Ten years at sea
National Maritime Museum Cornwall, Discovery Quay, Falmouth, Cornwall, TR11 3QY
A maritime celebration of Cornwall
Event Catalogue 09 February - 10 March 2013
John McAleer Curator of Imperial and Maritime History
Keynote Â Lectures:
Philip Rentell A Life Underway
Tim Bass Modern Racing Dhingy
Phil Pring Rowing the Atlantic
Editorial Â Extracts:
Ernest Hemingway The Old Man And The Sea
Bernard Moitessier The Long Way
Ellen MacArthur Full Circle
Adrian Flanagan Over The Top
Pete Goss Close To The Wind
Rodger D. Taylor Voyages Of A Simple Sailor
Peter Nichols A Voyage For Madmen
Jules Verne 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea
Herman Melville Moby Dick
Tania Aebi Maiden Voyage
“I’ve never seen the point of sea, except where it meets the land.” - Alan Bennet
“The shore has a point. The sea has none.” - Alan Bennet
John McAleer Curator of Imperial and Maritime History
Areas of research and interest My PhD thesis focused on the representation of landscape, exploration and empire in 18th and early 19th-century southern Africa. Following the completion of my doctorate, I developed interests in Atlantic history, focusing on the
slave trade, abolition, and British missionary and military involvement in the Caribbean and Canada. My research focuses on the British encounter and engagement with the wider world in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Selected Â publications: Books
Edited Â collections
Âˆ6ITVIWIRXMRK%JVMGE0ERHWGETI)\TPSVEXMSR ERH)QTMVIMR7SYXLIVR%JVMGEÂ¯ (Manchester: Manchester University Press 2010)
Âˆ )HMXIH[MXL7EVEL0SRKEMV 'YVEXMRK )QTMVI1YWIYQWERHXLI&VMXMWL -QTIVMEP)\TIVMIRGI
Âˆ ;MXL,:&S[IRERH6SFIVX.&P]XL Monsoon Traders: the Maritime World of the )EWX-RHME'SQTER] 0SRHSR7GEPE
Âˆ 1ERGLIWXIV1ERGLIWXIV9RMZIVWMX] Press, 2012)
6SHFLÂ¿FDUHDVRILQWHUHVW Âˆ8LI6S]EP2EZ]ERHIQTMVI Âˆ7PEZIXVEHIWWPEZIV]ERHXLIMVWYTTVIWWMSR Âˆ1YWIYQWGSPPIGXMRKERHXLIMVVIPEXMSRWLMTXS)QTMVI Âˆ8LITYFPMGVIGSKRMXMSRERHGSQQIQSVEXMSRSJ&VMXMWL REZEPERHQMPMXEV]Â½KYVIWERHGEQTEMKRW
Âˆ&VMXMWLREZEPQMPMXEV]ERHQMWWMSREV]EGXMZMX] in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Âˆ8LI&VMXMWLTVIWIRGIMRXLIWSYXLIVR%XPERXMG and Indian Oceans, especially the Cape of Good Hope and St Helena.
“Land is the secure ground of home, the sea is like life, the outside, the unknown.” - Stephen Gardiner
The old man and the sea &])VRIWX,IQMRK[E]
I[EWERSPHQER[LS½WLIHEPSRIMRWMHIEWOMJJ in the Gulf Stream, and he had gone eighty-four HE]W [MXLSYX XEOMRK E ½WL -R XLI ½VWX JSVX] HE]W E boy had been with him. But after forty days without GEXGLMRKE½WLXLIFS]´WTEVIRXWXSPHLMQXLEXXLISPH QER[EWRS[HI½RMXIP]ERH½REPP]WEPES[LMGLMWXLI worst form of unlucky. The boy had followed their SVHIVWMRERSXLIVFSEX[LMGLGEYKLXXLVIIKSSH½WL MRXLI½VWXWIZIRHE]W The boy felt sad to see the old man come in every day with his skiff empty, he always went down to help the old man carry either the coiled lines or the gaff ERH LEVTSSR8LI WEMP [EW TEXGLIH [MXL ¾SYV WEGOW ERHJYVPIHMXPSSOIHPMOIXLI¾EKSJTIVQERIRXHIJIEX He was asleep in a short time, and he dreamt of Africa when he was a boy. The long golden beaches and the white beaches, so white they hurt your eyes, and the
high capes and the great brown mountains. He lived along that coast every night now. Within his dreams he heard the surf roar, and saw the native boats come riding through.
“He heard the surf roar, and saw the native boats come riding through.” He smelled the tar and oakum of the deck as he slept and smelt the scent of Africa that the and breeze brought in the mornings. Usually when he smelt the land breeze, he awoke and dressed to go and awake the boy. But tonight the smell of the land breeze came very early.
