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Pool of Life Liverpool

IMPROVING GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE Sam James Landscape Architecture


Contents

1

Introduction Site

History of Liverpool Why Liverpool? Development plan Grey to Green

2 3

Green Infrastructure

Policy

Green Infrastructure

Mersey Forest Report

Site

Locating a site Site Analysis The Baltic Triangle Planning Framework

4

Case studies Westergasfabriek, Amsterdam Waterfront, Toronto Gubei Promenade, Shanghai Pavements to Parks, San Francisco The High Line, New York Hammarby, Sjostad

5 Proposals 6 Sources Vision

Concept Ideas


I had a dream. I found myself in a dirty, sooty city. It was night and winter; and dark and raining. I was in Liverpool. In the centre was a round pool; in the middle of it a small island. On it stood a single tree; a magnolia in a shower of reddish blossoms. It was as though the tree stood inthe sunlight, and were, at the same time, the source of light. Everything was extremely unpleasant; black and opaque - just as I felt then. But I had an vision of unearthly beauty . . . . . . . . . . . . and that’s why I was able to live at all. Liverpool is the pool of life.

Carl Jung, Philosopher, 1961


1 Introduction


Introduction

The city of Liverpool is a ‘sleeping giant’ in terms of it’s potential to be a ‘green’ city. 62% of the city region is classed as Green Infrastructure. However the functionality, linkages and biodiversity of these spaces needs to be greatly improved. Liverpool is surrounded by a number of very diverse habitats and environments yet the city centre has very little in terms of ‘quality’ green space. The speed of development during the city’s wealthy shipping days meant that space within the centre had one purpose, to service the docks. Now that the function of this space has changed, is it being used to benefit local residents and their environment? Recent years have seen heavy investment in Liverpool, but are issues such as climate change, sustainability and green infrastructure at the forefront of the developers plans. Future developments such as Liverpool Waters have a chance to change this outlook, but only by introducing these green principles at the beginning of the design process will development be considered a ‘green’ success. The importance of campaigns such as CABEs ‘Grey to Green’ highlight the inbalance between ‘grey’ investment and ‘green’ investment. With more and more people choosing to live in the UK’s urban areas access to quality green space promotes physical and mental well-being as well as limiting the affects of climate change. This project aims to guide Liverpool through a new path to bring to the city back to it’s pioneering best in terms of tackling these global issues. The report will show the benefits of GI to not just us, but our economy and the environment.

Definition “Green Infrastructure (GI) includes the network of green spaces and other natural elements such as rivers and lakes that are interspersed between and connect villages,towns and cities. Individually these elements are GI assets and the roles that these assets play are GI functions. When appropriately planned, designed and managed, these assets and functions have the potential to deliver a wide range of social, environmental and economic benefits.” The Landscape Institute.


The Baltic Triangle, Liverpool Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, located in the North-west of England. It is the fourth most populous British city, with a population of 466,400 (2011). Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians but are also colloquially known as “Scousers�.

Site Location IMAGE SOURCE: Google maps


1502

1880

The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715 Founded as a borough in 1207

By the start of Late 18th Century the 19th century, substantial profits from the slave trade helped was the town to prosper and passing through grow rapidly Liverpool

40% of the world’s trade

In 1699 the first slave ship,

1840s Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine.

In 1830, cities of Liverpool and Manchester

Liverpool Merchant,

became the

first intercity rail link

set sail for Africa

1729

Granted city status

By 1851, approximately

25% of the city’s population was Irish-born.

Housing Act 1919 resulted in mass council housing building across Liverpool suburbs during the 1920s and 1930s. Thousands of families were rehoused.


During the Second World War there were 80 air-raids on Merseyside, killing 2,500 and causing damage to almost half the homes in the metropolitan area, suffering a blitz second only to London’s.

1960s Liverpool was the centre of the

“Merseybeat”

From the mid-1970s onwards Liverpool’s docks and traditional manufacturing industries went into sharp decline. The advent of

sound which became meant synonymous with The that the city’s docks became largely Beatles and fellow Liverpudlian rock bands. obsolete.

containerisation

After the Second World War, many more new housing estates were being built in suburban areas, while some of the older inner city areas were also redeveloped for new homes.

History

By the early 1980s

1981 Toxteth riots

unemployment

rates in Liverpool were once again among the highest in the UK

1970

2007, the city celebrated the 800th anniversary

Spearheaded by the Liverpool ONE development the most significant changes to Liverpool’s city centre since the post-war reconstruction, regeneration has continued on an unprecedented scale through to the start of the early 2010’s.

Capital of Culture 2008


Liverpool’s history puts the city amongst the greatest on the planet. Its pioneering past is second to none and although some of this continues the city has become known for other reasons. When faced with adversity the great cities can adapt and resolve their issues. New York, for example during the 1970s and 80s suffered at the hands of unemployment, high crime rates and lost nearly one million inhabitants, but rebranding of the city and policies such as the ‘broken windows’ theory put it back in its place as the worlds most famous city, and most popular destination. Liverpool has had these dark days during the 1980s itself and is only recently coming out the otherside with large investment and recent events such as Capital of Culture (2008) however.........


Pioneers


.......It is still the punchline in some very lazy jokes. Couple that with some bad press in the national media surrounding issues that are present in every city and town in Britain and its plain to see why it has taken so long for Liverpool to re-brand itself. Liverpool is now a destination where cruise companies feel confidant enough to drop their thousands of passengers into a safe environment. Visitors predominantly from North America come to visit the home of The Beatles and trace where their ancestors had left Europe for the ‘American dream’. This is something that would not of happened 15 years ago. Developing the rebrand must continue for the extremely proud Liverpudlians to again achieve greatness.


Unfair


Rebranding requires.......


Investment


Development Map

The map below shows the major recent and proposed developments in Liverpool city centre since 2005.

Echo Arena Wilkinson Eyre ÂŁ164 million The 11th largest arena in the United Kingdom. The venue has bought Liverpool to the forefront of the northwests stadium tours and brings with it large investment in the local economy. The Arena has also won awards as it is one of the most sustainable venues in Europe, designed to reduce half of its CO2 emissions. Harvesting rainwater for toilet flushing, and turbines on the River Mersey contribute to its electricity supply.

IMAGE SOURCE: www.merseytigers.com


Liverpool One

Lime Street Gateway

Mann Island

Museum of Liverpool

Ropewalks

BDP

Glenn Howells Architects

Broadway Malyan

3XN

BDP

£920 million

£25 million

£120 million

£72 million

The project involved the redevelopment of 42 acres of the city centre. It is a retail led development, anchored by department stores Debenhams and John Lewis, with additional elements including leisure facilities, apartments, offices, public open space and transport improvements. The cost of construction was £500 million, with a total investment value of £920 million. Chavasse Park was recreated as a city centre oasis. The city requires something more substantial in terms of a central park.

Key gateway project including the removal of an obsolete office building and a row of shops which had obscured the station’s listed Victorian arched gable end. Creating an impressive new area of public space. The space provides a approach to one of the city’s most important visitor gateways with a new accessible main entrance to the station, seating areas, gentle slopes and feature lighting. There is a lack of vegetation and sustainable principles.

