬୰ਣ༟Ҧ‫ޱ‬ᚬ੮Ȃۖ੡7֜Ђ‫ܡޱ‬௟බ‫៉۝‬аਟȂਣ༟ϛҦྻ኶Ȃய ᛟߞទদ‫ݑ‬ȂሃфҦ‫ޱ‬धᅆ‫ߞݑ៉ߋۍ៉۝‬౧ћаਟȂ‫ێ‬ᝯަߞទລ຀࢘Ҟ ѽᒚ‫ڍ‬ȄంჅ݀ߞ၃ᢚ‫ऻڽ‬Ȃ୼ຈ‫ޱ‬୰Դ኶ನ೺Ӕᡋૈயᛟϯߞ໗ٙȂ݀݀ ᅆࣆܹߞ֖ࣆјࣱȂ෩ҍᎳᆷȄබѽҝՐ11ѡҦ‫ޱ‬ᚬ੮ऎ‫ڼ‬Ȃ೺Ӕ෩ҍᕕႍ ۤఀϘଠࠧ‫ޱ‬Ϣᄩ߰‫ڳ‬գߞЙ‫އ‬Ӧ᎛኶‫ߞز‬ᡋϧȂփᖔఀ‫ޱ‬ਲፁሮȄంփ߬ ӒࣆܹԴ഍ನ೺Ӕயᛟϯߞ֖ࣆҵሱȄ ௡៝ᚖП‫ࡡݲޟ‬кᏽҁᇃ Ղϯงຊ߰ћൢ‫ݙ‬গȂӫࡈϛҦྻ኶ߞѹঋ‫៉ߋࢠޱ‬Դ‫ݺ‬ᑫࣷᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬Դ 1951ՐȂ࣊๒ᜪ঎ᗑԪ஼᝱ӔгॗȂՂЫ௟೺Ӕఉዴቍႋ֌஼ҳ་֖ᆶ‫־‬Ȅ ೐ϘȂ࣏‫׎‬գჁॗ஼ቫ౧ॗߞҞକȇ೐ϟȂ࣏‫׎‬գჁӎ஼ᗑ‫ڣ‬ೊӔ‫ڼޱ‬ᇟ ૠȄԯऎ‫ڼޱ‬ഢ‫ܠ‬ᗝϲԇ֣ϠՂ‫ލ‬་ϢᑫࣷᄩаȂඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕Ȃൌգᖔఀ ᗑ‫ߞܹࣆڣ‬኶੮ᡋϧȄ೑Ԫ᝱ӔႤ੾ߞȂҞѽᖔఀ᝱Ӕ‫ڗ‬ԊȂ‫ܧܠ‬ᑫࣷȇЙ ೑Ԫߞබቮঋቋࠔ԰஼Ȅ᝱ӔᡋૈೡᚐߡࢽࣆܹჁॗȂࣇթሃ୺‫ܹࣆڲ֘ڽ‬ ߞӹ෱೺Ӕሃ᝱Ӕߞ‫៉۝‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬๑‫ޱ‬ನߞੲᑂȄՂ‫᝱ލ‬ӔᡋૈೡᚐߞӦ໦ఀۖ Ԫ៉ਲߞత‫ۦ‬Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃഺৎ঍ᄑබྻᔌ‫׈‬३ժၛКȄ ֭ҩϘ᝝සȂᗑ‫ڣ‬ೊӔൊࠜភ༳Ӻࠧ഍‫ݺ‬Ϙবਖ਼ӇߞԳَȄ১ԯՂϭȄ೐ ϘȂ‫ێ‬ᅁࡈ֣ົ዇ࣆܹЏ၃௟ೊӔ‫ڼޱ‬৒‫ؼ‬Ȃ঵Ԑ௟ᑫࣷҳઔߞਫᕎԕऎ ࠧೊӔ஡Ȃ෱Ү႖ሲȂබ࣏೺Ӕ՘ґ་ϢᑫࣷҳઔਫᕎȂӺ๑ᡋȶ֋ஜᖔ ఀȷ᝱Ӕгॗ౧‫ڼ‬а঎‫ށ‬ȂӤᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬་֖ᆶ‫ߞ־‬ᡋϧȇ೐ϟȂ৒঎ϭߞೊ Ӕ‫ޱ‬ȂӺఱᡋࣆܹҞѽ௟ᆖ઻ҳਫߞ೺ӔȂ୙ۖᛓ‫ܫ‬КѕȂ་֖ᆶ‫־‬ȄЙჅ

ࣆܹՂঋഺዹஇߞ႖ȂӅ༷೑Ԫѽϭұўবߞ౧ԆȄ೐ϘȂೊӔൊӅቮന‫ܠ‬ Ϙৎգੜߞໞ੮ᑟۘȂፁ࠲ඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕߰‫ݙ‬ቮߞϠ‫࠲ڗ‬᠕Ȃఀۖ҇жߞ࿰ ᠪȇ೐ϟȂೊ��ൊӅቮԨඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕߰Ϙߡ෩‫࠲ڻ‬᠕Ȃߡ֌؆՘ໞ੮᝱Ӕ ‫ڗ‬Ԋߞ຀ؔऎѤȇ೐ϬȂೊӔൊӅቮԨ՘ґᖔఀ᝱Ӕ‫ڗ‬Ԋߞඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕ ߰Ȃ෩‫࠲ڻ‬᠕Ȃߡ֌ҁেೊ‫ܧ‬ҳԳȂ‫֋ݕ‬᝸ቋ୙԰஼ȇ೐ұȂᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬ᕕԨ ඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕߰෩‫࠲ߞڻ‬᠕Ȃঋ೑ԪहᝯߞϠႽዾ࿤Ȅ ᖒ٤ࢇ‫ޟۺ‬౩ᐃ ᗑ‫ڣ‬ೊӔൊࠜភ༳Џ၃ԨԪ៉ਲ෩ӹϘԊࢆሰ੩AffidavitȂ෩ҍ୺‫ܹࣆڲ֘ڽ‬ Џ၃ԢྍళۤᏋညߞَᢼȂԨജ୙ۖ୺‫ߞڲ֘ڽ‬ඵِࣆ޼ؕ᠕߰Ȃ෩‫ڻ‬ѽϯ ߞϠႽ࠲᠕Ȅփᑫࣷᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬ӺൌԯթȂփԨᚼЬ݀୺‫ߞڲ֘ڽ‬೺ӔȂ෩‫ڻ‬ ᛁᖚȂి‫ڈ‬Ȃሃфබ྽ຈ୨ਇ෯ׄȄ෱Ү႖ሲȂᗑ‫ڣ‬Ԫ៉ਲϭ࣐ง኶៉ߞᝯ ᘣȂබԴ‫ݺ‬ഺϘԊࢆሰ੩କ‫׎‬ऎജ୙ۖ୺‫ߞڲ֘ڽ‬೺ӔȂ෩‫ڻ‬ѽϯұЂϠᡋ ࠲ቪȄՂ‫ލ‬Ԫ៉ਲߞ໗ٙሮऎࢆሰ੩Џ၃೑ԪঋِȂ‫ڤ‬ኃ୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬ў੯බ‫ۦ‬ ۖ‫ߞࢠޱ‬་Ϙَ࠲ቪȂদྲϯႮȂփᇦతϭ‫ߞڽ‬බ࣏ᗑ‫ྻܹࣆڣ‬࿰‫ޕ‬๓ဦȂ ሃѐҿ‫ྲڲ‬වа‫ڲ‬Ȃፙຕ᝷Ԣߞ᢬઻೺Ӕ‫ܠ۝‬Ȅ ҩҳȂᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬ӺൌྻԨ‫ޱ‬ਲদӦࣆܹգᡋԢ‫־‬஼ፙຕҳӹ‫ߞܠ۝‬ᡋ‫׀‬Ȃ‫ޱ‬ ਲӅቮПѽፁሮȂ‫ޱ‬ਲӺ๑ᡋയҐѽЙԪನߞҦ‫׎ޱ‬ٙȄ ᜲҕ᠌ઉಢᙑ‫ޟ‬౩ᐃ Ϙଠჰਫ਼᝱ӔᡋૈᑟᅹྻԴԪ៉ਲϯȂ෩ҍӦ᠜ȂࢽϘৎ‫ڭ‬๑ᜪ঎஼ቫ᝱Ӕ гॗߞ஼ਛȂԴ‫ޱ‬ನϯՂ֣‫ۍ‬൯Ԫ‫ߞޱ‬౧ԆȞLegal CapacityȟȂ֖‫࠲ڹ‬ቪ ᝱Ӕᡋૈߞ‫ڰ‬சȄఐ޶ຈՂϘ֜ы‫ޠ‬գϧߞЂϧЀȂᐐᇒҁӒߡЙॳȂ‫܇‬г Շ‫ޱ‬Ȃ֭ҁϫࢨକ֖‫់ڹ‬ўϠ৶ജᎬПߞ‫ࢠޱ‬ᡋ‫׀‬Ȃே֖ᇯࢺ‫ߞ॔ޱ‬ԇசȉ ӫដ৳‫ޟ‬໱ᡝසኋᇄ‫ؚۡ‬Ў࣏ᜰᗤ ‫ࢠޱ‬धϠЀ෩ҍఠ᠜ᛕўȂԧգನգᑂȄ֭‫ޱ‬ਲߞֿٙѹঋ໛ѼೊӔൊࠜ෩ ҍߞࢆሰ੩࣏‫׎‬Ҟѽ࿰ᠪۖ೺Ӕߞፁ‫ۖۦ‬ԪನߞϠႽ࠲ቪȄ಩੡᝱ѽಟเȄ ࠑবᝋᑂȂᗑ‫ܹ֬ࣆڣ‬գჁॗߞҞକȂ֭৒঎ࢢߞೊӔ‫ڼޱ‬ϫᎬПࣆܹहᝯ ഍ನ೺Ӕயᛟߞߩ༡Ȅփࢆሰ੩ߞаਟබྻ՘ऎఠ᠜ᛕўߞѹᐼඞȄԧգԧ ߞႽನȂփԪ៉ਲߞ༰ᢜขዊȂබྻᅆթயᛟȂ֯ҍֿٙȄ ԃ‫ۺࢇݎ‬ఁວ‫ݎࡣݽࢇޟ‬ ంࣆ޼‫࢘ڎ‬ւዋȂՂ‫ీܹࣆލ‬໦Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃᗑ‫ڣ‬Ѝ៨ࣆܹߞᇒ޼ࢃࠫȂ௟ྻԓը Ꮞ‫ۦ‬ҩϘը๑ఐߞӇᕝȂЙჅӺሃϠ๑эȂȶ୿ҨְႬϠਛ‫ڕ‬ȷȄҩҳȂᅆ ࣆܹЙ‫ߞ׀‬໗ٙȂӺྻᅆᗑ‫ڣ‬хᅆ៨Ȃ௲‫ڽ‬Ԣዹߞࣆ޼ᎏᕝȄԯऎȂᐐᇒᗑ ‫ڣ‬хᅆ៨ӫࡈࢽയᗑ‫ڣ‬Ѝ៨ȂՀ௟೺Ӕ୙ۖ୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬་֖ᆶ‫־‬Ȅ֭୺‫֘ڽ‬ ‫ڲ‬ў੯ȂҪЙჅ࣏ੋၝਫᛓ‫ܫ‬ᆶ‫־‬೺Ӕј‫ߍڲ֘ڽ୺ߞޱ‬ӎփЏȄᗑ‫ڣ‬хᅆ ៨ȂԴഺயᛟϯȂգ֣Ⴝ዇ࡌઈȂ૭ԴႽ዇ߞ֌୼ᙇȂࢽയ‫־‬ϠߞЙ࣏Ȅੋ ၝਫߞᛓ‫ܫ‬೺Ӕᆶ‫ࣆ־‬ຉȂ഍ನ೺Ӕዴӫ1700ϠȂง༡ஜӡ஼਱10ኆЮȄ೺ ӔӀ‫׮‬᢬઻੡༡5ՐȂ஼ਛӀ‫ࠅ׮‬Դُ֜೺Ӕ‫ڗ‬ϯ588,235ЮгܵȄ࿂ᆽ઎໱ ߞକ‫ڰ‬Ȃ๒ࢢබԨ஼Ӕࠑӯ՘ґெᅟ೺ӔߞୃᔂȄ ശཱི‫ޟ‬ҕཎ‫ڥ‬ө ൵ࠕգӔྍเᢚᢖӯȂం1400ԩജണ߰ညКȂգպжН53ࠑӯᝒ՘೺Ӕᕕႍ ઻ԴӎϿ་֖ᆶ‫־‬ȂҩգպжН55Ȃሮऎ೺Ӕᕕႍ୙ۖӎϿߞ᢬઻КѕȂ་ ֖ᆶ‫־‬Ȅփњࢺᛓ‫ܫ‬ᆶ‫־‬೺ӔߞዴՄබඡպжН28Ȅഺ‫ڱ‬ዴՄȂᢖӯ஼Ӕᅆ ഍ನ೺ӔߞயᛟȂѧНࡈ‫ـ‬Ґನ‫ݑ‬Ȅည๒ӔྍᎠࣤЙକჅԊদ໛Ȅ൵দঋߞ ࣏ऎतኃӎϿᆶ‫־‬೺Ӕജ໛ऎࣸѪಠ᜙ȉ

2001Ր᜕๴‫ࣦ܃‬ၳ೺Ӕ‫ڰ‬ԆȂՂЫഺϘৎ࣐งȂৣՀᎼϢ೐10ՐȄညՐࡈ

ႫၗȓĩıĴĪġĺĶĸĵġijĹĴĴġġġġ༈ઍȓĩıĴĪġĺĶĸĵġijĹĺĺ ŘŦţŴŪŵŦȓŸŸŸįŨŸŪůŴŶųŢůŤŦįŤŰŮįŢŶ ijıĶġŔűųŪůŨŷŢŭŦġœŰŢťĭġŔűųŪůŨŷŢŭŦġŗŊńġĴIJĸIJ 06

ᗁನ֣ົ዇ϭ҄પᇌൊ༤๳೺ᛉᕅȂࣿᆊϘᅌ֋ᐱ֋ᆊߞȶપᇌൊ༤ϧֹ೺ ӔȷߞලЄᕚ‫ޱ‬Ȅ10ՐЏჅȂՂЫ஼ӔЪ๒ࣿԴഺϘৎ‫׼‬ᠲм೺Ӕߞ൚዆Н ϭȄഺ࣏஼ӔߞᇊԊȂ‫ݕغ‬෌ࡖߞϘ঱ȉᡝ߰֋֖ٙ‫ܠ‬Ȅ֭ညՐᗑ‫֋ڣ‬Ӥ៨ ф஼ਛ៨ᗑဖԴࡈᗁನ൮‫ߞْ׀‬Ր҃Ȃᅆ೺Ӕ෩‫ڻ‬ԢఐߞႽ዇ࡌઈ֣Դȉऎ तኃՂЫۤփ҃НߞȂ࣏ᅆ೺Ӕߞ਻៵ሃᜃᆷȂփ๑໛ҁেߞ഍ᄩȂᅁऎᑢ ҫߞЙܶȄ


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‫෉؃‬ᗸġŎŦŭźůůġōŪ! ‫ں‬୉МġņťŮŶůťġńũŰŸ!

ಋҕ݈୛င౩! Ᏸҡ݈୛င౩!

Йᐠ蒷ĬķIJġĵĴIJġijijIJġĸĹĹ! Йᐠ蒷ĬķIJġĵijĶġĸĵĺġIJĺĹ!

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07


ּቸΡЖ

юҡܻॷ෫Ȃӵড়ϛ௶՗಑ϲ‫ޟ‬DavidȂԃΙૡߧЍԑΙኺȂฒЖөᏰଆვ᠞ਪȂӵ ωᏰོՃਢ‫؁‬ҥܻԙᕼϚ౩དȂฒ‫ݲ‬Σ᠞ॷ෫‫ۢޟ‬ҳᏰਮՄឝࢷႆ੕‫ڗ‬ᐬߞΣ᠞‫ؽ‬ҳ ᏰਮȄϚႆDavidҥܻᄇᏰਮ‫ޟ‬ఀᏰПԒԤ‫ܚ‬ϚᅖȂӵ൷᠞၎ਮ‫ڍ‬ԑϞࡣȂ࿋ਢԑ༉ 15ྑ‫ޟ‬David߯ዌณ‫ؚܹۡ‬ణᏰҡ‫٘ޟ‬ӋȂՌϏᗊີ಻ಉӱॷ෫Ȃ஀‫ؚ‬ϚӔӱў٥‫ܚ‬ ᏰਮȂȶ‫ר‬ᗙ଄ு࿋ਢ‫ר‬ю౪ӵড়ߞࠉ‫ޟ‬ਢঐȂ‫ר‬Ҕᒑᡙ೥‫ޟ‬ኺυȊȷDavidરᇳȄ ༉੼ήฮवӱᏹ‫ޟ‬ώኅҡి ᐐᇒ࢝ᜏᡍԳᛓ༟ᐯ੭ȂЙჅ಩ᅁ࣏ȂҪգ 10 Ժ࿐ߞࠦьՐੲӎ๑‫رޱ‬ඵۖЍ֯ȂԴ၃ᕻሃࡈ ൉ȶᛕҵȷߞᕅϧϭȂ David ৣՀჃϯϞϢᡝশ สߞࡑઔْዄаᐯ੭ߞᑟྻȂ՘ऎϘԩЍᡝӠȂ Ⴥ຾ȶ՝ϯᇂះȂཀ‫ރ‬ԴЍዄ༟നߞКᐯබᡝȂ ๒ࢢ‫౎܆‬ԴЍዄᚐҿȷߞџ‫܆‬᝹৆Ӡࣿȇ၃Ⴥ 5 Րߞᐬ୽Ȃ David ೣ‫ݺ‬؆՘Кᐯᐯ྽ȄКᐯಲ྽ ࢢȂDavidԴ‫ر‬ඵЍ֯੡ϫԓ࢘ࢥւ֋ЎߞϠӠႮ ԨȂЙჅࡒߺ‫࣏ߞܠ‬Ȃ֋Ўߞ௟‫ڽ‬ທᅆЙྻ࣏ԴЍ ዄȄȶЍዄߞџ‫܆‬᝹৆փѷ‫ߞॴڙێ‬ӠࣿȂ‫اڹ‬ሃ ‫ވ‬уН༡ߞᇸྻѽфߕጄߞ੡༡ЂЂิьȂ‫ێ‬ᅁഺ ᅆည੡Ҫգ15Ȃ16࿐ߞ‫ا‬Ӈᕝϵ࢝ЂȂည੡ᘵ๒ ЙߢႽҞѽ‫ر‬ඵۖतኃЍ֯ȂЙჅԴ࢘ჅϞഺኃϘ ࣱЍዄӠ౾ࢢȂ‫ا‬๴ሰӖቈЙྻԓ԰ۖЍዄЍ֯Ȃ ‫ڭ‬ѷٙ‫ܠ‬ҝୠِႿۖ֋ЎߞನྐȊȷDavidࠑӯȄ

ࢢ‫ڽ‬David‫ۖر‬ϘԊԴ኷ՄጁညJunior ClarkȂ‫ێ‬ ᅁӺ‫࣏׈‬ՂӇᛔߞOffice BoyȂ՝ϯऎԢ‫ڰ‬ȶྱମ ቍѪȷȂᑋನ౻ጒ኷ՄጁȂऎዹࡡ֯ҒႅຈȂНࢢ ࡋۖКҴ༎ࣆ؊ऎгҦ௙ҍዹࡡۖઔҳȂփϭо੡ գߩ࠮ྻۖгҦߞࠝҾൊᕒјȂȶ‫ڤ‬੡‫ُا‬чߞӠ ࣿՂϘȂփѷକᐯۖߞ‫ڭ֘ތ‬ЙԺȂҞѽሲԴഺ2 ՐߞOffice BoyӠ౾Ȃ‫ا‬றϘᐯྻߞȂҪ࣏Ղ֣Դ ༎؊ሃ‫ڱڤ‬Ԟ࢘ᚣϠЀ୽ӇՋȊȷDavidЂ૯ሲȂ ȶ‫ا‬ᘘୃఀѡᗟ350สЮȂည੡ѭӓ‫׮‬ٟգ՜ϢȂ ຜПѭӓਛӡࢢȂᗟࠛੲӎ‫ݙ‬᏶๑වȂକᔼՅ୓ߞ ዴ༓ҞྐփߢȄȷ ᐠጢѽӫήਣ٘ᚂ៖ࣨ බညၝઔઙ಩୓‫ر‬ඵྲЍ֯ߞӇᇖ੡ȂৣՀգч Davidᚙ༟ඡ૽๴಩ᛁசᎎӠ၌(಩փ‫ؼ‬ԩऎশสᎎ 01

‫ۑ‬໱৔᎙໾! ᇜ࿄ႎશ 䙱⚇䩞ⴔ 佪༫ढҎ೷㒣⊼䞞

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08


ּቸΡЖ 01 ՝ܻᏎᅭҏ‫ݍ‬ୢDoncaster East‫ޟ‬ᚂࡉ 02 DavidΙ‫ߨޢ‬லཐᐭ‫ێ‬υSerenaᄇт‫ޟ‬Лࡻ

գߞ՘ऎϞѰᛁȃᛁӠຈຈȂ‫ڹ‬ҁӺգϞ৒ᡝᛁॊ ߞྐ‫ޱ‬Ȅ ‫׽‬՗Йஈఀ᚜ ҞఓӤ‫ݺ‬཈јࢺ຾᠕Ѐᝋ੩ȂӏକᔌྍϢᡝᛁ ॊȂԯթ David றգԴ᠕Ѐ֖྽ႆྐᓱ‫ޱ‬Ȅည੡ ᅆి‫ڈ‬є୓ᒸᎷߞҁȂ࠮ጋ๒ٙ‫ܠ‬Ԩഺৎўব๴ ਣȂ1986Ր‫࣏ـ‬ӒՑᎼϢϞిᐯߞታாȂ༟‫ܕ‬Դ ModburyϘ༡ᐯ੭ߞ᠕Ѐᐯ୰ԇిȄ‫ی‬ՐࢢDavid ϫᚼۖϞSouth Australian College of Advanced Educationា᠈ԇి᠕ЀᐯॊȂࢢ‫࣏ـڽ‬་ϢϞࡑ ᑫЂᐯԇిȄԴDavid༟‫ܕ‬ԇిߞԢ੡ȂӺ༟‫ܕ‬බ ᡝి‫ڈ‬ћᐴȂ‫ـࢢێ‬ՀᐯЙঽԳា᠈බᡝి‫ڈ‬ᐯ ֜Ȃत֌؆՘৒ᡝి‫ڈ‬ф֖ࣆᇒನᇇЀȂ۶ߤྻϠ ᝷ᐯൾЀᐯ֜Ȅ

02

Ӡ၌ ) ‫ݢ‬དྷ‫ی‬ৎᚚ֜ȂϘ࣏ᅁᢚ࢈‫ث‬ങ৶ȂփҩϘ ᚚ֜ࡋ࣏᠕ЀᐯӠȇᐐᇒЙ౻྾᠕ЀߞᚚയȂЙჅ Ӥ‫ݺ‬ᅆᅁᢚ࢈‫ث‬ങ৶Ϙᚚ‫ڭ‬๑щЂᒸᎷȂԓҐϯ᠕ ЀᐯӠߞѡᗟऎ550สЮȊജᗟࠛ‫כݙ‬єߞDavid ЙжӤሲ࠮ඡւ᠕ЀᐯӠϘᚚȂӤ‫ݺ‬ည੡শสࣆܹ Ӈᇖᒸ࢙ᆳᄜધᛁ୰Ȃቮঋၑ᎛Ђ༓ߞᛁ᠕Ϡ৶֯ ை୊ȂԯթDavidቅ‫ݽ‬Գ࠮ജၑ᎛՘ऎϘԩ᠕Ѐᐯ ӠȂփҁሃᛁᐯϯߞാᜭӺӤթਣ༟Ȅ Դᆳដᛁ୰֯ை୊ߞDavidჃϯߞᎷ‫ڰ‬Ҟᇖ࣏Ժᣋ ᣋȂည੡ѽҗЍᡝ؆՘ᐯ྽ߞҁॻሬ‫ڭ‬ЙщՀȂ ȶԴᐯ೫Ϡᢜᅹൄ੡Ȃ‫ا‬ሃϘ‫ڱ‬Ԣᐯ੡௱‫د‬Joint( ᝯြ)኷՘ϞJoin(ணሃ)Ȃ‫د‬ை୊ցਰઈఀҗժȊȷ David ૯ሲȄփည੡ 70 Ր҃Ъӏգ྆ࣆг၌ߞশ สȂലճߞఐ޶‫࣏ـ‬ᙖਣ֌ᛁ୰Ȅ‫ڤ‬੡Դᛁ୰ည౻ ጒߞ‫ۥۥ‬ᙒᙒҞ࣏ᛁ୰ႆ൵ऎգԩߞലճϠЀȂҁ ে੡௱ঋِઽϠ‫ێݕ‬ਛ៳ѾᓿࢢЖऎҁে‫އ‬சȄည ੡ӒߡփՐࠦߞDavidሃԢ઱Ԣᐯ੡௱ᅆ‫ݺ‬ഺᇌఐ ޶ऻЙჅೀȂգը‫ߡ࣏ـ‬త௟‫ڱڤ‬ȶኊৃ5Юȷߞ ࠮ऴԑൊྩඵҍ‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬ȶֺ໱ȷँПઽϠȊȶᘵ๒ Ꮇ‫ڰ‬գ࢝ԺȂЙჅ‫ێ‬ᅁᐯ᠕Ӡ౾‫ڭ‬Йѧѽࡈ‫ا‬ԴЍ ዄӠࣿՀԺьȂџ‫܆‬᝹৆Н᏶ᘘঋᏇ઱ȊЙჅ൵‫أ‬ ጄߞ࣏‫ا‬൅Ⴥഺৎ᠕Ѐை୊᎝຀ຕᝊۖ಩Ыߞ‫܍‬Є SerenaȷDavidᆕ‫ږ‬ԳࠑӯȄ ည੡᠕ЀգϘৎ಩໪࣏ȈЃӠϘ‫ྻܠ‬་Ϣಯॊᅁ ೫Ȃփ‫ٷ‬Ӡࡋ࣏་ϢᇟૠॊЍ֯Ȃۖশสգԩߞᇟ ૠᛁ୰ࠦЋᛁ୰ᅁ೫ȄDavidည੡ُчऻۖ‫ڱڤ‬ᇟ ૠҵ௱ߞઽϠ੡঺ྏѕቕȂЙჅDavid‫ڭ‬ӏգԯթ փᄔঽत֌‫ݸ‬ౢ᠕ЀߞЍ֯Ȃȶᘵ๒ညࠐߞϢ֖ߞ ੡৏ߞፁ࣏Ӥ‫ݺ‬ᗟ჌ѧႵ୼ߞᝯ࠼Ȃ֭‫ێ‬ᅁ‫ڽࢢا‬

Ж๴಩᠕Ѐഺৎ֖྽‫ݙࠧڭ‬գϠൌକർԇȂ࣏ቮঋ ࣙᇌϠᐾգѧ‫־‬Ϡ௻ߞᝯᜃНѕȂ఺ౢ֋ЎϘ‫ڱ‬з ‫֘ތߞڗ‬ՂߤӹӠࣿЖକஇఀۖȷDavidࠑӯȂȶ ُ֭ညऻۖജְ࿰ᠪփ௵෇ߞઽϠ੡ȂѕКߞ‫أ‬ጄ ທࠧຊᐍ‫ݙ‬କ‫؛‬ਟߞȊȷ ‫୽ڗ‬Ѵ৤ཱིҡࣀ

1975Րం᠕ЀᐯӠߞ‫ڗ‬Ԋಲ྽ࢢȂ࠮༟‫ܕ‬ϞԴᆳ ᄜધᛁ୰ߞЍ֯ȂᗄՓӠࣿᢰDavidආЙჅઈ‫ڽ‬Ȃ ԴҐϯԴ‫ڤ‬ৎՐ҃ߞ᠕Ѐϩжࣹ֖ҍ஼ۖઔҳ་ ৒Ȃည੡۶ЃуȂӺ‫࣏׈‬಩Ыߞ‫܍‬ЄSerena஥༓ ࢢȂٙ‫ܠ‬ҍ஼‫ڍ‬ᝊϘϭҳবߞѵधȂ༶࠮৒ᡝᇟૠ ॊȂփ‫܍‬ЄࡋӇᇖ৒ᡝಯॊȄ1977Ր੡ϟϠԴԢ ऎ᠕Ѐߞ‫ވ‬у࿂ϧయᚧϭȂ൵ೣٙ‫ܠ‬ೊӔۖᑫࣷȂ ༟ਣϠӠߞྲϘ঱Ȅ ည੡঵ԐۖႿࡑᑫ‫ߞܧܠ‬Davidш௎ȂӤ‫ݺ‬՝ЏԴ ॻ៳ߞশสੋۖϞ᠕Ѐᝋ੩Ȃႍᝋ੩Ԣ੡ӺҞѽ Դॻ஼᠕Ѐನ‫ྻڰ‬ϯໜҊȂ՘ऎϘԩॻ஼ໜҊ᠕ ЀȂԯթϟϠۖᑫࣷ੡Ӻቅ‫ݽ‬ԳໜҊ՘ऎᑫࣷߞ஼ ਛໜҊ᠕ЀȄੋۖϞᑫࣷӒՑߞ஼ਛໜҊ᠕ЀႤ ੾ȂDavidሃ‫܍‬Є࠮༟‫رܕ‬ඵЍ֯Ȃ‫࣏ـࢢێ‬Դࡑ ᑫϘ༡ଡ଼ԁকϠᛁ୰ᖔఀϞЍ֯ȂӒՑԴᑫࣷ༟‫ܕ‬ ᛁ᠕ߞӠ౾ȄDavidԴ‫ڤ‬༡ଡ଼ԁকϠᛁ୰Ϙஇ࠮இ Ϟ‫ی‬ՐȂփ‫܍‬Єࡋ࣏இϞϘՐНࢢ࠮ٙ‫ࡑۖܠ‬ᑫߞ ӿដ೻Өᛁ୰་৒ಯॊȂ؆՘֋ЎߞᄱྐȇԴ‫܍‬ Є؆՘᎝຀ࢢȂDavid࠮ۖHillcrestᛁ୰৒ᡝϘՐ җߞᇟૠॊ᎝຀Ȅᐐᇒ‫ࢢێ‬ា᠈᠕ЀߞЍ֯ȂЙჅ ‫أ‬30࿐ߞDavidࡒሮऎѽࠜቈߞ‫ऻڽ࢘ڎ‬Ȃ‫ڗ‬ᢜӏ Ӆକ঑ᑉఀ୓৆ᚼџ‫ߞ܆‬᠕ЀЍ֯ȄԓҐϯည੡ David࢝Ժ჆ֶ஼ҳߞ᠕ЀԢᐯ՝Џᚼ෱Ϟ֖྽Ȃ

֋90Ր҃ࠐЏ՘ऎϞࡑᑫКົྻ྅ൊߞDavidȂ੡ ௱ऎညԳົϠᗝᓱԧᇌߞࣿஜȂ DavidৣՀऎК ົྻత࢞ϞϘ၏‫֋ڽ‬К஼Ћ‫ތ‬ᛁᐯधߞ௞྽ϠЀȄ Դሃഺ‫ڱ‬௞྽ϠЀ་֖ԧᇌߞӹࣹНࢢȂDavidఀ ఉҁেᅆ‫ݺ‬ሃҳधߞᛁᖚి‫ڈ‬ϯߞԪ֯ᐾգ୼࢘ߞ ᒸᎷНࢢȂԢ੡ԴࡑᑫЂᐯ৘ԇిఱϘᚚߞҁ࠮Ԩ ϯҦ࢙៉Ȃ൵ࢢ‫࣏ـ‬՘ґ‫ݺ‬1995ՐᢰЂᐯ་কК ஼ȂሃК஼᠕Ѐᐯ੭Ԫ֯Ԫᓱ᠕Ѐᐯ֜᎝຀Ȃ՘ऎ ᑫࣷ೐Ϙਛ་ᏸК஼ి‫ڈ‬ҾඞߞЂᐯȂփ࠳՘թը Ԫ֯ߞDavidӺᖔँ݀К஼Ћ‫ތ‬ԇిȂ՘ऎ᎝຀ߞ ȶ༟ଣѱȷНϘȄȶ‫ا‬ԴЋ‫ތ‬ԇిߞ੡༡ऎϘՐȂ ᘵ๒ည੡ঋᛓ༟‫ۖۊ܍‬Ϙৎ؆ԑপӠߞԳўȂӺ੡ ྻྏۖ‫ܝ‬ඏ௚ᄽȂЙჅ԰ྐ୓‫ێڽ‬ᅁ‫ا࣏ڤ‬൵༟ѕ ߞϘՐȄ֯ऎ‫ا‬೐Ϙը૭Դ֋Ўߞ૟஼Ȃ‫ا‬ૌߞྏ ۖಳ௱ԳᓐзȂԓҐϯҞକ‫ۖۦ‬Ϟ֘ўߞి‫ڈ‬዆ ᠩȂ‫ا‬પ‫־‬ඈᡌሃᐯӠՂ‫ވ‬уϘଠߞह഍ȂϘ୓ԫ ༺ȂӺԯթ੡௱є୓੭ࠜᅆ‫ྭا‬ᔝ૯ᄛȂࢽ‫ا‬ප۟ ЙжȊȷDavid૯ࢽȄ ේ‫ߞأ‬ϘՐ࢝‫࠮أ‬ჅҝȂӎ‫ڽ‬Ӈᇖា᠈઻ԴЋ‫ిތ‬ ੩ߞDavidȂӤ‫ݺ‬К஼஼а༟‫ܕ‬ಽ֖Ϙ‫֖ڱ‬᝾ߞి ‫ڈ‬ᑟᅹȂࣆܹऎϞᐱທഺ‫ڰڱ‬ఐԓը๴ӠȂࡑᑫ Ђᐯߞ᎝຀ജঝۤઐȄ԰ۖϞࡑᑫߞDavidѕգЙ ӟȂࢺ຾ȶា᠈ऎ૟஼‫އ‬சȷߞѕȂҁٙ‫ܠ‬ᗝਛ԰ ࣹۖশสȂ‫ڭ‬ԴশสКћЂᐯԇిȂϘి࠮ిϞ‫ی‬ Րȇࢢ‫ڽ‬Ӥ‫ۊݺ‬Ѓᐯ྽ߞᝯ࠼ȂDavidϘਛЖ԰ۖ ϞࡑᑫȄփ‫ـࢢێ‬ԯԐࢢԴᐍᆬӎࣦ‫ݛ‬ငપЂᐯ۶ ᇯԺ‫ڲ׀‬ЂᐯᖔఀϞ୼ૺᗾਰϘᚚȂϘਛೣ‫ݺܧܠ‬ ᐍᆬӎ‫ތ‬஡Doncaster East֌ЫȄ ௉ȶϚ‫ݽ‬Ϟ੿ȷЕଔᄇϛᚂ‫ޟ‬ᑹ፸ ȶӤ‫ݺ‬чઈѧႵՀߞᝯ࠼Ȃ‫ێ‬ᅁ‫ا‬ည੡գৎೊ‫ۖܧ‬ ‫ݿ‬Սߞྐ‫ޱ‬Ȃփ‫ێ‬༡‫ا‬Ӻ֋‫ڗ‬Ԑۖ֜‫ݺ‬ཀࠛઔ‫ߞܫ‬ ੾‫ڧ‬ໄ෻ЂᐯԇిȂӇᇖ‫ۊ‬ЃࠜЂᛓਛࢢҞѽ‫܍د‬ Єతۖཀࠛઔ‫֝ܧܫ‬ȄᎡਫ਼‫ی‬ՐࢢȂЪ‫ڗ‬Դᐍᆬӎ ߞ‫܍‬ЄգϘч‫ט‬໦‫ا‬ȂࢽՁјൊఈϯϞ᝷লᖅ‫ݑ‬ᝯ ြ߆Ȃ‫ا‬ে‫ڗ‬ऎ௞྽ߞ᠕ЀȂӺߢႽԴ֘ўᛁᐯϯ ࣏๑᜽ҞᛁߞȂறգѽѤ๭᜽ຈิቅ๭྾ȷDavid ࠑӯȄည੡Դऎ‫܍‬Єઽఐྏۖ࿭෗ߞҁȂϘчԴӇ ӵӶಧ੡ЙЈѕ୯ϞၕȂփѷԢዹജ֘ᛁ‫ߢט‬๑᜽

09


ּቸΡЖ 03 ីܻᚂࡉϱ 04 ᚂࡉϱᙠԤ‫ޟ‬ਪᙤࣥӻ

03

ҞᛁȂည੡๑‫ߞ܉‬DavidԴ‫ވ‬у࢙៉ϭ༟‫ܕ‬ϞКᛁ ୫‫ٮ‬ѽф‫ݥ‬᢫ߞᖚ຀Ȃຕ‫ލ‬ૌߞ޼ᖚ՘ґȊȶည ੡‫ا‬ሃႍԩКᛁਰ‫ـ‬ຕ՘ՀуȂԴ‫یا‬Йᙝߞӹ ࣹϭȂ‫ا‬൵ೣٙ‫ݸܠ‬ౢԴЂᐯԑᚚԇిߞ୼ᗟࡓ ᚚȂ2007Ր԰ۖᐍᆬӎߞRMIT༟‫ܕ‬බᡝКᛁ୫‫ٮ‬ ߞᇇЀ᎝຀Ȃ 3 Րࢢѽᔹಳߞ՘ᖻಲ྽ȷ David ૯ ሲȄ ಩Դऎࣦ‫ݛ‬ငપЂᐯߞ஥ᐯ୰Դশสఱి MBA ȃ உ௵ȃ֖ࣆᇒನຈ᎝຀НҳȂऎϞᐯѽ७ ӡȂDavid‫࣏ـ‬ѽКᛁ୫‫ٮ‬ਰߞ‫ڗ‬ԊЫՐՐࠐԴਛ К༟നϞᛁ࢈Ȃѽᐾգ5000ԺՐఊϳᑢҫ۶Ꮒ࿴

10

04

՘බߞКᛁ᜽ᐯऎ‫ݺ֝ܧ‬ᐍᆬӎߞ‫ܧ‬Ӕ޼ᖚȄȶ‫ێ‬ ᅁ‫ا‬ሮऎᛁӠ୵ϞֿᙝઽϠߞાߐȂѽфຜП޼ᖚ ߞў‫ޱ‬НҳȂգϘҗ੡༡࣏ऎઽϠ֯ѕನϯߞቃ ᐱȄ‫֖ا‬ᛁ࣏‫ڹ‬ӡ‫֋ا‬1972Ր༟‫ܕ‬ᒕೢߞ၃ᢚȂ ೮ᡘઽϠߞቮঋȂሃઽϠӹ᎘Ȃ഼௱‫ڹྻا‬ӡϘৎ ԺЈ੡ऻϘৎઽϠȂ୵ϞྻԴ֘ᛁॊᐯߞ‫࢘ڎ‬Ȃ‫ا‬ ӺྻѽКᛁ���ᐯߞ‫࢘ڎ‬ԨઽϠᗾႋઽ຀Ȃ۶Ԑ޼ዾ ࢢ޼ӎߞў‫ޱ‬ȷDavidࠑӯȄ मΨϛᚂᏰᐬࢸ‫ีޟ‬৤ ȶ‫ا‬ٙ‫ܠ‬බᡝКᛁ୫‫ٮ‬Ȃ࣏Ӥ‫اݺ‬ᐾգϞϘৎࠫ ݇Ȃ‫ا‬हࠫ௟Кᛁॊᐯକሃ֘ᛁॊᐯ‫ڭ‬ՅȂ‫߰ی‬ᛕ

