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JEMAAH ISLAMIYAH Jemaah Islamiyah(JI) is a South East Asian militant group that is well known as an Islam extremist or Islamist. Jemaah Islamiyah meaning ‘Islamic Congregation’. JI has a long track record of bomb attacks in Indonesia. As a islamist terrorist organizations, they have been added to the UN Security Council Resolution as a terrorist organization that are linked to AlQaeda. JI has been assemble by a few exiled Indonesians based in Malaysia in the late 1980’s. darul Islam is a radical movement that is called for the establishment of Islamic law in Indonesia. Thei network grew larger across the region in time , including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. These Islamic groups have a goal to establish of an Islamic state across South East Asia. In the years of JI they have advocated peacefully to pursue their goals but in the mid 1990’s they have taken turn to a quite violent stroll. It have said that JI militancy was nurtured by al-Qaeda members in Afghanistan. JI then was highly influenced with their beliefs in the ideology of the ‘Holy war’. Jemaah Islamiyah are accountable for carrying out the JW Marriott hotel bombing in Kuningan Jakarta, Australian Embassy bombing 2004, Jimbaran Bay 2005, and the JW Marriott and RitzCarlton hotel bombings 2009.

BALI BOMBINGS Bali is a very well known Island in Indonesia and with Kuta being a tourist district it have been attracting people from all around the world. Bali is also known for its great views, relaxing spa’s, local cheap shops, nightclubs and especially the waves for surfers. Tourist today who have travelled to Bali are mostly Australians because of the near distance. With developing time the quantity of tourism has immense and by sure because of this tradition changes over time even local citizens have developed a strong Australian accents.

• Jimbaran Bay Bar 2002 At 8 p.m on October 12, 2002 Jimbaran Bay Bar and shopping hub was struck of a bomb attack where 202 people was killed including 88 Australians, 38 Indonesian, 27 Britons, 7 Americans and 5 Swedish and a number of 240 people injured according to CNN. Three violent Islamist group, members of Jemaah Islamiyah who were sentence to death. These bomb attacks used a large car bomb which was located near popular nightclubs in Kuta and a backpack bomb carried by a suicide bomber. An audiocassetter purportedly carrying a recorded voice massage of Osama Bin Laden (A leader of al-Qaeda) stated that the Bali bombings were in direct retaliation for support of the United States' war on terror and Australia's role in the liberation of East Timor.

• Jimbaran Bay 2005 A series of suicide bombers was occurred on October 1, 2005 where bombs have exploded at two sites in Jimbaran Beach Resort and in Kuta. This attcak have claimed the lives of 20 people and injured more than 100 others. This "People were just starting to build up confidence again, and to have this happen was devastating for the locals. But I think it's the nail in the coffin for people coming to this place," Mulcahy said. On 10/12/2005 a video footage was distributed through the web in which Noordin Mohammed Top threatened that USA, UK, Italy and Australia will be the next targets.   Police later said they had found three unexploded bombs in Jimbaran. They had apparently failed to go off after the security forces hastily shut down the island’s mobile telephone network following the first blasts.   From his prison cell, Islamic cleric Abu Bakar Bashir – INDONESIAN JI alleged spiritual leader - condemned the attack but also said in a statement that the weekend's blasts were a sign of God's displeasure with the Indonesian government.   The investigation revealed that on 08/31/2005, one month before the second Bali bombing, terrorists managed to put a partially assembled bomb on the 4th floor of Kuta Paradiso Hotel. The bomb passed the security check at the hotel and the security cameras on the hotel were broken. There were no explosives in the bomb. It is possible that the event was a drill to check the security measures. Dwi Widianto, 30; Mohammad Cholily, 28; Abdul-Aziz, 30; and Anif Solchanudin, 24. were arrested in Bali and Central Java few days after the attack for suspicions that they participated in the attack by monitoring the area, driving the suicide bombers to their targets and placing the other bombs. They all operated under the command of Noordin Mohammed Top.  The aggressive men hunt followed the Bali attack led, on 11/08/2005, to the close in and, eventually, the killing of the explosive expert who monitored the assembling of the bombs - Dr. Azahari Husin.  10 Years after the bombing attack have occur a commemoration was held in Bali where the incident have happened to mark the death of 202 people. Miss Gillard said Australia and Indonesia were "closer than we had ever been before''. She paid tribute to rescuers who ''ran towards terror'', and to police and leaders in both Australia and Indonesia for how they handled the aftermath of the blasts.''This is a day of contesting emotions,'' she added, addressing visibly emotional family members of victims attending the ceremony. An estimated 1,000 Australians had travelled to the island for the commemorations.