Within the World Heritage Site and Albert Dock conservation area. Two Sculpted, black, inclining buildings with little/ no green space around them house residential, retail and leisure and a third building containing office space. This area of town is very ‘grey’. With the proximity to the riverfront this area could have become softer, a possible ‘green’ corridor.

The museum is housed in a new purpose-built building on the Mann Island site at the Pier Head. It is an extension of the Mann Island development and again is very hard and ‘grey’. This area is reclaimed land limiting the opportunity for a soft edge and there is very little green on the riverfront within the city centre region.

Over £100 million since its conception

IMAGE SOURCE: www.brandspace.com

IMAGE SOURCE: www.eventindutrynews.co.uk

IMAGE SOURCE: CABE

The Ropewalks development brought regeneration to a large section of the city centre warehouse area. The project also created better links between some of the streets creating small green spaces and squares. The smaller scale developments within the overall scheme have had the best reaction and acted as a catalyst for further investment.

Time for change.....

IMAGE SOURCE: www.blogspot.com


Liverpool Waters

Central Village

Tribeca

Peel Group

Merepark

Urban Splash

£5.5 billion

£160 million

£100 million

Proposed - Planning, 30 year delivery

Proposed - Work is currently starting on phase 1

Proposed - Postponed due to financial crisis

Central Village is a shopping, leisure, commercial and residential development that is currently under-construction. The core of the project is two high rise blocks of 25 and 20 floors linked by a 9 storey residential and commercial podium and two nine and five storey buildings for residential, hotel and commercial use. Water looks to play an integral part but there appears to be little vegetation or green space apart from some obligatory tree planting.

The site is located on the southern fringe of the city centre. The 2.5 hectare site is being developed alongside urban regeneration company Liverpool Vision who have played a major role in planning and financing the scheme. ‘Tribeca’ will comprise the three districts Tribeca Central, Tribeca North, and Tribeca South. Developers Urban Splash have billed Tribeca as the largest residential scheme in Liverpool ever. Proposals state there will be acres of gardens, public squares and thoroughfares.

Liverpool Waters is a large scale development in the area spreading from the Pier Head towards north Liverpool. The development will make use of the currently derelict Central Docks, much of this area is within the World Heritage Site. The development is planned to create at least 17,000 full-time jobs and 21million sq ft of new commercial and residential floor space including 23,000 apartments and four hotels. The tallest towers are proposed to be over 50 storeys high. From the images available there is provision for green space, however due to the sensitive location sympathetic design seems to be overlooked.

IMAGE SOURCE: www.peelwaters.co.uk

IMAGE SOURCE: www.liverpooldailypost.co.uk

The future

IMAGE SOURCE: www.liverpooldailypost.co.uk


Over ÂŁ7

billion investment

but wheres the green??? Summary

There are elements of green provided by the majority of these projects, however it is not mentioned as a major design principle it is almost an after thought to show the decision makers that issues surrounding green space and climate change are being considered. As with many developments green space is thought about at the end of the design process and the end of the budget. Over the next few pages evidence will show that good quality green space is of the highest importance with regards to our, and the planets health and happiness. This is only achievable if green principles are a part of the design process from the beginning.


“Green infrastructure does not receive anything like the investment or management that goes into grey infrastructure. Grey to Green will fuel a debate about whether this is smart, given the dangers of climate change and the opportunities to improve public health. It also reveals the urgent need for more people, with the right skills, to manage the living landscape of our towns and cities. Grey to Green provides fresh ideas and evidence, showing how we could design and manage places in radically different ways. It will be of interest to anyone involved in greening the built environment, but above all to the people taking decisions about where to commit public money at a local and a national level.” Source: CABE

Greening cities with just 10% more urban tree canopy cover could cancel out the 4°C rise in temperatures predicted this century.

£1.28 BILLION

to widen 63 miles of the M25

£1.28 BILLION

to plant 3.2 million street trees (saving 3 million tonnes of carbon)

expenditure  

employees  

grey   green  

Total local authority spending on highways in 2008/09 was £7.2 billion compared to the £1.1 billion spent on parks and open spaces in the same corresponding period.

Just a 0.5% shift from grey to green investment would result in an increase of 141% in local authority green expenditure.

1  

grey  

2  

green  

93,900 members of highways and

civil engineering professional bodies compared to 5,500 members of parks and landscape professional body.

Grey to Green


Summary The information provided by the CABE “Grey to Green� document shows how money spent by national and local authorities dominantly favours grey infrastructure over green. The issue is not reversing this as the money spent on roads and highways is needed to keep the country running but splitting this money more favourably. From the information provided you can see that just a little proportion of the money spent on grey infrastructure could improve green infrastructure substantially. The next chapter will explain the importance of GI to us, our economy and our environment.


Social benefits

Improved health and well-being – lowering stress levels and providing opportunities for exercise Source: www.naturalengland.org.uk Access to safe, local, good quality green space has been shown to encourage higher levels of physical activity, which is beneficial to health in many respects, and most especially in terms of tackling rising levels of obesity.

The estimated cost of diabetes and obesity to health care and the wider economy is ÂŁ5 billion (Sustainable Development Commission, 2008). It is well established that regular exercise, for example walking, can reduce the negative effects of many major health threats such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and respiratory disorders. Increasing levels of physical activity among the population also has mental health benefits. The potential of green space for mental health benefits is not just to be found through physical activity. There is also a strong body of evidence which demonstrates that access to nature, can have a beneficial impact on mental well-being and cognitive function. Green spaces can also play a role in enhancing mental well-being if they help individuals to experience increased levels of social interaction and integration.

Why is Green Infrastructure important?


Evidence also suggests that green spaces can offer opportunities for people who may not normally interact to come together, and help develop social ties and community cohesion. This is particularly useful in areas of high deprivation and for groups in society who are more vulnerable to social exclusion, such as older and younger people, ethnic minorities and people with disabilities. Health is a fundamentally important government concern, especially considering the cost of running the National Health Service, which in 2008/9 was ÂŁ96 billion in England and Wales, and an expected to rise to around ÂŁ110 billion in 2010/11 (NHS Counter Fraud, 2009). Urban areas in particular have various stresses which exacerbate the physical health issues already present in the general population. For example, respiratory disorders and obesity are both negatively affected by aspects of urban and semi-urban life. These include high levels of vehicle emissions, high population densities, poor

housing and a lack of good quality green spaces.

Green infrastructure helps to encourage a healthier, more localised lifestyle. Allotments, domestic gardens and community orchards all play a valuable role, perhaps most importantly through increasing awareness of food issues.

Social benefits continued Source: Forestry Commission


Economic benefits A sustainable economy

A green, healthy environment often goes hand in hand with commercial and economic success

though it is difficult to quantify the value of green space to the economy. The most prestigious offices, the most expensive hotels and the most profitable industrial headquarters tend to be located in the leafiest parts of our towns and cities.

Investments in green space have been shown to improve a region’s image, helping to attract and retain high value industries, new business start-ups, entrepreneurs and workers. This, in turn, increases the scope for levering in private sector investment, reducing unemployment. Landscape improvement measures including improving signage, lighting and access, roads and transportation, the introduction of energy saving and waste recycling policies, security improvements and buildings renovations make areas feel

safer and more appealing to investors.