ᇒኅϭԒԢ޼ᖚઽఈȄգ‫ڱ‬ઽા࣏ቮঋ֘ᛁഺᇌକ ‫أ‬ി֯޼ᖚᛁ޼ў‫ޱ‬Ȃ‫ڹ׈‬ഺ‫ڱ‬ઽఈඵِ‫ߞا‬ᕒ ׄȂ‫ا‬Ӻྻឍሲҁۖ֘ᛁᛁӠ֯գੜߞ޼ᖚȄփ‫ێ‬ ҁඵ‫޼ار‬ᖚߞઽఈȂ୵Ϟ௟ҁߞઽાᛁ޼ՀН ᏶Ȃ‫ا‬ӺྻిᐱҁЙ෇๴ߞў‫ޱ‬ȂЙჅഺዹஇ‫ߞا‬ ઽϠՀᄊබิьϞȌȷDavidࡣࡣЂ૯Գሲ຾Ȅѽ ௟КᛁॊᐯԴᑫࣷ๴ਣ֌෼фмऎӫዾȂDavidؓ ౕ௟‫ڽ‬କऎКᛁधҍϘжϧȂ‫ڹ‬Кᛁᛁᖚକ‫ـۖۦ‬ ऎዃ޾ߞత‫ۦ‬ȂᢰКᛁधᖔఀ‫ـ‬ऎ፿ࡎߞ๴ਣȄ ᑂຊ߰ϞႋȂ‫ێ‬ᅁКᛁ᜽՝ԴಌࠛົЍࣹϢᑫࣷȂ Ҟఓ‫ڭ‬ӏᖔఀӒഢмȂ‫ێ‬༡ӺգЙьկุ֖᝾Н ਵӇ຾Кᛁߞᅮၳ‫ྭݢ‬ዠ᝾Ȃ‫ڹ‬ϠেᅆКᛁᆙҵࠫ ѕȄ‫࣏ߞܶݙ‬ȂᑫࣷԴ 2000 ՐᅁࣉКᛁ ( ‫ף‬୫‫) ٮ‬ Ӳ‫ޱ‬Ȃ՘ऎ঵ৎ֘ў஼ਛᅆКᛁ་֖Ӳ‫ޱ‬ഢᇒȂ‫ڹ‬ КᛁЙᙝ‫ڕ‬ԨӒഢѽф௞྽м๴ਣȄЙჅҞఓߞ ࣏Ȃ෼჆ϠেЪᅆКᛁ‫ࢺݱ‬຾ᜃᆷߞᅗ࢘Ȃሮऎ ಩҃ॊᐯф֘ᛁᐯႵऎҞࠫȄփ҄ຊ߰तऎᢘത ߞ࣏Ȃգ੡֘ϠѧົϠ‫ـ‬ऎहࠫКᛁᐯߞᇟಎླྀ ‫׻‬ȂहࠫКᛁԴᑫࣷ෼фмߞႮЪ๒࢝ᆝࠜȂறౕ Davidߞ՘ґНႮබԴЙቈ഍ȂDr. LeeȂҐ޵Ȋ


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ܹಁжࣨ

ћ0 ҏѐጡᒮഋ ᄦ0 Xinhua & Wikipedia

σ೿ᆋ‫ٹ‬σϽPX໶Ҭ

൷೻ኺิΰТ౨

ᚔஔȂ‫ي‬Жོ៕೰ȉ

12

1

σ೿‫ؚۡ‬őř໶Ҭҳ։ୄ౰‫ٮ‬ཨ᎐

ϛ୽σ೿ѿ‫ۏ‬ȃѿࢇ‫ ۺ‬14 РήϿհю‫ؚۡ‬Ȃσ೿ PX໶Ҭ௃౪ӵ໠ۖҳ։ୄ౰‫ٮ‬Ꮡ‫פ‬ཨ᎐Ȅσ೿ѿ ‫ۏ‬ȃѿࢇ‫ۺ‬Ѣ໠ོដȂ‫ٮ‬өσ೿ѿҕีշϴ֙Ȉѿ ‫ۏ‬ȃѿࢇ‫ؚۡـंۺ‬Ȃσ೿ᆋ‫ٹ‬σϽPX໶ҬौᏑ

‫פ‬ཨ᎐Ȅσ೿ᆋ‫ٹ‬σϽPX໶Ҭีҡዛᡦ‫ٱ‬ӇࡣȂ σ೿ߖΤ࿲ҕಀΰທၽ՗ҰࡄȂ‫ת‬ដᆋ‫ٹ‬σϽPX ໶Ҭ஠ࢳώኅ࡚ӵѿୢϱȄӵ೻এधශήȂσ೿ѿ ‫ۏ‬ȃѿࢇ‫ۺ‬஠PX໶Ҭཨ᎐፣ᜌ୰ᚠϴϞܻಀȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

PX ԑԩऎᅆϟӥঃȂ࣏ঃߞউӠߏȂদঋߞмЍ ১ਫ਼ȄК஼Ђ൙Ӕ༡ฅཇ‫ ڏ‬PX գነࣲȂϵ࣏୼७ ᖛߏȂ֭‫ڰ‬ᅁϯȂ PX ៳ֲࣲߏᎳȄੲᑂ஼ቫᖛા ु‫ٿ‬ᑟᅹȞIARCȟߞᙩ᝷Ȃᅆϟӥঃ៳‫ݺ‬೐Ϭ᝷

ᑂᇍȂЂാӔಿϯ໖Ⴜ֖ӯࢃߞჅ຀ҍ‫܈‬գؔȂႼ ֖༤ԁٟգᎽᎼҾаߞᇥԳନ‫܀‬ȂႼ֖༤ԁ၃Ⴥߞ Գ஡ٟգ઻ϭ‫װ۾‬ᛔߏȄሃНहᅆȂࣆܹँҍߞ‫ޠ‬ ់ൊ༤Ӻ࠲ࢺֹۘȂԑ຀ӏஜӡ‫ޠ‬ϧȂᅆьዴӔಿ ‫ظ‬ᙗᛔߏߞ֖ऎПѽਟ‫ء‬ȄᑋৎჅ຀ඝᇍК஼Ђ൙ ӔѹӯࢃႼ֖ߞ‫ۏ‬ፑȂҞѽ֯ऎӔѹм་َߞዹ ‫ޕ‬ȄறϘᓷᐹߞ࣏ȂႍըႼ֖ߞ໦ِ‫ێ‬ᅁ‫ڭ‬๑ॊᐯ ನᑂȂӠಯ PX ߞмЍዄ‫ࠧڭ‬ነࣲЍዄȂऻ‫ڽ‬Ӕѹ ᘘӅ༷ঋሃॊᐯह֡Ȅ

७ᖛߏᎳȂ‫૿׈‬ѻᅆϠᢜ७ᖛ‫ݑ‬ᝋᑂߞߏᎳȇग़஼ ࣆܹЍ྽ᎎӠᐯਛྻ៉ȞACGIHȟ௟‫ێ‬ᙩ᝷ऎA4 ૺȂ‫૿׈‬ѻᅆϠᢜȃஜߏ७ᖛ‫ݑ‬ᝋᑂߞߏᎳȄ PX ߞϾ‫އ‬७ժ༓‫ݺ‬୧ᇟहӼȄ

2

߼ᛳ඼ॶ஻Т౨Ϟਡ಻ಉ୵ю

߼ᛳ඼૞ЈᏢᇧഅӌཾ߼ᛳ඼ଢ଼Ψϴѧᖂຘࣄ۴༱ 15РᇳȂήΙӪЊުၽࡊ஠ܻ2014ԑంแॴ॓୽ ሬު໢મȄࣄ۴༱ᇳȂΙᑺҢܻསၷЊުਡࡊࠉ‫܁‬ ୽ሬު໢મ‫ޟ‬ᖒ࿗ဴॴ಻ϐင໠࡚ۖഅȄଶо୽ሬ ު໢મ࣏Ҭ‫ޟ‬ӴȂ೻ড়ӌཾಁή๿Й҈അЊުၽཱི

໶ҬȶТ౨ϞਡȷȂ҈ᆗ‫װ‬ਡࡊଚ‫ڗ‬Т౨ߣߖȄؐ Ӫਡࡊསॸᖒ࿗ဴ‫ׇ‬ԙȶТ౨Ϟਡȷ‫ޟ‬າҢσघӵ 1 ቇछϯՍ 1.5 ቇछϯϞ໢ȄᐃᇳϐငԤΡႱॏॶ ஻ȶТ౨Ϟਡȷ಻ಉȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ᗑဖၳщߩ঳೺௱ӡ‫ݺ‬Ⴛ୙Նଝ৶۶ႃຜߏႤࡈ݀ ஼ቫߩ༡૭Ȅग़஼ଝч঳ᑟᑟ༤ЫՐ7ѡԑൊଡ଼‫؝‬ ࢢȂҾඞᅆᗑဖၳߞ૧ӡቮِϯпȄग़஼ȶщߩࡂ ᔍȷгҦЫՐ1ѡሲȂ‫ڶ‬࿰ሃ࠻ᜲ෻ᗑ‫ڣ‬ଝч၌۶ ᗑဖၳሦൄԋ྽Ⴟ՘ߞ‫៉۝‬Ȃ࠻ў‫ݺܠ‬2013Ր୓ ُՐ෩‫ڻ‬3ৎࡈ݀஼ቫߩ༡૭ߞщߩႼԩᛝȂُը ੠຀ऎง10чȄ࠻ᜲ෻2001Րయҍ஥྽щߩႼ༵ ӫȂُԩႼࢉቮњѾ 2000 ေग़Ю֌ 3000 ေग़Ю ੠໱Ȅ

щߩ੠ႼᅁԴ࣏щգ‫כ‬єϧϞȂѽ֌‫༵ݺ‬ӫ‫ܥ‬ӏᅁ ࣉȂ೺ೈЏ၃໴ϞҍҝȄᔌ຾ଝч‫ث‬ങߞ๴ਣȂࡈ ݀щߩ૭۶ѡಧ੠ႼᛓЂಿЏ၃໸‫ڽ‬໸ࠕϞȄЙჅ हѧНϭȂѫ࣐੠֖ߺ‫ـܠ‬Ґ‫כ‬єϠȂԯऎѫ࣐գ ЂઈኸȂ‫ݙ‬ѽգ፶ᚡߞчߩȂԴѫ࣐ߞ‫ی‬࿂ᘘգԔ ሏȂԴ൵࿢ྷߞ‫ܞ‬ြҞକྻգь༓ߞ౵ᅗѪȂᅁԴ ࣏҄Ϡૠ݀ȄЙჅᓷᐹߞ࣏Ȃ‫݀ڽ‬ѫ࣐Ϙըቮঋව ৎѡ੡༡Ȃ௚ᄽߞщߩ੠຀Ҟକྻ҄ϠౕփࡒَȄ

3

ϛ୽ଽ‫ݲ‬ஔࡅ‫ݲ‬ѧ‫ݲ‬၌ភЕ‫ތ‬ដ

ϛ୽ശଽΡҕ‫ݲ‬଱ 12 РีշΟȮᜰܻᎌҢȲϛ๼ Ρҕӓ‫୽ڷ‬ஔࡅ‫ݲ‬ȳषϓ୰ᚠ‫ޟ‬၌ភȞέȟȯȂ१ ᘈବᄇஔࠉຸ෡ີ‫ܘ‬ȃЉ‫ێ‬Ϟ໢ᜒᇄ‫ܘ‬౰ȃᒑυ ᠧ้ۡ‫ތ‬ដၶσ‫ޟ‬୰ᚠհю၌ភȄȮஔࡅ‫ݲ‬၌ភȞ έȟȯೣۡȂΙПӵஔࠉϐင೽ႆሚ՗ຸ෡‫ޟ‬ПԒ ө‫ܘ‬Ӵ౰ϴѧЛпΟӒഋᗊ‫ܘ‬෡ȂᚔஔϷസ଒౰ਢ

஠ࡸත‫ࡐܘ‬ᇯ࣏ۡΙП‫ޟ‬এΡ଒౰Ȅᄇࡸත‫ࡐܘ‬ӵ ஔࡣ‫ޟ‬ቨ঄ȂᔖՃኌ଩ୋΙП୤ᇄᗙຸ‫ޟ‬ᄂሬ௑ ‫ݷ‬Ȃᄇ‫ڏ‬հюϴҁӫ౩‫ޟ‬၄ᓻȄӣਢȂӵ஠ࡸත‫ܘ‬ ࡐᇯ࣏ۡΙП‫ܚ‬Ԥ‫ޟ‬அᙃΰȂҐᗙ༆୛ζᔖҥ‫ڏ‬᝷ ៉‫ܛ‬ᐊȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ࠕՐ‫ڽ‬Ȃш‫܍‬ϘўৎϠ୑ಯ௓ࢢಯӠ՜ૈߞሮ ‫ܠ‬ȃѭӓऎЄЃຕ௓ᘉ໴Йஜಯߞሮ‫ܠ‬ȃᛓ௓੯ ԆКϘў௓ࡈ໷ภᘉ໴Йஜಯߞ഍ನȂൌ࣏௓ࢄ ߬૾੯ԆКҍ಩ߞྲயᛟȄԴК஼Ҕ‫ڴ‬ȃϯઔຈ ЂࡱҾȂऎϞњࢺЄЃຕ௓໴‫ݗ‬ȂՐቅϠߞѭӓ ҍႤऎЄЃຕ௓ᘉ‫݀݀ݗ‬ཉަԑൊᒕሊȂϘଠϵ ЙྻሃЄЃᜪ၌੩ব‫៉۝‬ȄϘӌᛓ௓Ȃ‫ߞ࢏ݗ‬ᡋ ៳බ՘Ϟߋ៉๏ᙇȄ

ంȮ௓ࢄ‫ޱ‬ႋ៖ȞϬȟȯߞаਟ‫ऻڽ‬ȂഺৎҦ‫ޱ‬ႋ ៖࣏௓ࢄ‫ޱ‬Ԩল࠸‫ߞޱ‬࿂Ђ‫۝؁‬ȂទদԳሲȂҞକ ҄७К஼ߤྻຕᅹ಩҃мទদ৆ଡ଼Ȅ಩҃ߤྻЙԢ ‫ݺ‬ཇ೚ߤྻߞ൵੮ѕપወȂබ࣏ѽ௓ࢄऎ૸௲ߞȶ ੮ѕਛਲȷۤ҃ѽ֕፡ऎ૸௲ߞȶཇ೚ਛਲȷ՘ऎ ߤྻຕᅹߞȶ೟४ȷȄՂ‫ލ‬ѽ‫؛ߞࢠޱ‬ՑȂ‫ށ‬ፁࢽ ҍ௓ࢄԴ୑ಯயᛟϯ‫ڭ‬๑ٙ‫ܠ‬ᡋȂ࿂գҞକཊӠЂ ༓Й௓ϠЀȂ҄ߤྻᘌ‫ݺ‬಄གྷȄ


ܹಁжࣨ

ّᅈᖒࡅኞԜᛳ‫ܜ‬Г

4

ňŰŰŨŭŦϴѧԝᗊኞԜᛳ‫ܜ‬ಋଢ଼

ّᅈϴѧ 15 Рࡇշ஠юቋघ 125 ቇछϯԝᗊኞԜ ᛳ‫ܜ‬ಋଢ଼ϴѧȄ೻ΙҺܾԃ‫ݎ‬ശತ‫ׇ‬ԙȂ஠࢐ߖ 10 ԑ‫پ‬ฒጣ೩ര՗ཾኵ᚞ശσ‫ޟ‬Ι๋‫ٮ‬ᗊȂζ஠ ഺήّᅈԝᗊߜ᚞‫ޟ‬ശଽकᓃȄّᅈॶৰஈ՗ۢ‫ڃ‬ ‫ۉ‬࿋ЈߒҰȂᇄኞԜᛳ‫ܜ‬ᖒЙ஠࣏ᐌএԊ‫فڟ‬ಛቨ

఺ଢ଼ΨȂԤఖഺഅю‫؁‬ёхΡᡙ‫ޟۉ‬ҢИᡝᡛȄّ ᅈᇄኞԜᛳ‫ܜ‬ᖒࡅࡣȂ஠џоөគ‫ݎ‬ᒦоԙђ‫ޟ‬୦ ཾ዁Ԓีଔ‫ޢ‬௥ࢅᏽȂӣਢᄇ‫ڏ‬тЙᐠҡ౰୦‫ל‬ԙ ‫؁‬σᝯ‫ތ‬ᔆΨȂԤఖ‫ّٺ‬ᅈ‫ޟ‬Йᐠ‫ڷ‬ҁ‫ݖ‬Ⴋသཾ୛ ᗚΰΙএཱི‫ޟ‬ᇃ໦Ȅ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ࠕϘࣱ੡༡ѽ‫ڽ‬Ȃೊஜႅ၉Ӡಯ஥Н༡ߞ௞‫׀‬ӹϽ ໦ഩ੯թ୓݃ԄȂജϘ‫ڱ‬Ϡ‫؛‬ਟऎϘඞȶߢᝊಯᡋ ক൯ឮᘈȷȄЫՐ 6 ѡܺȂྋഹȃេ‫ލ‬ຈ 6 ਛгҦ ຕဖȂѽ45ኆग़Юᕝీ‫ڐ‬ᆇߞ9ኆग़ЮҍኊȂឮఀ ҐੋЂҔცᇨປгҦ6000༵௞‫׀‬Ȃබ࣏Ϙৎգ҃ ࠑ‫ڼߞݑ‬ЄȄሃѹঋឮߋᅆјहѧȂ‫ڐ‬ᆇԴೊஜന ൯‫ث‬ങታா௞‫׀‬हᅆႵьȄփዝ՛ᜲ‫ݛ‬ೊஜӫࡈԴ ѵधፑඛаᐾգॗ 1.7 ေ༵௞‫׀‬Ȃթҳᘘգ 7500 Ժ༵௞‫׀‬ԴӦ᎛Ⴥ຀НКȄ

බӫࡈߞ‫؛‬ཕ‫ऻڽ‬Ȃјᑟೊஜ഼ୈೣᇑߞᑆ֯‫ڀ‬೚ ௟‫؛‬՘េ‫ލ‬OS۶Չ۞‫ی‬ЂୱᖉȂេ‫ލ‬ўবϵӒԴ ᅆ‫ڹ‬ӡՉ۞‫ڀ‬೚ߞϬ࣐Ӏ‫ޕ‬ცၝਣ༟໦ഩȄ‫ڐ‬ᆇг Ҧߞஇ‫ྻޱ‬௻мഺᇌᅆӲȂ‫ڹ‬ఀȶᐼ୽ȷпૺȄЙ ჅȂ‫ڐ‬ᆇ࣏༟๴ྩ૶єᕜ୓ਛȂ๑Ꭲᅆјᑟᘘ࣏ც ၝᑆ֯‫ڀ‬೚ൌЙᇖգ၃ᢚȂഺϘ՜ᘉ੯؆՘ࢢȂ‫ڐ‬ ᆇգ๑କϧઐмᐼ‫ލ‬Ȃ൹ҍྲߞ྽ᖻȂգ࢞ᣍᅅȄ

5

‫୽ݲ‬ᄇIJIJହߜᒊ޶ᄂࢊ፲ު࿱х

‫ߜ୽ݲ‬ᒊѿൟᆓ౩‫׋‬11Рఏ‫ؚۡ‬Ȃӵ15Јϱᄇ11 ହ‫ߜ୽ݲ‬ᒊ߳ᓎ޶ಉᄂࢊ፲ު࿱хȄ‫ ۺࢇ୽ݲ‬12 РᄇԪ‫ߒؚۡ‬Ұ᠍ߔȂ‫ܛٮ‬ᒛ߳ᜌߜᒊѿൟᛧۡȄ ‫୽ݲ‬ငᔼഋߝ҅ਭષҟ•БᏇԊӵϴൢϛᇳȂȶ஠ ߳ᜌߜᒊѿൟ‫ي‬ԁၼᙽ‫ڥ௴ٮ‬Ԥօܻ‫ת‬ᔞᗁِЅ‫ڏ‬

፲ު՗࣏‫ޟ‬ყ‫ٽ‬၌ភ

٘๿ᙄ݈‫ޟ‬ё਌σρռ

ᇧഅ‫ޟޱ‬௩ࢊȷȄߜᒊѿൟᆓ౩‫ޟ׋‬௩ࢊ࢐ዉࢸӨ ᅿᆓᐠᄺ‫ڞ‬հ‫ޟ‬๖‫ݎ‬Ȃȶ࣏‫ڥ‬ு౩དਝ‫ݎ‬ȂԤᜰ ޶ಉ፲ު‫ޟ‬ዉࢸᆓ‫ڙ‬ೣۡᔖᏑ‫פ‬೽ႆȷȄБᏇԊᗙ ᇳȂ೻Ι‫ؚۡ‬ᡗҰΟࢇ‫ߜࡻ߳ۺ‬ᒊѿൟᛧۡȃ҈ᔞ ‫ܚ‬Ԥ‫ל‬Ԓ‫׹ޟ‬ᐠ՗࣏‫ؚޟ‬ЖȄ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ገࣷߵҾࠕงᏩᒿȄ֋ӎ༉Ϭѽ‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫ޱ‬஼ທЂൊж ࠛᓉߵೈ‫ۦ‬ԧ᝷ཇ‫ڏ‬዆ᠩȂߵኊዷༀȄധԺҾඞж ‫ޘ‬ϠЀሮऎȂገࣷԧ஼ࣆܹᕕళۤనࣉȂऎࠛᓉ Ҿඞᜦ‫ܠ‬෩‫ـڻ‬Ժߞᒕ࿂ઐਿȄ‫ޱ‬஼ฅ‫ݺ‬2008Ր 9ѡ۶2011Ր2ѡง༡ᅁ֖Ⴥ᝷֬ߞᎱߩူ҄Ȅ୵ ‫ޱ‬஼ҳȂѧ‫׀‬੡ȃ֘઱Ѱ۶ྍЂ‫ࠛߞ׀‬ᓉᆾᇒᑟᅹ ϵٙ‫ܠ‬ళۤ᝷֬ူ҄Ȅ

ᝯᘣ੡‫ے‬Ȃ؆ԑ֋Ӥߞࠛᓉࣿஜፁᅁգൄ՘‫ݑ᝱٭‬ ຕ‫ߞލ‬লᔍȂࣇթϘര௣‫֋ܥ‬Ӥ၃ᕻߞ‫ޱ‬஼ϵЙఀ ЙళۤࣆܹВჰనࣉȄ‫ێ‬ᅁȂࣆܹᅆࠛᓉ֖྽ߞᇒ ۘᕕႍ௱ᅗмȂᘵ๒ഺዹྻ๾ྋ዆ᠩϘ‫ڱ‬Ҿඞ֋Ӥ ࢘Ȃ֭କ௉‫ڨ‬ፑࠛᓉলᔍᄊग़஼ࠛᓉԟᑟ‫ڤ‬ዹ༰К ᜕๴ȄಲൣȂࠛᓉࣿஜߞӎྍ࣏‫ە‬ᑬᅁᢜ၃ᕻߞ๴ ਣȂփЙ࣏ऎ‫ظ‬ᑟࣿஜ෩‫ڻ‬ህሂȄ

6

ё਌σച੕ުέॖ࡮ඈ‫ٺ‬ҢᐣѬӪᆎ

ё਌σ୽٩ഋߝ‫܄‬ுȆഫഷ 16 Рӵσՙࢷ෫ο࠲ ѿࠤց‫ݲ‬պ඼ࡇշȂё਌σॖ໥‫ޟ‬ച੕ުέॖ࡮ඈ ‫ٺ‬Ңё਌σചॖȃё਌σࣲড়੕ॖȃё਌σࣲড়ު ॖ‫ޟ‬ᐣѬӪᆎȄഫഷᇳȂΙএ୽ড়‫ן‬଄ᐣѬ࢐Ӡᓎ ‫ޟ‬Ȅ࡮ඈ‫ٺ‬Ңέॖ‫ޟ‬ᐣѬӪᆎȂ൷࢐࣏Ο߳ࡻё਌

σॖ໥ӎᄸ༈ಛ‫ޟ‬೿៉‫ܒ‬ȄഫഷᖿၗࡣȂ೨ӻё਌ σΡ੫տ࢐ՂռߒҰЛࡻȇծζԤ೨ӻҕಀᇯ࣏հ ࣏Ιএᐿҳ‫ޟ‬౪ф୽ড়Ȃё਌σ‫ؠ‬Ԥ҆ौᇄ़୽д ࡉ߳ࡻ஝ϸᖒᛮȇᗙԤҕಀᇯ࣏‫׽؁‬ӪᆎौૉາѼ ᚞ႱᆗȂ഼ҕ༌଒Ȅ

धශᏲ᠞

ӣၯᘈຟ

ҐੋЂ൙কȃҐੋЂऱਛઔকȃҐੋЂऱਛߩক ж‫־‬՘Ӳ‫ ݺ‬1940 Րȃ 1910 Ր۶ 1924 ՐȄ 1968 ՐȂᗑ‫ܹࣆڣ‬௟Ϭক‫ؼ‬ԩऎҐੋЂ൙কҦ҄ൊȃઔ কҦ҄ൊȃߩকҦ҄ൊȂԪ‫ۀ‬՘ऎ೚Ϙࢽ෭ߞҐੋ Ђক༤Ȃ೚Ϙ‫ڹ‬ӡ൙কক቟‫्ڭ‬຾൙কᇥ֒কႅȂ ֭ࢢ‫ڽ‬ϫ‫ؼ‬ऎԧ֋ཇ೚ক቟۶কႅȄҐੋЂ಩գক ༤Ϡዴॗ 9.2 ေȂ‫ێ‬КӒഢকॗ 6.4 ေȂჰ൯‫؝‬ॗ 2.8ေȄ

൪൶ᘘьሲϞϘᙇȈϘৎ஼ਛٟգཇ೚ߞ໪ወ࣏ ࠧ௱ԟᔍߞȄϟᐼНࢢߞџӎȂ࿂ϧ࠲઻Ϟчऱ ۘ࢘ȂധԺࡈॻ஼ฤӔԳȂϵា᠈࠲઻ॻЃѳऎ஼ ਛЮ঵Ȃഺ‫ڱ‬ൌ࣏‫ށ‬ขߞᗝనȄࡄԩȶऱਛȷȂϵ କ௉෩୼ক༤ߞ‫ྏۻڹ‬Ȃᄁህক༤ߞЀઈȄ‫ڭ‬ѷȂ ȶऱਛȷ‫ڭ‬Йྻ‫ڹ‬ক༤ೲᛓӔಿȂ‫ݸ‬ೀѵधȂࡄԩ ȶऱਛȷߞক༤Դᅆ࢞஼Ӕߞᅗ࢘ϯȂѧࡄԩȶϠ Ӕȷߞক༤௻ԺϞȄ

13


ዥᘈடᚠ

़୽ឣ༄Ӕ࡙ᄭ៪ ዉࢸ‫ོޥ‬୰ᚠឌម ћ/ ҏѐጡᒮഋ

ีҡܻΰТґ‫ޟ‬ਘࡄᛖࣔᅁᔞᄞਰ‫ۦ‬ҐҁඈȂዉࢸάӔ࡙ഞΣȶৼབྷȷϞϛȈҏТߑȂ ዉࢸ‫ޟ‬ȶЖ᠚ȷ़୽ᛖีΟΙ‫ف‬Ӗ‫ོޥޟ‬ឣ༄‫ٱ‬ӇȂ௃ॶ഍গභΙၯ‫ݰ‬ЅՍ‫ڏ‬ткौ࠲ ѿȄᗶณҬࠉ‫׋‬༖ϐஅҏு‫ڗ‬௡‫ڙ‬Ȃณ೻ൟឣ༄хжΡ१ά஠Ҭӎ‫ތڷ‬፣‫ޟ‬ฐᘈ໱ϛ‫ڗ‬ ΟӻϯМϽкဎȃଽ‫ོޥ‬ᆋցᡝ‫้ڙ‬୰ᚠΰȂо़୽࣏фߒ‫ޟ‬ዉࢸȂ࢐Ϛ࢐ઍ‫ޟ‬ȶ੾ȷ ΟȉՄоȶӻϯМϽȷ‫ڷ‬ȶငᔼᛧۡี৤ȷ‫ޟ‬ᐬࢸȂ࢐֏һሯौඪଽឌௗȉ ‫ڷ‬ҁҰࡄȶ‫ڎݔ‬ȷԙኸΨឣ༄ 2011 Րॻ஼២གྷ࣏֋ 1995 Ր๴Ӡ‫ݺ‬ҿႆֹ෻ჲ ߞ២གྷ֌ЫȂॻ஼൵ទদߞϘըஜགྷ‫ڰ‬ԆȂϵ࣏঵ ը๴Ӡ‫ݺ‬৖෶ߞ២གྷ‫ڰ‬ԆȂ‫֋࣏ـ‬৖෶Ђ᠛ओࢢȂ ৖෶๴ӠߞޯфϠዴ൵Ժѷ൵ᇦ௺ߞ‫ڰ‬ԆȄ ‫ޢ‬௥ᏲЬષȈ

2011Ր8ѡ4џ౎‫ݺ‬৖෶Ҕൊߞ՛પૼ‫ܒ‬ Ȟ Tottenham ȟȂϘԩ 29 ࿐ߞགϠ‫ • ֹ୺ݑٷ‬Ⴟ ੲȞMark Dugganȟജ৖෶৶់ᣇߞ់சϠ৶ਡ ౭Ȅੲᑂ IPCC ߞࠑᅗȂ୺ֹ • Ⴟੲ࣏់ўᜃᆷߞ ሃҞҙԯӹ‫ݽ‬գᝯߞࢺᆀ။ӚȂѷ‫ێ‬ည੡៸௲຾Ϙ ‫د‬јᆀȄ‫ڰ‬๴ࢢȂॻණӺ෼჆ඡᐱ๴಩գϘᘺЄዅ භϢ৶់ߞ๑።ᅆᗾᑟႆȂླӯϞ୺ֹฅᅆ৶់༟ ᆀȂȮᎎඡȯ‫ـ‬ඡᐱ୺ֹ‫ڹ‬ӡߞ࣏КߩዅȄ֭୺ ֹ•Ⴟੲߞᓐ៳۶‫ވ‬уࡋࢆᇍ୺ֹည੡‫ڭ‬ٟգ៸௲ ‫ޠ‬ᐡȄ ‫ޢ‬௥ᘈЬᏢȈ 8 ѡ 6 џȂժ߰ߞᓐϠ۶‫ވ‬у๴୓ϞϘඞంҿᜲ዇ ١પȞBroadwaterȟႺඞ֌՛પૼ‫់ܒ‬ᅅ؊ߞ۶ ӀӯࢃࣿஜȂॗ 200 ԩணሃ߰КҒࣁϞညԳ‫ܧ‬Ӕ ۶ߤ஡঑യϠȂ൵ࠐߞӫߞ࣏ঋِᖔఀૌह۶г ӒȄӤ‫់ݺ‬ўԢӯࢃ߰ߞӹઘЙ‫ލ‬Ȃӯࢃ߰Դ់ ؊ࡈߞஃ઻੡༡ѧ১঍ᄑҐࠜȄੲᑂӫᕝ߰ᇍȂ ൭౎੡жȂϘ‫ـڱ‬ᑬஜߞՐቅϠјࢺᐡౠҐϢϞ ӯࢃߞ༤ԁКȂညҁেᡘᇷ৶់‫ؽ‬ᕝϞϘԩ 16 ࿐ ЃࢅࢢȂዷϧ២ஜබթ᜕๴Ȅ ໌՗ႆแȈ ညԳ੡༡ 8 ѡ 6 џ౎ϯ 8 ᙇ 20 жҽҠȂϘ‫ڱ‬Ϡ༟‫ܕ‬ ‫ؽ‬ᕝࠢࠕߞ់‫ڭژ‬௟НᙇᑼȂᔌࢢȂྔ‫ྔڽ‬Ժߞ ӔಿȂપ‫࣏־‬ՐቅϠணሃۖዷགྷКȂᑵ૒ӇྫྷȂႍ Գ஡൝ϢϘѯ಄གྷНКȄ២གྷᘘുَޯфۖ৖෶‫ێ‬ ҁԳ஡Ȃঝ‫ڹ‬Ғࣁॻ஼঵हҙ౥৖۶৖෶ҾҾࠜ ॗᒰቊԴаߞϘಿ୼‫ܡ‬েКᙝԃ஄Ȃാ‫܆‬ቁ԰ȶా ѫȷȄ֌ 8 ѡ 9 џȂ២གྷЏ؆ԑᙖ෸֌ֱ‫ځށ‬ȃ‫׀‬ ߏ઒ȃ‫׀‬ବȃҿႆ෻՛���ॻ੾᠋Գ஡ߞЂࡱҾȂॻ ஼ࣆܹԴԧहᝯஜགྷԳ஡‫׮‬ൊ၌ϞЂ༓ᛉዷ৶់ѽ ᜦ‫ܠ‬؊ཕȄ

14

গභឌᄆӒΨᔖᄇឣ༄

‫ڼ‬ȂӤ‫ݺ‬ሬ‫ڏ‬ȃ೫࠸ȃࠫԈຈўবߞ௻ધਮಳȂѽ фҁে֋‫࠲ߞڗ‬Շ‫ݑ‬۶ᑾϘ‫ݑ‬Ȃൄ՘ϞᛕўН༡ߞ ᕄ࿛᝱ѽႭ໸Ȅᐐᇒहᅆ‫ݺ‬Ҕገ஼ਛȂॻ஼ߞԺЮ ћмࣆຉЏ၃ᇖ࣏ѧႵ༟‫ߞݸ‬ϞȂ֭Դ࢝Ժള‫ק‬ ஡Ȃॻ஼৶់۶ࠧӨϠ၏ᢜȃೊӔࢢႁߞЙࠫԇ ᝯ࠼Ӥ‫ڽ‬ЏϳȂᒕࢩЏಎȂ࢝Ժ੡৏ЙჅ࣏૿ь ϞϘৎȶӒՀȷߞ᜕๴૿ϾփЏȄ‫ڼ‬ՂȂ២གྷ࿚ ᔝԳ஡՛પૼ‫ܒ‬ऎԺ౉ႁ಄‫ܧ‬஡Ȃᇸ༰ϞЂ༓ߞ ࠧࣷɯҐஙѧȃ֘ࠧȃ਱ᆬ዇ȃϿօ‫ێ‬ႁᘈ෼ங ෻ȃϿօ‫ێ‬ȃྑᆬ᠋۶ၬ່ѰࢢႁߞೊӔȂࠕϬ ϩՐ‫ڽ‬Ȃ஡аԧ౉ᝯ࠼ᇦ௺Ȃളፎሃҵ྽ತѧԑ ஼Ӏ‫׮‬Ѫ࿤୼ҍࠕ‫঺ی‬Ȃԧ᝷Ӛ။ႵऎԺ๴Ȅ

Ҭࠉ‫׋‬༖Ȉ ֌8ѡ10џȂॻ஼២གྷЏᘌ‫ݺ‬ӀᔖȂӔಿ༟‫ܕ‬ணሃ ۖࢭ෇Ӡࣿ૩ؔߞ֖ஜКȂ់ўᎠࣤӺുَಎϢਣ ༟Ȅੲᑂ൵ྲߞዴᑂȂ២གྷᐱ७5ϠժϸȂ‫ێ‬КϘ Ϡജ់ўሮऎժ‫ݺ‬ዷགྷ߰ߞа୽Ȃ‫ێ‬ҁұϠ‫࣏׮‬ႏ ᄦԴ࠲᠕ҁϠ‫ݕ‬࿝ѫ੡ЙܶჃ᝱ȂҩգЙьӀӔф 186ԩ৶់‫ۦ‬ཋȄ២གྷᘘᅆϘ‫ڱ‬ᑢҫ࢙ᒝൄ՘Ϟ᝱ ѽᕓႃߞ૔᛼ȂᅆЍ஥྽ൄ՘ߞྫҵ‫୼࣏ـ‬Ⴟዴϼ ေॻᛅȂҙ౥৖8ѡ11џࢆֶȂࣆܹ௟ԨԴ២གྷК ‫ۦ‬ਚߞৎϠ۶஥ਛ෩‫ڻ‬ᕒׄȂ‫ڹ׈‬ӏ‫࠲ظ‬ȂϵҞੲ ᑂ២གྷྫҵ‫ޱ‬੯Ӧታ࠲ᔍࠛȄᑂॻ஼࠲ᔍгҦ‫ྻ۝‬ ֤঍ȂթըᎪᔺߞ࠲ᔍࠛᗁᛝ௟໹Ⴥ‫ی‬ኆॻᛅȄթ ҳȂॻ஼ࣆܹ௟෩‫ڻ‬2000ေॻᛅᕒׄ‫ۦ‬዆ᠩߞ஥ ਛᐐ‫෇ࢭأ‬ᖉ྽Ȃ‫ڭ‬ҍሂ1000ေॻᛅߞࢭ෇঍ᄑ Ԩߤ஡෩‫ڻ‬෯ׄȂѽፁ࠲ߤ஡౻ጒȃՉԑȄҙ౥৖ ညџᘘ‫ࠑྻ៉ݺ‬ᅗȂࣆܹ௟་Ϙَళۤనࣉࢭ෇ߤ ྻ૩ؔȂҒࣁኧҐ់ϧȂҐ௻޼Չ‫ڟ‬ᢑȂ‫ڭ‬ւዋᅆ ‫׀‬ӡᇨປ෸ያᘀ‫ڏ‬ȃೡᚐӚ။ߞ֖ऎҐ௻ᆾఠȄ֌ 8ѡ13џȂॻ஼់ўџࡈබ២གྷ‫ڰ‬Ԇ‫ݲ‬੏Ϟ2275 ϠȂգ໹Ⴥ1000Ϡ‫ࢽۖۦ‬ఠȂທЂൊԊϠൌઘཻ ྫྷ‫׃‬۶ჁхгԒ૩ؔȂॻ஼ԧԳў‫ޱ‬ਲऎթ24Ј੡ Ґ઱኶ನȄജ‫ݲ‬੏߰КҒࣁిਰȃాӠ৶ȃ༎ਮȃ ጀપ‫ۊ‬ຈȂ֭ЂൊԊ࣏‫ݺ֋ڽ‬Ժᇌ౉ᇸ‫ܧ‬Գ஡ߞ ՐቅളӔȞ80ࢢ۶90ࢢ֫ᑂϞѹᢜȂ൵ЈߞՐ཈ 11 ࿐ȟȂ൵҄ϠᏩᢘߞ࣏ȂླྀႻ‫؛‬໪Ђ‫֓ڹ‬ш෻ ϵԴ‫ێ‬КȄ

ԢҔገ஼ਛ᝷֬ߞჅ࢘ȶᅘූȷߞߤྻᇊ‫׀‬ᢜ‫ڀ‬Ԣ ᑋৎ஼ਛߞ၃ᕻ๴ਣ۶ϠϾᒶຫЙ՘ӒѧȂྔ‫ྔڽ‬ ՘ऎٕদߞҒ໙Ȅ‫ۖۦ‬ԑಧфገࣷ၃ᕻԟᑟ዆ᠩȂ ॻ஼၃ᕻҍ಩Ђ඼ϭ࿣ȂൻஜϧҾඞ໇ᖺȂҵ྽ತ ЙᙝϯпȂളනយઅџૈទদȄᑂॻ஼஼ਛ೚঍؊ ඡ‫ט‬ᢖӯȂᅟ֌ҝՐ3ѡߞϯϘ୑ՐȂॻ஼ࣆܹ୑ ࣆ‫ڔ‬ՄЏ୼Ⴟ1454ኆॻᛅȂ൹ϭϟըѵधЂᐼѽ ‫ߞڽ‬൵୼॔ᔂȄऎϞȶᖺᇦᓌၕ௲ȷȂॻ஼ࣆܹٙ ‫ܠ‬௟ُՐࡇิᇊ‫׀‬༟њߞዴᛝЂ඼෩୼ۖ180ኆॻ ᛅȂԢ੡ࡇิҵ྽ႃ໭Ȃ෩୼ِᐯ՘ӎȂഺᅆ‫ݺ‬෼ ഼Ӕಿ‫ڽ‬ሲ๑ᆷ࣏һЂߞᕅϧȂփᅆ‫ڱڤݺ‬؆ԑ‫ڶ‬ ᓥߤྻᇊ‫׀‬ႃׄߞՐቅളӔ‫ڽ‬ሲȂЙ඀‫࣏ݺ‬ȶൠϯ ҐᘶȷȊ