As he realised it was too early, he continued to dream to see the white peaks of the island rising from the sea, and then he dreamed of the different harbours ERHVSEHWXIEH´WSJXLI'EREV]-WPERHW He no longer dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great ½WLRSV½KLXW nor contests of strength, nor of his wife. He only HVIEQXSJTPEGIWRS[ERHSJXLIPMSRWSRXLIFIEGL
The door of the house where the boy lived was unlocked, so he opened it and walked in quietly with LMWFEVIJIIX8LIFS][EWEWPIITSREGSXMRXLI½VWX VSSQ XLI SPH QER GSYPH WII LMQ GPIEVP] [MXL XLI light that shone from the dying moon. He took hold of one foot gently, and held it until the boy woke and XYVRIHXSPSSOEXLMQ8LISPHQERRSHHIHXLIRXLI boy took his trousers from the chair by the bed, sat down and pulled them on.
“He was shiverng with the morning cold. However, he would shiver himself warm, and soon he would be rowing.”
The old man went out the door and the boy came after him. He was sleepy and the old man put his arm across his shoulders and said, “I am sorry.” “Qua Va,” the boy said. “It is what a man must do.” 8LI][EPOIHHS[RXLIVSEHXSXLISPHQER´WWLEGO along the road in the dark, barefooted men where moving, carrying the masts of their boats. When they VIEGLIHXLISPHQER´WWLEGOXLIFS]XSSOXLIVSPPWSJ line in the basket and the harpoon and gaff and the old man carried the mast with the furled sail on his shoulder.
They played like young cats in the dusk, and he loved them as he loved the boy. He never dreamed about the boy, he simply woke, looked out the open door at the moon, and unrolled his trousers and put them on. He urinated outside the shack and then went up XLI VSEH XS E[EOI XLI FS] LI [EW WLMZIVMRK [MXL the morning cold. However, he knew he would shiver himself warm, and soon he would be rowing.
“Do you want some coffee?” the boy asked. ±;I´PPTYXXLIKIEVMRXLIFSEXERHXLIRKIXWSQI² They had coffee from condensed milk cans at an IEVP]QSVRMRKTPEGIXLEXWIVZIW½WLIVQER“How did you sleep old man?” the boy asked. He was waking up now, although it was still hard for him to awake.
He no longer dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great ½WLRSV½KLXWRSV contests of strength, nor of his wife. He only dreamed SJ TPEGIW RS[ ERH SJ XLI PMSRW SR XLI FIEGL8LI] played like young cats in the dusk, and he loved them as he loved the boy. He never dreamed about the
“Along the road in the dark, barefooted men were moving, carrying masts...”
“Very well, Manolin,” the old man said. ±-JIIPGSR½HIRXXSHE]² ±7SHS-²XLIFS]WEMH±2S[-QYWXKIXSYVWEVHMRIW and your fresh baits. He brings our gear himself. He never wants anyone to carry anything.” ±;I´VIHMJJIVIRX²XLISPHQERWEMH±-PIX]SYGEVV] XLMRKW[LIR]SY[IVI½ZI]IEVWSPH² ±-ORS[MX²XLIFS]WEMH±-´PPFIVMKLXFEGO,EZI another coffee. We have credit here.” He walked off, barefooted on the coral rocks to the icehouse, where the baits were stored. The old man drank his coffee slowly. It was all he would have throughout the day, and he knew that he should take it. For a long time now, eating had bored him and he never carried a lunch. He had a bottle of water in the bow of the skiff and that was all he needed for the entire day.
“Sometimes, someone would speak in a boat...” The boy was back with the sardines now, with both baits wrapped in a newspaper. They headed down the trail to the skiff, feeling the pebbled sand under their feet, then lifted the skiff and slid her into the [EXIV±+SSHPYGOSPHQER²8LISPHQERWEMH ,I½XXIH the rope lashings of the oars onto the hole pins, and leaning forward against the thrust of the blades in the water, he began to row out of the harbour in the dark.
There were other boats from different beaches heading out to sea, and the old man heard the dip and push of their oars even though he could not see them, now that the moon was below the hills. Some times, someone would speak in a boat. But most of the boats were silent except for the dip of the oars.