Studies have shown that investment in green infrastructure does eventually pay off however is difficult to calculate how much. GI can also benefit the economy through tourism, jobs related to the land and improvements in health.


Environmental benefits Climate change adaptation You get cleaner air Plants act as natural filters, trapping dust and harmful chemicals, cleaning the air and helping to make towns and cities healthier and less polluted. Roadside trees can trap up to 90 per cent of traffic-related air-borne dust particles.

Better flood protection The floods of 2007 caused ÂŁ10 billion worth of property damage. As climate change leads to more torrential rainstorms, green infrastructure can protect communities against flash flooding. Trees intercept rainfall and slow the rate of run-off, while parks and gardens serve as sustainable soak-aways. A greener city is a more absorbent city.

Cooler cities which can save lives Living vegetation helps enormously in countering the urban heat island effect. In summer, the cooler air of a shady street or park is noticeably more comfortable. Average UK temperatures are predicted to rise by as much as 4°C this century but research by the University of Manchester shows that 10% increase in the urban tree canopy cover would cancel out this increase. Across Europe more than 35,000 people died in the 2003 heatwave. For older people and the very young, green infrastructure could be a lifesaver.

Source: Forestry Commission


Sustainable waste management and renewable energy

Critical support for biodiversity

There is growing interest in the role that

Nationwide wildlife surveys by the RSPB and

green infrastructure can play in waste

others confirm that urban green

management. Using natural biological

infrastructure is now critical for

systems for waste, such as mulching with

biodiversity, with species such as

locally produced woodchip and compost, can

hedgehogs, frogs, songbirds and butterflies

make the urban environment more

thriving in the leafier parts of towns and

self-sustaining. A number of local

cities. Viewed from above, mature

authorities are now using biomass as a

neighbourhoods appear as urban forests,

renewable energy fuel, through harvesting

with gardens and other open spaces

their park and street tree prunings.

mimicking woodland glades. Streams,

Public buildings and offices can cut back on

canals and rivers link them together to form

the need for air conditioning by using

a rich mosaic of wildlife habitats and these

deciduous large canopy trees to shade

complex urban ecosystems make a very

buildings up to six storeys high. The use of

significant contribution to nature

green roofs and walls also cuts down on

conservation.

the need for insulation, winter heating and summer cooling.

Environmental benefits continued Source: Forestry Commission


Climate Change UK The FACTS The UK has experienced nine of the 10 warmest years on record since 1990. Central England temperatures have increased by 1 °C since the 1970s. Annual average temperatures look set to rise by between 2°C and 3.5°C by the 2080’s. Most of this warming will be in summer and autumn. The extreme heat wave of 2003, when average summer temperatures were 2 °C higher than normal, led to more than 2,000 additional deaths in the UK. Such hot summers could happen every other year by the 2040s. Rainfall in winter will increase in all areas of the country. The increase is predicted to range from between 10% and 20%, depending on the area of the country. The summer will see less precipitation than we see now and will therefore be much drier. The dry grounds can not soak up the predicted intense downpours which lead to runoff into rivers and valleys causing flash flooding. Sea levels around the UK have risen 10 cm since 1900. Sea-surface temperature around the UK has risen by about 0.7 °C over the past three decades, a warmer sea has more buoyancy raising the sea level. The raise in temperature is also melting the polar ice. Sea-levels across the UK are projected to rise between 11 and 76 cm by the end of the century and in the worst case scenario rises of up to 1.9 m are possible. The urban heat island effect already warms central London by more than 10 °C on some nights. Increased urbanisation and release of waste heat would increase this still further on top of the effects of global warming. Source: Met Office


Summary

When green infrastructure becomes the driving principle behind urban design, it changes how a place feels to live in. It makes places more beautiful, interesting and distinctive, but more importantly it can limit the effects of climate change. The damage we have caused can not be reversed but we have an opportunity to make a difference and reduce the impact. This can be done with a shift in the way decision makers at national level to local governments think in terms of GI and its importance. Well planned GI has so much to offer our urban areas. With more people choosing to live in our cities it is time to make a change for a better quality of living.


2

Policy


Definition “Green Infrastructure is the Region’s life support system – the network of natural environmental components and green and blue spaces that lies within and between the Northwest’s cities, towns and villages and which provides multiple social, economic and environmental benefits”

www.greeninfrastructurenw.co.uk

Green Infrastructure


Moorland Woodlands Street Trees

Parks

Village Greens Cemeteries, churchyards and burial grounds

Private Gardens

Open Spaces

Ponds

Degraded Land

Land Allotments, community gardens and urban farms

Open Countryside Agricultural Land

Lakes & Waterways Coastal habitat

Grassland and Heathland

Outdoor sports facilities

Wildlife Habitats

Fields

Hedges

Source: Northwest green infrastructure guide


Green Infrastructure Strategy for Liverpool Mersey Forest Report

Key findings - City region 62% of the city is green infrastructure. Liverpool is a green city and should use this fact for marketing and competitive advantage.

The largest individual type is private domestic gardens at 16% of the area of the city. These represent a real asset for the city, and which local residents and communities have a direct responsibility for and influence over. The City

Centre and Inner Areas have low levels of green infrastructure and that which is available is of low functionality. Green infrastructure is not equally distributed across the city. 22% of the areas have 80% of the total accessible green infrastructure and some areas have no accessible green infrastructure. The most affluent

areas of the city have 18% more green infrastructure than the most deprived.

Green infrastructure is an £8bn asset for the city that is often overlooked, but which can continue to contribute significantly to the delivery of Liverpool’s plans for sustainable growth.

Low levels of green infrastructure occur in areas of the city with a higher incidence of: Coronary heart disease, Poor mental health and Poor air quality

Source: www.greeninfrastructurenw.co.uk


Priorities The vision for Liverpool’s Green Infrastructure is that: GI is planned in Liverpool to support a safe, more inclusive, sustainable and enjoyable city; To provide essential life support functions for a world class city, that is adapted to climate change and where healthy living is a natural choice. Five priorities have been identified in order to deliver this vision.

A sustainable city - supporting business, regeneration and housing growth within environmental limits.

A city providing natural choices for health - supporting improved physical and mental health.

A cool city - adapted to projected climate change and mitigating impacts. A green and biodiverse city - supporting good quality of life for all.

A city where green infrastructure is well-planned

- treating green infrastructure as a critical infrastructure designed into development and change from the start of the design process.

Liverpools Green Infrastructure The city region has a large amount of green space bleeding in from the East and South. The waterfront is a natural route to pull these spaces through the city.

Green Strategy Source: www.greeninfrastructurenw.co.uk


Results

City Centre

General amenity space and derelict land account for most of the GI.

Number of Functions

The functions included in the analysis are: Recreation, public space, green travel route, aesthetic, heritage, cultural asset, wind shelter and learning resource.

Map 9. Multifunctionality for A Sustainable City5

Low in quality and functionality. Low percentage of parks, outdoor sports, woodland and private gardens. High value as a heritage asset. The GI is scattered, with few large areas and connections. Lacking in Wildlife corridors, Green travel routes, noise absorption and shading. Key assets are Cathedral grounds and Incidental spaces. Highest Levels of Health problems in the city centre. Life expectancy is 3-4 years lower than British average.