‫ོޥ‬ҭࣽᐭϽ‫ޟ‬ඌ‫ݎ‬ ‫ށ‬ೀϠൌକऻҍȂॻ஼២གྷȂທЙ࣏Ϙඞᚎඏߞ ȶᑵ૒ྫྷȷЂഢጀӚ။֖ஜȂంॻ஼ࣆܹȃණᢜ ֌ӔಿȂൌԴୠ‫ٿ‬۶хࢥ‫ێ‬०ࢢಎኸ১ԯ۶ய ᛟȂᇢԪ‫ऻڽ‬ȂদঋߞգѽϭවৎўবȄૌӒߞ ȶԺЮћмȷЙ࣏ȶԺᇌ౉Ԣ‫ܧ‬ϘԳȷഺଠᚎඏ ߞ‫ڰ‬ఐȂҹᕕညхᅆԇ֣ߞᇌ౉‫ޡ‬໛ȂӅ༷ߺ‫ܠ‬ ਴ཕ౉၏ߞ୒ឥ۶ኊৃȂ‫ׅ‬ϧᅹ࢙ЙԢᇌ౉Н ༡ߞȶЂԢȷȄ๒‫ݺܕ‬ȶϠႽѹ၍ȷߞገࣷԺЮ ћмࣆຉҪஃ઻Դȶత՜ȷഺϘࠑবȂԴೊӔ၏ ᢜ۶ညԳӔಿहТ࿛഼۶ᓉԪߞኸবϯҍ಩Ϟᙝ ြȂփೊӔ၏Кӿ෻᠋०฀ߞೊӔ֫ᑂϞ࢝Ђѧ

ȶᎡஜϞ‫گߞا‬ჍȷșșՐቅϘ҃ߤྻႽ዇ߞ༰ᢜ ૿ҵ۶಍ඉȄ๑Ꭲ࣏Դॻ஼Ȃᘘ࣏‫ݸ‬ೀᑋৎገࣷȂ ᇌ౉Ӭ़ȃ၃ᕻԟᑟȃ୼‫ܧ‬Йϭߞҵ྽ತൌ࣏‫ק‬ᙘ ՐቅϠߞಿԺ঑বԯ૵Ȃᑂ೚঍Ȃॻ஼16֌24࿐ Ր៬ኸКȂॗպေϠ഍‫ݺ‬ȶӒՑҵ྽ȷȞ 18% ȟ ȂགϠࠦՐߞҵ྽ѧ‫୼ـڼ‬ႿϘҗѽϯȂ൹ϯѵ॔ 80 Ր҃Кงទদଽଡ଼ѽ‫ڽ‬Н൵Ȅҁে഍‫קݺ‬ჲ‫ݕ‬ ѻۧߞ๏ዋКȂሮऎٟգᑟྻ‫ݕ‬ٟӅঋᅁ಩֋‫ڗ‬ኊ ৃȃᅆࡈ฀ྏۖ୛ଢȂᅆߤྻ҇ᆕࢽയȃࢩࢬ۶ኚ ‫ؘ‬Ȃ࿂‫ݽ‬ജᆨஜȂంփஇҍࠧನ‫ߞݑ‬ዷ֖Ȅഺϵ࣏ ऎ֣թը២གྷȂணሃ߰К୵ϞളӔȂЙѻϘ‫ڱ‬գᜦ ‫ܠ‬ᢜবЍ֯Ȃत֌࣏‫ڗ‬ਛනႈߞՐቅϠȄ


ዥᘈடᚠ

Ȟ01ȟ़୽ឣ༄ϞශຫхΡᎪᡙ Ȟ02ȟ़୽‫ݲ‬৳ёੲቷ౩୤ᇄឣ༄༼ᅸΡ Ȟ03ȟ़୽ឌᄆଡӱឣ༄ϛೝքู଒‫ސ‬ Ȟ04ȟ़୽ॶࣺњదগ೿‫ۇ‬ӱ୽೎౩গභឣ༄‫ٱ‬Ӈ

01

ᆩ๜೽߬ҁᇃȈႆζђһζȉ ୫ᅆթը២གྷȂॻ஼ࣆܹȃॻ஼់ў۶Йьॻ஼ණᢜ‫׮‬ሮऎѽགഅ ȞBlackBerryȟऎ҃ࠑߞขକјᑟ۶ѽྋൾ(Twitter)ऎ҃ࠑߞߤӹᇨႮԴᑋৎ ‫ڰ‬ԆК֌ь୓ۖϞయޯׄឡߞ֯ӡȂ‫ڹ‬ఀॻ஼ࣆܹ᝱ѽఠۘ‫ڰ‬ᅗߞ๴ਣȄ৖ ෶់ᅅ؊ׄನ؊ࠜᕒᓱҙӞૼࠑӯȂྋൾϯߞϘ‫ڱ‬Ⴄୈ࣏ȶᆨஜ‫ݑ‬ȷ۶ȶЙ ࿤ፁȷߞȂՂ֋ 7 џ༟‫ܕ‬Ȃȶ૒᠀஥ܸȃ‫ֺۦڳ‬໱஥ࡡȷȂȶሦൄ಄གྷȃྫྷ ‫֘ތڕ‬ȷຈᆨஜ‫ݑ‬Ⴄୈබҍ಩Դ৖෶ԧԳՐቅϠߞјᑟϯȂ‫ڭ‬ѷᘘгֶϞ༰ ຕ֯੯ߞ੡༡۶ԳᙇȄ់ўӒԴᅆթ་֖ᎠࣤȂႍᇨ૭ߞӡїࢆෳዷϧҞକ ‫ߞࢠޱۖۦ‬ᜂᇳȄॻ஼঵हҙ౥৖त֌ෳ‫ڏ‬ȂԴ២གྷ๴Ӡ੡Ȃᕕᝯൕߤӹᇨ ૭ȂူѤ๴୙јᑟ๺ࠫȂѽࠡѤ២གྷ߰‫׀‬ӡ಩҃୼ॊ‫ث‬഼ࠫЍ‫֚ۍ‬ᗑȄ

8

02

གഅјᑟ࣏ҐੋЂRIMయҍߞϘᇌ๑።јࢺ༎Ԇೣᇑႋٙന൯Ȃ‫ࠫێ‬ਿҐ௜‫ث‬ ങҞ‫ڹ‬༎Ԇ۶ࠫਿԴཇᓮჅ຀КജҐ௜ȂҪЯധྍᄦత՜ў‫ڹ‬ӡ௜ᣑᡝۤୈ ਿȂ RIM гҦ֋‫ڗ‬ٟգഺ‫ڱ‬௜ᣑȂࣆܹൊࠝӺ๑‫ޱ‬་֖ᕭเȂӤ‫ݺ‬ȶགഅ഼ ࠫȷ௄ӎֺ໱Ȃԯթዃ‫ॻۦ‬஼ՐቅϠߞࠦယȄփ֌‫ݺ‬ྋൾȂ‫࣏ـ‬੡ϭࠫਿ༓ ൵Ђ۶൵‫ۦ‬ᡌࠓߞߤӹᇨປӀሂНϘȂྋൾߞȶᎄᎅੜᕕȷЙਟ݆໛Ȅ ߞፁȂੲᑂӫࡈ‫ݣ‬ᠨߞඡᐱȂԴᑋৎ២གྷ‫ڰ‬ԆНࡈ۶Ⴥ຀КȂགഅ۶ྋൾജ ២གྷ߰ЙӒည‫ڹ‬ӡ‫ݙ‬ൄ՘ߞ෋Ԛ዆ᠩፁᅁᕕည҄Ϡ់ఖȇЙჅ‫ا‬েӺӅ༷ऻ ۖȂ‫ێ‬ԴНࢢߞ৒෇Ⴥ຀Кϵ๴෭ϞहညӒবᒕ࿂ߞ֯ӡȄᑂඡᐱȂϯေԩ ॻ஼Ӕಿ‫׀‬ӡྋൾ۶ᗚᝉᇨȞFaceBookȟຈߤӹᇨ૭‫ڽ‬ඡᐱ២གྷߞहᝯୈ ਿȂў࠮‫ؠڱڤ‬᝸߰ᕒׄ‫ۦ‬૔᛼ߞ໖Ⴝ۶஥їం‫ڰ‬౻ನЍ֯ȄԴᗚᝉᇨϯȂ බգ໹Ⴥ9ေϠҐϢϞԩऎȶњࢺ৶់хᅆ৖෶២གྷ߰ȷߞೡᚐȄЙьᇨӔᘘ ‫׀‬ӡߤӹᇨປᒕ࿂ྩ૶‫ڱڤ‬ணሃ២གྷߞӚ။ཻᆷϠȂऎ់ў෩‫ڻ‬ୈਿȄ

03

ӤթҞ‫ڍ‬ȂགഅϵՀȂྋൾϵ፪ȂЙჅ࣏Ϙᇌ‫ث‬ങјࣱȂӎ‫ڗ‬๑‫ݙ‬ᓜ࣏ࠧґ ჅȂᝯᘣ࣏ᎡԴӡ۶ࢨዹӡߞயᛟȂփഺቮঋᏋညߞᆾရ۶ࠜงߞӒፁࢽє Ȃ ؆ԑࢋ౭‫ݸ߰ݕ‬ԇЙᇒ‫࣏׮‬Й঑യԇߞᅗ࢘Ȅ ᐬσց‫ٳ‬ȈۨԊࡦӠ ᑫЂ‫֯ڲ׀‬ऎϘৎԺЮћмߞೊӔ஼ਛȂᗁᢜ‫؛‬ՑϯঋՀჅҔገ஼ਛ۶ॻ஼࢝ ԺȄપ‫࣏־‬ᇯՍȂ‫ـ‬ඝᇍഺϘўবߞ‫ۏ‬ፑȂࣆܹᅆ‫ݺ‬ԺЮћм๴ਣߞ෩্Ȃᅆ ‫ݺ‬ьዴӔ౉ߞদ໛ȂൌஇఀЙᓾȂՂኧҐьዴӔ౉०฀ߞ৶់ȂԴᐯ੭యዃь ዴӔ౉ሬ‫ిڏ‬ᐯȂњࢺьዴӔ౉ߤ஡ᗝᓱԧᇌࢆཇ֋ЎӔ౉પ֒ߞࣿஜȂᅆ‫ݺ‬ ྲೊӔຜПᐯ೫ȃЍ֯۶ӠࣿϯߞᕒׄຈຈȄ ๒փ‫ا‬েЙକ݆໛ߞϘᙇ࣏ȂᑫࣷߞೊӔᓉԪ၃ᑢϞϘৎᆝࠜߞჅ຀ȂȶӨᑫ ࣆຉȷ੡҃Й཈཈࣏ᅝ๭ߞᑢҫȂ‫࣏ـ‬ϘৎቮঋЙᙝӹᠩߞ់ៗȄӫࡈȂᑫࣷ ߞ၃ᕻ๴ਣᘘᇖӀᜦȂ֭ంᑋᢜϯ‫ڽ‬ሲȂೊӔࣆຉЏ၃‫ށ‬ᢖᇦᖺȂ೺ӔயᛟЙ ੡ႯϯᙧবȂȶӨᑫȷߞࢥྐϵರգ‫ݶ‬ᔝНཕȇթҳȂϘ‫ی‬ՐࡈȂᑫࣷණᢜϵ գඡᐱჅညԳӔಿᅆ‫ݺ‬ҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔȶྫྷ‫ڕ‬Ϟӎ៳‫ݺ‬ҁেߞЍ֯ȷߞ‫ࢩݱ‬ȂӬ़ߞ ఐᇰϘӌᒕᇸϭ‫ڽ‬ȂॶЙକф੡ఀۖ಴෸Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃϘӌҍ಩᝷֬ॻ஼۶ገग़ߞ၃ ᕻ௪ጹȂ࢝ҞକϘዹᙇᑼᆺ‫ߞٳ‬ȶࢤѫȷȊ

04

ॻ஼֯ਛ‫ـٲ‬෻ߞȮᗞ᝱੡ѵȯ(Hard Times) х࣍Ϟ19ѵ॔ॻ஼ൻႤӬ़Ȅ փԴညϭȂ੗ࢃߞᅝ੯۶ॻ஼ߞ២གྷൌ෩ᓹϞ‫ا‬েҩϘᇌȶᗞ᝱੡ѵȷߞ‫ה‬ ಩șșԴԑಧ၃ᕻԟᑟᎏᕝϭȂԧ஼ߤྻᢜۘᇢԪӬ़ߞᑬмȂߤྻᇒನ‫ـ‬ ऎ᎑ᛔȂՂ֣ᕕᅆ֋‫֒ڎߞڗ‬Ȃ་֖Ꮛညߞ‫ؼ‬ভȂୠِ֋Ӥሃ૩ؔԒӠߞຠ ޼࣏‫ا‬েُϘৎϠቮঋࢥւߞўԨȄ

15


ܹಁжࣨ

़୽‫ޟ‬ኸଢ଼ ࡈවчԴ৖෶໖ᔝфԧ഍֝Ո஡᜕๴Ϟዷஜ‫ڰ‬ ԆȂૌ࣏҄Ϡ‫߰ڍ‬Ѩ᐀ੂ๒Ȅഺዹߞ‫ڰ‬Ԇྻ‫׎‬Դ ᑫࣷ๴Ӡह࣏ࠫ࢝ԺညԳ‫ܧ‬Ӕᝯѕߞ᎝ᛟȄॶሲ ྻȂ‫و࣏ڤ‬ϠዎчȂ֭ॶሲЙҞକȂ‫ڤ‬ϫ࣏‫ݱ‬຾ ᔯ൧ѕᅗϞȄ ৖෶‫ڰ‬Ԇߞ୓ԯ࣏ԯऎϘԩགө፲ࠦՐജ់ᅅᆀ౭ ࢢȂҁߞᓐ៳۶౉၏Ԣ४ሮऎ់ўգᇌ౉‫ޡ‬໛ཉ ԨȂዙࢤНϭȂϯ໖ӯࢃȄԴ‫ۖۦ‬գѕϠయޯׄឡ фЙ‫ډ‬ԊЄ಄Ѫᅤ൦ߞఐ‫؛‬ϭȂѫཕ‫ڝ‬ി፺ܼ༟ ‫ڽ‬Ȃѽ֌ԑবҵఠȄ់ўЂգɆ10ৎ౜Ȃ9ৎሏɇ ଠјՓၙགྷߞફભȄॻ஼঵हЂஈȂ௵ംХࢽഺ ‫ڱ‬ዷஜ߰ऎ‫ڢ‬෋ߞ။ӚȂ‫ڭ‬ሰ‫ڏ‬ঋ୼ᕅӇᕝȂٙЙ ቅ៝РРȄ֭գ‫ྻߤڱ‬ໞᎢਛࡋሮऎ‫ڰ‬ఐߞឨຕԴ ‫ݺ‬ളනЙ‫׮‬Ȃ༥ૺᙃ࿛‫ݙ‬७ȄໞᎢਛж‫یࢺݱ־‬ৎ ЙԢ‫ڍ‬ႋߞఐ‫؛‬Ҟሲఀϯ࣏Ӳඞᘿ‫ށ‬Ȃ྾ޫᆔधᄑ ౻ϞधনȂ౮Й‫ף‬ፘȄϵգ‫ڱ‬хᅆҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔ߰‫ـ‬ষ ᑟࠑᅗȂୠগѽ݀ߞЙ࣏ȂӬᔝ‫࣏ࢽݙ‬ೊӔ༟‫ࣆݸ‬ ຉȄ ᡝ߰েЙ᝱ྐᄊຊ߰ߞऻ‫࣏ޱ‬ሮऎߤྻೡᚐϯߞ໘ ᗀऎѹԯȄգ‫ڱ‬Ϡᅆ‫ڱڤ‬ዷஜ߰ࢬఀࡕѰзᐎȄሮ ऎӅ‫ܠ‬ঋᅆᇹ‫߰ڰ‬௻ҐӇᕅȂࠧ௟ҁেᜰНѽ‫ޱ‬Ȃ দদҐԖȂѽӯ់‫ئ‬ЙҞȄ֭‫࣏ڤ‬ϸտႃ‫ٯ‬Ȃ‫ڰݺ‬ ๑ႃߞ‫ٯ‬២ȄӒՂॻ஼՘ሬ‫ݙ‬ሲߞȈɆຈۖ୺‫ۊ‬໿ ఫϞࢢЖҝ‫ࠝي៼د‬ຜধϯɇȄ಩Դཇୈᑟକ๴ ႿȂ᜕Ӕӡјᑟ‫ݕ‬ცၝཇቍઐਿȂᢰ់ўԑൊஜ৶ ϵᠪթҵ݃Ȃ‫ـ‬थሲ‫ع‬ᙇ‫ع‬দ‫ڽ‬ᛉᕅᇯࢺϞȄც໛ ళണြӫКգ‫ڱ‬Ꭲᙇ෩៉ኧҐ់சϠ৶ዴӫȂϵգ ‫ڱ‬Ϡሮऎॻ஼ҞѽҍஜӒഢ‫ޠ‬ႅൊ༤Ȅ֭‫ا‬ሮऎ‫ڤ‬ ࣏޼ዾփࠧ޼ӎНຉȄ‫د‬ক༤ຜ༟་ۖ໖Ⴝϯ࣏ঋ ӡᑟᆀԨҾӔబਡཛྷȉঋЙȂҪ࣏૷ᇝऎϞኧ௻‫ڨ‬ ።Ȃᅆ‫ࣹ࢘୼ڤ‬ஜ‫ߞݑ‬ዷஜྻ‫׎‬գੜ۸ȉ‫ڭ‬ѷȂᛉ ᕅϞഺըȂϭը۸ȉ ֌‫دڱڤݺ‬ӬᔝࢽԨҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔߞᎢᙇȂ୵Ϟऎߤ ྻ౹གྷНҳȂᅁԴऻЙҍգ৹ҞۤН഍Ȅည๒Ȃ ࢺഺ‫ڱ‬Ꭲᙇ߰಄ᛔϞҩգԋᄦߞϠ۶‫֖܇‬࿂ᇑᇌ ౉ѹ၍ߞ࿂ҠँԊЄȂӎԳົႁߤ၏К‫د‬Ӭᔝࢽ Ԩҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔߞᎢᙇϵ੡գ‫ݙ‬ᇷȄබॻ஼փ‫ڏ‬Ȃҳ ‫ڽ‬ೊӔ࣏ႍ஼ᑢҫКߞԯ‫ލ‬಩ᅁȄॻ஼՝งॶٟ գۖ഍ҝ࢙ӲฤӔԳࣆܹȇٟҝԞ࢘Ȃѐ௄෻‫܃‬

16

ћ/ ሁ௦଑ ۶ࠧࣷԧԳҝ‫ݛ‬Ϛ‫ཱڽ‬ႃֲኸгச৶ᚚ֜ȂЫч ᄩаබЙྻգ‫ڤ‬ኃԺգ֒ϠᇌȄ‫ݙ‬ӡНϠȂ৹‫ݏ‬ ᅆў࣏༱ངֻНࣹȂԴႽ၍ϯ‫ݕ‬಩ᅁᖖᄩϭϵЙ ࣏Ҟѽӡ؆බӴߞȄՂԴ໸ᐼง༡ऎग़কညᚙ៌ ߞညԳϠȂग़஼ଡ଼ֻ੡գ๑၍ச௟ҁে௲ϯ۸ȉ ՜ਟϞഺ‫ڱ‬Րቅߞҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔࢢȂԴႽ၍ϯᕕ‫׎‬ᢰ ҁেߞਛ៳ജᑉ࠲Ⴥ‫ڽ‬ᄥᇸ۸ȉՂ‫ލ‬ຍ੯࣏Ӓব ߞ႖Ȃ‫ڤ‬ኃϘз‫ݨ‬ᕝҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔࣆຉНᎢᙇर៳Ɇ ୺ࢢऔɇȄሲϞຈ‫ݺ‬ٟሲȄ ᑫЂ‫ߞڲ׀‬ఐ޶ϵգहԢН഍Ȅ‫ێ‬Кည๒ϵգ‫ڱ‬ᑾ પН഍Ȅᑫࣷ‫ٿ‬ൣቮЙቮҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔ࣏៳‫ڤݺ‬ᇌԺ᏶ ߞயᛟȄՂ‫ލ‬ٟഺቮঋȂऎ֣ᑢ‫ܹࣆܨ‬Йᇒҽཉ‫ݕ‬ ҠཉൌЙᙝԳᢰϘ‫ߞزز‬ҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔϢឱ஬ȉ᝱Ⴝᑢ ҫϯ‫ݙ‬գߞࣆܹታᐱൌ࣏ፘ㡯ፘ཮ߞ਴ข߰Й՘ȉ ᗑ‫ڣ‬Ӳ஼ࠐงࣆܹӡጨࠛႃ໭ညስቸ‫כڽ‬єॻ஼ԧ ԳгӔ‫ڽ‬ೊӔȄϟᐼჅࢢॻႁߞೊӔ๺૿ߞఐ޶ ϭȂҪՀଡ଼փِը‫ྍد‬Ђ‫׀‬۶ؓ᜷Ԣ४ຜЂ༓є་ Ϟ‫ڽ‬Ȅࢢ‫ߞڽ‬๴ਣᡝ߰েൌहညᖢႋϞȂ‫ڤ‬බ࣏໸ ࡑ᝱Ӕജ՜ਟȂК஼ᐯӠЂ༓ฯϢࢢജత‫ۦ‬Ȅഺ‫ڱ‬ ೊӔജ‫ز‬৞ࢢᕕЙᕕႍЯധҁেߞਛ៳‫ڽ‬ᄥᇸȉᑫ Ђ‫ڲ׀‬ഺৎዾᅳϠႽȂ୼ᗝХႽዾሬߞ஼ਛҞѽ ௟‫ܧ‬Ӕߞਛ៳వொҳཛྷȉЙᇒ‫ڱڤ‬хᅆ߰Ղ֣ ᗏЂȂᑫЂ‫ߞڲ׀‬ԺЮӔ౉ߤྻবሻЏ՘‫ڰ‬ᅁȄᑫ ࣷ၃ᕻ‫ݙ‬ቮȂЙఀЙា᠈‫כ‬՜ҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔȂփѷഺ ‫ڱ‬ҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔՉ‫ܧ‬ጄ྽Н᏶ȂӅ‫ྻܠ‬௟‫ێ‬ਛ៳తєჅ ‫ڽ‬Ȅഺ࣏಩ᅁȂ‫܇‬ឍ‫ڱڤ‬۶࿂ᇑѹ၍‫ص‬Йϯᝯ࠼ߞ Ԣ४েംᆽԴႍЙႍា᠈ਟૼҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔߞ᎝ᛟϯӇ ᚼȄЙ‫ڽ‬ϵ‫ڽ‬ϞȂ᝱Ⴝ‫د‬ഺ‫ڱ‬ҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔ௻֖ቍႋҍ ᄩኃȉ᝱Ⴝ‫د‬ҁেൌᝯᛆ୓‫ۖݸڽ‬ၐ᎚ਫߞᠠᣊ૮ аȉᘘ࣏࿰Ϙ‫ڱ‬࿂ᇑҠँᇌ౉ѹ၍߰‫ݙ‬ሲߞঋӡዷ ϧ‫ڽ‬ᅆѾഺ‫ڱ‬ҳ‫ڽ‬ೊӔȂ‫ڽ‬ৎЂ௠౭ȉᑫЂ‫ߞڲ׀‬ ࣆܹྻ‫ڤ‬ኃஇཛྷȉѵधᘕᎢྻЯധഺᇌЙϠႽߞஇ ‫ޱ‬ཛྷȉຍ੯࣏࢝‫ށ‬ᢖߞȄ֭࿂ᇑᇌ౉ѹ၍߰Йྻւ ዋߞ‫ڤ‬ኃԺȄഺ‫ڱ‬࿂ᇑԊЄЙ࣏Ϭ‫یڏ‬ሬ࠮Ҟሲ‫އ‬ ߞȂ‫ـ‬Й࣏‫ا‬েਟ‫ء‬ଡ଼ᢰ࠮Ҟ‫ڹ‬НӀਿߞȄ‫ا‬েற Ϙߞ࠲ቪ࣏‫ށ‬ขߞ‫ࢠޱ‬ȂгӀԪನߞ‫ࢠޱ‬Ȃٟգ֖ ࣆϯգ‫ݙ‬ஐਮߞ‫ࢠޱ‬ȄԴᘘٟକఀۖԑব‫ށ‬ข‫ࢠޱ‬ ߞ࠲ቪНࡈȂ‫ا‬েҞ༷ЈѕԴྍȂϼေംԯ‫؞ټ‬ гȂϠ඄ᓉϢȂ‫ا‬ϵԢ඄ᓉϢȄ‫־‬Ϡ෩্წዴೊ ӔȂ‫ا‬ϵྫྷ຾ࠢ۶Ȅঋ௻ᎠϘᙇȂ‫ا‬ЙхᅆᓉϢѹ

ࣹȄ֭Դ඄թϾၳ੡ϼေঋᖢႋഺϾၳϵӒՀ࣏‫ڤ‬ ‫ڱ‬࿂ᇑᇌ౉ѹ၍ԊЄ‫ݙ‬ጤା෩্ߞȄԴ඄ഺϾၳН ੡ȂҞϼေঋѿ೟ւዋᅆ໪۶ඞԪȄ ۹Ӑᑫዃც໛ሂዃያߞɆ4‫ڎ‬ၢɇȞFour Corners ȟြӫգৎᖖြඡᐱϞग़஼ࠕง௦୓Ϟ 3K ៨࿂ᇑᇌ౉ѹ၍ೡᚐߞஜԨȄႍೡᚐ՘৶ԑ ൊ࣏Ө፲֒߰ȄҁেߞϾၳ࣏౮Й‫ף‬ፘߞɆӨ Ϡᇌ౉ᔹ໸ྏɇȄ‫ێ‬КϘ‫୼ڱ‬ኸታഞϾϾᗏᗏ ‫ظ‬໦ሲӨᇌϠ‫ޡۖۦ‬໛Ȃሲग़஼ӎ‫ݺ៳࣏ڽ‬Ө ᇌϠ‫ݙ‬գȂ಩ԴҁেঋЙఓዷϧϵঋ௟ӎ‫ݺ៳ڽ‬ ҁেߞ஼ਛྫྷ԰‫ڽ‬ȄऻϞႍြӫȂգ‫ڱ‬Ϡϵധྻ ܶ‫٭‬ጄᇋԳሲɆ࣊ߢՂթȂ֣ӅညࠐȉɇȄ‫ࢽݙ‬ ࣏߰ሲɆՂ‫ލ‬ɇٟᢰգ֒ϠᇌϢᄩࡋЙྻ҄ۖӨ ᇌϠգ‫ݙ‬ԫᗪȄ࣏֭‫ڰ‬ᅁϯ‫ྏݙ‬ᄛߞ࣏Ɇऎ੡Џ ౎‫ٻ‬ɇߞྏៈȄ‫ݙ‬ѽ࿂ᇑஐᑬ߰࠮ᄁஜ෩্ዷϧ ѽᅆȂЙఓࣹ֕‫෇ڽ‬ҟȄग़஼ߞఐ‫࣏؛‬གȂӨȂ ཀȂชȂ॓ԧ֒૾൘Ȅэ‫ێ‬ҍϞ֜ླྀѐ୺ߞགϠ ᗁ೚Ȃᅆ‫ڱڤ‬Ө֒ᇌ౉ᔹ໸ྏНᏅҞሲ࣏ѫϯҐ ޵Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽྻ‫ڤ‬ኃᑬધᄁᐠȄ௄‫ݺ‬թȂգ‫ڱ‬ᑫՍ‫ܧ‬ Ӕ࠮ሲ‫ژࡈ࣏ڤ‬ҞᡦȂॻ஼фग़஼Ϝ࣏գӫԒလ ߞᘳዎȂᑫࣷҞЙఀЙѿ೟๟ᒐೊӔࣆຉȄ‫ێ‬ᅁ ഺ‫ڱ‬႖࣏࢝Ժ᏶ߞȂሲఀՀᡘᙇ࣏๪ഏ౹‫ږ‬Ȃᗾ ఀೖᐆᙇ࣏ɆೲϞᓌЄ‫ݸڽ‬؋ɇȄ಩ϭᑫࣷೊӔ ‫҄ޱ‬Кॻሬ༮෻жዴߞ୼࢘ф੾ѪӀфгӔเႏ КԺ༵ሃ֘ўӠࣿўՑ௜зᝯᗑߞᛟӫȂЙබЏ ၃࣏ɆҦ୺໹НѕȂႮϠर‫ڍ‬ɇϞཛྷȉ Ղ‫ލ‬ೊ ӔӦ᎛ညКգ࢝Ժ‫֋ڽ‬ገग़ߞɆԢ༏Ԣᇌɇ߰Ȃ ႏྐ഍ನৎ੯ߞ‫ܡ‬৶ྻЙ୼ᒸኃȉҪ࣏ѵधఐ޶ ۖӫࡈऎѤᘘ࣏Йକంገग़Ђ൙ӨϠ၏К‫ږۖݢ‬ ௉ߞೊӔӦ᎛Ȅ๑ϠயࣺȂ‫࣏ڤ‬๑Ҟ‫ڰߞ֣܉‬Ȅ ֭၃թըॻ஼‫ڤ‬ኃᐂϞϘᐂȂग़஼фገࣷԺৎ஼ ਛ၃ᕻ਻ྖߞఐ޶ϭȂ݀ࢢවՐ‫ڽ‬ᑫೊӔೡԪК ྻգኧ༓ߞӨӔϠዴϵ៳ྍਫ਼К‫ڰ‬ȄᎡକሲϠ᝷ ؆ԑٟգબტ‫ټ‬ЎН‫ڍ‬ȉԴࣙᇌ຀࢘ϯȂஐਮ࣏ Դ‫ߞֺ᝱ݙ‬ȄঋЙϵЙྻգ‫ݙ‬ᓜɆϯઔᕒɇȂɆ ጗ՍᕒɇȂɆᇊ࢙ᕒɇຈຈߞዾᜪϞȄɆߏѽ᝷ ᇸɇ࣏Ϡ‫ߞݑ‬௄ӎஜᑟȄӤթփไӠϞɆҁ༏Ⴣ ࣇߢɇߞඈ੆۶഍‫ڰ‬ϯߞஐਮȂ‫࣏ڤ‬๑Ҟᘖֺ ߞȄ‫ا‬েҪକౕؓഺஐਮЙྻജᑆНჅࢧȂЙ֌ ‫ݺ‬Ⴥ࢘ӨጤмȄ‫࣏ڤ‬ዎ஼ዎӔ߰ᕗзߞงౕȄ


ዥᘈடᚠ

ኈ୽ࢧ‫ݓ‬൜ᕓĶıԑ ࠒѕᗺಛΙ࡟դਢȉ ӵኈ୽ॶ഍ࢧ‫ޟݓ‬Ɇ‫ݍ‬ഋหංɇ

ћ/ ҏѐጡᒮഋ ᄦ/ Xinhua

ᄇ‫ڧܛ‬Ο೨ӻᐣѬ१॒‫ݓࢧޟ‬ՄِȂ൜ᕓ࢐೻এ࠲ѿΙࢲᐣѬ‫ޟ‬ඍฮ੧ӟȄΰ໊ϲ8Т

13РȂኈ୽ࢧ‫ݓ‬ӨӴϷտᖞ՗೿՛‫ޟ‬ቈԒȂоक‫ݓࢧ܈‬൜ᕓ፩ҳ50໊ԑȄӵ࿋Рਿ‫ݓ‬ ѻ‫ݽ‬ਢ໢ΰϿ10ਢғȂ࣏௕‫܈‬࿋ԑӌყ‫ູދ‬൜ᕓ‫ޟ‬ԫᜲΡρȂӣਢक‫܈‬ኈ୽Ϸນ‫ྑޟ‬ ТȂࢧ‫ݓ‬ѿҕ֯ୄήЙΰ‫ޟ‬ώհȂᓶࠗ1ϷមȂՄࢧ‫ݓ‬ѿҺ೽ώ‫ڎ‬һୄᎻ1ϷមȂӒѿ ఀஆࠌቁម‫ڳ‬ᔖȄ ዇஼ߞ॔݇ࣿஜӤ 12 џо‫܆‬༟‫ܕ‬Ȃ֜‫ޒࣦݺ‬ඛ ᖒҳߞϘਲ਼ి௅Ȃ༟‫ܕ‬ാ᠈੬ሪႏᄦ‫֋܋ظ‬Ӥ੡ ЙܶჃਚߞժϸϠ৶ԩඏфӠӀᚎЬȂ॔݇ኇՑ ࠜႿ 7 ৎԺЈ੡ߞȄփ዇஼ᗁ೚‫ޠ‬ᆬш (Christian Wulff)Դҍਯ॔݇ኇՑ੡Ȃ๴ࠑᆊሲࢽȂ዇஼೚Ϙ ۤఀϞࠧϲߞ՘ґȂᅆթ஼ቫϯգ࢝୼ߞໞኊȄ փҁԢџӺԴ዇஼ѵधඡ(Die Welt)КࢽҍȂࣦ‫ޒ‬ ඛᖒ 50 ༉Րᅆ዇஼Ϡ‫ڽ‬ሲȂ࣏ϘৎхषߞඞԪȂ Ҟѽхࢥంֽᐼߞ൵གླ੡ง֌ЫȂ዇஼ϠЏ၃ ‫ڕ‬ϞԺቈȄ ࢧ‫ݓ‬൜ᕓ‫ޟ‬ᐣѬ Դ೐ϟըѵधЂᐼჅࢢȂ 1945 Ր 5 ѡ዇஼‫ظ‬ফȂ ည੡ੲᑂ༮ᆬ཰‫ܠ۝‬۶ޯଲ‫ܠ۝܃‬ȂӤ‫ێ‬ҁᐼർ஼ ҒࣁែᗑȂग़஼Ȃॻ஼۶‫ޱ‬஼ж൷ऎұ஡Ȅ1948 Ր6ѡग़ȃॻȃ‫ޱ‬௟Ϭ஼֫ታ஡Ԫ‫ۀ‬Ȃ঵ൌനԴޯ ‫( ހ‬Bonn) Ȃജ೚ᇍऎ֘዇ȄփែᗑԒಯ៨ࡋЪߧ ࢺϘരж໘‫ێ‬ҁ஼ਛѽ՘‫ܟߞ៳ࠢێ‬՞Ȃ֫ታϞ ‫ތ‬዇Ȃ‫ڭ‬௟঵ൌ‫ܠ‬Դ‫ޒࣦތ‬Ȅ൵ࠐࣦ‫ޒ‬ҾӔ࣏କԴ ԧ஡Н༡֋ӤࣿஜߞȂЙჅᔌ຾໸‫ڽ‬໸Ժߞ‫ތ‬዇Ϡ ऎୟᛓែᗑԒಯ៨ߞ௻ᡋ೚޼Ȃജ‫ۦ‬ᕅঝȂჅ຾স ๑ӔѹҞ‫ߞڏ‬ӠࣿȂ഍‫ތݺ‬዇ᄩа֭៳֘዇ߞࣦ֘ ‫ޒ‬Ȃ࠮՘ऎϞ‫ތ‬዇Ϡᙏ݀֋Ӥߞ໪ወȂЙь‫ތ‬዇Ϡ ࡂ຾Ӡ‫ۻ‬ԟᔍୟϢࣦ֘‫ޒ‬Ȅ ֭ᔌ຾ֽᐼᇦ௺ઈ‫ߞޤ‬෩пȂऎ‫ڨ‬ѤϠӔߞୟ‫ڕ‬ൄ ՘‫ތ‬዇ទদ૿ьЍϠȂ1952Ր‫ߞޒࣦ֘ތ‬᝝ध༟ ‫ܕ‬ᝯൕȇᑂᖢႋȂӤ‫ ݺ‬1949 Րۖ 1961 Րࣦ‫ޒ‬Ϙ ߡ഍‫ݺ‬Йᜦ‫ߐߞܠ‬ᅗȂง༡Ђॗգ250ေ‫ތ‬዇Ϡࡂ ຾ജ‫ތ‬዇᝝‫ڨ‬ਡ౭ߞԟᔍୟϢࣦ֘‫ޒ‬ȄϘߡۖϞ 1961Ր8ѡ13џ࣐งџ՝ϯȂ‫ތ‬዇ࣆܹ‫࣏ـ‬๑ჰ ់ԳԴ‫ޒࣦ֘ތ‬༡ᒝϯඛᖒȂࣦ‫ޒ‬ంթϘжऎϟȂ ඛᖒߞ࢙ӲЙ֭‫د‬Գாжუ୓‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫یدـ‬Գߞ၃ ᕻȃϠϾȃࢥྐຈўব‫׮‬؆ԑუທȄᐐᇒඛᖒϘ༟ ‫ܕ‬Ҫ࣏ᠠບᇨȂЙჅࢢ‫ڽ‬ജЂ༓෱՘‫ـ‬ி‫ߞ۽‬ᒑ ᖒȂփԴՌӲ 28 Րง༡ȂඛᖒЙᙝኧ୼ኧࡓȂփ ࢙Ӳ‫ݺ‬ඛᖒ੟᝝ߞ‫ތ‬዇г඲࢙ᒝȂϵऎϞ‫ڨ‬ѤϠӔ ంຄї‫࢏࣏ݕ‬൤ୟϸփജ‫୵ݵ‬Ȅ ࣦ‫ޒ‬ඛᖒॗࠜ 155 г‫ڧ‬Ȃॗ 3 ֌ 4 гю୼ȂӤаҳ ‫ی‬Ⴝᖒೡ՘Ȃᖒϯന၉Ϟ 302 ৎ௯ጁȃ 20 ৎླ ජȃ259ৎ់Ѳ৪ȇҳඛ࣏ϘႽ഼ცߞᠠບᇨȂც ᇨϯႅ຾֋ஜਡᕝႅ၉ȄϘߡۖϞ1989Ր11ѡ9 џϭоȂྲ‫ތ‬዇ࣆܹॎ๒ࢆֶ኿୵‫ތ‬዇ϠӔߞ੠Ⴜ নۘȂᐱ७ዴѽေ঍ߞ‫ތ‬዇ҾӔ‫ڕ‬ϯ໖ᔝȂฯԨ ࣦ‫ޒ‬ඛᖒዉૡȂ‫ڹڭ‬ӡϠϧԴඛᖒϯᣩҍϞϘৎЂ