“The old man knew he was going far out, as he left the smell of land behind him.” They spread apart after they were out of the mouth SJXLILEVFSYV)EGLFSEXLIEHIHJSVXLITEVXSJXLI SGIER [LIVI LI LSTIH XS ½RH ½WL 8LI SPH QER knew he was going far out, as he left the smell of the land behind and rowed out into the clean, early morning smell of the ocean. He saw the phosphorescence of the Gulf weed in the water as he rowed over a part of the ocean that XLI ½WLIVQIR GEPPIH³XLI KVIEX [IPP´ FIGEYWI XLIVI was a sudden deep of seven hundred fathoms where EPPWSVXWSJ½WLGSRKVIKEXIHFIGEYWISJXLIW[MVPXLI GYVVIRX QEHI EKEMRWX XLI WXIIT [EPPW SJ XLI ¾SSV of the ocean. Here there were concentrations of WLVMQT FEMX½WL ERH WSQIXMQIW WGLSSPW SJ WUYMH MR XLIHIITIWXLSPIWXLIWIVSWIGPSWIXSXLIWYVJEGIEX RMKLX[LIVIEPPXLI[ERHIVMRK½WLJIHSRXLIQ
-RXLIHEVOXLISPHQERGSYPHJIIPXLIQSVRMRKGSQMRK and as he rowed, he heard the trembling sound as XLI¾]MRK½WLPIJXXLI[EXIVEW[IPPEWXLILMWWMRKXLEX their stiff set wings made as they soared away in the HEVORIWW,I[EWZIV]JSRHSJ¾]MRK½WLEWXLI][IVI his principal friends on the ocean. He was sorry for the birds, especially the small delicate dark terns that were EP[E]W¾]MRKERHPSSOMRKFYXEPQSWXRIZIV½RHMRK
“If she did wicked things, it was because she could not help them.” He thought the birds have a harder life than we do, except for the robber birds and the heavy strong ones. ;L]HMHXLI]QEOIFMVHWWSHIPMGEXIERH½RIEWXLSWI sea swallows when the ocean can be so harsh? She is kind and very beautiful, but she can be so cruel. It GSQIWWSWYHHIRP]ERHWYGLFMVHWXLEX¾]HMTTMRKERH hunting, with their small sad voices are made too delicate for the sea. ,IEP[E]WXLSYKLXSJXLIWIEEW³PEQEV´[LMGLMW[LEX people call her in Spanish when they love her. Some times those who love her say bad things of her, but they are always said as though she were a woman. Some SJXLI]SYRKIV½WLIVQIR XLSWI[LSYWIHFYS]WEW ¾SEXWJSVXLIMVPMRIWERHLEHQSXSVFSEXWWTSOISJLIV EW³IPQEV´[LMGLMWQEWGYPMRI8LI]WTSOISJLIVEWE
contestant, or a place, or even an enemy. But the old man always thought of her as feminine, and as some thing that gave or withheld great favours, and if she did wild or wicked things, it was because she could not help them. The moon affects her as it does a woman, he thought. He was rowing steadily and it was no effort for him since he kept well within his speed, and the surface SJXLISGIER[EW¾EXI\GITXJSVXLISGGEWMSREPW[MVPW of the current. He was letting the current do a third SJXLI[SVO ERHEWMXWXEVXIHXSFIPMKLXLI WE[LI was already further out than he had hoped to be at this hour. I worked the deep wells for a week and HMHRSXLMRKLIXLSYKLX8SHE]-´PP[SVOSYX[LIVIXLI schools of bonito and albacore are and maybe there will be a big one with them.
“He heard the trembling VRXQGDVWKH¿VKOHIWWKH water.” Before it was really light, he had his baits out and was drifting with the current. One bait was down forty JEXLSQW8LIWIGSRH[EWEXWIZIRX]½ZIERHXLIXLMVH and fourth were down in the blue water at one hundred, ERHSRILYRHVIHERHX[IRX]½ZIJEXLSQW)EGLFEMX hung head down with the shank of the hook inside XLIFEMX½WLXMIHERHWI[IHWSPMHERHEPPXLITVSNIGXMRK
part of the hook, the curve and the point, was covered [MXLJVIWLWEVHMRIW)EGLWEVHMRI[EWLSSOIHXLVSYKL both eyes, so that they made a half-garland on the TVSNIGXMRKWXIIP8LIVI[EWRSTEVXSJXLILSSOXLEX EKVIEX½WLGSYPHJIIP[LMGL[EWRSXW[IIXWQIPPMRK and good tasting.
“Each line, as thick around as a big pencil, was looped onto a green-sapped stick.” The boy had given him two fresh small tunas, or albacores, [LMGLLYRKSRXLIX[SHIITIWXPMRIWPMOITPYQQIXW and on the others, he had a big blue runner, and E ]IPPS[ NEGO XLEX LEH FIIR YWIH FIJSVI FYX XLI] were in good condition still, and had the excellent WEVHMRIWXSKMZIXLIQWGIRXERHEXXVEGXMZIRIWW )EGL line, as thick around as a big pencil, was looped onto a green-sapped stick so that any pull or touch on the bait would make the stick dip, and each line had two forty-fathom coils which could be made fast to the SXLIV WTEVIGSMPW WS XLEXMJ MX [IVI RIGIWWEV] E ½WL could take out over three hundred fathoms of line. 2S[ XLI QER [EXGLIH XLI HMT SJ XLI XLVII WXMGOW over the side of the skiff, and rowed gently to keep the lines straight up and down and at their proper HITXLW -X [EW UYMXI PMKLX ERH EX ER] QSQIRX RS[ the sun would rise.