Mersey Forest Report

5 The functions included in this analysis are: recreation – public, green travel route, aesthetic, heritage, cultural asset, w learning.

Image source: www.greeninfrastructurenw.co.uk


Map 9. Multifunctionality for A Sustainable City5

Policy

City Centre

Protection and enhancement of existing GI. Incorporationg GI into new developments including green roofs and walls.

Number of needs Unfulfilled

The analysis compares where is the greatest need for each provision. The functions considered are those used on the previous page.

Map 12. Needs unfulfilled at present for Priority 111

5 The functions included in this analysis are: recreation – public, green tra learning.

Developing high quality public realm attractive to the pedestrian and incorporating street trees. Ensuring new developments contribute to the delivery of high quality environments including GI. Targeting major access routes for GI improvements. Take opportunities through development, regeneration and land management programmes to expand and connect biodiverse areas.

Mersey Forest Report

Image source: www.greeninfrastructurenw.co.uk

11 This analysis compares where there is greatest need for each function with provision; the functions considered are: recreation public, green travel route, aesthetic, heritage, cultural asset, wind shelter, learning.


Summary

The information gathered by Mersey Forest will inform the design. It is important that the space is a high quality and multi-functional, and acts as part of the wider green network and not stand alone as a city centre green space. A quality green space can provide health benefits to those who need it most in our city centres, attempting to try and raise levels of fitness and mental well-being. The 5 priorities stated by the report have to be considered in equal measure, there emphasis on the final design would provide an importance beyond improving the aesthetic appeal of the city centre regarding global environmental and social issues.


3

Site


Looking for a Site......... City centre location In need of regeneration Heritage features/Historical Importance Relationship with The Mersey Proximity to dense urban housing

Image source: www.dalestreetnews.com


The Baltic Triangle ticks all the boxes

City centre location The Baltic Triangle is located to the south of the city’s’ commercial hub. The northern most point of the ‘triangle’ connects to the Liverpool ONE development. A central location is key due to the research showing poor GI in the city centre.

PHOTOS

Heritage features The importance of the area to Liverpool’s shipping past. The Baltic Triangle is surrounded by the cities world heritage sites having its own listed buildings and maritime history.

In need of Regeneration Considering the recent local investment this area has been some what overlooked. One proposed hotel development went bust leaving an eyesore at the north end of the site. Recent industry has left contamination and a poor aesthetic quality.

Relationship with The Mersey The importance of the river and docklands to this city is paramount. Currently it is celebrated however The Strand acts as a barrier for pedestrian access.

Proximity to dense urban housing This is required for the site to fulfill its potential in offering multi-functional green space that is accessible for the local population. The site offers a potential green gateway for pedestrians/cyclists into the south of the city.


Site Information

“Liverpool’s Baltic Triangle was once vital to the success of the city’s port and for many decades has sustained many successful small businesses. In recent years it has increasingly become the home of Liverpool’s burgeoning creative sector with a vibrant atmosphere similar to New York City’s meatpacking district and Hoxton in London.” Source: www.baltictriangle.co.uk

Site criteria

Creative, Industrious, Pioneering Area ‘ripe’ for development

Meatpacking District

Experiencing steady renaissance Unique proposition of land and buildings Cultural quarter

Bordered by Liverpool One, Albert Dock and Echo Arena

Hoxton


The site is part of an extensive network of warehouses servicing the docks which were booming during this period. Further east towards the Cathedral highly populated housing areas for the dock workers.

The overhead railway was demolished by 1957 due to a lack of funding for necessary repair work. however the Goods Station is still prominent. Residential development pops up to North-East of site.

1820

1890

1960

1980

The layout of the site is developing with the addition of Jamaica Street running North to South. Surrounding areas are still similar. The black area is the Goods Station servicing the docks linked to an overhead railway line known as The Dockers Umbrella opening in 1863. The removal of the Goods Station has opened up the centre of the site. Other developments include the Cathedral residential area and the removal of some warehouses due to the impending decline of the dock industry.

Historical Development

Images sourced: Digimap historical maps


3

Photos

4

5

2

6

7

4 2

1

3

5 6

1 7

N Images sourced: FlickR

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12

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8 12

9 10

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11 10


Liverpool ONE rk

Pa

Pier Head

ne

La

The

Great George St

d St

ner

alo

Ch

aica

Jam

Point of interest - Disused Kings tunnel entrance

an Str

Albert Dock

eet

Str

Pedestrian routes and Nodes The site is not welcoming and currently used by few pedestrians. Access across the site is limited and the site is currently not aesthetically appealing however the recent introduction of sporadic street trees has improved this slightly. The nodes are all to the north of the site and represent the destinations pedestrians are heading to when passing through the site. Pedestrian routes cross major transport routes and are ill advised late at night.

nt St

Parliame

Strategic vehicular routes and main traffic routes The site is dominated by its boundaries with major transport routes through the city. The Strand, Chaloner street and Parliament Street have an extremely high volume of traffic especially during rush hour.

Site Analysis


Liverpool ONE Albert Dock, Pier head

Anglican Cathedral

River

Listed Buildings/ Buildings with character Key

Listed buildings (pic 1,4,8) Warehouse of historic interest (pic 6) Building of character (pic 7)

These buildings are all of high importance as they define the areas character and heritage. Any proposal would have to be sensitive to their character. Some are in a state of disrepair and would require large investment to refurbish.

Character Areas Key Residential

Industrial units (20 years) Industrial area (historic) Hotels/Flats new development and refurbished warehouses.

Two distinct areas exist throughout the site, the historic buildings and new developments which have a complimentary quality and the recent industrial units which lack any character or aesthetic qualities.

Views The distinctive street pattern defines its urban structure, following classical principles with key streets fixed on focal points that draw the eye and ‘close off’ vistas with attractive landmark buildings, including the Anglican Cathedral, Pier Head and the red-brick tower of the Cains brewery.


Existing Building Layout Buildings present on site

Open space 2 The built space occupies 0.7km 2 Open space amounts to 2.4km Currently there is lots of under-utilised space. There is good opportunity for a large area of public realm and green space.

Negative Space By reversing the colour open space becomes more visible

Green Assets The Mersey Forest Report classes the city centre green assets as the Cathedral grounds and incidental spaces. These spaces lack in functionality and I wonder how the incidental spaces within the city can be classes as assets, however I don’t doubt they have value of sorts. The map does show that there is possibility for a network of green spaces within and around the site.

Site Analysis


Land Use Key

Contextual Land Use Key

Contemporary Urban Centre The site consists of mainly Industrial old and new Derelict land Hotels/hostels/pub/food Sub-station Residential Car park Green space Church

industrial units, ranging in age there are some buildings with character and some which are lacking. There has been development slowly moving down from the north with some hotel/apartments in new build and refurbed warehousing.

Residential Police HQ/Customs buildings Car park Attractions, Albert dock, Echo Arena Tribeca development Industrial

The site is enveloped by dense urban structure on three sides. There is possibility to open up the west side of the site however this is dominated by The Strand and Chaloner street. Industry will slowly move towards outer areas of the city as it develops further. The Echo Arena and Albert dock are hubs of activity.