ࣽȇ 11 ৎѡࢢȂ‫ی‬዇ೣ‫ݺ‬೚ϘȂӒՑऎඛᖒൄ՘ ࠕ 30 ՐᓐϠജࠡუȃജူᔈߞ֕ಊҫ๪ϯҮၳȄ ԴඛᖒՌӲ 28 Րѽ‫ڽ‬Ȃգ๑ዴୠِ֋Ӥߞ‫ތ‬዇Ϡ ၍๑хᠪԳళӡႯጁȃࢶԳႽȃหާຈўՑႏᄦᚙ ໸ࣦ‫ޒ‬ඛᖒȂᑂᖢႋȂϘԒգ5043Ϡ՘ґԳୟϢ ࣦ֘‫ޒ‬Ȃ3221Ϡജ༇੏Ȃ֌ь136ϠЏፁሮജ౭ ժȂ260Ϡ‫ۦ‬ཋȄЙჅജӇժߞୟϸ߰ዴՄ֌Ыӏ ‫ށ‬Ȃփ‫ۦ‬ਚ߰ೡᚐࡋᇍժϸ߰ዴՄ໹Ⴥ700Ȅ ԃ෉ᘀј৬௑‫ݷ‬Ⴊӣ ᐐᇒඛᖒం৒࢙ۖജయ৆Џգ 50 ՐȂ֭ᅆ‫ݺ‬ൊԊ ᓐ‫ڗ‬၃ᑢჅ‫ڰ‬Ԇߞࣦ‫ޒ‬ϠȂࡒ࣏๑‫ୃ؞ޱ‬ඛᖒऎ‫ێ‬ ‫ݙ‬௲‫֕ߞڽ‬ሃಊȄ 50 Րߞж໘ȂუᛓϞ๑ዴ዇஼ ਛਲȂԢዹԳȂӺ҄ϠЙ‫ߋ؞‬ᎢԺՐߞࡑҔᘹ೚Ϙ யᛟȂэ‫ߞ߰ی࣏ێ‬ఐ޶ಳ௱Գह֬Ȅฅജџӎ֫ ታ୼Ⴟ 35 ՐߞจᘿҗਫȂሃ዇஼ߞఐ޶हԢȂԴ ೐ϟըѵधЂᐼჅࢢജжᄑऎ‫ی‬ৎ֖ࣆ஡Ȃж‫־‬Ӥ ែᗑ঑യจᘿҔൊߞᇒᘑȂփࡑൊࡋӤग़஼঑യȂ ‫ݺڭ‬1948Ր՘ӲࡑҔ‫ی‬ৎࣆܹȂж‫࣏־‬Ҕൊߞจ ᘿӔѹѹ၍ϠӔԒ۶஼۶ࡑൊߞЂᘹӔ஼ȂࡑҔᘹ ӒՑ‫ڕ‬Ԩж໘Ȅ ᅆ‫یݺ‬዇೚ϘЏգ 20 ԺՐНϳȂж޼Ⴟ 60 ԺՐ ߞࡑҔᘹҞᓜ࣏‫־‬գϘ๫ไۧԴѕᔝȇ‫ێ‬ᅁ՝‫ݺ‬ 1991 ՐȂࡑҔᘹฅᜪ၌Ӗϳ۶Ӏ౧ॗ᎘ֿߞ‫۝‬ ៉Ȃႏᄦ‫ی‬஼೚ϘȂҞఓ‫ࢢێ‬ҵీȂփࠕՐҔᘹϫ ၃௱‫ݑ‬་֖Ϙ‫ࣄڱ‬ᣏߞ֖ऎȂՂж‫־‬ԴҝՐՐࠐॎ ๒‫ؽ‬ᕝ‫ڭ‬ᕝٕϘᒹࡑᘹុၟȂൄ՘ 46 ԩࡑᘹѪֻ ୱϸȇփҝՐՐܺѽфϯ༉Ϭ(10џ)ȂҔᘹԢዹ࣏ ౮๑ԐԏԳॎ๒औᕝࡑᘹߞܼ‫܀‬ਫѽфࠢࠕߞઔ ாȂє७ࡑᘹ༟औᘘᕝȂ‫ی‬஼ߞᝯ࠼ϫ԰෇ۖգՂ ᢘЕН൧ଠȂ೚ϘНџ֬ѼЪ࣏ቌቌ๑งȄ ࠒѕᗺಛΙ‫ߢޟ‬ᛤӰશ ‫ێ‬ᅁԴจᘿҗਫȂ๑Ꭲ࣏ࣆܹᘘ࣏Ӕ༡Ȃᅆ೚Ϙߞ งౕൌहညߞ୼ȇգж‫ࢽޘ‬Ȃࡑᘹ՝Րᅁ֖ߞȶ༧ ԍࣆຉȷȂӒӒ࣏ᐯ೫ညՐ֘዇ࣆܹѽ୼ിгႮ഼ ֖໱۶෱ۤᅆў៖‫޼ࣆݸ‬Ӛຈԩ၍ȂԨ‫ތ‬዇њѾϞ ॗ500ኆᑫЮȂѽ෱ۤ‫ތ‬዇Դ੠֖ȃ༎ࣆ‫ܠ۝‬ຈў ব֯ҍᢰَȇփᅟ֌1987ՐȂည੡Џգ500ေ‫ތ‬ ዇Ϡᖔ৞ۖ֘዇੠ႼȂփُՐգዴϩေ‫ތ‬዇‫ܧ‬Ӕᖔ ᜪ๴᠕࿰঒ઔҳ੠ႼȄхᣍࡑᘹయ֖ȶ༧ԍࣆຉȷ ԺՐȂҔᘹЙ֭Йߺౢ੮ȂփѷࡑҔᘹ༟‫ݸ‬ణᓐѽ ‫ڽ‬ȂُՐҪգϟȃϬպԩᛓ෸ਛ៳ఀѽԴࠛৣЋ་ ֖๺๺ϬчߞᄥᇸȂሃ‫֘ތ‬዇೚Ϙࡈߞఐ޶؆ԑ࣏ чនН‫־‬Ȅ

ࢧ‫ݓ‬㠱৤។ΰ‫ޟ‬σൽᐣѬྱа

ҔᘹЙԪ֯ߞᅗ࢘ȂൊԊ১ԯӺ࣏࿚֋‫ݺ‬К஼ȇӤ ‫ݺ‬К஼࣏Ҕᘹ൵Ђߞ໶‫ݽ‬ᄰ֡Ȃᅆ‫ێ‬෩‫޼ࣆߞڻ‬њ ෯ሃ၃ᕻ෯ׄȂ‫ڹ‬Ҕᘹକ‫ݸ‬ԇ๑ನԳȂԴ஼ቫ༡‫׮‬ ᅆ‫ێ‬ᅁࣉۘ໗ߞఐ޶ϭऔᕝࡑᘹփ๑ࢢᠪНዎȄ୵ ϞК஼Ϙߡٟգۘ໗ҔᘹȂౕؓକ‫ۘغ‬К஼ሃ࠻ᜲ ෻ক‫ߞڰ‬ग़஼Ȃᚣ຾ࡑҔᘹߞж໘Ȃग़஼କԩӒ‫ڏ‬ ༶Գѽ‫ڨ‬ѤҔᘹࡑࠬНԩȂሃࡑᘹ࢙Ӳক‫ڰ‬Ԫ֯ᝯ ࠼Ȃ‫ँڭ‬ቋᏸকȞҒࣁ੮Є‫ޠ‬ᐡȟԴࡑᘹᏸՇȂѽ ȶ࠲᠕ȷࡑᘹȂԢ੡ᆾ໛К஼ሃ࠻ᜲ෻Ȃत֌࣏‫ތ‬ ࡑ‫ڲ‬஼ਛԴক‫ڰ‬ϯߞᇌᇌ֯ऎȄԯթ஄ॶࡑҔᘹ೚ ϘȂग़஼࠮ҵҝᏸকจᘿҗਫߞನӤȂ૔᛼Ϟҁে ‫ߞڲࡑތ‬ᐼರ঍ᄑȄ ಛΙ‫ޟ‬фቋ ЙჅᐐᇒ‫ی‬዇՘ґ೚ϘȂ‫یڹ‬ᘹদᑼᅆ೚Ϙߞዓ ዗ȂЙჅੲᑂᑢҫȂ‫֘ތ‬዇ᘵ๒༶‫׀‬۶Ӏ೚ϘȂ֭ ‫઻ݙࢢێ‬ϭߞயᛟȂࡒ࣏ৃఀ‫ی‬ᘹत֌‫ێ‬ҁж໘ߞ ஼ਛ‫ݙ‬ணւሃৄᝡȄည੡‫ی‬዇೚Ϙߞᗏཕ୼ᆚȂ൵ ࢢࡒӤ‫ݺ‬ৗۜ؆՘೚ϘȂ҄‫ࢢڰ‬ಯӠϞധԺߞࢢᓷ ાȄ‫ڼ‬ՂӤ‫ތݺ‬዇ԴԒಯѹ၍ߞᇒ޼ϭȂ๑Ꭲ࣏Ӡ ಯತ‫ݕ‬၃ᕻ՘ࠜತहѧ֘዇ߞֲఀԺȄညՐऎϞদ ࢙‫ތ‬዇Ȃ዇஼ُՐ‫ظ‬Ϣ஼ӔӠಯᗁৃߞպжН4Ȅ ዇஼၃ᕻ՘ࠜತӀ‫׮‬ҪգպжН1.8ֲ‫ݺ‬ȶ၃ᕻԪ ֯۶๴ਣೡᚐȷȞOECDȟ஼ਛӀ‫׮‬պжН2.2ߞ ՘ࠜತȞग़஼࣏պжН3.2ȟȂփѷ዇஼ߞҵ྽ತ Ϙߡ୼ᏀպжН10ѽϯȄ ‫ی‬዇೚ϘНࢢȂ֘዇ЏѾҍहညЂߞ၃ᕻ҃ኊȂᑂ ࣦ‫ޒ‬Ђᐯ֤ᇖȂ‫ی‬዇೚Ϙߞ၃ᕻ҃ኊॗऎϘေУϼ ኆገЮȂѧԑ஼ߞ஼ཅᘘԺȄԯթညՐ֘዇ࣆܹѽ ෩୼ກತԯᕕᜀЂཅசȂ֭‫ތ‬዇ϠӔӺԯփജ಍ऎ ϟຈ஼ӔȄ୵թНҳȂգж‫ࢽޘ‬ҍȂӤ‫ݺ‬ည੡‫ތ‬዇ ߞ၃ᕻߐ޶഍‫ݺ‬਴ཕȂԓҐϯЙзᅁቫߞ‫ی‬዇റᅋ ָ෱ತȂ‫ތڹ‬዇ߞЍ྽ឮߋϧЂ඼ϭ੘‫ڹڭ‬ЙьЍ ዄ৆ൕȂᐱ७၃ᕻদЂྫҵȄ‫ی࣏ڹ׈‬዇೚Ϙ 20 ԺՐࢢߞЫџȂ዇஼‫ތ‬ൊЪቮ৅҂ُՐϘϼኆገЮ ߞપઅႃׄ‫ڽ‬দ࢙‫ێ‬၃ᕻȂփం֘ൊ෩‫ߞڻ‬஥ࡡႤ ׄӺ‫֘ڹ‬዇Ⴄ࿚ᇦ૿Ȃ൵ࢢᐱ७Йь൵ࠐ‫ތۦ‬዇ࣆ ܹњ෯ߞᗪӎЍ྽ቮঋ‫ټ‬գмȄԯթ๑ᎢԴ‫ی‬ᘹȂ त֌࣏К஼ҭᣉߋᎢԺՐߞ೚ϘயᛟϯȂ‫ی‬዇ߞ ՘ґ೚Ϙѽф‫઻ێ‬ϭߞࢢᓷાȂ‫ৃ׮‬ఀ‫ا‬েҝւ ዋф୅ᎢȄ

17


ዥᘈடᚠ

ᐬࢸ๼၂୦ΡኄԎ‫ڧ‬ቷ

֔ේᎃ࢐नρ੎಑Πȉ ћ/ ҏѐጡᒮഋ

8Т11РȂೝܳਐߖ10এТϞδ‫ޟ‬ᐬσց‫ᝲٳ‬๼၂୦Ρ֔ේᎃ ȞMatthew Ngȟю৳‫ڧ‬ቷȂଔວ‫ޟ‬ဌӪ࢐ਖ਼༼ਘҢϴ෡ȃୃ അМӇ‫ڷ‬൐՝՗ၧȄ֔ේᎃ࢐ࣺ࿋ԙђ‫ޟ‬ᐬᝲ๼၂୦ΡȂ‫ڏ‬ᄯ ήኄ‫ܾݍ‬ᆩ೽୦ਡၥଉ݈୛Ԥ३ϴѧӵኄԎਡၽѿൟլԤࣺ࿋ Ϛᒿ‫ޟ‬Ӌ᚞Ȃ࣏դོᎏमଔວȉ֔ේᎃਖ਼ਰȂ࡞ᜲ‫ٺ‬ΡϚ౰ҡ ᇄ‫ڍ‬ԑࠉनρ੎ਰ‫ޟ‬ᖒདȄᐬᝲ๼၂୦Ρ೿៉਻ইӵϛ୽‫ࡡݲ‬ ‫ޟ‬ಙ଻ષΰȂ࢐ϧቄጢ࢈‫ڹ‬ȉ ਰ௑ፒᚕ ‫ד‬นᏂ࣏ϿӠϿࠜߞዃՍϠȂ՝ՐႼᐯྲ֘᠋۶ᑫЂ‫ڲ׀‬Ȃ‫ ݺ‬1999 Ր԰ۖ ࣇ༏Ȃ൹࢙ϞϘৎ੠Ⴜ྽சȂԴ৖෶ߵҾϯҾߞгҦ‫ݽ‬ᇨ഼К஼ᘉ໴К஼ ஼գ੠ႼгҦߞႤಯȄҁԯᑂᇍሃҁߞԪႤᄰ֡ȂК஼஼ᖉߞዃՍᕏࡑгҦ ߞ߬૾փᏎۖКў༇੏ȄഺϘ੯ԆК൵ᝯᘣߞϘ༵ࢽఠබ࣏Ȃ‫ݽ‬ᇨ഼К஼ᕢ ѽ 8400 ေग़Юߞኊ੾௟‫ێ‬Ϙਛϭ៳гҦᎱຜငЀ੠Ⴜ༰ᄥȄ‫ݽ‬ᇨ഼К஼Դ 2007ՐȂѽ1000ေग़Ю໴ϭϞԴᕏࡑ༰ᄥࠢ៳ዃН੠ߞఠߵᡋૈȄ࣏֭Դ ᕏࡑ༰ᄥ෩ҍ‫د‬ዃН੠ᎱຜഺਛငЀ੠྽༰ᄥߞഺ༵ӹ‫ޱࠧݽ‬Нࢢҍ಩Ϟய ᛟȄ‫ד‬นᏂ‫ݺ‬ҝՐ11ѡജ੏Ȅ Դਲ኶КȂᕭўҍ‫ߞۍ‬ԺԊᝋϠᝋໟȂࢽዃՍ‫ݽ‬ᇨ഼ࢺգዃН੠28.57%ߞߵ ԊȂዃՍ㟄Н⻓ࢺգዃН੠19.47%ߞߵᡋȂዃՍ഼੠ࢺգዃН੠4.35%ߞ ߵᡋȂϬਛгҦԪ঍ԒࢺգዃН੠52.39%ߞߵᡋȄҐϯዃՍ‫ݽ‬પႤୈ‫އ‬சգ নгҦȂ‫ד‬นᏂ‫ێ‬ᅁ࣏ϯগ4ਛԋ྽ߞᅁቫఠۘϠȂ഼Ⴥϯগ4ਛԋ྽؆՘Ϟ ᅆዃН੠ߞ‫ڭ‬ᘉȄ‫ד‬นᏂН‫ݙ‬ѽȶмᑋऎწȷ՜ᘉዃН੠Ȃ࣏ऎϞᘖֺє୓ ညࠐዃН੠ඏϘЂߵ‫ތ‬ᕏࡑ༰ᄥߞަྍȄ ੲᑂఠў෩‫ߞڻ‬ԺϠᝋໟᢖӯȂ‫ד‬นᏂබ࣏ഺ‫ڱ‬Ϙ‫ڀ‬ԕгҦߞᅌࢢցᘲȄ֭ ‫ד‬นᏂԴਲϯᅆթПѽхቺȂҁҪ‫ݚ‬ሮ֋Ў࣏ዃ‫ݽތ‬ᇨ഼ߞ‫ࠑ҃ܠޱ‬ϠȂ‫ڭ‬ Й‫ݚ‬ሮ࣏ഺ‫ڀ‬ԕгҦߞᅁቫఠۘϠȄг໦ϠϫᇍȂ‫ד‬นᏂሃ‫ێ‬ҁԢ੯ϠԪ ᓖȂళۤంዃՍዃН੠஼ቫ੠֖ߤߵԊգনгҦ੗ӡႤࠛȃԨЙ‫ޱ‬ԅЬ҃ನ ᓙ႙гҦ഼ჅњѾј᠈໱ৄӡႤࠛຈўՑȂᖔۤྻ঍ਰ‫ڰ‬ச‫ߞݙ‬ᢚႤᝋ‫ࢢށ‬ ‫׈‬௟ໜҊႤࠛᎠҍᢚႤᎮїȂม᝾ዃ‫ތ‬षЍ஥֖ࣆᇒನ؊۶ዃՍҾЍ஥֖ࣆ ᇒನ؊ȂۤఀгҦҍႤߞനӲ๳ୃ۶ኧҐໜҊႤӎߞᢏ‫ـ‬๳ୃȂԒ঍ໍඡໜ ҊႤӎϠӔᅋ1ኆ3330ေЮȄ գϘຊ145ေЮߞၭ‫ڰ‬Րᗟ՘ऎ‫ޱ‬ਲᎳᝋߞҩϘ๏ᙇȄᕭўࢽఠȂജ‫ט‬ϠᏑ તऎ‫ד‬นᏂ՜ᘉఠߵዃН੠෩‫ڻ‬Ϟ࠮‫׀‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬ੲᑂ‫ࡈڰ‬ॗ‫ܠ‬Ȃ‫ד‬นᏂ‫׀‬ӡ‫ێ‬ᑉ ԇዃ‫ݽތ‬ᇨ഼஥੠ᓙ႙‫އ‬சգনгҦၭ‫ࠜڰ‬ȃᗁ၃ನ۶‫ࠑ҃ܠޱ‬Ϡߞ࠮‫׀‬౧ ԆȂఱྍႍгҦ‫ ݺ‬2008 Ր 8 ѡ֌ 2010 Ր 8 ѡѽњѾग़஼ϯҾгҦȶၭ‫ڰ‬Ր ᗟȷߞ‫؛‬ՑႦ୙ജ‫ט‬ϠᏑત಩ࠛϠӔᅋ145ေЮȂ‫ڭ‬ധᓚᏑત઻ԇዃН੠ၭ ‫ࠜڰ‬Ȅ‫ד‬นᏂᅹ՘Ϟඏ֖֜Ⴆ။ȂփᏑતᅹ՘Ϟ‫ۦ‬Ⴆ။Ȅ ᕭў෩‫ߞڻ‬ᝋϠᝋໟᢖӯȂᏑત‫׀‬ӡ‫ێ‬ԴዃН੠ߞທᅆ዆ᠩϧȂฅఱྍዃН ੠୼ᇒঋ୨Ԫ‫ݽ‬ᇨ഼ўব؆՘ᅆ৶Ѝߵߞ՜ᘉȂԴᕏࡑ༰ᄥЬϢࢢȂᏑતϫ ሃ‫ד‬นᏂु‫ٿ‬ᅆຉȂ‫׀‬ӡ୼ᛝჁॗࠛߞўՑᕝଡ଼ᕏࡑ༰ᄥ՜ᘉ৶Ѝߵߞ঍ ᄑȄ֭Ꮡતᅆթࠑӯ‫׎‬ሮȂȶԴዃН੠၃ᖉўবȂ‫ܠߺا‬գ࢝Ђߞ዆ᠩϧȂ ȷᏑતሲȂȶ֭‫ތߵ࣏ا‬ԇ‫ߞۻ‬၃ᖉᇒನ߰ȂփѷҪ֫գ࢝ьߞߵԊȂЙҞ କᅆ‫ێ‬ҁߵ‫ތ‬ᚼᢰߵᡋգ႖ሬᡋȄԴȞ‫ד‬นᏂȟ՜ᘉ৶ЍߵԊჅ຀КȂ‫ا‬ٟ գணሃ‫ێ‬КȂփѷϵҪ࣏‫ࢢڰ‬ЖߢႽ৶ЍߵߞߵᡋᚼᢰϞȄȷ ‫ݲ‬৳ϱѴ ਲ኶Ⴥ຀КȂ‫ד‬นᏂߞ᠜᠕ࢠਰ൘գ֘ѽ‫ޱ‬ਲٟգ෩‫ږڻ‬௉੡༡ᏦۡऎӤȂ Ժը෩ҍঋညਲᏦۡȂऎթȂѹ኶‫ܡޱ‬ऎ࠲᠕ജ‫ט‬ϠᡋૈȂฅϘ࢘ԃਲȄԴ г໦ϠᏦᡝᏑતߞϾ‫ࢢڻ‬ȂᏑતѽୃЙ౻ऎӤঋِᏦۡȂ‫ڭ‬ঋِ᠜᠕ࢠਰൖ ԢᏦᡝϾ‫ڻ‬ȂᅆթȂѹ኶‫ࢽܡޱ‬ӯ‫ޱ‬ਲЍ֯Ϡ৶‫׀‬ӡКоߞ੡༡ᢰг໦Ϡ෩ ‫ڻ‬Ͼ‫ێڻڻ‬ᏦۡȄ೐ϟчϭоȂ‫ד‬นᏂߞ᠜᠕ࢠਰ൘գ֘ϫѽӏକ҇жᏦۡ ऎӤȂঋِညਲᏦۡȂѹ኶‫ࠑܡޱ‬ӯҞѽԃਲȂᢰ᠜᠕ࢠਰ҇жᏦۡࢢԓ༟ ਲȂऎթ‫ޱ‬ਲԃਲ5жៗȄԴਲ኶Ⴥ຀КȂ‫ד‬นᏂԴ᎘ф‫܍‬Є੡ฅϘ࢘ၢಊȄ

18

ኄԎѿϛ઻‫ݲ‬଱‫ޟ‬ω࠮ቷր৳

֔ේᎃ

‫ד‬นᏂߞ᠜᠕ࢠਰ࣏‫ڴ‬ᓊࢠਰ༰ᄥߞѹԇ൘գ֘ࢠਰȂҁฅᑉԇჅ‫ق‬ഄߞ᠜ ᠕ࢠਰȄ൘գ֘ऎ‫ד‬นᏂஇϞ๑။᠜᠕Ȃȶգᝯഺұৎ။ԩȂ‫ד‬นᏂൌ࣏Й ሮ။ߞȂഺ؆ԑ࣏၃ᕻ߬૾֖ऎȂЙᕕႍ‫ع‬ҁȷ൘գ֘ሲȂȶੲᑂည‫ڰ‬Ϡߞ ྍ᝸Ȃ‫ا‬ऎҁஇϞ๑။᠜᠕ȄȷԴ঵џਲ኶ຕ‫ࢢف‬Ȃ൘գ֘ฅత‫ۦ‬ళണ੡ࠑ ӯȂȶዃՍҾК୰ߞ኶ನ࣏ࠧ௱гӒߞȂ࠲᠕Ϟജ‫ט‬Ϡߞ᠜᠕ᡋȃ൘໦ᡋȂ ϵ࠲᠕Ϟࢠਰ֯ᝋߞᡋ‫׀‬ȄȷЙჅȂϵգඡᐱሲȂ‫ޱ‬ਲપྍᓴᑄϞϘৎҪକ ਟૼ20ԺԩᡘಿߞЈ࡭኶ֿਲ་֖೮ୈȂԩऎг༟኶ನȂ‫ێ‬ᅁ‫ڭ‬๑ԺьϠକ ௉಩ඞᣍऻȄӤ‫דݺ‬นᏂ࣏ᑫឱົϠȂᑫЂ‫ڲ׀‬ᏸዃՍታ‫ڰ‬ᔡँҍϠ৶ҍਲ ੟ᡘϞӎ੯ਲ኶ȄԴ঵џਲ኶੡Ȃ‫ד‬นᏂߞ‫דܓܓ‬ដঐࡋԴ‫ޱ‬୰ࠝϾత‫ۦ‬Ϟ КҳණᢜߞళണȄ‫ד‬ដঐሲȂՁ‫ؙؙۖڍ‬ጴϞϘ‫ڱ‬Ȃᇟૠϵٟգ১‫ߞڽ‬ՀȄ Ձሲ֋ЎЙ࣏гҦ㡯ߞϠȂЙ౻྾੯Ԇߞ‫ۍ‬ᢜఐ޶Ȃ֭Ձहࠫ‫ؙؙ‬๑။Ȅ नρ੎಑Πȉ Ղ‫ލ‬ᡝ߰ᅆ‫ד‬นᏂߞ᎑ᛔ੯ఐྏٟۖգᔝᇰȂ‫ڤ‬ኃਟຊ߰֯Ϙৎᚎॗߞႋ ៖Ȉੲᑂఠўߞሲ‫ޱ‬Ȃ‫ד‬นᏂԴ՜ᘉዃН੠ߞჅ຀КȂళӡϞ‫ی‬ৎ‫ث‬Ҽ‫ߞݑ‬ ј‫ޱ‬Ȃ‫ێ‬Ϙ࣏‫د‬՜ᘉ֖ஜжӤϬਛгҦ་֖Ȃᖔఀᗁ঍໹Ⴥ 50 ʦߞߵᡋȂ ֌‫ێݺ‬К‫ی‬ਛሃ‫ד‬นᏂ‫ڭ‬๑‫ށ‬ፁᝯ࠼ߞгҦȂऎतኃྻᡘం‫ד‬นᏂߞՉవȂ ѽфᑋৎࢽఠ࣏‫៳׎‬ᅁȂҳधЙఀփߢȇ‫ێ‬ϟ࣏‫ד‬นᏂԴ੯๴ࡈߞϘࣱ੡༡ ႆȂሃዃН੠ߞᅁቫᇒನ߰ᏑતைᏳϞ‫ډ‬ՀߞৎϠᝯ࠼Ȃ‫ڹ‬ఀ՜ᘉࣿஜକ௉ ༶‫׀‬་֖ȄփӫࡈȂӤ‫דݺ‬นᏂӇᇖ‫ د‬1000 ေЮᘉϢߞዃН੠ѽ 8400 ေ Юߞኊ੾ᚼјҍᎱȂ҄ዃН੠ߞࡈ‫ތ‬ਛᕏࡑ༰ᄥྏۖϯည‫ۦ‬᝾Ȃԯթ෩୓໦ ഩȄ ЙఀЙሲȂ୵ࠧգ௻գϧߞᝋᑂᝋ‫דށ‬นᏂԴᑋৎჅ຀Кգม໤‫ࠛ߰ݕ‬ᓿӹ ‫ݽ‬Ȃ‫᝱࢝ࡋ׎‬ሲ‫ד‬นᏂգЦኃயᛟȄᝯ‫ݺ‬ȶ‫ד‬นᏂЙఠߵߞгҦऎ֣ᡘం‫ד‬ นᏂߞ঍ᄑȷȂҪକሲ࣏ϠਛгҦ֋Ўߞ၃ᖉᓴᑄȂ‫ݕ‬ധፁᅁ࣏ജ‫ד‬นᏂߞ ঍ᄑӇஜϞȄփ‫ד‬นᏂຠ࢞Ꮡતߞఐ޶ȂබՀᄊ࣏‫ו‬Йম‫د‬ᜃҸߞਐ‫܌‬୙ຜ ૨гЄಳϠȂ൵ೣᢰ֋Ўߞ‫ۊ‬Єညϯ૨‫ܕ‬ऱȂ֋Ўϵබԯթ՘ऎ૨஼ߞᅁቫ ෠ᡋ߰˕˕ഺ࣏ϘᇌК஼ՑߞขዊȂ֌‫׎࣏ݺ‬ԪѼК஼‫ࢠޱ‬ȂߋᎢߞ᏶Գබ ࢝ЂϞȄ ‫ד‬นᏂϘ੯Ȃ᝱ֺ҄Ϡᅆ‫ی‬Րࡈ๴Ӡߞ१Ѐઍ੯ԆಯӠᗑྐȄ 2009 Ր 7 ѡ 5 џȂК஼၃Ꭰࣤ๴಩ϧ‫ݤ‬༰ᄥᏸϯઔᓱ‫ڰ‬഍ߞ঵ਯ҃ࠑ१Ѐઍф၃ನኒЖ ቾȂ৶ЍѳࡌȃၩӔ௻ұϠԯઘཻԴ་ҍϾᠠឩӮ໶‫ݽ‬᎘ֿง༡Ȃ഼Ⴥ‫ݛ‬ ᜇȃ՜໴К஼аൊϠ৶ऎᄩҳ‫ە‬ణ۶ᢄۤК஼஼ਛᑟ௜ȂജК஼஼ਛՉԑᑟ ᝯ‫ޱڶ‬Ԗ‫઻ݲڰ‬Ȅ8ѡ12џȂК஼ᕭᅅϠ৶ӒՑ༇੏ϞϯগұϠȂҁেജఠ ࠬӚ஥྽૪௜۶ႦႩȄփ။ԩϵంНࡈߞȶ‫ە‬ణȃᢄۤК஼஼ਛᑟ௜ȷᢏ‫ـ‬ ऎȶઘཻࠬӚ஥྽૪௜။ȃࠧ஼ਛЍ֯Ϡ৶‫ۦ‬Ⴆ။ȷȄ2010Ր3ѡ29џȂϯ ઔҾ೐ϘКૺϠӔ‫ޱ‬୰ᅆӎ੯֯ҍϘ኶ֿٙȂ१ЀઍȃѳࡌȃၩӔ௻ȃኒЖ ቾຈϠᖔԖ7-10ՐЙຈȄ ည੡Ȃ१Ѐઍ੯ฅє୓һЂхᠩȄᑫЂ‫ࣆڲ׀‬ध۶஥धᅆႍ੯Ԇхᕕ௻ધȂ ᑫўࣆܹබթ‫ڰ‬Ϭ࢘ҡ‫ڍ‬К஼���ᑫЂ‫ڹ‬ȂᅆК஼ўবҐᕅȄփ੡ԇᑫЂ‫ڲ׀‬ ᗁನߞ൙ֹћϘ༟‫ֹۘࢺܕ‬ᅗ࢘ȂҪឍ‫ט‬ԧधл௟թ‫޼ࣆڰ‬мȂ֭ᔌࢢ‫ڏێ‬ ᎢᏎۖ஼аಿԺ‫ڏ‬Ꭲߞ‫ز‬ໞȂࢢࠑᅗȶ಩༥ࣱȂ‫ا‬Йԓஃ઻ԴЂ‫߰ݕڹ‬ҳӹ ኸবߞ୅ᎢȂ‫ا‬ᝯзߞ࣏Ȟઘ੯৶ЍȟߞৎϠᡋૈȄȷȂ‫ڭ‬ᗏᇍȶթ੯ᅆᑫ Ђ‫ڲ׀‬۶К஼փ‫ڏ‬ൌ‫׀‬ਚ‫ؾ‬ᝯȷȄઔҳණᢜԴໞᎢКᅆ‫ݺ‬К஼ߞ‫޼ޱ‬෩ҍϞ ЙьྋໟȂѹঋ༰КԴȈऎ֣ঋԴ؆ԑუທҳधߞఐ޶ϭ་֖኶ֿȉԴК஼ Цኃᅹ՘Ӛ။ȉК஼ߞ‫ࢠޱ‬Ꮛӡ࣏‫׎‬ऎϘര‫ߞݑ‬ȉК஼ߞ஥྽ᖖᄩ࣏‫࣏׎‬ᢰ ҳԋȶЙఀЙȷ֖Ⴆߞ။ቾᇋ঵ȉԢ੡ȂϵգϠሮऎԴȶϧ‫ݤ‬੯ȷКȂҳў ߞѹঋҵሱᢜ಩ԴȈࠜงѽ‫ڽ‬ᅆҳԋߞԴົ୼ᇒᆾᇒЙϧȇ‫ڶ‬๒ЙᖢႋՂ֣ ሃК஼ࣆܹӇӹႽȇࣆ޼᝱ᛟНϯᘘգћм᝱ᛟȂѧՂᅆȶᝯ࠼ȷഺϘᑾપ ߞК஼஥྽ћмߞ഍ನຈȄ ం१Ѐઍۖ‫ד‬นᏂȂᢖӯК஼‫ࢠޱ‬Ъӏକᛃ౻஥྽ࣿஜКԧᇌ֖ऎߞᝯ࠼Ȃ ϘўবຜᇌᇌЙည֖ऎ઻ϭ‫ࢠޱ‬ѽҳߞࣿஜߩ༡ȂҩϘўবϫ‫ڹ‬ఀ‫ڗ‬Դ‫ێ‬༡ ߞϠЙఀЙᔌ੡বᅆ‫ߞࢠޱ‬ୠჀȄ‫ࢠޱ‬ሬಘЙႎȂϠ޼ߩ༡һЂȂഺ‫ݕ‬ധӒ ۶К஼ՑขዊߞਇႮȂ֭ທᅆЙ࣏಩҃м஼ਛߞ֖ऎጀՑȂϘߡѽ‫ڕ‬Ԩѵध ऎϾၳߞК஼Ȃᕕႍւዋ֯ҍहᕕߞ‫ؼ‬ᢏȄ


ዉ࿗᠍ߔ ኈ‫ݲ‬৫ོԙ‫ݎ‬

଒ငੑ਀

‫ܘࢸٳ‬Ӵ౰߬ଊஅߜġĩήĪ ӒՂϯงຊ߰‫ݙ‬ሲȂЂൊжԴশสӹ‫ࠫߞݙݽ‬୉௄ ࠛൌ࣏Ӥ๴ਣ஥ᅮϭߞߏ྽ж‫ݵ‬փ՘Ȃ‫ێ‬КҒࣁϞ ୧ܸߏ྽Ȃ஥྽ߏ྽‫ݕ‬წழߏ྽ऎѹঋೡԪȂຊ߰ ‫ྐݙ‬۶Ђਛж‫ߞڳ‬Ϙৎ‫ڼ‬Єබ࣏ࠜᅁᅮϭߞ७නಯ ྽ࠫ୉Ȅ७නಯ྽ࠫ୉࣏ѽশสწழߏ྽ѽфஃ‫ژ‬ ඞऎѹȂ࣏ࠜᅁᅮϭ‫୸ی‬ԴশสϯҾߞ௄ࠛНϘȂ փЂߵ‫ࠜތ‬ᅁ࣏ࢺգ‫ ێ‬31.6% ߞᡋૈȄഺ௄ࠛᅮ ϭࢺգϩұৎწழߏ྽ȂԳᙇ჆ҿϝᔷ۶ྲधȂҒ ࣁْӣ೐Ϙࡱߏ྽Ȃ୺ᏬЋዃඞȂ௟কᑫൌྻ஥ ඞȂ॓஛ൌྻ஥ඞຈຈȄփ७නಯ྽ߞϩұৎწழ ߏ྽ൌ‫֋ڽ‬Ђߵ‫ࠜތ‬ᅁȂ‫ێ‬КУৎ࣏2003Րࠜᅁ ж‫ݵ‬७නಯ྽ԴྲҐ‫܂‬ϯҾ੡ަϢȂҩҳбৎࡋ ࣏Դ2005Րѽ҃ኊสЮȞϭԢȟϬϩұኆᙇұЮ ԨࠜᅁᘉϢߞȄ७නಯ྽գ2003ՐߞϬϩϬኆЮ ۖҝՐܺऎѤЏ၃ϯп֌ϘպϬϩϬኆЮȂփԺՐ ‫ߞڽ‬ᗁႤಯೢᒕኧ࣏ࠜ୼ႿϬ঺Ȅ࢝Ժᑫࣷߞ‫ݗ‬Գ ಯࠫ୉௄ࠛൌ࣏ᗝཅႿۖႤಯߞպжНϛϩȂփԴ ࠛᓉઔኣНࢢ࢝Ժ‫ݗ‬Գಯࠫ୉௄ࠛൌሲ‫ێد‬঑ཅิ ֲȂ‫ێ‬ᅁՂ‫ྍ઻ލ‬ϘϭȂҁেᘘ࣏գպжНУϩ ֌бϩߞᗝཅȄփ७නߞಯ྽ࠫ୉Դ൵ࠕ‫ݙ‬๴ࠑߞ Ⴄಯ঑ཅѧತൣ๒ԴҝՐߞ 23.7% ফ֌ҝՐܺߞ 21% Ȅ‫ݙ‬ѽҞѽ‫ڍ‬ఀഺ‫ڱ‬ԴশสϯҾߞ‫ݗ‬Գಯࠫ ୉௄ӎϯ࣏हည࠲ՇԳᑆ֯ȄЂਛൌ‫ށ‬Ө‫ݗ‬Գಯ൵ ѹঋߞ՜ૈබ࣏૧ࠛߞ՜ૈȂӤ‫ݺ‬Ђਛൌ‫ށ‬Өۖশ ส஥྽ጁՆѽфწழጁՆߞ૧ࠛࢺ᠈ϯпߞᝯ࠼Ȃ

ఖυԙᓸ ᔖԤ௦৷

ћ/ नოᓸ౩଒ོॎৱ

ࢺգഺ‫ڱ‬՜ਿߞߏ྽‫ێ‬ᅁ࣏Ϙৎहညᜦஉѽф‫׀‬ጛ Ⴕ୼ߞ‫ظ‬Ⴄஇ‫ޱ‬ȄᑂҾඞгֶȂ७නಯ྽ᅮϭߞ஥ ඞЫՐգ 35% ߞ૧ॗۖงȂփᅮϭ஥ඞߞ૧ࢉѹ ঋ࣏໹ૺҾඞȂᔠ༼঴ၒȂ቙֖ȂԳಯ҃ನѽфి ‫ڈ‬ᑟᅹȂփϘଠᑆ֯ᜦஉѽфգೀԍߞ‫ݗ‬Գಯ௄ࠛ ‫ྻـ‬௱௱‫د‬წழ஥ඞЙᙝᚙྲ๒ࢢҐϢ‫ـ‬Ժწழܸ Ꮫ঴ၒȂ๒ࢢ‫ـ‬ҐєϢ጗ࣹ஥Ꮫᔹм૧їೡԪȄ࢝ Ժ੡৏ᚙྲНࢢ‫ݙ‬௲‫ߞڽ‬԰ඡತ୼Ⴟᛕ֜ዴՄȄփ ѽӫࡈ७නߞኊ֜‫ێ‬ՐਿತႿۖбᙇϘᶔȂ෱ϘҮ ႖‫ڽ‬ሲҪ࣏՜૧࠮գ໹ჅպжНбߞ԰ඡತȂഺ‫ڭ‬ ЙҒࣁӏ‫ߞڽ‬ႤࠛϯпѽфԳಯኊ੾ϯпߞ԰ඡȄ ഺᇌႤಯՂ‫࣏ލ‬ѧႵࢧ་ߞ௄ࠛ၃ನ࠮ྻ‫ێد‬঑ཅ щ୼փ‫ـ‬ҐኧҐ‫ێ‬԰ඡತȂԯऎশสߞৄᓿ‫׀‬ਿѧ ᑫࣷऎֲȂ࣏֭ഺৎ௄ࠛ‫ڭ‬ٟգഺዹஇȂ‫ڶ‬๒ళۤ ѧႵᜦஉӀᜦߞஇ‫ޱ‬ȄԴहѧႵНϭЂਛҞѽऻఀ ۖ‫ێ‬ᅁ࢝Ժ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ሱྻѽऎ‫ظߞࣷڲ‬Ⴄѧᑫࣷলᔍ ऎ୼Ȃഺৎ࢝Ժ੡৏ຊ߰ះఀ࣏Ϙৎ࢝ទদߞሱ ႋȂѽфᅆԧᇌҾඞߞߢᝊളѻߞຕ‫ލ‬Ȅ թћൢ៳‫ݺ‬Ϙଠ‫ߞݑ‬Ⴄਫ਼Ȃ‫ڭ‬Йକ҃ࠑԇ֣ߞ‫ظ‬Ⴄ‫ݕ‬ನ ୑ߞࢽᐱȄՂգྍஇԇ֣‫ظ‬Ⴄ‫ݕ‬ನ୑ўবߞٙ‫ܠ‬Ȃ᎛Ԑ ԨఋߞໜҊನ୑௞ਛ‫ྻݕ‬঍ਰࣤ႙Ȃ‫ݕ‬ᗑປ१ᄜᔷನ୑ ‫ڰ‬ச‫ݙ‬Ȅც႖(02) 9211 0228; ᇨ‫׬‬: www.simonwu. com.auȄ१ᄜᔷನ୑‫ڰ‬ச‫ ࣏ݙ‬Premium Wealth Management (AFSL No: 237498)ߞ՘৶НϘȄ