The sun rose thinly from the sea and the old man could see the other boats, low on the water and well in toward the shore, spread out across the current. Then the sun was brighter and the glare came on XLI[EXIVERHXLIR EWMXVSWIGPIEV XLI¾EXWIEWIRX it back at his eyes so that it hurt sharply as he rowed without looking into it. He looked down into the water and watched the lines that went straight down into the darkness. He kept them straighter than any one did, so that at each level in the darkness of the stream, there would be bait waiting exactly where he [MWLIHMXXSFIJSVER]½WLXLEXW[EQXLIVI3XLIVW let them drift with the current, and sometimes they [IVI EX WM\X] JEXLSQW [LIR XLI ½WLIVQIR XLSYKLX they were at a hundred. But he thought, I keep them with precision. Only I have no luck any more. But who knows? Maybe today, every day is a new day. It is better to be lucky. But I would rather be exact. Then when luck comes you are ready.
“Only I have no luck any more. But who knows?” The sun was two hours higher now and it did not ³² hurt his eyes as much when he looked into the east. There were only three boats in sight now and they showed very low, and far inshore. All my life the early sun has hurt my eyes, he thought. Yet they are still good. In the evening I can look straight into it without getting the blackness. It has more force in the evening too, but in the morning it is painful.
.YWX XLIR LI WE[ E QERSJ[EV FMVH [MXL LMW PSRK black wings circling in the sky ahead of him. He made a quick drop, slanting down on his backswept wings, ERHXLIRGMVGPIHEKEMR±,I´WKSXWSQIXLMRK²XLISPH QER WEMH EPSYH ±,I´W RSX NYWX PSSOMRK² ,I VS[IH slowly and steadily toward where the bird was circling. He did not hurry and he kept his lines straight up and down. But he crowded the current a little so that he [EWWXMPP½WLMRKGSVVIGXP]XLSYKLJEWXIVXLERLI[SYPH LEZI½WLIHMJLI[IVIRSXXV]MRKXSYWIXLIFMVH
³7KHROGPDQVDZDÀ\LQJ ¿VKVSXUWRXWRIWKHZDWHU and sail desperately over the surface.” The bird went higher in the air and circled again, his wings motionless. Then he dove suddenly and the SPHQERWE[E¾]MRK½WLWTYVXSYXSJXLI[EXIVERH sail desperately over the surface. “Dolphin,” the old man said aloud. “Big dolphin.” He shipped his oars and brought a small line from under the bow. It had a wire leader and a medium-sized hook, and baited it with one of the sardines. He let it go over the side, and then made it fast to a ringbolt in the stern. He then baited another line, and left it coiled in the shade of the bow. He went back to rowing and watching the long-winged black bird that was working, now, low over the water.
As he watched the bird dipping again, slanting his wings for the dive and then swinging them wildly and MRIJJIGXYEPP] EW LI JSPPS[IH XLI ¾]MRK ½WL 8LI SPH man could see the slight bulge in the water that the FMK HSPTLMR VSWI EW XLI] JSPPS[IH XLI IWGETMRK ½WL The dolphin was cutting through the water below XLI¾MKLXSJXLI½WLERH[SYPHFIMRXLI[EXIVHVMZMRK EXWTIIH[LIRXLI½WLHVSTTIH -XMWEFMKWGLSSPSJ HSPTLMRLIXLSYKLX8LI]EVI[MHIWTVIEHERHXLI¾]MRK ½WL LEZI PMXXPI GLERGI XLI FMVH LEW RS GLERGI8LI ¾]MRK½WLEVIXSSFMKJSVLMQERHXLI]KSXSSJEWX ,I[EXGLIHXLI¾]MRK½WLFYVWXSYXEKEMRERHEKEMR and the ineffectual movements of the bird. That school has gotten away from me, he thought. They are moving out too fast and too far. But perhaps I [MPPTMGOYTEWXVE]ERHTIVLETWQ]FMK½WLMWEVSYRH XLIQ1]FMK½WLQYWXFIWSQI[LIVI
“The clouds over the land rose like mountains.” The clouds over the land rose like mountains, and the coast was only a long green line with the gray blue hills behind it.The water was a dark blue now, so dark that it was almost purple. As he looked down into it he saw the red sifting of the plankton in the dark water, and the strange light the sun made now. He watched his lines to see them go straight down out of sight into the water and he was happy to see WSQYGLTPEROXSRFIGEYWIMXQIERX½WL
“The boisterous sea of liberty is never without a wave.” - Jimi Hendrix
Published by NMMC ÂŠ 2013 Design by Sam Ellis
Published on Mar 3, 2012