Existing Ecology

The Estuary, is a complex ecosystem that consists of many terrestrial and aquatic habitats. As well as salt-marsh and other terrestrial, there are sub-tidal and inter-tidal maritime habitats and other types of aquatic habitat, notably freshwater and brackish habitats. The sand dunes to the north of Liverpool city are the largest in England supporting a rich fauna including Sand Lizard, Natter-jack Toad, Great Crested Newt and Petal-wort. 90% of the Mersey waterfront is internationally important for nature conservation. Special attention is given to the bird-life associated with the Mersey Estuary, many depend on the estuarine habitats for breeding, feeding, roosting, wintering and passage migration. The tidal nature of the river exposes rich feeding grounds for many migratory birds including the city centre dock front. The river suffered much like the city during the 1980’s and was thought to be the most polluted estuary in Europe. The river acts as a nursery for the North Atlantic. Terrestrial habitats within the city are the living tapestry of parks, avenues, school fields and cemeteries with linear wildlife sanctuaries in railway cuttings which are generally inaccessible to people and vehicles supporting a traditional British fauna of fox, hedgehogs and bird life.


The vegetation present within the site is generally invasive and down to dereliction and a lack of up keep. There are street trees present in places but there is very little planned green space. Pockets of green occur at the junction of Blundell street and The Strand acting as a buffer to the busy road. Park Lane has the heaviest vegetation on the site with street trees and occasional grassed areas. The other green spaces are incidental, overgrown and not accessible, however they will be of the highest importance for habitat are they have been untouched by maintenance and will be rich in small animals and insects.

Vegetation type


Vegetation type - Species present on site Trees Alder - Alnus glutinosa Ash - Fraxinus excelsior Beech - Fagus sylvatica Black-poplar - Populus nigra Crack-willow - Salix fragilis Downy Birch - Betula pubescens English Elm - Ulmus procera Hornbeam - Carpinus betulus Pedunculate Oak - Quercus robur Sessile Oak - Quercus petraea Silver Birch - Betula pendula Wild Cherry - Prunus avium Wych Elm - Ulmus glabra Large Shrub or Small Tree Alder Buckthorn - Frangula alnus Elder - Sambucus nigra Goat Willow - Salix caprea Grey Willow - Salix cinerea Guelder-rose - Viburnum opulus Hawthorn - Crataegus monogyna Hazel - Corylus avellana Holly - Ilex aquifolium Wild Privet - Ligustrum vulgare

Shrub Bell Heather - Erica cinerea Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa Bramble - Rubus fruticosus Burnet Rose - Rosa pimpinelliflia Creeping Willow - Salix repens Dewberry - Rubus caesius Dog-rose - Rosa canina agg. Raspberry - Rubus idaeus Tutsan - Hypericum androsaemum Biennial Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia Hemlock - Conium maculatum Hogweed - Heracleum sphondylium Winter-cress - Barbarea vulgaris Wood-sorrel - Oxalis acetosella Yellow Horned-poppy - Glaucium flavum

Herbaceous Perennial Agrimony - Agrimonia eupatoria Black Horehound - Ballota nigra Broad-leaved Willowherb - Epilobium montanum Bugle - Ajuga reptans Bulbous Buttercup - Ranunculus bulbosus Common Meadow-rue - Thalictrum flavum Cowslip - Primula veris Daisy - Bellis perennis Ground-ivy - Glechoma hederacea Hoary Willowherb - Epilobium parviflorum Lady’s-mantle - Alchemilla xanthochlora Lesser Celandine - Ranunculus ficaria Meadow Buttercup - Ranunculus acris Oxeye Daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare Pale Willowherb - Epilobium roseum Primrose - Primula vulgaris Sweet Violet - Viola odorata Tansy - Tanacetum vulgare White Dead-nettle - Lamium album Wild Strawberry - Fragaria vesca Wood Anemone - Anemone nemorosa Wood Sage - Teucrium scorodonia Yarrow - Achillea millefolium


• •

Hanover St. as a key linkage between PSDA and the Baltic Triangle, with the node formed by the intersection of Hanover St. and Park Lane providing an appropriate form of development; a new tertiary street network within the Baltic Triangle; marking of key nodes, corners and landmarks to improve legibility; development briefs for sites; a public realm framework; strengthened frontage along Park Lane and Jamaica St. a new hub at the junction of Jamaica St.,St. James St. and Park Lane.

Baltic Triangle planning framework • • •

Guiding Objectives

Source: Liverpool Vision - Baltic Triangle Planning Framework

also identified three direct intervention projects, as shown in the following diagram: • Strategic Access – The Strand/Upper Parliament St. Corridor; • The Hub – a new public open space within the Baltic Triangle, including improvement of the principle connecting routes: Park Lane, St. James St., Jamaica St., Blundell St., Nelson St., and Cornwallis St.; • The Tertiary Structure – priority changes to the existing structure by re-opening streets on a phased basis and the creation of new tertiary linkages to complete connections within the main pedestrian routes through the area.

An exciting, inspirational and safe place to work, live and visit. A diverse land use pattern, that is not homogeneous, with zones of particular character. An important location for business development and growth in the City, through incubation, managed workspace and small scale office development. To become an important location for creative industries. Conserve the existing historic street pattern and to increase north-south pedestrian permeability and east-west connectivity. throughout the area. Create active uses/frontages along key pedestrian routes and encourage a pedestrian friendly environment. Implement a high quality public realm, allowing for full interaction and the creation of welcoming environment. To bring forward development opportunities in a comprehensive and co-ordinated manner, ensuring that the phasing of residential development is entirely consistent with City-wide considerations.

Introduce complementary residential activity into the area, which offers a mix of house-types and sizes, aimed at the creation of a sustainable community. Figure 6: City Centre South Urban Structure Concept

To bring land and buildings back in to worthwhile use and ensure 17 new build accords with environmental standards. Create an urban environment that respects the human scale.


World Heritage Site The northern and western edges of the Baltic Triangle are immediately adjacent to Liverpool’s World Heritage Site (WHS), which continues to the east of the Cornwallis estate to cover the Ropewalks area. Reflecting the importance placed by UNESCO on the context of the WHS and its visual setting, much of the city centre beyond the designated area, including the entire Baltic Triangle, is identified as part of the “Buffer Zone” to the WHS. The aim is to protect the quality and integrity both of views into the WHS and views from it. Liverpool City Council is currently preparing a Supplementary Planning Document to guide development within the WHS and Buffer Zone, in accordance with UNESCO advice. Source: Liverpool Vision - Baltic Triangle Planning Framework

Images Of WHS character areas Pier Head

Albert dock

Albert dock

Stanley dock

Commercial Quarter

Lower Duke St.

Source: www.architecture.com Source: images.icnetwork.co.uk

Source: upload.wikimedia.org Source: upload.wikimedia.org Source: www.essentialtravelguide.com Source: www.saintclassified.co.uk

Figure 2: Planning Context

8


SWOT Analysis

STRENGTHS

OPPORTUNITIES

Central Location Ripe for development Architectural interest Historical importance Link between people and waterfront Contemporary Urban Centre Creative hub Future job opportunities Local developments Easily accessible Public transport connections

City centre green space Possible green gateway/link Could form part of green loop towards festival gardens and Sefton Park Derelict land to be regenerated Opportunity to change outlook on development in cities Open up waterfront to local residents

WEAKNESSES

THREATS

Industrial contamination Post-war industrial buildings Vehicle dominated Noisy Only populated during the day Unsafe at night Pedestrian routes unattractive Currently lacking public realm Historic buildings in disrepair

Cost of decontaminating Sea levels - climate change Investment Prime development location Will current less desirable industry move?