ћ/ Xinhua ገဖ܎৶ྻѹਯॶᑨȅத‫ׅ‬਄ᆬȅѐᜲ֥ሃ঑യ၃ ᕻ۶റᅋ‫ڰ‬சߞ܎৶ླྀ‫׀‬ȅჩਾ 16 џ౎༡๴ࠑᗑ Ԫᗏ‫ށ‬Ȃᅆ‫ޱ‬዇‫ی‬஼ታᐱϠညчྻ౏ߞ՘‫ࠑލ‬ӯᡌ ࠓȄᗏ‫ށ‬ሲȂթը‫ޱ‬዇ታᐱϠ෩ҍߞ‫ؼ‬ভ࢙៉࣏จ ຾Ґ௻ገЮ஡၃ᕻ޼ನᘙҍߞҞඈϘَȂȶҹে࣏ ዇‫ޱ‬ഺ‫ی‬ৎገЮ஡൵Ђߞ՘৶஼ᅆညࡈߞ‫ׅ‬ϧஇҍ ߞদঋࣆ޼୒ឥȷȄѐᜲ֥۶ჩਾԴᗏ‫ށ‬КࢽҍȂ ገЮ஡ӫࡈবᗜߞࣄᐼ౻྾Գࠑ‫ށ‬ȂԒԢߞറᅋቮ ঋԒԢжᑉയԇȂቮঋ་ϘَҐ௻၃ᕻࣆຉ‫۝‬ᎠȄ ᗏ‫ށ‬ሲȂ࢙ӲϘਇገЮ஡ߞ‫ܠ۽‬ᑟۘȂ‫ܠ‬งᗝ֖ਪ ྻȂ‫ڭ‬നӲϘৎ௱ԇѹਯȂഺ‫៉࢙ڱ‬ൌգׄ‫ݺ‬Ꮾ‫۽‬ ገЮ஡ߞࣆ޼ታᐱϧȄᗏ‫ށ‬ᘘᅆ‫ޱ‬዇ታᐱϠ෩ҍߞ ঋԴԧ՘৶஼ᐳ‫ޱ‬К኷Ϣఠۘཅச১ࡋߞ෩៉ࠑӯ ᡌࠓȂ‫ڭ‬ሮऎ‫ޱ‬዇գᝯ༟ወࠛᓉӹ‫ݽ‬ກߞѹ௺Ҟᢰ ࠛᓉᑟᅹ‫ݚ‬ᑉ୓‫ـ‬ԪನߞയԇȄᗏ‫ށ‬ሲȂገဖ܎৶ ྻ௟࢝‫أ‬බࠛᓉ྽ወກயᛟҍሂӲ‫៉࢙ޱ‬Ȃ‫ྻڭ‬ѽ ‫ޱ‬዇ਪྻ՘‫ލ‬ऎ௄ᚂȂయஜገဖаൊߞहᝯ୅ᎢȂ ߋۤԴӏ‫ڽ‬ዴ۹аੋҍ‫ۍ‬ᢜ࢙៉Ȅ‫ޱ‬஼ᗁ೚Һҟ ‫ݛ‬ȅᚠॊኅ۶዇஼ᗁನՉ੾‫ݛ‬ȅᔵֹᆬ 16 џԴѐ ᐌᗝ֖ྻ౏Ȃ୫ᅆࠕ‫ڽ‬գ‫ݙ‬෋мߞҾඞ‫؛‬ཕȂ஥୅ Ղ֣ᕕᅆϳ‫ݳ‬ЙٙߞገЮ஡ѹᡋཅசԟᑟȄ‫ی‬஼ታ ᐱϠԢྍȂ௟ԒԢ෩ҍ՘ӲገЮ஡၃ᕻࣆܹȃ՘৶ ஼ᅁࣉ୑ࣆӀᓊࣆຉȃወ՜ࠛᓉӹ‫ݽ‬ກຈ࢙៉Ȃѽ Ґ௻ገЮ஡၃ᕻ޼ನȂᕕᅆӫࡈገЮ஡বᗜߞཅச ۶၃ᕻኧࠜԟᑟȄ

ѕ۬໌ওϛЖ0ѕ۬ VCE டऋᏰ଱

օձԙђȊ Ϸਮ50໢

อૠᖵ‫ࠏפګڣ‬՗Κ‫ீء‬መᆄᖂ‫ەس‬ၞထ‫ټ‬壄૎խᖂΔ૎թఄ֗ᛧք‫ߏڣ‬ ‫ீټم‬ᑻᖂ८ᖂ‫ۯ‬Δ‫ګ‬ᜎጠগΜ‫ࡻޢ‬೏խᄎ‫ە‬ΔՕᖂԵᖂ‫ە‬ᇢ‫ګ‬ᜎ၌ᆢΜ

ѕ۬໌ওȂᐣѬோδȂৱၥᓺ‫ي‬Ȃհ‫़ى‬ϗȂఀᏰᇯઍȊ ᏰҡԙђȂᆎࠅӒᐬȂӨࣸড়ߝȂο࿬ၷၾȂᄂՍӪᘪȊ

օௌ፽ΰᏰཾԙђϞၯ ѕ۬੫ᘈ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ి‫ل‬ᑾપȂᇟѕ፠ۘȄ Ԫ੾௞྽ցਰԇిȄ գ‫ڀ‬೚ᐯ೫ȂిᐯሮૌȄ ᑢՐւႏ՘ᖻ൵ᔹ‫ٽ‬Ȅ ȶ୼ੜକȷЈ઱ۘిᐯȄ ‫ܠ‬งໞ֤ᐯ྽՘ᖻȄ ֺ໱෩‫ࡗڈిڻ‬႙Ȅ

γܻΞТΪΙРࠉൢ᠞ ಑ѲᏰ෈፞แ‫ޱ‬ џ‫ٴ‬Ԥ੫տᓺඏȕ

௞྽୊ፚ(FASTRAIN Prep 1,2,3,4,5,6ԧૺ) ւጨᐯࠛ0‫ټ‬Ӳԩ੭0ᇟॻᐯ੭0Ӂ‫ۊ‬ขକ୊ፚ઱ ॊӫȈॻћȂॻሬ኷֯ȂዴᐯȂขକ௱ᝊ ୊ፚࢥւ0࿤ፁକϧȂ෩୼ᐯ྽ѪӀȂᕕѾւႏ

ᇟॻКᐯ(Year 7-12) VCE (ॻȂዴȂನȂмȂॊᐯ) Ȇ!ኅ൯ϛ֌ϩϟՐૺԧॊVCE SUCCESS COURSES Ȇ!ϣ/ϝ/ϩՐૺᇟॻКᐯᚼᐯ઱ ᠍ߔ୤ᢎҏਮ୽ሬᆩၯȈInternet:

www.north-shore.com.au

පӪᐬહ

ᏎᅭҏϷਮġᒲϴਢ໢

಑ѲᏰ෈ཱི೩ዩᏰߜ ዁ᔣՃၐଋጛੲ ࣏౪᠞Ϥԑ઻Ᏸҡྥര ijıIJijԑߑዩᏰߜЅ ᆠ़ϛᏰՃၐϞ҆ও፞แ Ȇ፞แొᇐłńņœЅņťŶŵŦŴŵ ġ ՃၐϞӒഋϱৠ Ȇ᚞Ѵѓࢂቸհ‫׬‬ѽώհ֫

Ӫ᚞Ԥ३ȂൢӪ௃ഀȕ

BUNDOORA ж੭ Bundoora Secondary College ࣐งб!9:00am-5:00pm BURWOOD ։ீ Blackburn English Language School ࣐งб!9:00am-5:00pm ࣐งџ!9:00am-12:30pm DANDENONG ։ீ Noble Park Seconday College ࣐งб!1:00pm-6:00pm FOOTSCRAY ։ீ Footscary City College ࣐งџ!9:00am-5:00pm HAWTHORN։ீ Hawthorn Secondary College ࣐งб!9:00am-5:00pm SPRINGVALE։ீ Westall Secondary College ࣐งџ!9:00am-5:00pm

MelbourneᖂਮȈ50 Rutland Rd, Box Hill ᠍ߔࢥၚȈ(03)9898 9880 ࢑෈ΠՍϤ 10:00am-6:00pm ࢑෈ϲ/Р9:00-5:00pm 19


Ԥᜰࢥၚџᖒ๜RBSMorgans‫ཾࢸٳ‬୛кᆓങ੝৳

଒ငੑ਀ ӈդᅸ୰᠍ߔᖒ๜ҏ՗ࢥၚȄ

ӱ៫Ι໊

Raymond Chan www.raymondchan.com.au

Raymond Chan Head of Asian Desk RBS Morgans ग़஼෩୼ཅசϯনߞᐂነȂ҄ዾ෼૔чଣԳফֲग़ ஼ѹᡋࠫӡໞૺȂ঑ཅჅদє๴ߞЙᜦ‫ܠ‬ᙖ෸֌ԑ ಧȄԧԳߵҾබᄊ‫ױ‬ჅЋ‫ژ‬ϘዹȂඏџޯ඼වѼႿ ֌5%Ȅ ዉࢸѵ՗ҍјВჰཅҾȂЂᗝ໴ϢྍЂ‫׀‬۶֘઱Ѱ ஼ཅȂ‫د‬ථਿತంбᶔѽϯᕅֲ֌తࠕУᶔѽϯߞ ѪӀȄገࣷҴ֖ߞӫዾȂ࣏‫ید‬஼ߞϩՐงཅ‫ۓ‬ථ ਿತᕅֲ‫ݺ‬УᶔѽϭȂऎ‫ی‬஼൹ൄᜦ‫ܠ‬ф՘ӎႵֲ ߞᓉႤᖖᄩȄ ԑಧߞ቙֖ߵެᕅٕদȂग़஼቙֖фࠅᅮ቙֖ߞༀ ඼໹Ⴥ‫ی‬՘Ȃ҄Ϡྐ୓2008Րჩத҈‫ؙ‬৆ൕ‫ݙ‬ៈ ๴ߞാ֚ߵ‫٭‬Ȅገཅԟᑟ፺ܼȂЙ‫׀‬ገࣷ቙֖྽ߞ ᘀ‫ڏ‬ұ୓Ȃ‫ޱ࣏ݺ‬஼ȃྍЂ‫׀‬ȃ֘઱Ѱ۶ѧ‫׀‬੡୫ ᅆৎ‫ࠛ־‬ᓉߵᅁࣉऎงϩУчߞެߩူ҄ȄႤࠛ૾ ૾ᅣҍग़஼ߵೈ௄ࠛȂዴ༓Н୼࣏2008Րѽ‫ڽ‬Н ൵ȂЙьႤࣹࠛϢ಩ࠛҾඞ௄ࠛȞໜȈੲᑂ୚Ԩ‫ظ‬ ႤನᎢȂഺ࣏ѱҾদᗜߞ໪ወȟȄ ԴҾඞ૾ᙘНቫȂࠛኊࢧпȂϘ࢘ᎏϯُ૊ Ҧ1817ग़Юߞᑢҫྲ୼Ȅӹ‫ݽ‬༓۶ޯ඼ࢧ пȂ߿Ґ৯஥ࡡӹ‫ݙݽ‬ȞChicago Mercantile ExchangeȟঋϯᎠงࠛ࠲ᝋࠛঋِȄࠛኊϯ༉՜ ඡ1741ЮȂԑ༉ೢп5%Ȅ ᐬ޶ΠԻᆣӫࡾኵం4,105ᙇп֌4,172ᙇȂп඼ 1.6ʫȄ‫߰ݕ‬ԴॶВՐࢢȂ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰԰ᠪഺৎ࣐งߞ ࢽዴȂྻሱѽऎഺ࣏Ϙৎ౶ᔖߞӹ‫ݽ‬༉ȄߵҾԴϘ чНаࢧിхዅȂϯϭޯ඼Ⴟ6ʫߞȶЂ‫܈‬ᚹџȷ ௟ྻജᓷ‫؞‬Ȅ РҏЅ࿅ρѵ՗ԓ࢘ҍјВჰབྷҾȂ௻֖ᕅ‫غ‬ӎ஼ റᅋߞпৃി࢘Ȅ֌‫֯ݺ‬ऎ‫ࣷڲ‬ኧࠜ໪ወߞᑫЮȂ ϯ࣐งಳ௱ޯஜȂ֭ԴҾඞলᔍ।ૼ԰෇֌Ӓ௱Ѫ Ӏࢢхዅ֌1.035ग़ЮȄࠛኊфቚኊᛕᛕϭༀȂж ‫־‬ༀ1.7%۶2.6%Ȅ ᛳറ඼୽ሬ୦ࠢࡾኵҺܾᏵᜌȞJim Rogers RICI indices Exchange Traded Certificatesȟ ་ۤȞAssertiveȟߞ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ȂЙ‫׸‬ւዋ‫ظ‬ႤԴᜲ ൰෻஼ቫ஥ࡡࢽዴӹ‫ݽ‬ᐴᝋȄഺ༵‫ظ‬Ⴄಯࡡ௟ྻ Դᑫࣷᝋӹ‫ݙ‬ϯҾȂգᒸᎷߞࢉїϵҞԴϟૺҾ ඞ‫ૼכ‬Ȅ ຊ߰ྐᚣഺৎᑟྻȂຜЂਛЬ೜ഺ༵‫ظ‬Ⴄಯࡡߞપ Ꮃȃᔹᙇ۶লᔍȄ ࣥቄ࢐ᛳറ඼୽ሬ୦ࠢࡾኵᓺϽࡾኵȞRICI enhanced indexȟ? • ࢽዴ௄ᚂԺЮмȂӤ36ᇌЙԢ஥ࡡೡ՘ȄӒՂ ᜲ൰෻ӎϠ‫ڏݙ‬Ȉȶҹхُ࣍чӠࣿ۶ӠՅ‫ݙ‬Ӆቮ ߞ՘ӎȄȷ

• ࢽዴಉሏԑಧ၃ᕻ‫ݙ‬ቮߞԧᇌ஥ࡡȂҒࣁႺ ಯࡡȃକ࿚۶ࠛ៳ȄࢽዴѧদӤᜲ൰෻ᓐ֋ᑆ ϥᇒನȇ

20

• Դ2007ՐȂऱਛែ੾᠋቙֖Ȟ‫࣏׈‬ӎ֖ȟሃᜲ

кौॳᓎ

൰෻Ԫ֯ന঍ഺ༵ᔹмࢽዴȄ‫ا‬েѹঋ഼ჅࠛᓉӠ Ѝ‫ۍ‬ȞՂงᡋȟୠᚸᜲ൰෻஼ቫ஥ࡡࢽዴߞࠑ಩Ȅ

• ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰‫ڭ‬Йྻ‫ظ‬ႤԴᅁቫ஥ࡡϯȂփ࣏‫ظ‬ႤԴ

٥ࣥቄ࢐ᛳറ඼୽ሬ୦ࠢࡾኵᓺϽࡾኵҺܾᏵᜌ ȞRICI enhanced index Exchange Traded Certificates ɾETCȟȉ • ഺ࣏Ϙ༵ຕᅹ‫ࠛݑ‬ᓉಯࡡȂԴᑫࣷᝋӹ‫ݙ‬ϯҾȇ

• ُϘ௺ᐴᝋൌྻ‫ظ‬ႤԴᏋӡߞᜲ൰෻஼ቫ஥ࡡࢽ ዴᔹмࢽዴȂ֭ኊ੾୓ༀྻѽᑫЮऎඏ֜Ȟ๑བྷኊ লᔍȟȂᐴᝋՐงऎϩՐȂۖงҞԓ᠈ง‫ݕ‬ҍழȄ кौᓺᘈ • ஥ࡡЂѳᜲ൰෻ߞ‫ظ‬Ⴄ၃ᢚф‫ث‬କ ȇ

• Դᑫࣷߡత‫ظ‬Ⴄᜲ൰෻஼ቫ஥ࡡࢽዴறϘ൉ਸ਼ȇ • ᑫЮབྷತলᔍЏജᅆٞɾཇ೚ϯ஥ࡡኊ੾ሃᑫ ЮգӒবߞहТᝯ࠼Ȃ֭஥ࡡࡒѽग़ЮຕᇖȄᜲ൰ ෻஼ቫ஥ࡡࢽዴᔹмࢽዴᐴᝋࡒऎְᅆٞϞᑫЮ㣵 ኊߞলᔍȇ

• ೡԪԺЮмȞంߵೈȃཅ‫ۓ‬ȃߏ྽ۖ಩ࠛȟȇ • ֺ‫ۦ‬഼ຫȞ۶ग़Юࠜง਴ཕȟߞࠬሞȇ • ࢽዴኊ੾۶԰ඡҞТहணւȂ൅‫୼࢘ށ‬ȇ • ҞԴᑫࣷᝋӹ‫ݙ‬໴ᎱȂᐾգᑫࣷᝋӹ‫ݙ‬ӹ‫҃ݽ‬ ፅȂҞᚼۖቦϭߞຕᇖ֖ცЄ๳ୃїϾȞCHESS Accountȟȇ • թಯࡡ‫ࠧڭ‬భ๕‫ظ‬Ⴄ௄ࠛȂ‫࣏׈‬ӹ‫ݽ‬ኊ੾Йྻ ֲ‫ݺ‬գ‫؛‬ႤಯಐৃȄऱਛែ੾᠋቙֖ྻੲᑂԪನኊ ৃᎠြ‫ܠ‬ኊȄ

х࣍हᝯࢽዴߞೡԪȇ

• Ҿඞলᔍɾᑢҫᝋ‫ށ‬Ȃ஥ࡡޯஜ࿂Ђȇ • ๴֖஥লᔍɾॶऱਛែ੾᠋቙᜕֖➝Ȃᐴᝋࢺ գϠྻ՘ऎऱਛែ੾᠋቙֖ߞ๑ᑉ࠲ཅᡋϠȇ • ໴Ꮁਮኊ൵ьऎ4%ȞညϟૺҾඞࣹஜ‫ݑ‬Й‫ږ‬Ȃ ྻᐱ७ᐴᝋӹ‫ݽ‬Ҿඞߞࣹஜ‫ݑ‬Й‫ږ‬ȟȇ

• ࠧ௱‫ڰ‬ԆȞExtraordinary Event(s)ȟߞ๴Ӡྻ ዆ᠩಯࡡኊ੾Ȃ‫ݕ‬ᐱ७ಯࡡӹ‫ݽ‬ೣѤȇ

• Դབྷತࠧ‫ߞܠ۽‬ఐ޶ϭຕᇖȂྻՅԴབྷತলᔍ Ȟ‫ݙ‬գ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ᕕᛆժབྷತ‫ڨ‬ፑޯஜȟȄ າҢЅԝາ

• ҃ᓱ໱ȞPlacement feeȟ 1% ȇ • ᇒನ໱ȞُՐ0.75%ȟȂҒࣁᜲ൰෻஼ቫ஥ࡡ ࢽዴߞ๕࿰໱۶བྷತᅆٞ໱Ȅ ᎌҢ‫ܒ‬ • ሃᜲ൰෻஼ቫ஥ࡡࢽዴहᝯߞӹ‫ݽ‬ᐴᝋ Ȟ ETC ȟႵᏋԪ་ۤȞ Assertive ȟ۶ᒕ࿂་ۤ ȞAggressiveȟ࡭ߞ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ȄթಯࡡԴग़஼ȃॻ஼ ф‫ࣷڲ‬ಎ‫ۦ‬ᡌࠓȂϵᡌࠓԑಧ‫ټ‬Ϡ቙֖ࢉїணሃȇ

• ‫ا‬েሮऎԴӫࡈҾ޶ϭȂഺ༵‫ظ‬Ⴄಯࡡ࣏ನྐ ߞᅆٞ‫ظ‬Ⴄ༵ӫȄ ᛳറ඼ᖿ৴࿽ᓃ • ᜲ൰෻ᗾਲ਼ြᔂ௟ྻԴഺৎ࣐งϯႶۖ൘જਲನ ୑ᇨwww.raymondchan.com.auȂЙঋᓾჅȄ

ж՗՗ߝᇯ࣏ӻ᜞ӫհ Ԥցжࣨငᔼಳᚔᓎც ћ/ Xinhua ገဖ܎৶ྻѹਯॶᑨȅத‫ׅ‬਄ᆬȅѐᜲ֥ሃ঑യ၃ ᕻ۶റᅋ‫ڰ‬சߞ܎৶ླྀ‫׀‬ȅჩਾ 16 џ౎༡๴ࠑᗑ Ԫᗏ‫ށ‬Ȃᅆ‫ޱ‬዇‫ی‬஼ታᐱϠညчྻ౏ߞ՘‫ࠑލ‬ӯᡌ ࠓȄᗏ‫ށ‬ሲȂթը‫ޱ‬዇ታᐱϠ෩ҍߞ‫ؼ‬ভ࢙៉࣏จ ຾Ґ௻ገЮ஡၃ᕻ޼ನᘙҍߞҞඈϘَȂȶҹে࣏ ዇‫ޱ‬ഺ‫ی‬ৎገЮ஡൵Ђߞ՘৶஼ᅆညࡈߞ‫ׅ‬ϧஇҍ ߞদঋࣆ޼୒ឥȷȄѐᜲ֥۶ჩਾԴᗏ‫ށ‬КࢽҍȂ ገЮ஡ӫࡈবᗜߞࣄᐼ౻྾Գࠑ‫ށ‬ȂԒԢߞറᅋቮ ঋԒԢжᑉയԇȂቮঋ་ϘَҐ௻၃ᕻࣆຉ‫۝‬ᎠȄ ᗏ‫ށ‬ሲȂ࢙ӲϘਇገЮ஡ߞ‫ܠ۽‬ᑟۘȂ‫ܠ‬งᗝ֖ਪ ྻȂ‫ڭ‬നӲϘৎ௱ԇѹਯȂഺ‫៉࢙ڱ‬ൌգׄ‫ݺ‬Ꮾ‫۽‬ ገЮ஡ߞࣆ޼ታᐱϧȄᗏ‫ށ‬ᘘᅆ‫ޱ‬዇ታᐱϠ෩ҍߞ ঋԴԧ՘৶஼ᐳ‫ޱ‬К኷Ϣఠۘཅச১ࡋߞ෩៉ࠑӯ

ᡌࠓȂ‫ڭ‬ሮऎ‫ޱ‬዇գᝯ༟ወࠛᓉӹ‫ݽ‬ກߞѹ௺Ҟᢰ ࠛᓉᑟᅹ‫ݚ‬ᑉ୓‫ـ‬ԪನߞയԇȄᗏ‫ށ‬ሲȂገဖ܎৶ ྻ௟࢝‫أ‬බࠛᓉ྽ወກயᛟҍሂӲ‫៉࢙ޱ‬Ȃ‫ྻڭ‬ѽ ‫ޱ‬዇ਪྻ՘‫ލ‬ऎ௄ᚂȂయஜገဖаൊߞहᝯ୅ᎢȂ ߋۤԴӏ‫ڽ‬ዴ۹аੋҍ‫ۍ‬ᢜ࢙៉Ȅ‫ޱ‬஼ᗁ೚Һҟ ‫ݛ‬ȅᚠॊኅ۶዇஼ᗁನՉ੾‫ݛ‬ȅᔵֹᆬ 16 џԴѐ ᐌᗝ֖ྻ౏Ȃ୫ᅆࠕ‫ڽ‬գ‫ݙ‬෋мߞҾඞ‫؛‬ཕȂ஥୅ Ղ֣ᕕᅆϳ‫ݳ‬ЙٙߞገЮ஡ѹᡋཅசԟᑟȄ‫ی‬஼ታ ᐱϠԢྍȂ௟ԒԢ෩ҍ՘ӲገЮ஡၃ᕻࣆܹȃ՘৶ ஼ᅁࣉ୑ࣆӀᓊࣆຉȃወ՜ࠛᓉӹ‫ݽ‬ກຈ࢙៉Ȃѽ Ґ௻ገЮ஡၃ᕻ޼ನȂᕕᅆӫࡈገЮ஡বᗜߞཅச ۶၃ᕻኧࠜԟᑟȄ


଒ငੑ਀

ዉछ༆୛Ӡᐠ೿៉᠛‫پ‬ġġ༘ѿٖ༖৯౴Ѽσ

Ղ‫ލ‬Ҫ೚঍Ϙ۹ߞᗁᢜᆚༀ඼ȂჅҝߞУৎӹ‫ݽ‬џ ֬ѼሃӀ੡ٟգतኃਮ‫־‬ȂԧৎࠛᓉႤಯኊ੾ᢏஜ ‫ڭ‬ٟգࠧ௱ЂȂэ‫࣏ێ‬ҳབྷҾඞϯ୵џЮ۶ငড ҳȂ‫ێ‬᏶ߞറᅋᢏஜत֌ൌЙ‫ږ‬1%Ȅ֭‫ڰ‬ᅁϯȂ ჅҝߞУчࡒ࢝գҞକ࣏ԴࠛᓉԟᑟНࢢ҄Ҿඞୃ ᐸ൵ऎಎ‫ߞے‬Ϙ۹ȄӤग़஼ѹᡋໞૺԴϯ۹Ӑജϭ Ꭰ༟‫ܕ‬Ȃ஼ቫࠛᓉҾඞԴӎ۹ҍ಩Ϟҫϯь‫ߞڍ‬ാ ᠈ዴৎӹ‫ݽ‬џЂ඼ᏩᒿȂ‫ێ‬ўԨᢏ෱Н‫أ‬Ȃޯஜ඼ ࢘НЂࠧ௱ь‫ڍ‬Ȅ ฒຜҏ୽அҏ७Ȃ୦ࠢೲᄌσၰЫȈ ϯ۹୵ϞߵҾ۶஥ࡡҾඞЂ඼ޯஜҳȂ஥ࡡറᅋԴ ԟᑟНКϵԓըᢖᠨҍ֋Ў୼ᔍറᅋߞપ‫ݑ‬Ȃ؆ԑ ๑໛ӎ஼௄ӎবߞఐ޶Ꮞۖ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ߞ๑ఐ‫ݦ‬ጹӇ ᕝȂϘႮЂ඼ϭ࿣Ȅ

ࠑ಩൵ऎ��֒Ȃѷኧࠜി࢘‫ށ‬ᢖ‫ݺأ‬ገग़Ȃࠕงࡈ ฀ϵՀჅग़஼Ȅሃթ᝷֬ߞ࣏Ȃྲ֘᠋၃ᕻԴՐࠐ ԳᏩࢢ௻ཕхዅȂࠕง၃ᕻዴᑂࠑ಩௻ࡏȂत֌գ Ґਿჰงҍ಩Ȃ࣏7ѡԊᆚ඼൵Ђߞࠧग़റᅋȂ‫ێ‬ ࠑ಩त֌໹ჅᑫЮȄ֭Դ਻ྖఐᇰߞਯడϭȂԓՀ ߞ௄ӎবൌ᝱ѽࠡᐿ‫୼ێ‬ᔍറᅋߞપᙇȂᐱ७ᑫ૸ ‫ی‬஼റᅋ൵୼ༀ඼Ϙ࢘ൌԴ10%ҽҠȄ թҳȂ஥ࡡറᅋߞҩϘৎપᙇȂ‫׈‬Դԟᑟҍ಩੡‫ێ‬ ༀ඼໹Ⴥ‫ێ‬ҁলᔍႤಯϵԴࠕงԓըఀۖᝋ‫ށ‬Ȅ཈ ѽӎ‫ڗ‬๴ӠཅசԟᑟߞገЮ۶ᑫЮहѧႵȈՂϭᄦ ‫ݙ‬ӯȂԴग़ཅԟᑟЂ዆ᠩϭȂᑫЮѹጹ൵Ђༀ඼ 1000 ᙇȂᅟѤӎ۹՜ጹႵЫՐ୼֜ϭ࿣ 6.6% ȇ ֭ಎ൝ԟᑟߞገЮࡒༀ඼գনȂࠕง‫ڕ‬ཕᏩᒿȂփ ࠧዷༀȂჅҝ‫ی‬۹ѽ‫ڽ‬Ⴕթࡈ୼֜཈ϭༀ1.4%Ȅ

Julius Wei

Йᢏߞ๼഼റșșཀࠛȄӤ‫ݺ‬ग़஼ѹᡋໞૺϭᎠȂ Ҿඞᘖᔍ໴ጹԴ۹ϘЂ༓ҍ಩Ȃփहᅆग़Юඡኊߞ џЮ۶ငডԴ༟ጹࢢӲ‫ے‬Ђ඼ϯᆚȂग़џ۶ग़င۹ ϘႯߩϭༀȂ‫ڭ‬ѷԴࡈ‫ی‬ৎӹ‫ݽ‬џЂ඼‫ֲڕ‬Ȅ‫ێ‬К ӎ஼၃ᕻব‫ـ‬ऎᜦ‫ߞܠ‬ငЀ‫ޱ‬੬ᆚ඼‫ـ‬ऎ௻ࡏȂग़ ЮָငডԴ۹ϟϘ࢘ϭణ 0.71 ѽϭߞֲ֜Ȃညч ༀ඼୼Ⴟ5%ȄփџЮࡋ࠲ࢺ‫ێ‬Ϙരߞᜦஉ‫ڕ‬௻ᅗ ཕȂԴЙᙝߞग़Ю‫ݦ‬ጹయஜϭȂग़џുᆙ‫ֲڕ‬Ȃԓ ըༀཕ76.30ࠢࠕߞϟᐼѽ‫ڽ‬൵ֲ֜Ȅ ЙჅӎ஼റᅋჅ࢘пৃᅆ‫ݺ‬џӎ۶ငЀ၃ᕻൌ࣏᝱ ѽ‫ߞۦݚ‬ᛝҳ঑ᑉȂԯթᛕўࣆܹൌԴჅҝ‫ی‬۹а ЙॗփԢԳϢҾВჰȂࠡѤӎᅋпৃȄ‫ێ‬КငЀ Ҵ֖ߞВჰੜ‫ڸـލ‬Ȃ҄ग़ငԴ۹ұЂ඼ᜆп໹ Ⴥ5%Ȃ‫ڭ‬Դ۹Уា᠈ЂᆚȂग़ငϘ۹ྍҳҍ಩՜ ᆚȄփџӎўবߞВჰࡋҪ࣏҄џЮᆚཕ๾࿏Ȃग़ џԴҾඞఐᇰᜦ‫ുࢢܠ‬ᆙ་ϢᏩᒿ‫ڕ‬ཕȄሃԧᇌВ ჰࠡѤпৃЙԢȂ๼഼റཀࠛԴԑѵधፑඛа֋Ӥ ӹ‫ݽ‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬ѷٟգ‫ܡ‬ў‫ܠ‬ኊ۶Вჰҍ಩Ȃԯթ՘ऎϞ ૌӒߞᘖᔍࡄকȊ ֋ 7 ѡϭ՟ѽ‫ڽ‬Ȃᔌ຾ग़ཅԟᑟߞЙᙝಎмȂग़ ஼ߵҾϘႮዷༀȂం 12700 ᙇߞ୼֜ϘႮϭༀ֌ 11200ᙇࠢࠕȂ൵ֲៈф10600ᙇȂ‫ٳ‬ᙫ12%Ȅ ԴԢϘ੡งȂཀࠛኊ੾ం1600ग़Ю/૊Ҧ൵୼ϯп ֌ 1800 ग़Ю / ૊ҦȂᆚ඼Ԣዹ୼Ⴟ 12% Ȃᆽᢖᘖ ᔍӎ֒Ȅంᄦϯ‫ऻڽ‬Ȃࠛኊϵ۶ߵኊҍ಩Ϟࠧ௱؆ ग़ߞ঑हᝯȄ

Ղϯᄦ‫ݙ‬ӯȂ‫ߞ࡭ۏ‬஥ࡡറᅋȂԢ੡ϵ࣏ࡈงϯᆚ ඼࢘൵ЂȂࠑ಩൵Հߞ‫ی‬ৎറᅋșșᑫЮ۶૸ᅋԴ Ⴥҝߞ‫ی‬۹аࠑ಩ሃग़஼ߵҾՂҍϘᚽȂం7ѡܺ ༟‫ۖۦܕ‬ᘖᔍఐᇰ዆ᠩϘႮЂༀȂ‫ڭ‬ѷԴӎ۹аԢ ዹ၃ᑢϞ‫ی‬ᆚ‫ی‬ༀߞЂ඼ޯஜȄ Գ഍‫ڲ‬щ஡Ȃ‫ۦ‬К஼၃ᕻऎ঵ߞྲᒸҾඞ၃ᕻ‫أ‬ി ኧࠜ‫ݛ‬ஜȂᑫࣷ၃ᕻԴࠛᓉԟᑟࢢԴ๴Ⴟ၃ᕻᢜК

ЙჅԴҾඞఐᇰുᆙӀ෇НࢢȂ௄ӎব‫ـ‬ऎ௻ࡏߞ ᑫЮ۶૸ᅋ࢝ҞକྻদᆊҝՐገཅԟᑟЂༀࢢȂࠓ ‫ـڽ‬௻ᆚཕߞϘᅌȄ Рϯ࿅ॢᎏϓႱȂᗗᓎᏽ༁ߜσഽ ԑಧࠛᓉҾඞߞԟᑟНКȂ‫۽‬๒գЂ༓Ⴄಯኊ੾ዷ ༀȂ֭ϵԢዹՅԴంКᖔ‫ߞ׀‬ᘖᔍಯࡡȄ‫ێ‬К൵຾ ԩߞည៳ᘖᔍറᅋџЮȂငডȂѽфවϼՐ‫ܕڽ‬ೣ

ւዋۖЙՅԴџӎ۶ငЀ‫ܡ‬ўߞВჰНዎȂཀࠛ ‫ڶ‬๒࣏ԴԟᑟНК൵‫ৃ࠲ߞڸ‬ᓴᑄȄЙჅऻՀ ཀࠛߞ‫ظ‬Ⴄ߰ቮঋަྍȂӤ‫ݺ‬ҾඞఐᇰߞӀਿȂ ग़஼ߵҾԴӎ۹ӐЏ၃༟‫ܕ‬գៈܺхዅߞႫ໪ҍ ಩ȇहхȂࡈงϯᆚჅ‫ࠛߞأ‬ኊգЂ༓ᖔ‫׀‬Ϟຕ ጹҍ಩ȂԓҐϯ߿Ґ৯஥ࡡӹ‫ݙݽ‬෩пཀࠛงറ ࠲ᝋࠛঋِȂ‫ڹ‬ఀࠛኊգ‫ށ‬ᢖ԰ၢȂҞକྻԴ๺ ።գЂ඼࢘ߞ԰ᎠȄ

Ղ‫ލ‬ఋᅆӎћКߞаਟգԇ֣ᆷயȂ᎛ᗑᜭ֯߰ Julius Wei Ȃҁߞ༎ԆԳ‫࣏׬‬Ȉjulius.w@baomoney.com.auȂఋϵҞѽ๳ᔂۖࠛᓿ‫ـऻࣤݱ‬ԺJuliusߞћൢȂࠛᓿ‫ߞݱ‬ᇨ૭Գ‫࣏׬‬www.baomoney.com.au

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Ͻ ശཱི‫ޟ‬౪ф ኁ‫ܘ‬೩ര ๖ӫ ‫ڷ‬ငᡛኁৱ ੲ ᖞᒲ‫ޟ‬ౘ໺ ႆ ν࿲Ϛौᒿ

ይᓮ૮‫ݍ‬ඊါচ࣭ȶᐥ࢘ंᄖȷ ಑Πᎈౘ໺ੲ։஠໠፞Ȃॶӑ᠍ߔᙟᏰҡ‫៉۽‬፞แȂ‫ޟཱིߔ᠍ٮ‬Ᏸҡ ୤ёȄӰ࣏ΡኵԤ३Ȃ‫פ‬ഀൢӪ

ຊᜊ ᙥ (ᙥᒧҘ) ᙥᒧ ࢑Ԏ‫ވ‬Խ ࢑ ູࠒፈࢌ‫ࠒູ( ڢ‬ധ៩) ູ ູࠒॷलᚘᘢ ູ ξᐶ (ξᐶҘ) ξ ᎖ᚘᖎ ᎖ ࠒٰ᳒፪Й ࠒ ࠛധᘀፈ‫ވ‬໻ ࠛ

Р෈ Ᏺৱ Ӵᘈ ਢ໢ າҢ Ρኵ രຝ

22/8/11 ֌ 12/9/11 (െ࣐งϘ) ‫ؠق‬ி

1110 Toorak Road, Camberwell VIC 3124 (ਛភცᐡ) 1:00pm – 2:30pm $25.00/1௅ ($100.00ԑ᎝຀ / 4௅) 10 -15Ϡ Դࢢࠝգ 2Ј੡ஃ‫ژ‬ඞȞ໹Ҿஃ‫ژ‬ඞȟ

‫ݳ‬ཿࡸ໊ఐ‫ݶ‬ џඨੲ ԙΡ़ᇭࡹॱੲ Consonant Pronunciation (B-Z), Vowels (a, e, i, o, u) 100 most frequent words. Р෈ ਢ໢ Ᏺৱ າҢ

19/8 - 9/9/2011 െ࣐งУ 10:00am - 12:00nn Carmen Wong 120Ю/4௅

џඨੲ Ыிੲ ѽল฀ȃᔖߏȃஜߏȃ࢙ᒝߏऎᛟ ‫ل‬ȂைᏳᐯӠᅆग़ങߞᒸᎷȂ෩୼൹ ֯ѪӀȄᗾႋᅹᄦȃൄ࡭ȃ֒௾ᝯ ࠼ȃ‫ླށ‬ᝯ࠼ѽфЬ೜ᖅ๪‫ޱ‬۶஀๪ ‫ثߞޱ‬ҼȄ Р෈ 26/8 - 23/9/2011 െ࣐งУ ਢ໢ 10:30am - 12:00nn າҢ 75Ю/5௅

џඨੲ ߆љጹ‫਻ݎ‬ᆍᖿ৴ ኒ฀ซԐӠж‫ڳ‬ԧ᝷፸້ф‫ڑ‬᝷ߞᇌ น‫ޱ‬ȂࠅҘф‫ލ‬ᑘߞ৒஗‫ޱ‬Ȅ Р෈ ਢ໢ ᇭِ Ᏺৱ າҢ

18/7 - 19/9/2011 െ࣐งϘ 10:00am - 12:00nn ၂/஼ ኒ฀ซԐӠ 50Ю/10௅

ਢ၆ຘ୘ੲ ௞ऎᅆ੡ႅ໗஗ᗀॕգᒸᎷНϠЀփ നȄ୵ిఱ෼഼֗‫ڹژ‬ӡȂ༓‫ޱڗ‬ ҳȂ᎝຀‫ڭ‬Ғࣁ௄ӎϯ֗ ( ०ѕ ) Ȃᚎ ඏാ֗ႂȃҗᅟႂȃྲภࢳঊຈȄ Р෈ ਢ໢ Ᏺৱ າҢ

23/8 - 20/9/2011 െ࣐งϟ 10:00am - 12:00nn ჩ࣍ᘷցਰ

100Ю/5௅

छৠ៖౩ੲ

џඨੲ

ж‫ޘ‬ԧ᝷ө፲ȇՂ֣ᓴᑄфж‫ޘ‬᠕፲ ಯࡡߞ՘ԊȇӠག෹ߞ১ԯȇጸ૳ߞ ‫؛‬՘ȇࠦ࣋‫ߞڑ‬՘ԯȇԧ᝷ব፯ߞґ ੜȇবൊࢷዝȇ๑๭౻୵གᔝ‫ث‬Ҽȇ ୼ॊ‫ث‬ኇᐡ᠕ನж‫ޘ‬ȇবൊ᠕ನӯፑ фᅁ೫Ȅ Р෈ ਢ໢ Ᏺৱ າҢ