Summary

The Baltic Triangle retains much of its powerful maritime character, despite the erosion to its historical fabric. The area has to accommodate change, whilst enhancing the remaining evidence of its underlying character. The site needs to become more accommodating for the pedestrian and attract users to it not just through it. Currently the site is restrained by the road structure that surrounds it. For it to be successful it needs to be easily accessible by foot or bike. Further development of both the creative sector and residential areas will improve the new character of the triangle. The possible addition of quality green space will attract users to the area as well as providing local residents with outdoor space to call their own. There are a number of uses still present that have negative impacts including noise and air pollution together with a number of contaminated plots such as scrap yards and former oil works. Such uses are no longer appropriate for such an important area of the city centre and the vision for the Baltic Triangle will encourage new uses to develop here.


4 Case studies


Westergasfabriek, Amsterdam Landscape Architects: Kathryn Gustafsson - Gustafsson Porter Year of completion: 2004

The design of Westergasfabriek is arranged along an East-West axis. The layout has a distinct transition from being more urban to naturalistic along this axis. The urban edge of Westergasfabriek supports renovated buildings, with an urban plaza. These buildings house a number of different activities such as cafes, restaurants, a cinema and an art gallery. To the west there are additional industrial buildings but the space becomes more focused towards parkland. Old Gas tanks have been renovated and some have sunken water gardens. Along the plaza which runs the majority of the site all areas are accessible through distinct connections. The plaza also offers outdoor activity space.

Use of existing industrial features

Urban Area with renovated industrial buildings and plaza Image source: www.westergasfabriek.nl

Plan above shows axis and transition between urban and natural areas. Aerial view below shows site proximity to dense housing areas of Amsterdam.

Case studies

Image source: www.courses.umass.edu Image source: www.westergasfabriek.nl


Why is it relevant? Regeneration of former gas works, industrial space within city boundaries. Sunken water gardens are tranquil areas as are the more natural areas.

Diverse cultural offering similar to what The Baltic Triangle is trying to create in relation to creative industries. Conversion and renovation of heritage buildings into modern spaces. Unique multi-functional spaces are present throughout the whole site at Westergas. The Baltic Triangle currently is fairly one dimensional in terms of its use of space. Vibrant event spaces, galleries, cafes/bars, restaurants and theatre. Westergas has a 24 hour life cycle which is something a cultural hub requires. How would i apply this?


Gubei Promenade, Shanghai Landscape Architects: SWA Group Project year: 2009

Formerly a busy road 700 meters in length and averaging 60m in width, the Promenade is bookended by large open space parks. The Promenade acts as a Green Link between to two parks, for nature to pass through it and people to travel through ‘urban nature’. The linear site is divided into 3 blocks separated by two north-south Urban greening effect of design neighbourhood streets, with a development program of high-rise residential towers, varying from 15-28 stories in height How the street looked before. with 2-story ground floor commercial uses. Design is based upon the flexible open spaces of the promenade providing public space for outdoor exercise, social interaction and passive, stress-relieving activities such as Tai-Chi, reading, dining and people watching.

Linear planting

Use of swales to aid drainage


Why is it relevant? Providing a Green pedestrian open space open that is multi-functional, sustainable, fun and exciting. Acting as a piece of cultural infrastructure, the promenade recalls moments of the city’s history by re-interpreting pieces of the past into design elements. Sustainability takes many forms. Potential to strengthen the urban forest and thus reduce the urban heat-island effect. Over 1,100 trees were planted in the promenade. The promenades regenerative ecology could support urban wildlife. Habitat for birds, insects and amphibians. As an ecological initiative, the integration of natural processes within the design of the promenade serves as an educational precedent. Design aids social interaction All images Sourced: www.landezine.com


Toronto Waterfront Landscape Architects: A number of different companies including West 8 Year of project: 2001-present In 2001, the federal, provincial and municipal governments established the Toronto Waterfront Revitalisation Corporation (now known as Waterfront Toronto), to lead and manage a comprehensive, integrated approach for renewal of Toronto’s waterfront. The three levels of government also committed $1.5 billion to launch the redevelopment initiative. Realisation is projected to take 25 to 30 years and an estimated $17 billion in public and private funds to complete. “The masterplan connects a series of natural blue vistas, evocative green spaces and communities that achieve a balance between architecture and nature, and also between people and the waterfront. Connecting the entire waterfront community with picturesque promenades and parks, elegant boardwalks and walkways, and boat piers. The main theme being; reconnecting people to the natural attributes of what will be a continuous, publicly accessible landscape. The blue edge is to deliver the next generation of great parks and public spaces.”(Waterfront Toronto) Twenty-five percent of the waterfront revitalisation area is reserved for parks and open spaces. Parks are critical to the development of Toronto’s new neighbourhoods and the design of communities so that parks and public spaces act as their spine. This is critical because parks and public spaces invite and draw people into new areas and they demonstrate that change and development is happening. Since 2004, Waterfront Toronto has opened 17 new or improved parks or public spaces.

Case studies


Why is it relevant? The transformation of Toronto’s waterfront is first and foremost about reconnecting people with the waterfront. Although Liverpudlians would claim to be connected to the Mersey I believe it could be in a more natural and beautiful way. By utilising the best in urban design and by planning streetscapes on a human scale, Toronto gives priority to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport while balancing the needs of those with other road users. The Masterplan not only focuses on new areas of greenspace but derelict land and creating more accessible and appealing new places for the public to gather, play or just watch the water.

All images Sourced: www.waterfrontoronto.ca


Pavements to Parks, San Francisco Since Park(ing) Day started in San Francisco in 2005 temporary parks have popped up throughout the city. It has developed from a Guerrilla activity into a citywide policy, of obtaining space which is underused and creating a park, parklet or just greening a small area. The idea is expanding rapidly with the addition of more sites. According to the project, streets and public rights-of-way make up 25 percent of the city’s land area, more than the combined space of public parks. Many streets are excessively wide and contain large zones of wasted space, especially at “intersections”. For San Franciscans, unused streets presents an opportunity to generate new public space at relatively low cost. San Francisco’s new public spaces were initially designed to test the potential of the selected location to be permanently reclaimed as public open space. Given the low-cost nature of the materials and relatively simple designs, the new plazas can be left in place of picked up and plugged in elsewhere in the city. Some of the new spaces are also not exactly public plazas, but a new configuration called a “parklet,” which is described as a small urban park, often created by replacing several under-utilised parallel parking spots with a patio, planters, trees, benches, café tables with chairs, artwork, sculptures and bicycle parking.

Case studies


Why is it relevant? The parks all have distinct characters which are unique to there location. They are built by the people for the people.

Within the site in Liverpool there is a lot of underused space. The main streets are also very wide especially on Jamaica Street. This kind of thinking offers the opportunity to create a mixture of permanent or temporary spaces that could include a range of functions. They are built with users in mind so they are always unique and well used. There is currently a lack of public/ private open space in the surrounding neighbourhoods. Lots of the new developments and old warehouse conversions have little or no outdoor space. Something like these parklets are very easy to create, grow your food, relax and call your own.

All images Sourced: sfpavementtoparks.sfplanning.org


The High Line, New York The High Line design is a collaboration between James Corner Field Operations (Project Lead), Diller Scofidio + Renfro, and planting designer Piet Oudolf Year of completion: 2009 The High Line was originally built in the 1930s as a elevated track system for freight trains carrying raw materials straight into warehouses and factories along the west side of Manhattan to the Meatpacking District. Moving goods by road soon became more popular and by 1980 the High Line was no longer in use. In 1999, the community group “Friends of the High Line” was formed to advocate turning it into an elevated park. The High Line showcases many plant species and parts of the old tracks and is a great example of sustainable landscape architecture because they have reused part of the urban structure to make it more environmentally friendly. Also the park is encouraging more development in that area due to its popularity not just locally but on a global scale. See improving green infrastructure works!! The park is a 1.45 mile stretch that covers a former section of the West Side Line railroad. The High Line’s development is part of Mayor Bloomberg’s plan to spruce up the city through the creation of parks. New York is the best city in the world at managing its global brand, take note Liverpool. One criticism of the park is that it is fairly one dimensional as it does not contain any recreational facilities, and does not permit biking, roller-blading, or dog walking. It is to be a pedestrian only zone where you have to obtain permits to use the space if your group numbers more than 5.

Case studies


Why is it relevant? There are tenuous links between the High Line and the Baltic Triangle. Liverpool used to have an elevated railway servicing the docks a very small part of which is still present on the east boundary of the site. Maybe part of this could be resurrected to form part of a pedestrian link above the busy city streets. The High Line starts at the Meatpacking district which has been likened to the Baltic Triangle for its creative industries. The success of the High Line has bought the ideals of GI in cities to a new audience through its popularity, maybe the Triangle can do the same. The use of derelict space and native planting.

All images Sourced: www.thehighline.org


Hammarby, Sjostad Designers: Multiple Year of completion:

The district’s borders are naturally defined by a hilly nature reserve to the south and Hammarby Lake, which is the district’s central focus, its “blue eye” and its most attractive public open space. Pedestrian boardwalks, quays and linear parks provide a varied perimeter to the waterfront and residents have access to boat moorings in the summer. This traditional city structure has then been combined with a new architectural style that responds to its specific waterside context, promotes the best of contemporary sustainability technology and follows modern architectural principles, maximising light and views of the water and green spaces. The spine of the new district is a 37.5m wide boulevard and transport corridor, which connects key transport nodes and public focal points, and creates a natural focus for activity and commerce. The ground floors of nearly all the buildings along this stretch have been designed as flexible spaces, suitable for commerce, leisure or community use. The residential districts adjacent to the main spine follow a grid structure with a semi-open block form, which allows for maximum light and views as well as providing open access to the courtyards of residential blocks. Most apartments have balconies, which overlook onto the streets, waterfront walkways and open spaces. A network of varied parks, green spaces and walkways run through the district. Where possible, the natural landscape has been preserved and has provided inspiration for the development. The original reeds and rushes remain along the waterfront, in between which secluded walkways out into the water have been built.

Case studies


Why is it relevant? Again a former industrial site with a new outlook and function. Green policy is introduced at the start of design and remains a main thread throughout the development. This project acts as a model for the any residential areas within the design for the Baltic Triangle. The importance of nature and a sustainable community is something that is currently lacking in British design and the rest of Europe are pioneers. The design of the main boulevard to incorporate a green network whilst also providing for transport and commerce is something that could also be introduced to the triangle.

All images Sourced: www.hammarbysjostad.se


Parc André Citroën, Paris Designers: Gilles Clément and Alain Provost Year of completion: 1992

14 hectares of public park located on the left bank of the river Seine, the park was built on the site of a former Citroën automobile manufacturing plant, and is named after company founder André Citroën. Provost and Clément explained their design as having four themes; artifice, architecture, movement and nature with an overall transition from urban to rural. The park is built around a central, rectangular lawn. The Eastern, urban end, features two greenhouse pavilions hosting exotic plants and Mediterranean vegetation. These buildings are separated by a paved area featuring dancing fountains. The South edge of the lawn is bounded by a monumental canal, composed of an elevated reflecting pool that reaches through granite guard houses, lined by a suspended walkway. The use of water and clipped plants carry a distant echo of the French Baroque. On the North side are two sets of small gardens: the six “Serial Gardens”, each with a distinct landscape and architectural design, and a “Garden in Movement” that presents wild grasses selected to respond at different rates to wind velocity. Since 1999, the park has been home to a moored gas balloon. It allows visitors to rise above the Parisian skyline. It can rise to an altitude of 150 meters and has a carrying capacity of 30 adults. The serial gardens are each associated with a metal, a planet, a day of the week, a state of the water, and a sense: Blue garden: copper, Venus, Friday, rain, and the sense of smell, Green garden: tin, Jupiter, Thursday, spring water, and the sense of hearing. Orange garden: mercury (the metal), Mercury (the planet), Wednesday, creeks, and the sense of touch. Red garden: iron, Mars, Tuesday, waterfalls, and the sense of taste. Silver garden: silver, the Moon, Monday, rivers, and sight. Golden garden: gold, the Sun, Sunday, evaporation, and the 6th sense.


Why is it relevant? Previous industrial use and proximity to the River Seine allows for a direct correlation with the Baltic Triangle. This park was designed in a run down area to bring investment and change the areas appeal to residents and onlookers. Distribution of different elements within the layout are clear which gives the design a legibility. After all a park should not be confusing. The elevated walkway through the tree canopy is a great experiential aspect. The separate gardens with unique meanings is an idea which could relate to the elements of Liverpool’s shipping past.


Summary

These precedents are informative in the way they deal with issues that are similar to which occur in the Baltic Triangle. Issues such as derelict land, social interaction and access to nature are all relevant to the proposal however it is important that these ideas not be replicated but modified for a different climate and local population. The case studies are all successful in terms of usage and also promoting green principles, this is something that is of the highest importance to the project.


5 Proposals


The Baltic Triangle Project should be a vibrant, mixed use area representing the creative hub of Liverpool. A creative sector needs to be set in a inspiring location, there is currently little inspiration when looking out of the window in the area. Unique multi-functional spaces should bring the diverse local communities together. New residential development in the North of the site will fill a demand for apartment living in the city and complete an area which has suffered at the hands of bankruptcy and disaster. The area still bears industrial scars but also moments of Liverpool’s history, these should be celebrated in a sympathetic way. The regeneration of historic buildings and development of the large amount of derelict land will have a character that is unique to the area.

The Open space created from this will provide opportunity for varied spaces representing Liverpool’s diverse culture and population. The open space created should be multifunctional providing activities for a range of people at a range of times. The network of spaces created need to allow for recreation, access to nature and social interaction whilst also educating people about the environment. The site is a green gateway to the city centre linking to a wider green network running out past suburbia to the countryside. The proposal will open up the river front to the local communities and visitors. A resurrection of the Dockers umbrella will allow for access by pedestrians to the riverfront avoiding the busy dock road with an extension of the green space reaching the river front, something which the city does not currently have.