24/8 - 14/9/2011 െ࣐งϬ 10:30am - 12:00nn Candy Lee 80Ю/4௅

Рலஅҏ़ᇭོၗ English Basic Conversation Class ᏋԪᕖఀϘᙇ௄ӎॻሬߞࠐᐯϠ ҀȂ᎝຀༰Кిఱџ௱ӠࣿК௱ӡߞ ॻሬȂѽᡘሲऎѹȄ Р෈ ਢ໢ ᇭِ Ᏺৱ າҢ

19/7 - 20/9/2011 െ࣐งϟ 12:30pm - 2:30pm ॻ/၂/஼ Pinki Barnes 100Ю/10௅

छৠ‫┄ژ‬ੲ ۗ╃၃ປߞদᙇȃ౽ѐవࣲȃग़ਟۗ ╃ȃۗ╃ิ߲‫ޱ‬ຈȄ Р෈ ਢ໢ ᇭِ Ᏺৱ າҢ

15/8 - 5/9/2011 െ࣐งϘ 1:30pm - 3:00pm ၂/஼

Stephanie Yap 60Ю/4௅ (؅ਟѪॎ)

џඨੲ

Ռ‫ר‬Ͻַੲ ᐯ೫Ϙଠग़ਟߢᝊфм‫ث׶‬ҼȂѽᏋ ᕕԧϠНቮঋȂҒࣁȈө፲ж‫ޘ‬ȃө ፲᠕ನȃ๪ऺ۶џ༡м‫׶‬Ȅ Р෈ ਢ໢ Ᏺৱ າҢ

24/8 - 14/9/2011 െ࣐งϬ 1:00pm - 2:30pm Candy Lee 80Ю/4௅

Рலஅҏ़ᇭ᠞ቸੲ English Reading and Writing Class ᏋԪգϘ‫ॻܠ‬ћ௄ᚂߞϠҀȂ᎝຀༰ Кిఱџ௱Ӡࣿ੡௱ӡߞॻሬȂѽᡝ ኷ऎѹȄ Р෈ ਢ໢ ᇭِ Ᏺৱ າҢ

19/7 - 20/9/2011 െ࣐งϟ 10:00am - 12:00nn ॻ/၂/஼ Pinki Barnes 100Ю/10௅

ನఎ‫ڎ‬ළૌܱዕī03 9898 8832 / 0401 697 791 ΰ፞Ӵᘈ - Box Hill (MELBOURNE)


‫ݳ‬ཿࡕ฀ఐ‫ݶ‬ ඉཿፃ઴༩ဃိሒළࢾᎺቀĶ‫ڎ‬ළߟႳī

500,000ӻড়ӌཾЅ຺ႆ10,000ড়ஈ

Ӓ౨

ॎ‫ٱ‬ ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬ ୛ ໠ี ໠ี‫ٮ‬ඪ‫ټ‬ᄸ ཾོॎ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬໠ี‫ٮ‬ඪ‫ټ‬ᄸᖖოዩ‫ޟ‬೺Ӈȃ݈୛‫ڷ‬Лࡻ Р/ఏ፞แ

MYOBོॎ೺ӇᔖҢ፞แ Ղ֣ྲ࢙۶ుஜႤਫ਼ᕫȂ൯Ԋфᘘ১ ᕫ੯Ȃന‫ྻܠ‬঍ॊӫࠑȂന‫ࢉܠ‬їȃ ‫ڻ‬ᕕ஥фറࡡҙѯȂՂ֣ୃᔂ௳ї‫ݚ‬ ϯຕ᏶Ȃᕫ੯؆ຠмȄ Р෈ 10/9 - 29/10/2011 ࣐งб ਢ໢ 9:30am - 12:00nn ࣐งб າҢ 140Ю/10௅ (ఀ؅ѪѴॎᆗ)

᤭ཅ

᜞Ᏸ᜞‫ޖ‬20ωਢঘᎰഀԙੲ ᖒདɮყ჋ɮο೦ࣀᏰફПȂᏰ҈ԅ ฒ໸ԫ଄฽धȊყМ፸‫ڨ‬ሆᚬЕᏲȂ ฒ፣Ղ҂ΡρࣱᎌҢȊ ϱৠȓКћ࣏௱ӡߞሬ‫ڏ‬Ȃ‫׀‬ӡცၝ ‫ڽ‬഍ನКћႤୈ‫࣏ـ‬໸‫ڽ‬໸෼фȄЙ Ⴥঋ‫׀‬ӡცၝ഍ನКћႤୈබӅԐঋ ᕖఀՂ֣‫د‬Кћ೑ᓮϢცၝȄऎ֣‫ا‬ েঋᓴᑄৗᏯᓮϢ‫ޱ‬۸ ? ਮЙԺ‫ݙ‬գ Кћცၝ‫ڀ‬೚ൌྻࠢϯৗᏯᓮϢ‫ޱ‬Ȃ ‫ݙ‬ѽᐯᝊϞৗᏯᓮϢ‫ޱ‬Ȃ๑ᎢְঋԴ ԇ֣ϘൊКћ‫ॻݕ‬ћცၝϯᓮϢКћ ՄȂϵٟգயᛟȄ ፞แ१ᘈȓৗᏯᓮϢ‫ޱ‬௄ӎ፠ፅȃৗ ᏯՄӓȃϞႋቃׄՄ‫؛‬ȃۤፅഢࡋф પઅՄሮᝊ Р෈ 14/9 - 2/11/2011 െ࣐งϬ ਢ໢ 10:00am - 12:30pm າҢ 110Ю/8௅

ঋఈࠪသ

༽ᓒࡕܱዕ ༽ᓒࡕܱዕ

኏མ٤‫ݳ‬ཿఐ‫ࣉݶ‬ᅍఐ‫ݶ‬

ΰ፞Ӵᘈ (MELBOURNE) Burwood CentreȓSuite 7, 2-8 Burwood Highway, Burwood East Box Hill Centreȓ2-6 Oxford St, Box Hill (MELWAY 47C10)

03 9898 8832 0401 697 791

Р/ఏ፞แ ኵጆࣺа೎౩ЅВᐷаᇧհ ళ ӡ ዴ ፅ ह ѯ ഍ ನ ഹ Ԇ Photoscape Ȃి෯፠ᓭȃж൷ȃ ࢸ໭ȃ֒௾৒‫ؼ‬ȃߏԆೊ୵ȃஜ๪ ዾᛟභϢȃ RAW ᚼ෱ȃদྲ‫ۻ‬ԩф Photoscapeᑾપߞవߍґକȃ᝝ੰ ф GIF ஜ๪ߞሦ֯ຈȂ‫ڭ‬ሦ֯՘ᇟग़ ߞहҊȂੜ‫ލ‬௞྽ߞᄦᄊ഍ನഹԆȂ ؆ԑ೑Ԫ۶ᆕ‫ږ‬џ௱‫ڹ‬ӡߞঋِȄ Р෈ 15/9 - 3/11/2011 ࣐งұ ( I ) 11/8 - 29/9/2011 ࣐งұ ( II ) ਢ໢ 12:30pm - 3:00pm ( I )

7:00pm - 9:30pm ( II ) າҢ 110Ю/8௅

Р/ఏ፞แ அҏᐇհЅ ϣᖒᆩΣߞ፞แȞߑȟ ిఱ௄ӎცၝᑆ֯Ȃሮᝊфᕕӡྋ ഹ໛ຄᑆ֯‫ڀ‬೚Ȃϯᇨᙱ᠓ᇨ঱ф Search Engineᕕӡ‫ث‬ҼȂInternet ஼ቫცЄ༎Ԇཇ୙Ȃ༟നৎϠც༎ ࠫፐȄ Р෈ 25/8 - 13/10/2011 ࣐งұ ਢ໢ 7:00pm - 9:30pm າҢ 110Ю/8௅

CAMI ఀᏰ፣Ꮻ

ࡆυϚՌឈᏰಬࡩቄᒲȉ ၃௱ᡘۖգߞѭӓഺዹߞ‫ࢩݱ‬ȈɆ‫ࢅߞا‬ЄЙ֋ះȂЙҞକѹஜᐯ೫ȄɇɆ ‫ࢅߞا‬ЄఀঋϠऻ຾Жକᐯ೫ȄɇɆ‫ا‬ցఀ௫຾ҁᐯ೫Ȃ੡༡ϘࠜȂҁϵ ࿭Ȃᘘఀ‫ࣛם‬Ȅɇ ࢅЄЙକ֋ះ֋ѹᐯ೫Џ၃՘ऎ࢝Ժਛࠜᔝ๭ߞயᛟȄપ‫־‬ԴᑫࣷȂᐯ੭‫ع‬ ߞ‫ޗ‬ȂցਰЙྻຜࢅЄেᕅϧȂ‫ڹـ‬ఀࢅЄেٟգᐯ೫ߞᇦঝྏȄ գ‫ڱ‬ਛࠜȂԯऎࢅЄЙ֋ះȂබ୙ࢅЄҝႃ೫઱Ȃգցਰऻ຾ȂჀҁᐯϘ ᙇȄ֭ഺ‫ڭ‬Й࣏ϘৎႋٙЙ֋ះߞᓱ‫ޱ‬ȄְЙҞକчч୙ࢅЄҝႃ೫઱Ȃ ЙҞକգϠччऻ຾ࢅЄȂՂ‫ލ‬ٟգϠჀ຾ȂࢅЄϫྻࢨዹ۸ȉփѷȂ ࢝Ժਛࠜൌ‫ݚ‬ሮȂჀ຾ᐯ೫ߞੜ‫঺ڰ࣏ލ‬ґҗߞȄࢅЄබ࣏Ϡ‫ױ‬Դ‫ڤ‬ႆȂ ѕႆЙߢԴྐЦኃȄ޶ѷȂࢅЄ֋ះ֋ѹᐯ೫۶֋‫ا‬ᇒನ࣏ЙҞ૿ьߞ କϧȂՂ‫ލ‬ԯऎЙ֋ះබ୙ҝႃ೫ߤȂҪᕕѾϞዶ੡НࢧȂӖቈϵЙҞକ ைᏳ୓ࢅЄߞ֋ះ‫ݑ‬Ȅգ‫ڱ‬ѭӓሮऎȂຈࢅЄЂϞȂ֋ះ‫ݑ‬බգϞȄ֭ఋ ঋߢႽȂ࢝Ժକϧ࣏ቮঋைᏳߞȂॊᐯु‫ށࠑٿ‬ȂϘৎчӠข஥࢝୼ߞࢅ ЄȂՂ‫ލ‬ٟգఀۖ࢝ՀߞࢢчைᏳȂ‫ێ‬ຕ‫ލ‬ᘘЙՂϘৎчӠขϧӀӀȂ֭ ఀۖ࢝ՀࢢчைᏳߞࢅЄȄ

ࡩኺஉᎴࡆυ‫ޟ‬ՌឈՌкᏰಬ‫ޟ‬૖Ψ‫ڹ‬ȉ ‫ا‬ে঵ԐྐϘྐȂࢅЄᐯ೫Й֋ះԳੲӎ১ԯ࣏ЦኃȉЂԺዴఐ޶࣏ԯऎᅆ ᐯ೫ٟգᒸᎷȂփᒸᎷ୵Ϟ‫ߏڰ‬ӎ‫ڗ‬ຜ‫ߞݺ‬ጄᎷҳȂ࢝Ђ຀࢘ϯۤٙ‫اݺ‬ে ంКҞѽᖔఀߞ՘බྏ۶۹ඛϠߞߺ‫ܠ‬Ȅ՘බྏକ௉ைᏳ֋ࠫȂକ௉ᢰ‫᝱ק‬ ߞ‫ڰ‬ఐᢏఀᚎඏȂକ௉ᢰࣜᖌߞ‫ڰ‬ఐᢏఀգጄᎷȄ‫ا‬েిᐯКѕգϘৎࠧ௱ Հߞ‫ڼ‬ЄȄϘৎ 7 Րૺߞ‫ࢅٷ‬ЄȂҁߞዴᐯ՘ᖻЙՀȂϘߡ࣏ѭӓᑉѕߞᐯ ॊȂࢅЄԯթᅆዴᐯ౮๑ᒸᎷȂُըᐯ೫੡බ‫ر‬ԧᇌನӤЙᐯȂЙஇґ᎝Ȅ ‫ا‬েऻۖࢅЄ‫ڭ‬Й࣏Йᗐ‫ށ‬Ȃҁߞී‫ݺ‬ᐯ೫࣏ԯऎҁٟգྏۖԇ֣ߞጄᎷȂ ҁሮऎҁЙ֖Ȅ‫ا‬েࢷ࿰ࢅЄߞ‫੾ݑ‬પᙇ۶ঋِȂ‫ـ‬෱ϞቃᐱցਰȂంЈ઱

ቃᐱȂ‫ؼ‬՘ϘᅆϘቃᐱȄࢢ‫ڽ‬ȂࢅЄߞዴᐯ՘ᖻంЙф੾෩୼ۖϣϩවжȂ ൵ࠕϘըւႏւۖ92жȄயҁ࣏‫୼׎‬ᒸȂҁሲɆNoɇȂயҁऎЦኃȂҁሲԯ ऎ઱ૺႆᘘգϬৎѧҁւఀ‫ـ‬ՀߞȄఋҞѽ҇жྏះߞۖȂҁЙԓ࣏៵‫ݏ‬۶ хྏዴᐯȂփ࣏҇ᆕ֋ࠫȂҁྐۖߞ࣏ঋ໹ჅҩҳϬৎȄԴգϞ՘බྏ۶֋ ࠫࢢȂҁգϞӫዾȂϵබգϞஜϧȄᐯ೫බ๑ቮԓ௻ঝϞȄ‫ݙ‬ѽȂᢰࢅЄۤ ఀ་َ۶՘බྏȂ࣏ႋٙࢅЄЙ֋ះԳᢸМ‫׻‬᜽Ȅ ਛࠜ‫ވ‬уබঋயϞȈՂ֣ᢰࢅЄۤఀ་َ۶՘බྏ۸ȉ࢝ԺਛࠜሲȈႃ೫ᗁ ѧЙႃՀȄ‫ێ‬ᅁȂٟգੜ‫ߞލ‬ႃ೫ȂЙ཈઎໱ࠛᓿȂᘘ๑‫ޱ‬ຜϷࢅЄᕒׄȄ ُৎࢅЄൌ࣏ྐϯ་ߞȂൌྻԯऎۤఀ՘ᖻփᒸᐬߞȂቮঋఋຜϷҁেࠫԇ ۶ᑟྻȂϵঋੲᑂُৎࢅЄߞપᙇ‫ۖرڽ‬൵ᏋԪߞў‫ޱ‬ȄఋҞѽዥӇ‫ا‬েߞ Кћᓙ႙ც႖1800 462 650Ȃ ‫ا‬ে࢝ጄྍᕒׄఋж‫ܠۘڭޘ‬ϘৎᏋԪࢅЄ ߞᐯ೫ў੯Ȅ ைᏳࢅЄߞ೫ᅚ۶କϧȂᅆѭӓᘘգ࢝দঋߞϘᙇঋِȄգϘৎඡᐱȂԴК ஼Ȃᅆ6ৎषߞКȃЈᐯӠ་֖ߞɆ‫ا‬൵ඈᡌѭӓߞ10ᇌஇ‫ޱ‬ɇߞᎠࣤຕ‫ލ‬ КȂవԴ঵֜ߞ࣏Ɇࠫԇ‫ا‬ɇȂҚ63.5%ȄఋҞѽऻҍ‫ڽ‬ȂࢅЄেԺኃ฽ౕ ѭӓߞࠫԇ۶ߺ‫ܠ‬Ȅ֭ంϯবѭӓߞ‫ڏ‬ሬКබକྏۖȂѭӓЏ၃ຜࢅЄϭϞ ‫ܠ‬ᎢȂѧՂɆ‫ࢅߞا‬ЄЙ֋ះɇȂɆҁЙҞକ֋Ўᐯ೫ɇຈຈȄՂ‫ލ‬ఋൌЙ हࠫ֋ЎߞࢅЄҞѽ֋ះ֋ѹᐯ೫ȂҁেࢨኃҞକஇۖȄՂ‫ލ‬ఋ၃௱ሲȈɆ ְࢨኃഺኃЙ֋ះɇȂ‫࣏ݕ‬Ɇҁߺ‫ܠ‬Йྻ֋ះᐯ೫ߞɇȂఋߞࢅЄබྻሮऎ ֋Ўබ࣏Й֋ះԳࢅЄȄ֭Ղ‫ލ‬ఋ၃௱ሲȈ Ɇְߺ‫֖ܠ‬ɇȄҁϵྻ҇ᆕ֋ ࠫȂգജߺ‫ߞܠ‬՘බྏȄऎϞЙ༆঑ഺᇌߺ‫ܠ‬ȂࢅЄেྻ൹ൄ‫܈‬ႫȄ Ղ‫ލ‬ఋྐᖢႋ‫ـ‬ԺࢅЄి‫ߞڈ‬ўՑў‫ޱ‬۶ᐯ೫ўՑȂ᎛ዥӇ‫ا‬েߞКћᓙ႙ ც႖1800 462 650Ȃ ‫ا‬েᔌ੡᝸ྍᕒׄఋ۶ࢅЄেȄ

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Ж᡹ଟ៪

ਘ‫ٳ‬ПՑᡙжంҰ

II Ⴋኇᢎࡣཐ

պඞ

Ӥশส዆র‫ڹ‬ᄥሦ֯НȮ੗‫ڲ‬ў֐ᢘѵుӯIIȯThe Days of Noah – Apocalypse ԑಧ‫ڟ‬୞ც዆঵૭ያ࣍џࡈ (14/08) ஄ఉҺᆇነ୰Ђᆊࡶᣇᗝ ֖Ȅҍਯ߰୵Ϟ዆র‫ڹ‬ᄥ୼ኸфణ૶༤ѹঋ՘৶Ȃ‫ـ‬գၐ၃гྻྻࠜȃૠᐯ୰ ୰ࠜȃఉҺԳ஡ిߎԢЍȃѹа‫܏ܗ҈ؙ‬Ȅ‫ـ‬գቈႽంᇯषф‫ݿ‬षࡈ‫ڽ‬ᣍᎫߞ ᄜሼȂညКӺգЙьߞውႽ‫ވ‬уҍਯȂߋလഺ࿂‫ߞ៉ߋۍ‬ѵ॔ణ૶๴಩Ȅ ‫ڍ‬ൟዥᛖ ഺ៫ც዆џඞያ‫ݸ‬၂ሬߍȂփ‫܆‬ඞࡋऎॻሬߍȄӤ‫ڹݺ‬ᄥᗏᇍ๴಩੗‫ڲ‬ў֐ ᓷᔩȂ࣏ૌ࣏஄ȉഺ႖ᛟє୓ԑಧॊᐯधȃ‫ిܟ‬धфૠᐯध࿂ЂߋᎢȂգᝯ ϠЀ‫ـ‬౬Ԑလऎ‫أ‬Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽ‫ی‬ඞያ࣍ѫി᜕ᆕȂ‫ڭ‬ҍ಩ྫྷೈጤ጗Ȅຊ߰১ࢺգ ‫௺ی‬ᄜሼਯࠝೈȂԯ‫ڍ‬Ԩ༨߰ಿȂঝ‫ݺ‬൷ྑहᢰȂҪକᣍऻ‫܆‬ඞॻሬߍߞያ ࣍Ȅ֭ྏᘁૠȂ‫ࢢڰ‬ఀఉॻሬߍያҍࢢхᕕत‫ڸ‬Ȃփ቞៖Ӻቲ౻Ȃ࣏ϯ࢓ग़ Հߞ‫ڻ‬ᕕȄ ี౪ПՑ ᑋਇც዆࣏෡গӤশสົϠ۶Ͽօ‫ێ‬Ϡೡ՘ߞ஼ቫణ૶༤Ȃា໹ჅϛՐߞྕ ௜ु‫ٿ‬Ȃ঵ӤশสᜆЋి‫ឹقܡ‬ᏂತԢ࿅Ӗೇᐱᆊф៷዆༤৶ȂሃϿօ‫ێ‬਱ ᆬ዇౉ణᔍ༤‫ݺ‬2008Րᜆ๳୼‫ݺ‬ઔӀ።ϯ4200гюߞ‫ݛڲ‬᜷ЋȂ๴಩ᆷ֬ ў֐ᓷᔩߞѢຕᅹߏᢜȄࠔสࢢᔌ‫׈‬ྉඡȂ‫ڭ‬Ⴌ་ᑋৎణ૶Ⴥ຀Ȅ Ӕ࡙ᛇิ ‫ݺࢢێ‬2009Ր10ѡӤ዆র‫ڹ‬ᄥᜆЋ༤՘৶Ғࣁᗁ྅‫ିڰ‬ћᏂȃᐱᆊ࿅Ӗೇȃ Ѓ᜹৶ౖ᜹៬ຈᗑԢϿօ‫ێ‬Ϡೡ՘ߞణ૶༤ԓ࢘ᜆϯၐ၃ୃႶ੗‫ڲ‬ў֐ஃ޿ ߞ‫ݙ‬ԴԳɯϿօ‫ݛڲێ‬᜷ЋȂ‫ڭ‬ಎϢ໹Ⴥ4000гюൠᕏߞԔЌ་֖ࢶధȂ՘ ґ๴಩‫ڭ‬་Ϣһ࡭ѢຕᅹȄ ୽ሬีշ ഺৎԴၐ၃൹ѵୃฅգୃႶȂϵ࣏Ϙৎ‫ږ‬ѽ‫ؼ‬኷Ϡ᝷ᑢҫȂ࿂‫ߞݑ៉ߋۍ‬ణ ૶๴಩ȂԴ2010Ր4ѡ༟‫ܕ‬Դশส֯஼ቫ๴ֶȄᔌࢢԴҔ‫ڴ‬фഈ᠋ຈԳᗝ֖ ୃ߰ྻȂᖠ༡є୓ԑಧһЂ୞ᠩȄփణ૶༤৶ӺहាԴᑫࣷȃᘹ஼ȃग़஼ȃ ҐੋЂȃ୺‫ڲ֘ڽ‬фҭᣉຈԳж‫ڳ‬ഺᢘѵ๴಩Ȅ‫ڰ‬ԆᜉԍȂᗝѵᏩᑁȂཇණ ߋहඡᐱȄ ႫኇϷ‫ٴ‬ ည౎၃Ⴥ༩দߞ঵࣍ᚃ஗ᇭࢢȂც዆‫౎ݺ‬ϯϛ੡ያ࣍Ȅ঵Ԑ෡গࠕ10Ր‫ߞڽ‬ ў֐ణ૶Ⴥ຀Ȃѽфգᝯ‫ݛڲ‬᜷Ћϯ๴಩Ѣຕᅹߞ၃ᑢȄ዆র‫ڹ‬ᄥᖔࡈᏸส ॻকᢜକి‫ឹقܡ‬ᏂҐဖణ૶༤Ȃ‫ݺڭ‬2008 Ր10ѡႬᔌϿօ‫ێ‬༤৶ᜆϯ୼ ЋȂ๴಩ႍѢຕᅹȂ‫ڭ‬գϢᅽ֜Ȃ࣏ٟգ୪ಶߞȄऻ‫ڽ‬ႍຈѢຕᅹ࣏ࠜՐജ ԔൠфѫЋӮᚬሏȂঋ၃༤৶ᣩԔࢢЖକᢖᠨҍ‫ڽ‬Ȅ १ΰ‫܂‬ഊ 2009 Ր 10 ѡȂ 6 ԩশสణ૶༤৶བྷԪϿօ‫ێ‬ᜆЋ௞ਛԓϯ݁൉Ȅంც዆‫ݙ‬ ‫ڍ‬Ȃᑋৎᜆ๳Ⴥ຀࿂ऎ‫ॴڙ‬Ȃُৎ՘৶रգЙԢߞ୼ЋхᕕȄփЋϯчઈᢏ ёംเȂ੡փ෾੬Ȃ੡փЂᝳȂփѷ՝౎࿢ਮ࿂ЂȄᑂ༤КறϘЃ‫ݑ‬༤৶ౖ ᜹៬൅ᠨȂџ༡Դ༧ԍ࿰ਡϭ࿢࢘తࠕ30ʨȂփ‫܆‬༡ྻༀ֌წϭ20࢘ҽҠȂ ທ᝱ᏋᕕȄ

ᡙᓎ११ ॔ᔂѯႎ೟෡গᜆЋᅁ޶Ȃಳ௱ᢘᔍȄҁে޻຾ె‫܂‬ᜆ๳Ȃᣜ୺ЙۖȄϘ᝝ ֖‫ڕ‬ȂϘ᝝๴Ӡൠ௪ȂϵգќЂѫЋӮུం୼഍ᆋϭ‫ڽ‬ȂϩжԟᔍȂ‫ـ‬ऎҁ ে੒Ϙ‫د‬խȄփЋႮཉె᝱‫ڕ‬Ȃె࢘त֌Ⴟۖ60࢘ȂஊϘЙྕȂਟ‫ݽ‬ༀϭយ ௧Ћ‫ڐ‬Ȃ૰‫ڗ‬ဤ୻Ȃ‫ۻݑ‬Й࠲Ȅ֭ҁেԑ҂ᓥૠȂᏫ຾႕ѕᜤ‫ט‬Ȃᆽѕȃᆽ ‫ݑ‬ȃᆽྍȃᆽϧҝ؆՘ഺᗞһߞЍ֯Ȅ‫ا‬ಎࠫഺԑ࣏ૠߞЂକ۶ᴽߞ࠲ՇȂ ᢰҁেϘႮӀՉȂֹ‫އ‬ေ᝱Ȅ ཐᗂЮડ ዆ѯѽၐ၃ୃႶ੗‫ڲ‬ў֐ߞ࢙ൄҫᅁ༟‫ܕ‬Ȃា᠈࣏ణ૶ў֐ߞ॔গȂԓփ 2004 Րࡑ‫ڲ‬ઔኣȄ൵ೣѽԳಧࠑব൵ࠕ๴Ӡߞч‫٭‬ՂџӎԳᏩȃઔኣ۶੮ ᓬਡຈ֯ຕȂఐြ҄ϠྏஜȂੜ‫ڹލ‬ϠᏩᑁȄऻۖᜆЋ՘৶ЙदলൠȂЙद ᗞ᝱ᔍࠡȂᐬϧࡈ་ȄӒ࣏၉ৎϠӠժ‫࢘ݺ‬ҳȂᇐϧऎѹ֯൵ग़Հߞ‫ڍ‬ᝋȄ ҁেहࠫૠᎲຜُৎϠգЙԢߞ‫ۻڹ‬ȂϵգЙԢߞਾᎲȄҁেӟࡂӠ‫ߞۻ‬ԟ ᔍȂ‫ׅ‬ϧҝඵِၐ၃КୃႶߞૌᅁȂᢰѵϠߢႽૠ࣏ࠫᅁߞȂૠ࣏ྎྑߞȂ ᴽ࣏ѵϯᑾϘߞૌૠȄ ࣺ᏿Մ‫ݦ‬ ҁেᜆϯ୼ЋȂణ૶ۖѢຕᅹȂಎࠫ‫ڤ‬බ࣏੗‫ڲ‬ў֐ߞᓷᔩȂ‫ا‬েЙ֭ঋಎ ಎԳྏᘁૠߞЂକȂ‫ا‬েߞѕᢸϵऎНൟ᠙Ȅညҁে‫ۦء‬ϼ‫ڙ‬ေॴȂ՘ґ԰ ۖҗЋՉԑᖉԳ੡Ȃ‫ا‬ে‫ـ‬ऎҁেឥϯྏਾȄऻۖҁে൵ࢢ՘ґణ૶ȂहТ ᐾ‫ݱ‬Ȃጄ࿂փ‫ޥ‬Ȃ‫ـا‬౮๑࠲઻Գឥϯᣙग़Ȅ ᡙжႫኇ ഺ៫ც዆ְ҄ऻࢢ᝱‫؞‬Ȃѕᢸ୞ᠩȄऻۖିћᏂԴಎЋԔࣽаߞϘҮ႖Ȉ‫ا‬ ٟઈϞȊ‫ا‬ऎНஜਟȂԯऎ‫ا‬ϵฅ‫ی‬ըߊϯ਄ф֘ϜЋȂ֭हѧНϭȂҁে ᗞ‫ڙ‬ԺϞȊթҳऻౖۖ᜹៬ߞ֋‫ט‬ᐬࡌȂЙ‫ܦ‬ЙዦȂѽ‫ݺݯ‬՘Ȃ‫ا‬ӺऎՁྏ ۖᡭཆȄऻჅഺਇც዆Ȃ‫ا‬ះఀധԺኸবൌᚳනϞȂϠӠߞ၃ᑢϵኧԺϞȂ ‫ـ‬କࣽఉϠѕȊփᑋਇც዆‫ݙ‬ཇႿߞࠫਿϵ࢝౻෽ȂЙᎢ࣏ѹа‫ݕ܏ܗ҈ؙ‬ ࣏ውႽ‫ވ‬уȂऻჅഺᢘѵც዆ȂྐӅྏۖӐѵߞџЄ࢝ࠕȃ࢝ࠕȄ‫ا‬ে‫ـ‬ಎ ࠫၐ၃࣏ૌᅁߞȂທᅆЙ࣏ૠ႖Ȃփ࣏ૠߞ႖ሬȊӨџЏҝȂಎ‫܆‬௟ᗜȂԧ ϠӒঋቁ‫أ‬ҝཇᇊরȄ ‫ޟר‬Іࡦ ც዆К൵҄‫࣏ߞ؞᝱ا‬ᜆЋ༤৶‫ឹق‬ᏂȂҁఈգӐงທાȂփҁ၍Йਟ᝜Ȃ ᜃ຾รೢߞ‫ڗ‬ᢜȂ؆՘‫ۻڹ‬Ȃऎѹ֯൵ग़Հߞ‫ڍ‬ᝋȄಎ᝸ҁዃཇᇊরߞѕ᝸ କ௉Ⴟ՘Ȃ҄‫ـ‬ԺϠࠫѹȂ‫ـ‬௟ᅷឹᙩຜૠȄഺϵຜ‫ا‬࿂Ђߞ៳ᢸхࢥȂў ֐ߞణ૶ȂӒՂϘৎϠ‫ߞۻ‬ణ૶ϘଠȄ‫ا‬েЙߢႽࡈႮߞ‫᝱ק‬۶ᔍਧȂ֭Ꮻ ຾ѹॠᒘߞ௲ታ۶ૠߞԢԴȂᐴ຾ࠫѕȂӅ‫ܠ‬କмᔍऎԻȂ؆՘ૠ‫ݙ‬՛Ѿߞ ‫ۻڹ‬Ȃ֯ҍӠ‫ڍߞۻ‬ᝋȂ௟‫ڽ‬କ௉‫܃‬๒๑៵ߞ‫ڍ‬ѹবȄ எᇷഺ៫ც዆௟ྻԴ10ѡԊԴᐍᆬӎԳ஡‫࣍ݸ‬Ȃԧ֜ϼေЙਟᓾჅȊ

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Ж᡹ଟ៪

հ‫ޱ‬Ȉᡌ‫ޟ‬ᐯ೫Кѕȶ՘ࠜ‫ڀ‬ԕȷᐱਰౖᔁՐԐӠȃᑫࣷ஼Ӕ࠲உሮҞᇟૠஉ௵ቃᐱ৶ɆMedicare Accredited, Mental Health CounsellorɇȃቃᐱᐯᇇЀȃ௄ရిु‫ٿ‬ᇇЀфߤྻЍ֯фࣆຉᅷ᠖ᐯЀ

ԑߧҿυ

గᓂԑ Johnny Leung

ॻ஼঵हҙ౥৖Դࠕงߞዷགྷ‫ڰ‬ԆКࠑӯȈȶ‫ا‬েߤྻКգߞࣙ‫ڱ‬Ϡ၏Й཈ ࣏૔໘ȂփѷᅁԴ࣏ઽᅗȊഺൊжϠ؆ԑЙ঑യԇȂҁেះఀѵधѣҁে ߞȄȷҁሲȈȶऻۖ‫ڱڤ‬ՐቅϠԴ໖ϯ૒૔ྫྷᄳȂᘘᗚ௲૯ਟȂഺ؆ԑ࣏Й ঑യԇȃᇒిЙ۹ȃ૿ѻిᏳȃٟգႽ዇Ȃഺ࣏‫ا‬েቮঋ‫ؼ‬ᢏߞȄȷऎ֣Ր ቅϠԴЫчߞॻ஼ߤྻК՘ऎϞᇋੲȂജሮऎ࣏ٟգౕؓߞϘ၏Ȅहࠫ‫ێ‬১ ԯЙҪϘৎȄᑋᢜփ‫ڏ‬ȂՐࠦϠ࣏ᆕգจઈߞϘ၏Ȃ҇ᆕನྐȄҁেᐾգࠦ ࣋Ȃփࠦ࣋௲‫ڽ‬ϧ༓ȄՐࠦߞҁেȂј‫ށ‬ೀ‫أ‬ȃขࡌ৘൯ȂসЙᠪ‫؟‬Գᄘႏ ྲ‫ߏڰ‬Ȃత‫ࣄྲۦ‬ᐼȄҁেᅆࡈႮ҇ᆕࠫѕ۶ౕؓȂҪঋѕႆӲ‫ؠܠ‬ԨȂ࠮ କԨ຾ӫዾ་๴Ȅᗂ‫ڹ‬ଥฌᆕ൉ȂӺ࣏ᐯ೫ߞ‫ډ‬ᑟȂᅆҁেփ‫ڏ‬ȂҪգᐯ೫ փٟգҵీȄՐࠦϠҞᓜ಩҃ߤྻߞчНᡭЄȂ‫ۦ‬Ϡ᛿ྑȄ ՐࠦϠ࣏ߤྻӏ‫ߞڽ‬ฏጇȂ࣏௟‫ߞڽ‬ታഞȂЙ֭କऎ֋Ў൹ൄग़Հߞ௟‫ڽ‬Ȃ ӺҞऎߤྻੜϧȄ‫ا‬েൌᅆҁে௙ПࡓౕȂౕؓҁেକ௟྅ࡏ۶ࣿϧࣿ಩ҍ ‫ڽ‬ȄՐࠦ੡ߞ‫ا‬Ȃપ‫־‬ඈᡌऻȶࠦՐ྅ణȷߞџӎነ༰ȄညК෡গϘ֜Րࠦ գऎߞࠦՐ྅ణȂҁขࡌᛕԑȂऎӔ᎛‫ۻ‬Ȃѷࡡ੾౻྆ȂಎఀӔѕȄՐࠦϠ ߞఀчᑾࡓ࣏҄Ϡ၎ውߞϘ၏ȄҞ࣏ऎ֣಩ԴߤྻᅆՐࠦϠߞऻ‫ޱ‬գ‫ڱ‬ЙЂ ՂࡈȄՐࠦϠജ‫ز‬ໞऎ૿ѻയԇྏȂٟգႽ዇ᣍ݇ȂѷҵҝನྐȂٟգў ԨȄգ‫ڱ‬ՐࠦϠ‫ـ‬ജሮऎҪᕖ‫ڳ‬ጄȃೣџਃ঵‫ݺ‬ცၝႼᕚȂϯТᗑᇨфMSN ຈຈȄ‫ا‬ӺჃۖЙьՐࠦϠȂҁে૿ѻӒፁߞϠӠᣍ݇ȂҪߢȶЫจ༼୧Ы จᏕȷȂᅆࡈႮྏۖ୛ҵȂԴٟգўԨф௙ౕܺϭȂறգӡᆽў‫ڽޱ‬နᏕ֋ ЎȂᄘႏୟᘖ಩ᅁȄഺኃሲ‫ڽ‬ȂҁেӺ࣏ԯऎᅆߤྻȃҁϠф֋Ўߞҵౕփ ֯ҍߞहТхᕕȂِ֭ิቅԯҵౕփ௲‫ߞڽ‬࿭ᙘȄ ՐࠦϠᅆߤྻ࣊๒ಯӠᜀЂߞ዆ᠩϧȂ‫ྻߤڤ‬ϫᅆՐࠦߞϘ҃ѾϯЦኃȉԴ

ഺߏឮчᑄߞߤྻႆȂգϠ՘ґȂգϠҵీȇգϠඈ੆ȂգϠॴ྾Ȅ‫ا‬েᅆ ՐࠦϠЙӤ֋ѹԳ௙ПࡓౕȂ֭գ੡‫ا‬েྻ૿ѻᅆՐࠦϠߞನႋȂ‫ـڤ‬᎘Й ϯᅆҁে֯ҍգੜߞ੺ைࢽᐱȄ‫ا‬Ⴣۖգ‫ڱ‬ՐࠦϠ݀݀‫ۖۦ‬ѭӓߞᕅϧȂҝ இҁেЙ᝸ྍஇߞ‫ڰ‬ȂᐯҁেٟᒸᎷᐯߞ‫֘ތ‬Ȃ‫ڕ‬ҁেЙྐ‫ߞڕ‬ўԨȄѭӓ ౕЄ՘ᔷȂऽౕҁেକԍ‫ឹܟ‬૟ȂທࠧЙညȄ֭ѭӓߞѕ᝸ᘘᙩѭӓȂҪঋ ࢅЄକ‫ڕ‬ϯӒ൉Ȃѷକ๴෭֋‫ا‬Ȃ‫ڤ‬՘ґфҵీࡋ‫ڍ‬Х‫ڍ‬ขȄѭӓ݀݀ྻԴ ЙߢЙះ༡‫֋د‬ЎЙକ؆՘ߞ᝸ౕ઻ຜࢅЄȂౕؓକంࢅЄ‫ڗ‬ϯ‫ݙۖر‬ӏକ ఀۖߞϘзȂ‫ࢅߢڤ‬Єߞѕ᝸ྻሃѭӓྻЂЙहԢȄࢅЄԯ຾ҁߞ‫੾ݑ‬ȃᖖ ᄩфକϧփ๴ਣ୓‫ڽ‬Ȃԯթᐾգ֋Ўߞল੾фཉԨȂ৐କඵഡ֋ЎߞನྐȂ ᗂ‫ڹ‬Й࣏Ӏَࠦ༳ȂӺԴ‫ݙ‬Й঍ȄҁেߞኊৃᣍҞሃѭӓЙԢȂԯऎҁেᘘ ՐࠦȂ‫ܥ‬գϘᙇงౕȂቮঋᢜᢚ۶ᅁᎹȂഺ࣏ᐯ೫ߞ‫ڧ‬຀Ȅ֭ѭӓྻԯ຾Й ‫ء‬ѕࢅЄༀ৆Ȃ݀݀ຜࢅЄᕅϧȂࠡѤҁেփҵҝᐯ೫ᢜᢚߞᑟྻȂᓷᐹߞ ࣏ԯթփሃࢅЄዲᅆȂᝯ࠼ҍ಩ᇦ௺Ȅ‫ڤ‬੡Ⴣۖѕข‫ܥ‬ӏ՘ጢߞࢅЄȂҪߢ Ⴌѭӓᅆ‫ة‬Ȃ֯ҍ҄ѭӓҵౕߞ֖ऎ‫៉ةڽ‬фඡ෇ѭӓࣉҐߞᕅϧȄ ՐࠦϠቮঋѭӓߞሮԢ۶త‫ۦ‬Ȃᗂ‫࣏ڹ‬ҵీༀ৆Ӻቮঋѭӓߞњࢺ۶᎗ႋȄ ԯऎҁে‫ܥ‬գᐯ೫ߞᑟჃȂ‫޶֣ـ‬ҵీϜ՘ґНӓȄ৐ѭӓౕؓࢅЄକ‫ۖر‬ ֋Ўߞನྐ۶ўԨ੡Ȃ֣ЙຜПҁেԺўߞࠫԇȃߺ‫ܠ‬ȃᝒധ۶њࢺȂం੟ ‫ׄ۝‬փЙ‫ڰڰ‬ᑆᗂȂѷຜП๴ਣߩ༡ȄညࢅЄྏۖѭӓߞࠫԇфњࢺ੡Ȃҁ েྻ঺ྏࠫѕȂ‫ׅڭ‬ϧѽ঒Ȃ‫ڤ‬ѭӓබЈ֯ᑉѕȂփहўᝯ࠼Ӻྻ‫ډ‬Հփକ Тह࿛഼Ȃ݃թњࢺȄၐ၃ፒ‫ڏ‬ϩϟൢϟϩУြୃႶȈȶϠѕዎዋȂ‫ܦ‬փЙ ֩ȇϘҮ‫ڏډ‬Ȃ‫ڹ‬ѕᡌጄȄȷၐ၃କຜПՐࠦϠሮᝊ֣ऎૌನȂຜПՐࠦϠ ࢽєȄՐࠦϠంփఀۖчϯߞขዊȂᐯ೫Ӡ‫ߞۻ‬ૌᓒ۶ྍ၍ȂᅁԴ࣏ЙҞԺ ఀߞᐯ೫‫ل‬ਫ਼Ȅ

$1.00

໐ಊनࡤ‫)!ٲࢉޠ‬Κ* ໱໏‫ޟ‬ଔྛ 1830 ՐӐงȂॻ஼ᅁ֖༎ச‫ؼ‬ভȇ‫ێ‬КϘৎ দᙇȂබ࣏௟Ⴥ݀՜ԆϠњѾ༎໱‫ؼ‬ऎӤ௙ ԆϠњѾ༎ႤȄऎԯᕕഺ༵ྲనࣉȂԴ 1840 ՐȂॻ஼๴֖Ϟ຾ԩߞȶག࠮ЀȞThe Black Penny ȟȷȂѽည੡ߞᇯԺ‫ڲ׀‬Ѓऱஎব‫ڂ‬ᄊ ऎ‫ێ‬ѹঋന঍Ȃ༎ೈ०ࢢࡋ཮ϯգᙆ‫ߞݑ‬፱ ౵Ȃѽ࠮ᙆ໭ԴࠫࢋϯȄӤ‫ݺ‬Ϙ‫ܡڱ‬৶֋֖௟ ഺ‫ڱ‬ག࠮Ѐည֯ᚃߏᝑ୙ПϘ‫ڱ‬ප໳фߢԩϠ ЀȂ࢝‫أ‬Ȃ༰༎࠮՘ऎϘᇌཝՀȄ ໏ಉᇧհႆแৠܾюᒿ գ‫ڱ‬༰༎ϠЀඈᡌྩ༰ᓾᢜ༎ೈȂ‫ځ‬գߞᓾᢜ Ҟѽኊৃാࡱȇ֭ѽ঑യ๴֖༎ೈߞᚚ৶‫ڽ‬ ሲȂබ࣏෋ᄱȄϘըྍҳȂ‫ږ‬ѽ७‫ۻ‬Ȅຊ߰Դ 1988Ր‫ۦ‬ၑ‫ݺ‬শส༎ࣆȂᚚ቟ऎ༎சᆾရȂ঑ യ༎ೈф༰༎‫ڰ‬சȇԴᔝߞϘՐႆȂබ๴ӠϞ ѽϭϘৎૌᅁࣇ‫ڰ‬ȂຜџࢢߞԢ‫ڰ‬ϘৎৄᝡȄ

1989ࣲᓽҾឮ೤෫क‫܈‬໏ಉ ഺਇ༎ೈԒұ‫ޚ‬Ȃҩѽ $5 বᛝ‫ڤ‬Ϙ‫ޚ‬ҐԞЈ ࡭௺Ȅ൵ࠐ་ਣ‫ډ‬ՀȂ֭ࢢ‫ڽ‬๴ӠϞȶбұӔ ႻȷϘാ֚‫ڰ‬ԆȂॻўК൉ւዋۤᏚऱᔼണய

дҗ߀

К஼фশสȂԞ‫ޕ۔‬۶ӇፇȞrunning sheet proofȟߞሦ֯ϵᕣϭ‫ڽ‬Ȅф֌ॻўٙ‫ܠ‬Ղงষ ֖Ȃࢢሦ֯຀ؔЏ၃੡џ๑ԺȄҞକӤ‫ݺ‬੡༡ ᇦঝȂϘЙЈѕȂᑫࣷߞ‫ݚ‬Ԟ஥௟ऱᔼӽ៭‫ܡ‬ ‫௺ڤߞއ‬ໄ‫ޒ‬ѯȂܺবညӒবሦ‫ޕ‬фӇፇȂ‫ڭ‬ ঋِ୺ϯ‫ز‬৞ѾԞȄ ຊ߰ညՐ෠ᇒ༎ೈф༰༎ϘᚚȂ኶‫֋ز‬๒ၢԴ ຊ߰‫ڗ‬ϯȄ༎ೈሦ֯Ȃӎ‫ڗ‬බ࣏ঋ၃ჅϘৎទ ᚰߞ኶‫ز‬Ⴥ຀Ȅ‫ێ‬КϘৎঋഥȂබ࣏ӡѧႵ ‫ޱ‬Ȅྍࢥබ࣏ӡԢ᝷‫ݑ‬Ꮃߞ༎ೈ֯ѧႵȄຊ߰ බԴҾব໴ϞϘਇࢃᆬ෻ᓐѳ1981ՐЂ௓॔݇ ༎ೈ֯ѧႵȄѺऻНϭȂ๴಩‫އܡ‬ϯߞᐙൢభ ԴҠ଒ϾϯȂሃॻՑᐙൢభԴҽ଒ϾϯࢫՀह хȄഺ‫ށ‬ᢖ࣏Ϡऎ಴݆Ȃ‫࣏ݺ‬Ѽঋِ‫ـ‬ӒȂᘖ ֺϞϘৎ஼ቫ૯႖Ȅ ώհП‫ݲ‬ᇄᄘ࡙ শส༎ೈࠜϳѽ‫ڽ‬ಎ‫ۦ‬༰༎ϠЀ‫ݙ‬ඈྑȂ๴֖ ༓㦣ЂȂԞ‫۔‬໱ஜᚽպေสЮȂՂգਮᓾȂԞ ‫۔‬໱බঋඡᏚȄ֭ഺਇ࣏ॻऱᔼӽ៭॔݇ೈȂ ഺዹЂߞ஼ቫ૯႖Ȃ਻‫࣏ݏ‬ન૲Й࠲Ȋ

༃߯ρ

ࣲড়ஔᙄω࠮஻

գ‫ڱ‬Ϡሮऎຊ߰ᄅুȂຊ߰؆ԑЙԢྍȄ୵Ϟ ϯগѧႵ‫ޱ‬ҳȂ഼ᝊϵ࣏࢝দঋȄຊ߰Ⴥ݀գ ઻ѕสရჴఱᐙൢߞኇՑȂᐙൢ࣏భԴҽ଒Ͼ ϯȄԓ߰Ȃຊ߰Ӡࣿգ॔ࢠȂទ੾ᘖֺ‫܆‬Ӡ ࣿȂُчൌѽ൵‫ߐڸ‬ᅗϯ઱Ȅຊ߰Й֭ᘖϞϘ ৎᇋȂѷ‫ۦ‬ϯҦᣙᎫȂටϭџࢢ௄྽Ȅ

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ড়৳୊ஶ

ឃᚊ٤ Christopher So Ϡ᝷Ѝ຀ਰ (Ergonomist) ັᑋߏನ޼ᖚਰ (Manipulative Physiotherapist)

୊ஶҡࣀȈΤΪΞ

ϦЖϦ೚Ȉ಑Π᜸ᆋॱ ᜰ࿽ᘇ೿/஼฽૗ො‫( އ‬Ankylosing Spondylitis) ཱིၥਟ (Π)Ȉ ԯऎঋ԰ຍᡝ߰‫ࠫڽ‬Ȃ‫ݙ‬ѽ֯߰‫ݺ‬ӎፔԓ෡গ௻๼ଖป߆ߞႤਫ਼ȄഺઽҪ዆ᠩ 0.0001%ߞϠϾȂ൵՝ҞԴϩб࿐༟‫ܕ‬ȂփჅϞұϩ࿐Ж๴ઽߞᑟྻࡋֲ࢝Ȅ Ӏ‫׮‬Ր៬࣏ϟϩУ֌ϟϩϣ࿐Ȅᘵ๒‫ݑٷ‬ѧЃ‫ݑ‬๴ઽߞᑟྻԺ‫ی‬Ϭ঺Ȃ֭Ѓ‫ݑ‬ ѹᣍྏះഺઽᅆՁেџ௱ӠࣿߞЙ‫ډ‬዆ᠩѧ‫ݑٷ‬ЂȂ‫ݸ‬ౢЍ֯ߞᑟྻӺЂȄҞ କԯऎЃ‫ݑ‬๴ઽߞՐ៬ѧ‫୼ݑٷ‬ȂᏋᕕߞକϧԯՐ៬փิֲȄᘘգՁেຜᙝા ߞҞକ‫ݑ‬ӺֲȄ‫ݙ‬ѽЃЀЙঋఫѽቅѕȄ ୻ሃ㒪୻(sacroiliac [SI] joints) ᝯြߞ X ԍ࿰ѯ‫ڹ׈‬ٟգઽᢏӺЙକߺ‫࣏ܠ‬ Ӓ௱Ȅԯ࢝Ժ੡ঋۖઽાߞࢢงЖ‫ށ‬ᢖȄ॓֕ಧٕᑥತ (ESR) ۶ C хᕕകӨ (CRPC-reactive protein) ߞ຀࢘෩୼ȂҪࢽӯգ๴߆ߞఐ޶փЙକߺ‫ܠ‬௻๼ଖ ป߆ߞՅԴȄ֭൵ᚎඏߞࠐงઽወබ࣏ၕ๭ȄՂ‫ࠜލ‬งၕ๭۶၃௱෇๴ߞබЙ ঋЙ֯‫ـ‬ᆟܺߞᕭࣤȄՂ‫ލ‬ԓҐϯၕ๭ᇯࢺϞϬৎѡѽϯȂપ‫־‬ѽଖปߞࣿஜ ϧᢖ຾ิֲȂэ‫࣏ێ‬՝ϯ୓㤽գଖปᇦ๼۶િঽߞྏះȂ༷җЈ੡‫ݕ‬ѽϯЖգ ‫ؼ‬ຠȂබঋ‫ـ‬ҐЈѕȄᇂᓹࢢЪះિঽ࣏ЙԪನߞȄ࢝Ժ੡࣏ԯऎઽϠԴ՝ϯ Ϭȃұᙇබྻ๭ᓹփЙକԓϢᇂȂࣇգϯগિঽఐ޶Ȅ ᘘգȂࠜ੡༡ԃਿࢢ๭ྻኧҐȄԃਿ഼௱ᅆ๭྾ٟգᕒׄȂᏋ༓ߞࣿஜхփକ ັ፤๭ߞ຀࢘ȄหާᅆЂൊԊߞઽϠൌգႵЂᕒׄȂ֭ЙঋჅ༓ȂࡒঋࢮϳȄ ઽϠྻգ᝷‫୻ױ‬ૠ၃๭Ȃ֭๭ྻ࢝Ժ੡ంᗗൊߞϘ᝝ᚼೊۖҩϘ᝝Ȅ

ԯઽᢏ࣏ᆙ་‫ߞݑ‬ᝯြ߆Ȟprogressive arthritisȟ۶ܼϳ‫ߞݑ‬๴߆ (chronic inflammation) ȂՂ‫ލ‬Йᆽ՝๴಩ȂઽఐྻԴ๴ઽߞϩՐࢢգҞକႿۖЙକ԰ ᚼ‫޼ݕ‬ᖚߞԳَȄᘘգҍ಩‫ۀ‬๴ાߞயᛟȂՂೀၬ່፯߆ (Anterior uveitis) ྻ๴ӠԴ20%ߞઽϠ‫ڗ‬ϯȂ‫ݕ‬ສᡙଽᇐຈயᛟȄ ઽϠ֋‫ا‬เᢚߞў‫ޱ‬գ (e.g. the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index [BASDAI] and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI])Ȅ֯߰գনߞሮᝊȂ࢝Ҟఓ಩੡ӏգКћߍȄᛁᖚϠ৶เᢚߞ ў‫ޱ‬գ (e.g. thoracic chest expansion, spinal mobility, Schober test and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index [BASMI])Ȅԯ᎑ ᛔ຀࢘ȂЙ‫֯ܢ‬෼഼௱ᝊຜᡝ߰Ь೜ȄՂ‫ލ‬ᆊ៌ᓾሱȂє֌๑ᓜߞዎዋබЙ ՀϞȄՂգᜃᆷȂ൵ՀԨ௞྽ϠЀِᝋȄ

෩៉ȈԴ௞ᛟ 41 ง༟‫ܕ‬Ȃ‫ྻا‬ӡࠫፐயሃຍߞ‫؛‬ՑႬᡝ߰ж‫ڳ‬ᛁᖚߢᝊȄ֭ ࣏‫׎‬Ҟ֖බঋᡝ߰‫ࠫڽ‬෩ҍৎϠᝯြ։ևຈயᛟ‫ݕ‬ৎ੯Ȃ֯߰ྻᆽϧႋຍ۶෩ ‫ڍྍڻ‬Ȅᡝ߰Ҟ௙ც༎so_christopher@hotmail.comȞ᎛኷‫ ށ‬Re: ԢႮϠ / Samewayȟ‫ ݕ‬73 The Grange, Templestowe 3106Ȅ

ឃᚊ٤ ო౩౩‫ ܈‬. டཾЫҁ!ၖ߬࡟Ρ!оϦ࣏ҏ!ᕊഅӓថ

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Fax: 03-9841 4066 Email: info@egrealty.com.au www.egrealty.com.au

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FONG & CO. BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS ‫ܘ‬Ӵີ፲ ۹ⲵનघ ϴѧԙҳ ҡཎᙽᡱ ҕ‫ޭٱ‬િ ᒸᡥ‫ٱ‬໶ ߝ‫ࡡݲޱ‬ ӣۨ‫ࡡݲ‬ ஔࠉ‫ڞ‬ដ ᚔஔ‫ࡡݲ‬ ଒౰೎౩ υτሴᎴ᠌

‫ސ‬౩‫ݽ‬ᕛᏰρȞᐬࢸȟ

๲ᐌ‫ސ‬౩‫ݽ‬ᕛৱ

Ρ᜸ώแᏰ౏അМᏵȞᐬࢸȟ

MANIPULATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPIST

ᜰ࿽๲ᐌ‫ݽ‬ᕛ౏അМᏵȞᐬࢸȟ ϛᚂବ‫د‬МᏵȞॷ෫ȟ

ᔖຨਢ໢Ȉ࢑෈ΙՍϤġĺĻııġŢŮġĮġĸĻııġűŮġŽġ࢑෈ϲġĺĻııġŢŮġĮġIJĻııġůŰŰů

Gary Wu

Suite 6, 1004 Doncaster Rd, Doncaster East, Vic 3109

П ୽ ੎ ࡡ ৱ ՗

CHRISTOPHER SO

к‫ ݽ‬Өᆍᜰ࿽ՊՈ)ᙛཾȃၼଢ଼*ཬ༌ȃ୑ᓞฮȃ ဖधฮȃϤΪ޸ȃᆩ౨Йȃጱᇐ!Ѕ!ٗ‫ۻ‬ฮ

㳜慉栣㞽㥠寝╅⋈帶₫≴ ᆠ೽ဃᇭȂ୽ᇭȂ़ᇭ Phone: 03 9841 4077 / 0408 846 843

43ԑᖝ‫ח‬ငᡛȞᐬࢸȃॷ෫ȟ

73 The Grange, TEMPLESTOWE 3106 ཱ፜ႱघȈ03 9855 8326 / 0414 671 828 295 Бρ Box Hill – Westfield – The Pines

᎓Є᠌ࡡৱ՗

ၖཎ݈୛ ᆠ೽ኄ‫ݍ‬ၗȃ୽ᇭȃ‫ݍ‬ಽၗȃ़ᇭ

੫೨ོॎৱ‫ٱ‬୛‫ܚ‬ ႫၗǺ03 9808 1211 ༈ઍǺ03 9808 1322 Ӵ֭ǺSuite 3, Level 1, 2-8 Burwood Highway, Burwood East 3151

)ӣၯΡᚕᇬ‫ޥ‬Ⴄ᎑*

‫ࡡݲ‬ᆈρȂၥ౏ࡡৱᒑՌ೎౩Ȃ ૖Ꭷ᠞ЅਪቸϛМᖿࢺኄ‫ݍ‬ၗȃ ୽ᇭЅࡊড়ၗȄ

AUDIT & DUE DILIGENCE SERVICES ቷਯ!ਯኵ ୦ཾ࠘ၚ BUSINESS ADVISORY SERVICES โ୛࠘ၚ TAX SERVICES

ᒲϴਢ໢Ȉ!࢑෈ΙՍϤ9:00am-5:00pm ! ࢑෈ϲȾႫၗႱघȿ

Suite 2, Level 1, Professional Suites Centro Box Hill Shopping Centre 17 Market Street, Box Hill 3128

ႫၗȈ (03) 9899 4388 ༈ઍȈ (03) 9899 4688

Ӵ֭Ȉ Suite 1, Level 1, 35A Carrington Rd, Box Hill VIC Ⴋ໏Ȉ paultang@psmflawyers.com

Phone 9898 8311 for appointment Email: kscconsult@yahoo.com.au


ড়৳୊ஶ

ٕ᡹߀Ԥօ๲ጥฐኌ

൵ࠕ‫ا‬ে൙᠈తۖᡝ߰েߞ‫ࠫڽ‬Ȃሲҁে‫ڗ‬᝝գ‫ވڱ‬у‫ݕ‬ਛϠҍ಩ჅԺ‫ݕ‬Йᅁ ቫߞ๏ዋȂत֌գ‫غ‬ᣭఐ޶ȂЙߢႽ‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿କ‫׎‬ՉԑфգੜԳ‫ؼ‬ຠഺ᝷யᛟ? ഺϘงȂ‫ا‬බԨᡝ߰েЬ೜Ϙϭ‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿Ղ֣҄ఐᇰᎠြՉ‫ܠ‬Ȃѽфᛉᔖૠ၃Ȃ ັ፤๏ዋߞ‫ק‬ᙘȄ ฐኌ‫ޟ‬ԙӰЅ੾኉ ๏ዋ࣏ϠেবᅆϘ‫׈ڱ‬௟‫ڽ‬ᗜȂҞକྻൄ՘ԟᔍ‫٭ݕ‬ᇋߞ‫ڰ‬ఐϯ‫ࠑݙ‬಩ҍߞϘ ᇌЙේ‫أ‬ఐᇰȂഺ࣏Ӥᇦ௺ȂዎዋȂᑉѕ۶਻៵ຈӹᚐԴϘ୓փ՘ߞϘᇌ෇ᛔ хᕕȄഺᇌхᕕᅆ‫ݺ‬ѕನѧႵ଑਴‫ةݕ‬ᕅକϧѧႵֲߞϠ‫ڽ‬ሲ‫ـ‬ऎ‫ށ‬ᢖȄ Ϙଠփ‫ڏ‬Ȃ๏ዋ഼௱‫֋ڽ‬џ௱Ӡࣿϯߞᕅϧ‫ݕ‬ዎዋȂ‫ڼ‬Ղஉ௵ȃ୑ࣆȃਛਲф Ѝ֯Ȃϫ‫࣏ݕ‬বᅆϘ‫ڱ‬પ‫༵ڰ־‬ՂјങȃւႏຈȄ ઽϠ๏ዋ੡ྻҍ಩Ӡನ۶ѕನϯߞᢏм۶Ϙ‫ڱ‬Й֋ះߞ֖ऎȄ ҡ౩ΰ‫ޟ‬੫኉:

•ѕఙ •،ᔛ

•۲‫כ‬Ґ‫أ‬ •বൊ጗॓

Ж౩ΰ‫ޟ‬੫኉: •‫۟֋ྏݽ‬ •‫ݽ‬ᑬஜ •ᅆҳध‫ߏڰ‬ᆐЙᝯѕ

•ҍխ •િѻຈ

•‫ױ‬ӲЙՉ

•உ‫؞‬ •๑‫ޱ‬বᅆ಩ᅁ •ަྍϧЙ༰Кຈ

ᗜ‫ٿुؖ‬ᢖӯȂЃ‫ݑ‬Ⴕ‫ݑٷ‬๏ዋȂփКՐઽϠϫѧցՐઽϠ๏ዋȄ‫ێٿ‬১ԯȂ Ѓ‫ݑ‬ϘଠࢥዋႵদȇКՐϠԴਛਲК‫ݚ‬ᑉႵЂߞയԇȂਟ‫ݽ‬ᑉѕᖖᄩ‫ߞڗ֋ݕ‬ ‫ؼ‬ᢏྻ዆ᠩЍ֯‫ݕ‬ԑਛߞӠࣿȄ ฐኌџо‫ݽ‬ᕛ༝ȉ ঋ‫ؼ‬ຠ๏ዋఐ޶ȂҞѽ൅Ⴥ‫އ‬ӡ᜽ߏф་֖ѕನ޼ᖚȄ୵թНҳȂᘘҞѽᏋည Գ‫އ‬঴‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿ຈ‫ۍ‬գ‫ة‬๏ዋ۶ᛉᔖՉૠ֯ӡߞ࠲உࡡȄК஼ҟ҃ᛁ᜽຾֯К՝ බୃႶգᝯ‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿ɆՉૠɇȃɆኧขɇȃɆЙ‫؞‬ɇߞ֯ӡȄु‫ٿ‬ᝋ‫ށ‬Ȃ‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿

କᎠြϠᢜߞКዽ ૠ၃‫ڀ‬೚۶ажީȂ ҄‫ࢺ࠲ێ‬Ⴕᜦ‫ߐߞܠ‬ ᅗȂգᛉᔖՉૠ‫ؠܠ‬ ߞ֯ӡȂҞѽ‫ށ‬ᢖิ ቅ๏ዋાߐϵକ‫ڨ‬Ѥ ๏ዋఐᇰߞಯӠȄ᜽ ನᅁᢚϵᝋ‫ށ‬Ȃᢸ߿ ޼ᖚ๏ዋ‫غ‬ᣭຈા๑ ᜽ߏ‫ڶ‬ᓥ‫ݑ‬Ȃ๑஘֯ ӡȄԢ੡Ȃ‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿ᘘ ҞѽᛕԨᎠြϠᢜֺ पϧȂኧ௻ᢜᎳȄ ఄ෎๕‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿ᇟົళ ӡԐ་ߞџӎ১Ѣ੺ ை‫ث‬ങ۶୼ॊ‫ث‬෩ۤ Ѝ᜹ȂϘരߧ‫ݚ‬Ꮃ༓ ऎӎߞԋ྽‫ܟ‬՞Ȃᖔఀᑫࣷ۶џӎຈԺ༵உ௵࠲உ঴ࡡᎳ༓ሮᝋȂዴϩՐ‫ڽ‬७ ϧ‫ݺ‬యዃ൵ᔹᎳߞ‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿࠲உಯࡡ,ൄᇊЂಿஉ௵Ȃఄ෎๕‫ڔ‬ᢸ߿ᇟົන‫ף‬Ꭰြ Кዽૠ၃‫ڀ‬೚ȂᛉᔖᄾૠȂ‫ة‬๏ዋຈգੜ՘Ԋ‫ڭ‬Ҟѽգੜኧ௻ϠᢜֺपϧȂ‫ؼ‬ ຠఈ߰ᢜᎳȂգׄ࠲ࢺఐᇰᜦ‫ܠ‬Ȃ‫ڹ‬๏ዋ߰Ҟѽ՝џࢭ෇Ȃ‫ڗ‬ѕஉ௵!

‫؃‬૞ിρᙏᐣ ಲ྽‫ݺ‬ᑫࣷ੾ႆໄ෻Ђᐯч๒ಯߏु‫ݙٿ‬ൾЀ઱ȂԴџӎȃК஼фᑫࣷԧ Գం‫ڰ‬ԧ᝷◔ᒽु‫ٿ‬Џգ22Ր၃ᢚȂэ‫ێ‬ᐽࠜᢸ߿ўবߞж‫ޘ‬ణ୅Ȃु‫ٿ‬ ຾֯Ђ༓๴ࠑ‫ࣷڲݺ‬ȃገࣷфᑫࣷຈԳȄ

Government Accredited Hearing Services Provider

ࢇ‫ۺ‬௲᠌‫ޟ‬๼Ρ᠙Ψ݈୛ᐠᄺ ݈୛ਢ໢ȓ࢑෈ΙՍϤ ፜ӑႱघ 9ਢՍ5ਢј Ԥ Ն ቁ ༝ ȉ Ԥ ᠙ Ψ Ղ Ͻ ༝ ȉ

Ԥ Ρ ᇳ ձ ᖿ ၗ Њ σ ᖐ ༝ ȉ

ձ ᠙ Ⴋ ၗ ‫ܖ‬ Ⴋ ຜ Ԥ ֨ ᜲ ༝ ȉ

ᇄ տ Ρ ፙ ၗ Ȃ ձ ࢐ ֏ ᠙ Ϛ ఼ ཿ ȉ

ӵ ᓡ ࡉ Ȃ ձ ឈ ு ፙ ၗ ֨ ᜲ ༝ ȉ

ńŦůŵųŦŭŪůŬġőŦůŴŪŰůŦų џ‫ڧٴ‬ġջາᡛՆġЅġջາօ᠙Ꮲ ҏᐠᄺ୤ᇄᐬσց‫ۺࢇٳ‬ᚂᕛᆋց‫ޟ‬᠙Ψ݈୛ॎგ!(Hearing Services Program) ૖ջາඪ‫ټ‬᠙Ψᔮࢥ‫ڷ‬օ᠙Ꮲ๝ࡻԤ Centrelink Pensioner Concession Card Մ᏿Ԥၥਿҧ፜ࢇ‫ۺ‬᠙Ψ݈୛‫( ڔ‬Hearing Services Voucher) ‫ޟ‬Ρсঈ

Yin Chen

Clinical Audiologist!᠙ឈ‫ݽ‬ᕛৱ BSc, MSc Clin. Aud. ᏎᅭҏσᏰ᠙ឈᏰᆈρ

ӻԑ᠙Ψ߳୊ငᡛ ᆠ೽๼ᇭȃဃᇭ‫़ڷ‬ᇭ

‫ؽ‬Ρ᠙Ψ݈୛Ȉ ᠙Ψᔮࢥ ൷ཾࠉ᠙Ψຟե ෬‫ݨ‬Ն༬ ॱዅՆ༬ȃŪĮőŰťġՆ༬

๼ȃဃᇭ!0402 787 493 ༁ӑҡ / ़ᇭ!9763 8828 Sarah Anderson Suite 3, 7 Fulham Road, Rowville VIC 3178 (Stub Park Centrelink ѡ᜞) Melway 81 J1

⌣ị Dr Hui Li

ᎇᡡ◘᏷

Dental Surgeon

૖ᖿࢺց़ᇭ!୽ᇭ!ဃᇭ

ᐬࢸຝыбऋᚂҡ ʼnŦŢŭŵũŤŢųŦġńŢųťġࡻԤ‫ޱ‬ ЅġőŦůŴŪŰůŦų ᐬࢸбऋᏰོོষ ϛ୽ϛόᚂऋσᏰбऋᏰρ

Ꮅᗊᗽ 21&⑐᳥

ᆣӫбऋ݈୛ ၄бȂ‫ܦ‬бȂࢿб! бᏏछৠȂᅔҩ! ਲ਼ᆓ‫ݽ‬б ‫ۡھ‬0ࣀଢ଼୅б! б‫੾ں‬٩‫!ݽ‬ ‫็ڋ‬бऋ оΰӨ߳ᓎࡻԤ‫ޱ‬џ‫෈ۡڧٴ‬ջາࢿбЅᔮࢥ

ߞຨਢ໢ ໊ΙĭġΠĭġѲĭġϤġĺĻĴıŢŮĮķĻııűŮ ໊έĭġϲġĺĻĴıŢŮĮIJĻııűŮ

ႱघႫၗȈıĴġĺĸijıġijijIJĶġġġġЙᐠȈıĵijIJġĴĶĹġĹijĹ Ӵ֭ȈŔũŰűġķŃġŕũŦġŎŢŭŭĭġĴĵĹġŎŰŶůŵŢŪůġʼnŪŨũŸŢźĭġŘŢůŵŪųůŢġŗŊńġĴIJĶij ĩຨ‫ܚ‬ᆧ᎑ᛀ‫ސ‬ຨ‫ܚ‬ĭġ፜ΰΙዂĪġŎŦŭġķĴġʼnĶ

27


ፙМᇳ᛺

Ѝ‫ؽ‬ᄀభ

෮෮

ϯงऻ۹ߤࠜߞȶԢႮϠሬȷȂᡝҁߞȮӤሹொ་ϢᚎᑓȯȂ‫ڰ‬ԯग़஼ዾ࿤ ෼ᆬᎠֲग़஼ࠫ໷ໞૺփє७ѵधߵҾஜᖜȂ൵ࢢවҮȂҁሲȈȶჅҝϬϩ ՐȂᚎᑓഺϘৎᣍ݇‫ڭ‬Йࣹ֖ȂԯऎϠѽऎᐾգ‫ـ‬ԺЖ࣏՘ґȂ֭‫ا‬हࠫব ᅆᗞ᝱ߞџЄȂᚎᑓӠࣿӒ࣏‫ا‬েߞҍႮȷȄ ۹ߤࠜєϞ‫ق‬ᅅȅॊЀӇ (Richard Foster )ߞȮᚎᑓӠࣿૌᓒȯ ( Freedom of Simplicity) Ϙ੩ऎᝋȄ‫ܝا‬঩ᄿᇷȂ‫ڭ‬ӏᏦჅթ੩Ȃ৆࣏ྐ୓ࡦেցЄߞϘ‫ڱ‬ ႖‫ڽ‬ȄȮႽ዇၃ȯ೐ϩϝൢȈȶ‫ݱ૵ڍ‬ᑓȂь‫ټ‬ᄿ౬ȷȂᐏȃႽ‫ی‬ਛٟգҨϠ ທᅆߞȶူ౬ȷȂ‫ڤ‬Й࣏Ϡ‫֋ߞݑ‬๒ࣹᠨȂ֭ሮऎঋȶь‫ټ‬ᄿ౬ȷȂ௟ȶ౬ȷ ᙚ‫ݸ‬Դȶನ‫ݑ‬ȷНϭȄցЄሮऎȂҁѕӫКȶႽҞႽȂࠧ௱Ⴝȷȃȶ‫׍‬ЙߢᎡ НЄȂ໪࢓НԐȷߞȶႽȷ‫ێ‬ӎᎳබ࣏ȶ૵ȷබ࣏ȶᑓȷȂබ࣏Й႒ЙតȂබ ࣏ȶጛߏ๑ᗏȷȄ‫ا‬েକȶь‫ټ‬ᄿ౬ȷ‫ڹ׈‬Й࣏պжպȂ֭ЏࠕȶႽȷ‫ٻ‬Ȅ ϟϼԺՐࡈߞցЄȃ֘ϠߞॊЀӇȂϘКϘ֘ȂϘࡈϘࢢȂϲȶգѕȷϲȶ଴ ႕ȷȂЙᇒԩઈЂЈȂЙᇒข஥୼ϭȂ‫ێ‬ੲӎ഍ൌҞह഼Ȃቌቈ഍ҞहჃȄ Ҟ࣏Ȃપ‫־‬ഺϬϩԺՐ‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫ا‬ে๑‫؛‬գ‫؛‬Кۖ‫ࢨ࣏ۦ‬ዹߞి‫ڈ‬ȉȶԺȷȃȶ௻ȷ ຈຈՀᄊ࣏᝹ዡЙ૔ߞчϭЂႽȂሏч⳴Գߞ௻Ꭰઐ໱ȂՀᄊ࣏࠳་၃ᕻߞ றϘૌನȂȶ၃ᕻᐯȷࠝҳȶցᆔȷߞ‫ا‬Й෷၉කȂҪ෷யȂഺ࣏Ϡѵ༡ߞ ೣ࿂ᝯᜃȂ‫ێ‬ҁԑ๑ྍ၍Ϟȉ‫࣏ݺ‬ѼȂϠϠᘌНॶ㗐Ȃѽԫऎ‫ڼ‬Ȃᇒҹ઎໱

ᕿఫȂྔԺྔՀȂྔ‫׻ྔ܈‬ȂЙఓඵ࢖փᙷНȂྩ૪փۗНȂत֌କӤ‫ـ‬ร ‫ߞء‬ј‫ޱ‬փਙНփఀНߞ‫֘ތ‬ȂமНփྔះ࣏ȶ‫ڗ‬жߞ໪ወȷȂϠӠߞԑൊ ൌҪԴ‫ݺ‬թϞȉցЄූᄛȈȶУ֒҄ϠߠȂУর҄ϠօᡚȂУۧ҄ϠϾಜȂ ჺᘽऩᙷȂ҄Ϡѕ๴‫ٳ‬Ȃ᝱ఀНറȂ҄Ϡ֖‫׸‬ȷȂթ‫ے‬ȂϘᇏၻߞ࿧࿧ߞ࠸ ѵ㡯Ȃᡝ‫ڽ‬Йߢգٟգ់ᓹНӡȉ ȶϠဲНᓰȷЙ࣏Йྑ᠕‫ێ‬ҁஜߏȂ‫ا‬েϵգȶӔ४ߏሃȷНሲȂ‫ا‬েঋ‫ށ‬ ӨϠգћмȂϠգ‫ిܟ‬ȃћᐯȃ᜹ങȃরጄȂգȶᇟૠȷߞϘবȂഺ‫ڱ‬Ȃ‫־‬ ߞ঳ဲ‫ڕ‬᜙࣏ٟգȂȶϠ࣏ေߏНᢸȷᕕԴഺ഍ϘྐȂփЙ࣏ҨְԽ֋පЂ ӫߩϘзȄϘӠᆽ࣏Դȶறߏȷ㡯ઙٕӇᆋȂႬဲ᜙ϫգ֣‫־‬ȉ ᅆȂႍȶࢢଡ଼ȷϘᙇȂᢰӠࣿȶᚎȷϘᙇȶᑓȷϘᙇȂᢰӠࣿߞߩ༡ЙӅജ ‫ا‬ে֋Ў௶Ϡ֋ᙘԳჀఀȶ‫ظڕ‬๑ႮȷȂ‫ݙ‬ᓜȶ෩୼ӠࣿᎳ૵ȷЙԍ࣏ࢽߏ ᎳߞᚳಽփЏȂӺᕕҒࣁᇟૠߞϘবȂϘ൚Ϙ༧ߞᏋзह୨ЖЙྻգ‫ݙ‬ஐ ҵȄՆ‫ܣ‬฿฿ȂЂ১ࡋϯ࣏ЂཪᢜȂ۹փ෇‫ܕ‬ȂϬϩՐޫ‫ތ‬ȂϬϩՐޫ֘Ȃ Й࣏‫ࡈ݀܋ٳ‬փӖЙ԰ᔝȂְѽऎЏ࣏ȶଡ଼َȷߞ‫ߏڰ‬ȂϘৎЂ஻Ђ઎ࢢȂ ‫ا‬েϫఀঋంᔝࠓతȂԺᙇЂ֋๒ᑓᅁߞᚤ൜(ЙҪ࣏બ၍ߞȶۖҳব‫ޟ‬ᎫЂ ֋๒ߞল฀ȷ)ȂьᙇϠऎໍёߞᙘᙘលលȂ‫ا‬ে১࣏ȶЂ֋๒НЄ ȷ஬Ȋ ๒փȂ՝ЏജȶߏᎳȷኲ᛿ሃ࿡ྑߞ‫ا‬েȂ‫ݏ‬Ҫ‫ݏ‬Ȃૌߞ࣏ȶ୓ȷَᇯᗞȄ

ཌ࠮ωᇳᒵ໱Ȯᄍࡣཱིᆸȯю‫ࡣގ‬଄ ‫ܛ‬ᇌ∪Ⴡԑӑҡȃဥᐎ‫ۑ‬τρкጡɆ‫ר‬ശདྷ᠞‫ޟ‬ཌ࠮ωᇳɇ‫ف‬Ӗᘎ ਪȂ‫ר‬ቸ‫ޟ‬66ጕཌ࠮ωᇳȂ๖໱ਪӪ࣏ȮᄍࡣཱིᆸȯȂԤ۷ೝ԰ឃМ ᛺ю‫ޥގ‬ю‫ގ‬Ȃ೻ᄇ‫࢐ר‬Ιԩ᚜๊‫ڷ‬ჂᓾȂӵю‫ގ‬Ϟሬөᘎਪкጡ∪ Ⴡԑӑҡȃጾᐎ‫ۑ‬τρߒҰཐᗂ‫ޟ‬ӣਢȂ౏‫ޟרޣ‬ཌ࠮ωᇳቸհᗙԆ ӵ೨ӻ‫ޟ‬ϚٗȂ‫ר‬ौ೽ႆ೻ҏਪᇄ੕ϱѴհড়‫ڷ‬᠞‫ޱ‬ҺࢺȂԟӵϬࡣ ቸю‫؁‬ӻ‫؁‬ԁ‫ޟ‬հࠢȄ

֖໷

ԴઔҳӡКћ኷֯Ȃᅆ‫ڽا‬ሲ঵Ԑ࣏ҍ‫ݺ‬ৎϠྑՀȂӡКћୃႶ۹᝝ߞ‫ݙ‬ ‫ڍ‬ȃ‫ݙ‬ᇷ՘ϞϘᇌ೫ᅚȄ‫ߞا࣏ݺ‬෸ћȃЈሲȂԴᑫࣷȃग़஼ȃК஼ȃሂ ᣉȃশสȃྲҐޯȂຈ஼ਛ‫ݕ‬Գ஡ԧᇌКћҏߏȃᇨ૭ൌգ๴ࠑ‫ݕ‬ᚼႶȄգ ‫ࡡ֯ڱ‬ᘘԺըᖔఀԧᇌጨ༵Ȅ ሃ‫ێ‬ሲ࣏‫ا‬ӡКћ኷֯ҝྏஜҁϠȂᘘЙՂሲ‫ۦ‬ҁϠྏஜ‫ا‬ӡКћ኷֯Ȅ࣊ ๒գᡝ߰ඈᡌȂྐ‫ݸ‬ϭѧྐ኷‫᝱ـ‬ȇԯऎઔҳົϠЏႿ4000ԺေȂ࣊๒ҁে ӠࣿઈਿߞћൢቮঋգϠҝ኷Ȃ֯ऎКћ֯߰බٟգನӤЙ኷Ȅ ည໸኷໸Ժߞ੡৏ȂգϠய‫ا‬ȈɆְඈᡌ኷Јሲᘘ࣏ඈᡌ኷෸ћȉɇ ሲᅁ႖Ȃ‫ا‬ЙߢႽႍࢨዹ԰ຍȂԯऎȂҪգћᐯЂɆਛɇЖգႤ੾԰ຍഺৎ யᛟȂփ‫ا‬Ҫ࣏෼഼֯߰НϘȄ‫ا‬ᓴКߞᛟ‫ل‬ᏋԪ኷෸ћȂ‫ا‬Йྻւዋҝ኷ ЈሲȂхНӺ๒Ȅ ഺӎྋ࡭Јሲᓴ༰ȮᅌࢢྲᇷȯҍߍȂ࣏‫ۖۦ‬Кȃᑫȃग़Ժ֜ԩਛᄁᔽȂЖ ఀЏ؆՘Ȅэ‫࣏ێ‬ᑫࣷ௺ླྀԕԐӠȃК஼≩ᄀՐԐӠȃग़஼ࣉࠥЃЀຈᅆ‫ا‬ ߞྋ࡭Јሲ੾ҳদ໛Ȃѽҁ(Ձ)েߞ‫ڗ‬ԊฅԺը‫ۑڽ‬ᓐ֋Ԩ‫ا‬ॗፇȂ௺ླྀԕԐ ӠฅԺըໞᙇ‫ا‬኷ߞྋ࡭ЈሲȂ൵ࠕϘըϵ࣏൵ҼߞϘըȂК஼ߞ≩ᄀՐԐ Ӡሃग़஼ߞࣉࠥЃЀȂᆽ๒ЙᓖփԪԢ੡‫ݺ‬2010Ր2ѡȂൌ‫ۑڽ‬ᄁᔽ‫ا‬Ϙ‫ܠ‬ ঋҍߍྋ࡭Јሲᓴ༰Ȅ ᐐᇒЫՐᓴۤ66ፔྋ࡭Јሲຕ༰ȂѧႵ‫ا‬2006ՐҍߍȮᑫࣷృ‫ڰ‬ȯȃ2008 ՐҍߍȮඈᡌᐍᆬӎȯ‫ی‬ӎћ༰‫ـ‬Ґ໱ϧȂ੡༡ϯᘵ๒‫ا‬Ϙ‫ݳ‬ԓ‫ݳ‬Ȃ֭ࡡ ᎳϯҪ࣏ྋ࡭ЈሲࠅཀྵКϘ‫ف‬ЈନȂᡋஇ࣏‫ה‬ຜᝯѕઔҳົϠӠࣿઈਿߞᡝ ߰Ȃ‫ה‬ຜᝯѕ‫ا‬኷ྋ࡭Јሲߞցਰ۶ՀуȂ‫ڭ‬ӡթྋ࡭Јሲᓴ༰ِి‫ݙݺ‬գ ྑՀ߰Ȅ