Vision Statement


Liverpool One

Albert Dock

Connecting dense housing areas with expansive greespace

Anglican Cathedral

Echo Arena

‘Green’ bridge to aid pedestrian crossing over dominant road

New development of Tribeca connected to the Mersey

Currently car parks, possibly a extension of green space?? Possible ‘green link’ towards Festival Gardens

Proposals


Sustainability

Ecology

The project should aim to follow sustainable principles from the outset. Construction and demolition of buildings should be sustainable with recycling of demolition materials where possible. Green technologies such as SUDS and Bioremediation should be used to deal with site specific problems.

The site has a great opportunity to provide new habitat for Liverpool’s estuarine wildlife. The bird life of the river is an achievable goal. The provision of quality green space will improve the biodiversity of the site

Community

The project should aim to bring the local communities together. A very diverse local population will need space for recreation and social interaction. The provision of allotments and social spaces will help build a sense of community.

Decontamination The sustainable methods of bioremediation to reduce contaminants in the soil and water table which in turn will improve the water quality of the river.

Waterfront

The riverfront is a source of income and tourism, for the Baltic Triangle to succeed the project will need to attract people from other riverfront destinations. The Mersey is a massive green corridor running closely to the site, a strong connection between the two would improve the green infrastructure.


History

Open space

The design should complement the existing buildings of character within the area. The history of Liverpool will be celebrated in relation to materiality and historical references.

The city centre requires more quality green space. Three main interventions each with their own character should provide the local population with the requirements they need as well as providing green links to existing spaces.

Movement The ability for people to move through the site should be greatly improved, lessening the dominance of vehicles but also to provide better public transport within the Triangle.

Environment The project must tackle climatic issues. The planting of many trees, use of green roofs/walls and SUDS will contribute to reducing the effects of climate change specifically in an urban area.

Identity The Baltic Triangle has many qualities that will help form its character. The addition of a sympathetic proposal should help define this character.

Objectives


Parks

Character areas

Substantial green areas at the main access points give an impression of the general aesthetic of area. Central park opens riverfront access allowing for views in and out of site with minimal building removal.

The residential (red) area requires completion. With the addition of apartments and more diverse housing for families. Configuration should create internal private space and link to external areas. Green roofs on flat apartment blocks. The promotion of sustainable communities.

Green Network

The creative (grey) quarter is to be regenerated. Buildings with character restored and post war units to be creatively modernised.

Reducing the dominance of traffic on the site whilst still allowing for good transport access to the creative industries. Green qualites of area become apparent. Green areas provide recreation, gardens, education and ease of movement.

Zoning


Green Space

Model of Site Model shows relationship between buildings and green space. Conceptual development will inform shape and geometry of open areas.

Greening streets

By narrowing excessively wide streets and using derelict spaces as green courtyards the area becomes a network of attractive areas.

Proposals


Sections

Section(A-A) through central park area

The area has little change in level, however this area is sunken beneath ground level and incorporates the old Kings tunnel entrance, an importance feature of the site. The old Dockers Umbrella supports are still present on the adjacent building at Wapping dock, these could be used as supports for the Green bridge connecting pedestrians to the riverfront.

Section A-A

Section through Jamaica Street.


Green links

Green link to riverfront

The overhead railway in Liverpool has sadly been demolished and only notes to its present exist. The central park area would be on the site of the old goods station and by using the structures that are still present and a modern interpretation could connect people with the riverfront without crossing the busy dock roads.

Wider network

The site will form the central part of a southern green loop within the city. Commuters, cyclists and joggers would be able to get in and out of the city on green routes.


Anglican Cathedral grounds, Liverpool

Paradise Park

Parc Andre Citroen, Paris

The Baltic Triangle

Westergasfabriek, Amsterdam

Chavasse Park, Liverpool

Sefton Park, Liverpool

Birkenhead Park, Birkenhead Comparison between green spaces allows for scope in terms of what is achievable within the design scheme. The proposed central area “Paradise Park� is very small in relation to the other examples with the exception of Chavasse Park which is only a few minutes away from the site. The green space proposed in the scheme needs to extend further than this linking to other green spaces within the scheme and externally.

Spatial Comparison


Bioremediation The industrial nature of the site has had an adverse affect on the sites soil condition. Scrap metal works, Oil works and a Foundry have left contaminants in the soils. These harmful elements mixed with the porous geology of local sandstone and overlying soils result in the contamination of the water table and the Mersey. Therefore it is important that these contaminants be removed. Bioremediation is the most environmentally friendly and cheapest way of doing this.

Advantages Low cost compared to in-situ/ex-situ Plants easily monitored Possible recovery and re-use of valuable metals Least harmful method - natural organisms

Limitations Limited by depth occupied by roots Slow growth - long term commitment Cant completely prevent leaching Survival of plants affected by toxicity/soil condition Metals can pass into the food chain

Dealing with Contamination


PHYTO DEGRADATION Certain plants take up and break down contaminants by releasing metabolic processes like photosynthetic oxidisation and reduction. Contaminants are broken down and incorporated into the plants roots or as nutrients for the soil.

PHYTO EXTRACTION Certain plants take up contaminants in their roots and store them in large quantities in their upper plant parts above ground. The plants can then be harvested and disposed or raw materials can be sequestered.

PHYTO STABILISATION Certain plants can immobilise contaminants by absorbing them into their roots and converting them to a less toxic state. Plants are able to stop contaminants from leaching into the soil through erosion, wind and soil dispersion.

PHYTO VOLATISATION Certain plants like to take up volatile contaminants and release them into the air through transpiration. Toxic contaminants are transformed within the plant and released as a less volatile and toxic compound.

Bioremediation


Built on the Mersey Liverpool’s story is built around its affinity with the Mersey. Its growth from small fishing town to a port of worldwide significance provided the city with all it required and more. The influence of wealthy shipping merchants shaped the city in every aspect. The conceptual development of this looks at the estuary and its shape and flow. There are many qualities along the Mersey from its mouth to it source and these could be reflected within any proposal.


Trading Goods The trading goods on which Liverpool are built can inform patterns and textures within the design, using the trade with the Baltic nations in particular which involved the export of coal and tobacco and the import of timber, fish oils and whale-meat. Trade with the rest of the world was based on materials such as wool, cotton and silk. Tea, coffee and raw materials were also transported in large quantities. Liverpool’s docking history should be present in the design and the abstraction of these elements will allow for it to be done in a subtle way.

Concepts/Ideas


Initial Sketch - Layout


Initial Sketch for Paradise Park


Before


After


Before


After


Before


After


Websites www.greeninfrastructurenw.co.uk www.naturalengland.co.uk www.forestrycomission.gov.uk www.defra.co.uk www.CABE.org.uk www.baltictriangle.co.uk www.liverpoolvision.co.uk www.liverpool.gov.uk www.metoffice.co.uk www.highline.org www.hammarbysjostad.se www.sfpavementtoparks.sfplanning.org/ www.waterfrontoronto.ca www.westergasfabriek.nl www.toposmagazine.com

Journals/Planning Statements

The Baltic Triangle Planning Framework (2008) Mersey Forest - Green Infrastructure Strategy for Liverpool Liverpool Strategic Investment Framework (SIF)

6 Sources



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