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Ȯᝦ๝ฒӪ‫ޟ‬༈ၾ‫ޱ‬șș৯༈ထԢȯȂ࢐ҥन୰Ᏼ‫ޏ‬ৱਲ਼ᐃ᜞໴‫ޏݰ‬ৱ‫ޟ‬ၑհ Ȯᝦ๝ฒӪ‫ޟ‬༈ၾΡȯ‫ޟ‬ϱৠȂᜊΰॱዅȂՄԙΙৈᎌӫၑੲᝦ୮‫ޟ‬ಢԢ

Ж᡹ଟ៪

ᝦ๝ฒӪ‫ޟ‬༈ၾ‫ޱ‬ĮĮ ৯༈ထԢ Ȯឥຜ๑ԩߞཇႽ߰ȯ֯‫ݺ‬1948ՐȂԑ႐Ԓ4926 ՄȂ֯߰᝝༳ޯ࣏ົϠిྻधࠧ௱ႤಎߞཇႽϠȂ ޫҔषϠȄ 1944 Ր୼Кಲ྽੡দӠఀాȂ 1945 Ր་ࡑ‫ڴ‬КҴЂᐯᡝి‫ڀڈ‬ȇЂᐯง༡ҐϢ௄ရ ᄥࡵȂԴᄥࡵК‫܇‬ឥϞ֋Ў֯ཇႽϠȂ1948ՐЂ ᐯಲ྽੡኷ϭϞϘ঵ᗛ߉ϠϾߞ‫ڰ‬႐Ȯឥຜ๑ԩ ߞཇႽ߰ȯȄ‫ࢢێ‬ቈ঒༳ࡑ᝝ᜟȂԨьዴӔ౉ཇᇊ রȃ࢙ӲిྻȂ‫ڭ‬Դ༳ࡑၐ၃ᐯ୰ԇిȄࢢ‫ۖڽ‬ϯ ઔȂᕒׄѳ‫ށ‬ႽԐӠం‫ڰ‬ћՄЍ֯ȂሃѳԐӠϘዹ ฅജ੏ϢᆯȄවϩՐ‫ڽ‬Ȃᑢ၃࢖‫ڐ‬Ȃൌജѹ࠲ՇȂ Չ๒อჅȄ᝝༳ޯ಩‫ܧ‬ग़஼ȂՐϣϩգ᏶ȂЪԴԑ ѵध֯ཇᇊরߞ‫ڰއ‬Ȅ

‫҈ؙߞ܇‬েж‫ڳ‬ѹਾȄԴዤ኷Ȯឥȯ႐ѽࡈȂ‫ا‬ం ‫ڽ‬ٟգ኷ჅУбպ֖ߞࠜ႐Ȃ‫ـ‬ٟգ኷֯Ȯឥȯ႐ ߞ঍ᄑȄ࣏֭ȂٟྐۖϭຊНࢢȂබᄊӤЙఀ֋Ў ֬ԳȂ๑‫ޱ‬ஃϭຊ‫ڽ‬ȄԴ๺๺ߞවчаȂൣ኷ҍϞ ഺኃϘ঵ࠜ႐Ȅ‫ا‬েҪକ‫د‬؆ԑߞᅷឹൌᙩຜԴч ϯߞѭૠȂࠠࠝȊ

Ȯឥຜ๑ԩߞཇႽ߰ȯߞ႐ໟҞѽሲϵ࣏᝝༳ޯཇ ႽϘӠ‫ߞڰއ‬ѕႮᑢ຀۶኷࿰Ȃᡝ‫ڽ‬ᢰϠЙူ጖๒ಊ ϭȄُϘ֜݅ѕ‫ߞڰއ‬ཇႽϠൌᕕည‫ࠫۖۦ‬ਵ࿂Ђߞ පদȂԯऎҁেᅠౢ֋Ўߞ‫ݙ‬գȂ‫د‬ϘӠంьՐۖӨ ᔝߞ࿐ѡൌӡ‫ྑڽ‬ѹȂྑϠȂࣿҍᇊরߞ‫ڍ‬ᝋȄᑬᔽ ϞЙьߞ௄ရਵԴ‫ק‬ᄩКদྲ૭୓ȂԴѹবࡈி‫ܠ‬Й ೊߞ‫ڕ‬ϩՄࣛߞႽႮȂऎѹ᠁गȂ݅ѕཇႽȄ

ୃఀԴዤ኷Ȯឥȯߞ੡৏ȎധധԺԺ๑ԩཇႽ߰ߞ ‫ڰ‬ᚹ۶‫؛‬ᄊȂՀ໪ࣿࣿԳᙚԴ‫ߞا‬ೀࡈȂ‫اڹ‬ൖ຾ ҁেϘԢࣹಊȂϘԢ԰ྐჅҝߞҵీ۶ఀർȂϫϘ ԢྏਾȂϘԢТह۲ᕕ຾‫ࡈڕ܋‬বߞႮ຀ȂՀ໪‫ا‬ ۶ҁেј෪຾јȂѕാ຾ѕȂӡ๑ᗏߞሬ‫ڏ‬Ȃগሲ ຾ϘৎϫϘৎߞ‫ڍ‬ᝋ۶၃ᑢȄ‫ا‬ះఀ֋ЎՀᄊϘৎ ୃᔂ৶ϘዹȂӡϘ֖֖ߞ႐ҮȂୃগ຾Ϙാ֚ߞఐ ฀๪বȂ۶ᘿऎϠߢߞѕᗏȄ‫ڱڤ‬ч‫ا‬௱࣏ಊࣹᆕ বȂවѼᅃ঴ৌ኿Ȅည኷ۖϘҗߞ੡৏Ȃ‫ا‬Џ౻྾ ԳߢႽȂഺທЙ཈࣏኷ຜ֋ЎߞϘ঵֋ࡍ႐Ȃփ࣏ ૠߞϘ༵‫ڰ‬ЍȄߡۖ኷؆൵ࢢϘ֖ߞ੡৏Ȃ‫ا‬Жះ ఀՂ៖দ঑Ȅ‫ڤ‬੡৏Џ࣏ࢢҗ‫܆‬ϞȂчߩКླ‫ٕ܆‬ ௚ȂӒԴຈ৏຾ᐌ‫࣐౐ߞࡈށ‬ȌȌ

ᝯ‫ݺ‬኷֯Ȯឥຜ๑ԩߞཇႽ߰ȯߞ১ԯȂ᝝༳ޯ֋ ЎฅዤћႋሲȈ1948Ր10ѡϭ՟Ȃ‫ا‬ះఀႍ኷঵ ๺႐‫ڽ‬ி‫֋ܠ‬Ўߞѕ‫ؠ‬ȂԢ੡ϵҞѽ۶Ϙ‫ڱ‬ᔵᔵ‫ڰ‬

ᘁᘁૠȂᴽ‫ڹ‬ӡϞഺ঵႐Ȅ֭ഺ঵႐ȂϜ࣏ૠৄ຾ ϠߞјȂਣ಩ҍ‫ߞڽ‬ധԺ๑ԩཇႽ߰ߞ๪ۡȄϘৎ ЈЈߞਣ಩๪ۡߞϠȂᇖఀϞЦኃȉ

3 ഺ࣏ࠕවՐЂ൙ᇨӔেඈᡌሲߞϘҮ႖ȄЂ൙ߞցպ‫ܖ‬ ంЙ૿ѻขዊ۶࢖ᔵྏȂՂթ૷ጢԳႻӡхᓝ৒᝜ј‫ޱ‬ ‫ࠑڽ‬ႿаಉՂթᚳනߞࢥྐྏఐȂૌ࣏‫׻‬ЙҞ‫ڏ‬Ȅҹሃ ռ᠋•‫ݿ‬዇‫ߞݛ‬຾ԩЈሲȮЙକ‫ߞۦݚ‬Ӡ‫ۻ‬Нቅȯ‫ۍ‬գ ಳաԢЍН‫׻‬Ȃ࣏ൌᕕႍఀۖᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬћᐯጨߞȄ ᕕႍ‫ݚ‬ሮȂ‫ؼ‬ভ༟‫ݸ‬ϞϬϩՐȂК஼ϠߞᓿҒ࣏ᆙᆙᄁ Ϟ୓‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫࣏ڹ׈‬Ⴥҝ‫ڔ‬ളߞԳ஡ȂϵӤ‫ݺ‬գϞֲѪ࿤ߞ ߤྻᇊ‫ߞ׀‬ԑᚬሏȂఐ޶ႬჅҝϵЏЙҞԢџփሬȄ֌ ‫ڱڤݺ‬ዷනߞ༥ኸȂᡋ໳Ⴄ༥ૺȂ‫ێ‬නႈߞ຀࢘Ȃሃ ົᆬ໖ցᘲहѧȂϵቊ֒Йۖ৹ႆҝȄ ‫ߞڽ֣ڤ‬ȶፎȷՄȂփѷȶፎȷۖϞҪൺϭϞȶᓿȷߞ ԳَȉሲӨϞȂٟգϞᢸቿȊȶፎȷȂබፎԴК஼Ϡ୵ ϞᓿȂЏЙߢࣿ຾ۖܺᘘ຾ЦȂҁে؆؆ԑԑҵҝϞ କ၃ఀ֝యᅬߞኊৃᣍȄ๒փȶᓿȷȂබକຜϠ௲‫ܶڽ‬ ᇊཛྷȉգҮ႖ሲఀՀȂȶᓿЙ࣏ေକߞȂٟ֭գᓿ࣏ေ ေЙକߞȷȂഺࡈҗࣱ႖ȂබҒࣁ຾ܶᇊЙ࣏ӡᓿକ໴ ‫ףߞڽ‬၍Ȅ‫ا‬ᐯӠКՂЫЙьϠൌ՘ϞኆေනଃȂညҁ েႬ‫ا‬᎘୓֋ЎߞӠࣿ੡ȂවѼ๑ЙЂᄛॴ၃Ȃҁেൌ ሲȂȶցਰȂᘘְ࣏ഺዹჅఀՀȂჅఀᜏᡍȃ֋ԴȂࣿ ҍϞ֋‫ا‬Ȅȷ‫ێ‬КᘘգՀව֜‫ܧ‬๒ЙॗփԢԳய‫ا‬Ԣዹ ߞயᛟȈȶցਰȂᢸቿ࣏ۖܺЦȉഺৎயᛟྣЙ౻྾Ȃ ‫࢝ا‬๭ॴȄȷҁেഺዹய‫ا‬Ȃ࣏ԯ‫ا‬ฅ၃ҍߍϞϘ ӎћмЂ෸ћ༰ȮᢸቿНࠝȯȂ੩Кգ‫ڱ‬аਟҁে

ћ/ ҏѐጡᒮഋ ഺ঵႐኷؆ѽࢢȂ‫֋ا‬ЎంЙ෷၌኷֯߰ߞԩՄȂ Ҫ᎛ࣉ੢዇‫ب҈ؙ‬኷ϞϘԊ஘ӎȄ1948ՐҋчȂ ഺৎ஘ӎϫജ‫މ‬Սၐ၃ᐯ୰ߞኒ࿨߾Ȟϫԩኒଞȟ ညঋϞҝཇ‫ب‬ȄҁԓϬୠய‫࣏߰֯ا‬ᎡȂ‫ا‬ൌٟ գ‫ט‬໦ҁȄ‫ࢢێ‬ജϠზԞҍߍȂ‫ا‬ЖԴ᝝ᜟ‫ۖڍ‬ ҹȂည੡ࢬЙఀ‫ܖ߰֯د‬ԩం႐ӎϯ⦿ϭҝȄ‫ا‬ ϘߡሮऎȂ႐࣏ឥຜ๑ԩߞཇႽ߰ߞȂ႐ӎϯࡒ኷ ҍϞ֯߰ߞԩՄȂഺӎ‫ڗ‬බϩжҞ૯Ȋ࣏֭‫ڰ‬ЏՂ թȂ๑ᎢՂ֣ϵ๑ᕻ‫ڰݺ‬ϞȂҪգِѹዔዕᏌሏȄ ߡۖЫчȂ‫ا‬ϵЙᑍఀ൵ࠐߞҍߍ࣏߰ࢨዹఀۖ႐ ፇȂϫࢨዹྻᙝ‫ߞ߰֯ܠ‬ԩՄߞȂഺҪգԴ‫ڍ‬ѹߞ ੡৏ЖକߢႽϞȄ Ȯឥຜ๑ԩߞཇႽ߰ȯዃऎࣹཇȂࢢӤૠՍົཇྲ Ґ‫܂‬ᓱ‫ڰ‬഍܎৶ྻᠪய१யᐳߎਰᝉաȂ՘ऎ႐ᆇ রጄೡᆇȂԴѵधԧԳԺ๫ᆊҍȄ१யᐳ࣏ҭЂҳ ћ‫ߞڀ‬ᐯӠȂฅணሃ࢙ӲሂҔిྻ೐Ϙৎ႐઱༤Ȃ ജԢЍᣙ᠖ऎȶ࣏‫ا‬ӀӠ཈‫ڍ‬Դ႐ᆇўবգࠧ௱પ ‫־‬ਾᎲߞϘ֜‫҈ؙ‬Ȃૠ‫ڹ‬ӡҁࢽ෭ҭЂᄥࡵ႐઱Ȃ ϵታᐱӎిྻ႐ᆇ༤Ȅȷ

ĮĮ ᓀ ȷ ȶ‫ר‬ঈ౪ӵጏுѫ഻ή ġġġġġġġġġ ‫ؙ‬ᔖ‫ݎ‬ ٟऻᕖȂྐညব᎛ిȄҁেߞயᛟ҄‫୓ྐا‬Ϟᐆ‫ڝ‬Ȯ ૡᇊȯ㡯ೇ‫ྀޒ‬ய୓ѹϠгߞ‫ڤ‬Ү႖ȶϘৎϠժϞѽ ࢢȂ‫ٿ‬ൣգٟգᢸቿȉȷ‫ྐا‬Ȃഺ‫ڱ‬ᐯӠգߞྐӅ ࣏Դ၃஥ߞӠ౾КֺЙϞஇϞ‫ڱ‬Ⴡѕߞ‫ڰ‬ȂՂЫ‫ۖۦ‬ Ϟ‫ډ‬ѕߞ᠔യȂԯփྏۖ๭ॴȃෙ਻ȇϵգߞ‫ॴڙ‬ਹ ဢȂѾҍϞЂҗӠߞ҃ኊȂྐྐࠛᓿೣ࣏‫ڗ‬ҳНߏȂ ϠӠᗁᕕႍୠِϘ‫ڱ‬Ӗࢮߞ‫֘ތ‬Ȃԯփྏۖҵၢȃ‫ק‬ ්Ȃಲൣҁেҍ֋ԩ੭Ȃ࣏‫ۦ‬ჅӒഢ୼ຈి‫ߞڈ‬ϠȂ ҁেᕖఀᢸቿߞদঋȄ ֭ᅆК஼Ђ൙ທЂԺዴϠ‫ڽ‬ሲȂഺৎயᛟ࣏ЙՅԴߞȂ ȶٟգћмȂЙߢႽ‫ݏ‬ȇ಄௺ћᐴȂ౻ົҔЂȷȂഺ࣏ ԺՐ‫ڽ‬ցպ‫ܖ‬ᅆԧૺ‫ܡ‬ᄈ஄ൄᐯᑢȃѽᡋᓖᐯߞኚᓝȄ Ⴌഺ‫ڱ‬ϠతៈȂ‫࢝ا‬ьᡘۖҁেᗾ֋Ўᢸቿߞ֋षȂϵ ധ࣏‫ܡ‬ඞϯߞጕഢࡋщԺȂҁে՝බ൫ѢϞȄ֌‫ݺ‬෼ᜲ Ђȃ���ՇьՐȃߤྻ᝝፡ϠຈຈȂӠࣿᅆ‫ݺ‬ҁেჅ‫ݺ‬ ᗞ‫ڙ‬ȂҁেߞѕКЏٟգຜᢸቿ઻ϭߞ֜၉Ȅ ߤྻኊৃᣍߞඉҵȂබൄ՘ԧᇌ෋‫ݑ‬੯ԆߞᆺࠜȄ ๒փȂ൵ᢰ‫ا‬ៈӫᢘѕߞ‫ڭ‬Й࣏ഺ‫ڱ‬੯ఐߞᅝທϠ ᐰȂփ࣏Ӛ။ཻᆷϠంਟবᅆ៷ᄊᝡᔝኜ‫ڎ‬಩ҍߞ ֽᔖߞྋ૯Ȅ Н‫ݙ‬ѽൄ՘Ычഺዹߞ؊বȂ‫ا‬ѽሃ‫ا‬েჅҝߞদ ЂҵሱգᝯȂ‫ا‬েᗁ‫د‬Ϙৎࣆ៨ߞࣆ޼ୠِ≩ᏼԴ

ԑߤྻНϯȂညஇԑߤྻߞೣ࿂ኊৃȂഺබ࣏‫ݙ‬ᓜ ߞȶ॓ȷȇҩϘўবȂ‫ا‬েϫӡȶ௶࠸றߏᎢȷ‫زڽ‬ ৆ӎႍӤҹে‫ڽ‬ைนႽ዇ఐᑆߞৰᐯȃ‫ిܟ‬ȃћᐯ᜹ ങȂంփ‫޼ࣆد‬۶৖ನӎ៳‫ی‬ৎፑ᜞ߞ‫ߏڰ‬಄಑ԴϘ ୓ȂփϘӌϠে๴಩Ԓѹ၍ᄊ‫ڤ‬ӖቈҞౕփЙҞфߞ ԳӀ㤵੡Ȃԑߤྻߞࠫ݇බᅔܺ௪ጚϞȄ ռ᠋•‫ݿ‬዇‫ߞݛ‬ЈሲȮЙକ‫ߞۦݚ‬Ӡ‫ۻ‬Нቅȯබ༰К ࠑ಩Ϟ‫ތ‬ገԒѹ၍ႋᢜࡈߢᝊжЄаѕߞҵၢሃల ೛Ȅҹ‫ט‬໦‫ا‬েȂϠӅ༷գிᅁߞኊৃᣍȂ‫۽‬๒ᐾգ ϞҹְԴҹփᐬ୽੡ྻྏٕۖ࢝দȂְ֭Ԣዹྻྏۖ ҇ᅁȂփϘӌҵҝϞኊৃᣍȂְබྻ๑‫ݙ‬ᐴ‫ڶ‬Ȃഺᇌ Ӡ‫ۻ‬Нቅ௟‫ڹ‬Ϡে‫᝱ـ‬ѽ‫ۦݚ‬Ȅҁߞԩ‫࣏ڏ‬Ȉȶ൵ٕ দߞ঑ᑉᕅঝ຾‫ا‬েȂᢰ‫ا‬ে‫ݺއܦ‬ҹȂ‫اد‬েᕅۖ ԳϯȄ֭Դᑢ҃ߞྑఐ႐КȂЃϠᗁ฽ౕ‫ۦݚ‬Ϙৎ‫ٷ‬ ‫ڗݑ‬ᢜߞদ༓Ȅ‫࣏ݺ‬Ȃ൵ٕদߞ঑ᑉԢ੡ϵ՘Ϟ൵௻ ಽߞӠ‫ۻ‬ϧߞ዆ᄊȄ঑ᑉ໸দȂ‫ا‬েߞӠ‫ۻ‬໸໭ࠕЂ ԳȂҹබ໸ૌзᅁԴȄहхȂည঑ᑉ؆ԑ૿ҵȂϠබ ྻᢏఀѧߩઈᘘቅȂබྻៜ୓‫ڽ‬ȂබྻቈᛓЂԳ۶Գ ϯߞӠ‫ۻ‬ȂϠϵබҪ࣏ϘৎҗૌߞՅԴȂ‫ێ‬Ⴛஜϵྻ ᢏఀ֋Ӥփٟգྍ၍Ȅ‫ڤ‬ኃȂۖܺᓴᑄЦኃȉ࣏দᘘ ࣏ቅȉȷ ԯթȂК஼Ϡඵ‫ر‬ிᅁߞኊৃᣍȂබ՘Ϟ੎ᒸКົћм ߞদКНদȄ

29


Ж᡹ଟ៪

ิᄢዚ‫ܠ‬ ॆ஑ඔ

σՌณЖ᡹ఀࡉ‫ف‬Ӗ - ЁϤ ࠕՐ‫ڽ‬Ȃԑಧ෼჆ҍ಩ȶьЄмȷߞᘳዎȂ҄ԧ஼ ࣆܹಯӠϘᇌዎѕՂ๎ߞ๏ዋྏȄԴ୼࢘Ѝ྽ឮ ߋмߞ஼ਛȂྔ‫ྔڽ‬ԺՐቅш‫܍‬ԯ຾Ӡࣿߞᇌᇌᕅ ϧȂ‫ݑی‬Ӏຈѹ၍ߞ‫ݶ‬ᔝȂԪ‫ޱ‬ኪ३ߞઈᑽ௦୓Ȃ Й᝸ం‫ڰ‬Ӡ‫ݕڈ‬ੲӎЙ᝸ԺӠࢅЄߞ಩໪ࡋџᘌទ দȂԯթ௞ਛჰเӏ‫ڽ‬௟ᐱ७ԧ஼ൻஜϠϾิьȃ ஼ਛᗁಯକফֲȃЍ֯ϠϾ঑ᑉҐদȃгԒ୑ࣆ঑ ᑉኧҐȂत֌ցϠᇊ‫׀‬௟֫ӡЂൊжߤྻᇊ‫׀‬Ⴄ ࿚Ȃ‫ڭ‬ಯӠ၃ᕻੜᕕߞవᕟфᎏॎȄԢዹԳȂᑫࣷ ȶьЄмȷߞᘳዎӺЙჇԺᢰȂੲᑂᑫࣷ೚঍؊ Ȟ ABS ȟ 2010 Ր 3 ѡߞᑫࣷϠϾ෼ࣤඡ‫ט‬ᢖӯȂ ᑫࣷԑ஼ϠϾᘵЏ໹໸2200ေϠϾȂ֭ϠϾߞ՘ ࠜತऎ1.2%ȂѧԑಧϠϾ1.3%ߞ՘ࠜತᘘֲȂӒ ുَᘙԨց៬мࣛᅹߞߤྻ಩໪Ȃӏ‫ڽ‬ᑫࣷཕӅব ᗜᑋᢜឮߋϧȃ၃ᕻϧфߤྻᇊ‫׀‬๴ਣߞদЂᎏᕝ ф຃޶ȄԯթȂ֤঍ᑫࣷԴӏ‫ߞڽ‬஼ਛϠϾࣆຉ ϯȂᘘ࣏ྻ࠲ࢺϘരߞϠϾࣆຉȂϘўবЂ‫׀ݸ‬Ժ ጨᔽӠ‫ࣆڈ‬ຉȂᚣѽ‫ؼ‬ຠ෩୼Ӡ‫ڈ‬ತֲ୛ߞᅗཕȇ ҩϘўবࡋᘘྻЂ༟ࠝїȂᒕ࿂తૼՐቅգ୑ϧ௄ ᚂߞઔҳೊӔȂ෩п࠲ࢺᑫࣷϠϾኧࠜߞѧತȄ ෩фԑಧȶьЄмȷߞᘳዎфᘌཕȂ‫ا‬බྐ୓Ђ֋ ๒൧᝷КӠᏳಿԺȂ჆ᆕԳবߞЂїϠਛɯɯਛ൫ ൟ(House Sparrow)ȄࣿጐགྷႯߞਛ൫ൟӺᇍऎॻ ੾᠋൫ൟ(English sparrow)ȃᑘ൫ൟȃલൟȂԴ ညЫԑಧߞ൧᝷ߏᇌКȂҞକ៳‫ݺ‬Ӡ‫ڈ‬ತ൵୼ߞ൧ ᝷౉၏НϘȂԢ੡ϵ࣏жֶ஡ாႵऎዃ޾ߞ൧᝷Н ϘȄ‫ٱ‬েබᄊೊӔ෸‫ܧ‬ઔаҳߞК஼ϠϘዹȂ‫ږ‬Ⴋ ჆ֶԑಧԧԳȂ৹ႆգᓖӠӠՅߞߩ༡Ȃ৹ႆබգ ӠᏳಿԺߞਛ൫ൟȄਛ൫ൟᘴ៳‫ݺ‬൧ᇩൟ‫؛‬ӫћ൧ ॊȂ‫ێ‬ᢜࠜॗԴ15гжҽҠߞࠜ࢘Ȃ‫ٱ‬েч‫ݑ‬ඈྑ ሃϠ᝷ᰎᏐփ‫ܧ‬Ȃࣇᔌ຾Ϡ᝷ߞᏏೊфӹ഼Ѝ‫ߞۍ‬ ᔛᗄ๴ႿȂു෸‫ܧ‬жֶ‫ݺ‬ч౾ઔ‫ڎ‬Ȃ๑഍Й‫֖ێڍ‬ ᚸȄ֭ੲᑂ௞ਛୠᚸु‫ٿ‬Ȃਛ൫ൟᕕ࣏১ಯ‫ݺ‬ገࣷ ф‫ࣷڲ‬Գ஡ߞ൧᝷Ȃ֭ԯᐾգ୼࢘ᅆᖖᄩф঴ߏߞ ᏋᕕϧȂ‫ێ‬Ҟжֶߞ஡ாઈ৏ϫգ࿂ЂߞਮಳӠՅ ‫ݑ‬Ȃည๒ഺᘘҒࣁઈ৏࿂‫ێ‬෋ԚߞԳ஡Ȅ ਛ൫ൟ࣏ϘᇌЙж࣋ਆौҋȂԑՐरҞᗄฤߞ൧ ᝷Ȃቬ‫ݑ‬ਛ൫ൟѹയᄼകȂُ३Ӡಯॗգ 5 ʂ 6 ᘺ ൧കȂॗቮ10ʂ12чߞᄼмงȂԴૠ‫ݙ‬൹ൄߞ‫ݙ‬ գ൧᝷ညКȂЂ࿄ਛ൫ൟߞᄼмง࣏៳‫ݺ‬൵๺߰Ȃ ‫ێ‬൧കߞകล֒ᎠᢏмӺ࢝ЂȂ഼֭௱࣏ѽ‫گ‬Ө֒ ‫ݕ‬౶շᚡ֒ऎ‫ێ‬ѹᎠ֒‫ڀ‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬୨ྥ຾གȃ᎐֒‫߰ݕ‬ շ֒ߞ෹ᙇȄ၃Ⴥᄼм՘ґߞЈ൫ൟȂॗം၃Ⴥϟ ৎ࣐งࢢȂ‫׈‬Ҟਣଂ঳ມȂұ഍ഡ঴Ȅਛ൫ൟߞ༯

30

ћ/ ጾ‫ۅ‬օ‫ޏ‬ৱ

ቬր֒ȂᎫ൧߰ևೀҞжᓰ‫־ݑێ‬Ȃ༯‫ݑ‬ਛ൫ൟߞ ᔝൊȃবᔙր֒‫ה‬಩੷֒Ȃփ඘ൊȃϯҗ଒ȃೀဗ ሃኜකН༡Ȃࡋ࣏ག֒೟րȄਛ൫ൟߞቬ൧֒௾౺ ౶Ȃ‫ۍ‬գ౺֒ऺ૳Ȅ‫࣏ߞ׻܈ـ‬Ȃૠᘘ൹ൄᎫᎲຜ ਛ൫ൟϘৎૠ‫ߞ܈‬ኜකȂ๺Јி๼ߞཪᔄߐኜකබ

ᄊ֬࿢࢘঍ϘዹȂُჃ߆߆ਆ ‫ܞ‬Ȃਛ൫ൟߞකኜ֒Ꭰබ‫࣏ॶ؜‬ ᚡག֒ߞЈӮᔝȂຈۖධֽߞҋ‫ڽܞ‬ ᡚȂ‫ٱ‬েրѨ᝝፡ߞᛞ֒බᄊ֬ࣾ֗ᑟࣾᆤଡ଼֒ ߞ֗‫އ‬Ϙଠᢏ౶Ȃකኜߞൊжࡋକᢏм՘ऎཀ᎐ ֒Ȃૌ࣏҄ϠྏۖЙҞࢥ៉Ȃ‫ڭ‬ಎಎᢜᢚૠߞ‫׻܈‬ ൹֯Ȅ ਛ൫ൟ࣏៳‫࢘୼ݺ‬၏‫ߞݑܧ‬൧᝷Ȃُُᣍᅅ‫ێ៷ݮ‬ ֋๒ӠᅗНቫȂᗁ࣏၏ᇸኤኤඎඎԳኀҨЙஃȂૌ Йߢ‫ٱ‬েऎЦኃգՂթԺ႖ҞѽЙᙝ݃թ໦ሲȄਛ ൫ൟᘵ๒ᢜᒕतЈȂ֭ࡒᐾգ࿂‫ߞڸ‬ᖖᄩ‫ة‬ᕅϧȂ ‫ݙ‬༰ຕตਿߞ௰ӱϵ๑഍ЙԴȂᗝϲࡱҾ໖Ⴝȃ༏ ‫م‬ႺԳȃ୼Ћઔᕺߞ៿ѢᙍКȃઔᲁЋ௧ϯȃч๒ ‫ܬ‬Ӯߞᗀቩ഍ȃϠ‫࢏ܧ‬ᜫϭȃूᒑӮུߞߩቩȃ᜼ ፺ൎࠅН༡Ȃ‫׮‬Ҟ‫ێڍ‬Փဨ‫࢙ݙ‬ᒝߞ൧௰Ȅਛ൫ൟ ߞၙѬપ‫־‬නգϧ༓фዅ‫ݑ‬ȂҞ‫ێڻ‬ԇྍᜆ‫ع‬ᑘ ‫ޑ‬ȃନ౛ȃც።౛Ȃत֌ԴԳবϯᖠ༡ೊஜфႯ ᠙ȇ‫ٱ‬েߞ‫؍‬ѐՋȃଂᇻ๺ȃᔝϵЈȂᏋԪԴᑘ ‫ޒ‬ȃӮᗀ༡ȃ֝࢏ߞᣊ૮‫ݕ‬ᠠບᇨߞߩቩК्໸঳ ֖Ȅգ੡Ȃ‫ٱ‬েऎϞӠࣿ౧ԆфᖖᄩቮঋȂᘘྻ༰ ᢜԎ੃Գሃ‫ێ‬ҹ൧᝷ߋᄳᒝ௰ԳጹȂᠭᛓ১ЏԴည ഍ᒝ௰ߞ১֝ӔȂ‫ڶڭ‬ᑂ֋Ўߞቮঋ౧ԆȂԓদྲ

ᑋ࢙‫ؼ‬ൄ᚞գߞ൧௰Ȃૌ࣏Ϙ၏๺Јᇟ྅ߞཔᐬЍ ֯ᄥ༤Ȅ ࠲ᜲԴၐ၃෩ዝщࡈ੩ߞࡍᔽКȂऎՐቅϘ҃෩‫ڻ‬ Ϙৎ੡҃዆ᠩϧߞ‫ࡋޱ‬ȈȶЙҞҨϠЈऻְՐቅȂ ᗁঋԴ‫ڏ‬ሬȃ֖ऎȃྑѕȃࠫѕȃ౻ጒϯȂൌ֯ࠫ ਵߞᅳዹȄȷु‫ٿ‬ਛ൫ൟߞ֋๒ӠᅗȂᢰ‫୓ྐا‬Ϙ ֜‫ܨ‬ᆕ12࿐ߞҐੋЂ‫˕˕ࢅٷ‬ቾ੾Ȇࣦࣟ੾(Craig Kielburger)Ȃቾ੾Ȇࣦࣟ੾ԯ຾Ϙࡋѐ௄෻‫܃‬ຆҶ ߞജ౭ྲᇷ‫ڰ‬ԆȂᐬ୓՘ऎѵध‫ݙ‬гሮߞ‫ۊ‬ຆϠ ᡋ୽ЀȂ‫ڭ‬՘ӲϞϘৎਗ਼ᎎԑѵध‫ۊ‬ຆϠᡋߞ஼ቫ ೡᚐɯɯȶ஼ቫ‫ۊ‬ຆႋ‫ݸ‬ೡᚐȷȂ‫ۍ‬ᢜ៚ෳϠ୹Ў ୹ߞᇟૠȂ७ϧऎ‫ۊ‬ຆϠᡋ᎛‫ۻ‬Ȃ‫ڭ‬Ԑࢢᅷᖔȶᜲ ෻ᇊ֋Ӥᐙൢȷȃȶѵध؊ཕᎢᐪጨȷȂѷԴ 19 ࿐੡බЏᅷᖔᓚ‫ړ‬ᆬ۶Ӏጨ෩ԩȄቾ੾Ȇࣦࣟ੾Ղ թೣຕ֋Ўࡌ෷ऎԑಧ‫ی‬ኆУϼေ‫ۊ‬ຆ᎛‫ߞۻ‬ᄱྐ ሲȈȶ‫ۊ‬ຆЙ࣏ຈ຾ಽႅߞߩᐡӪȇҁেϵ࣏գ ನྐȃգчжȃգྍ‫ڍ‬ȃգᄱྐߞϠȄ‫ۊ‬ຆह ࠫ֋Ўକ঳Ȃٟգԇ֣‫ڰ‬ఐକ௉ࠡᐿҁেᅁ಩ ᄱྐȄȷ‫ݕ‬ധգϠྻᎳᆷϘৎ12࿐ߞЈЈ‫ٷ‬ ࢅҞѽஇЦኃ۸ȉϵգ‫ڱ‬Ϡ‫ݕ‬ധྻሮऎՐቅ Ϡ࣏ЙзᅁቫߞϘ၏Ȃ֭ᅆቾ੾Ȇࣦࣟ੾փ ‫ڏ‬Ȃҁះఀѵϯቮঋգ‫ـ‬Ժ᝸ྍᅁᎹᄱྐߞЈ ൫ൟȂЈЈ൫ൟᄱྐਛӖቈൌЙཻԺȄ ๘ୃȂশสգ֜ᒮఈទদ๯᡾ߞьЃ֯ਛɯɯࢁ‫ۂ‬ ठȂՁ১ӎ࣏ࣿԴ֋۟ȃ֋ዔȃ෌ᣍфୟᘖߞ໪Ѱ ཰КȂබᄊ֬Ϙ୸౮Й୓ೀߞਛ൫ൟϘዹȂ֭֋ం ՁߞӠ‫ۻ‬၃ᑢധԺա‫ض‬фॴ᝱ࢢȂ֋ంՁሮᝊᎲϠ ऽౕфϧ༓ߞૠ੡Ȃබٙ‫އֹܠ‬ᇌᇌቪᜣȂ൅ჅϘ ౧፱ᇒȃϘৎᓮϢኇᐡȂళӡϘ۲Ϙ‫ߞכ‬ў‫ޱ‬ᑆ֯ ცၝȂࠅ໱бՐߞᗞ‫ק‬੡ԍȂԐࢢ኷ҍϞȮᏇฎϯ ߞЈ൧ȯфȮЈ൧ѕȯ‫ی‬ӎ੩Ȃᘵ๒ՁߞјၙЙକ ࣿஜ֋ՂȂ֭ȶЙ‫ݦ‬ౢȃЙ‫ݸ‬ౢȷߞᇟૠȂᢰՁߞ ѕᢸҞѽᄊ֬ਛ൫ൟଠԴћՄߞчԳ༡ᒱມȄՁ࣏ Ղթᄁᔽഺ੡҃ՐቅϠሲȈȶჃۖ‫᝱ק‬Йঋ‫ݸ‬ౢȂ Ⴣۖ‫᝱ק‬ЙҞ‫ݸ‬ౢ֋ЎȄȷᘵ๒‫ڗ‬ᢜཋรȂ֭ጄᣍ ߢ‫ږ‬ȃࣿጐૌ႕ߞՁȂ֋ᇍ֋Ў࣏ᏇฎϯߞЈ൫ ൟȂҞѽԴӠ‫ۻ‬ዃᘮߞчߩ֋Ӥ঳ມȂ૯ऻϠӠȄ ১‫ڽ‬Ȃ‫ا‬েൌ࣏ӠᏳಿԺߞЈ൫ൟȂ‫ݙ‬၃ᑢҌҎЙ ӀߞϠӠȂබ࣏ঋᕒׄ‫ا‬েॎ૔‫خ‬աዎᣭߞ‫ק‬຃Ȃ Ⴍ໸ฮࣖໍઙߞѵधȂኧҐᅆ෋ԚᖖᄩߞᏋᕕϧф ‫ة‬ᕅϧȂՀᢰ‫ا‬েҞѽԴૠߞૌྑКȂታੁૠ‫ݙ‬Ꭻ ᎲȶӠᏳಿԺȂ჆ᆕԳবȂ޼ನഺԳȷߞᚳಽૡ ᇊȇՀᢰ‫ا‬েԴૠߞඈጄКȂҞѽ‫܃‬๒ࠓԨᅈྲ҇ ᆕऽౕߞӏ‫ڽ‬ϠӠȄ


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үतĂ ᅜ෥ଚĂሀ‫ڋ‬ Egypt, Israel, Jordan Tour

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џ‫ٴ‬Ԥ෵ ʼnŌĥĵıı ᓺඏ Ԋ୥ȃ໠ᛳȃՙΝȃࠒӴȃडցরȃडၯኪվȃ‫ݼ‬੕ҁন ёցցȃর៌ଽӴȃ਌ᄤ୚ȃҪ੫‫ܜ‬ ൢӪ᚞ᅖ։Х Ӱᐬᄌ༘౥ਗ਼ଢ଼ȂࡸൢӪ࿋Р‫׷‬ᆗ Ɍġ՗แџ૖Ӱ੫੆௑‫ݷ‬Մհю፡ᐌ ɎġϚѓࢂᏎᅭҏՍॷ෫ᐠಉȃᐠൟโȃᐽ‫ߣݶ‬ёາȃᏲၽωາ้ᚕາȄߣనӇ३‫ڙ‬

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