• JW Marriott Hotel 2003 In the 5th August 2003 JW Marriott hotel was bombard by a suicide bomber who have detonated a car bomb outside of the main lobby. The trigger for the Marriott bombing came in December 2002, when Indonesian police stepped up the hunt for Jemaah Islamiah members while investigating the 2002 Bali bombings.Toni Togar, a JI member based in Medan, North Sumatra, was nervous, because his house stored all the explosives left over from JI's 2000 Christmas Eve bombings. He contacted Noordin Mohammed Top to tell him he was going to throw them out. Noordin previously was part of the team that carried out the Christmas Eve bombings which was led by Hambali and included Imam Samudra and many of the other 2002 Bali bombers. He told Togar to hold on as he "saw good materials being wasted".

JAKARTA BOMBINGS • Australian Embassy 2004 A Daihatsu delivery van exploded outside of Australian embassy at Kuningan District, Jakarta killed 9 people including the suicide bomber, according to the local health authorities in Jakarta. There are about 150 others who are injured due to the disruptions to other buildings surrounding leaving windows shattering from buildings 500 meters away from the incident. "this was aimed at the Australian Embassy, there's no question of that" said a Foreign Minister, Alexander Downer. The prime minister John Howard said that the attack was prompted by Australia’s involvement in the Iraq war or by the election campaign, pointing out it came just two days before the third anniversary of September 11 and 10 days before a second round of Indonesian presidential elections. The blast comes just weeks before the start of the second trial of Abu Bakar Bashir, the Islamic cleric accused of plotting the Marriott bombing and of the spiritual leadership of Jemaah Islamiah.

JW Marriott and Ritz carlton Hotels 17 july 2009 17 July 2009 JW Marriott hotel and Ritz Carlton Hotel was hit by two separate bombs in 5 minutes in difference. Ritz-Carlton explosion was placed on the second floor in the Airlangga Restaurant and the basement during breakfast. Marriott bombing accord first before the Ritz Carlton hotel. The bomb in Marriott hotel was located in a small breakfast room that was rented, after the explosion have betide police then have found an unexploded bomb complete with ‘bomb-making’ equipments in room 1808. They have then found out the the unexploded bomb was programmed to go off prior to the other bomb in the lobby but it have malfunctioned. The Indonesian police believe the bomb was intended to create an atmosphere of panic, causing guests to flee their rooms to exit the hotel, and generating a significant crowd in the lobby. Had this occurred as planned, the lobby bomb may have taken a much greater toll. A third bomb was located in a car bomb across the toll road where it killed two chinese tourist. There have not been any major bomb blasts in Indonesia for four years, and the presidential election passed off peacefully. A terrorism analyst, Rohan Gunaratna, said: "The only group with the intention and capability to mount attacks upon western targets is Jemaah Islamiyah. I have no doubt Jemaah Islamiyah was responsible for this attack."

IRAQ WAR Saddam Hussein, a leader of iraq have developed weapons of mass destruction. knowing this the U.S have then got involved in the Iraq War because of Iraq’s aggression against its neighbors. Iraq have attacked Iran with poison gases, even against its own citizens. Clearly Saddam Hussein has use his power to declare dominant against Iran and is clearly willing to do anything including killing their own citizens. These actions have taken the attention of US making them involved in this war in March 20th, 2003 where George W. Bush have stated “Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction are controlled by a murderous tyrant who has already used chemical weapons to kill thousands of people. Iraq has also sponsored international terrorism. It was directed primarily against Iran, the PLO, Israel and other Arab countries, but it is possible that this may grow to also include other countries, like the U.S. Up till today however, Iraq has posed no real threat to the United States, its main interests or its allies. Yet the Bush administration still fears that Iraq may share the weapons of mass destruction that it holds with terrorists and in their eyes, war is the only sure way to eliminate this threat. Iraq regime is considered a ruthless dictatorship. No one can be sure that ‘the occupation of a complex, divided country like Iraq and the installation of a new regime will lead to a rapid flowering of democracy.’ Yet the Bush administration still felt the need to make this attempt and hoped that the occupation of Iraq would lead to the spread of democracy throughout the Middle East. The effect on this war had a great impact to both Country Iraq and the US. Over 1,040 American soldiers died in the Iraq War and over 7,413 troops have been wounded since the war began. Economically have cost both country a lot of damage. $3,415 billion dollars was donated into the Iraq. With the numerous amount of money have been put into the war oil prices in the US have rise up to $90 per barrel. September 22, 2004, between 12,800 and 14,843 Iraqi civilians had been killed due to the U.S. invasion, and almost 40,000 had been injured. supported a new democratic government within Iraq, which was opposed by various Islamic groups that traditionally held power in the country. Alexander Downer, Foreign Minister supported Australia's participation in the Iraq war. He argued that Iraq, the Middle East and the world would be better off without the regime of Saddam Hussein and he defended the claim that weapons of mass destruction would be found in Iraq.

3 PERSPECTIVES • Danny Hanley A father who have lost two of his daughter in the Bali Bombings in 2005. Danny Hanley are one of the thousands of people who came to the commemoration 10 years later to have closure. Danny Hanley was interviewed in the ABC Network Australia “Being there at that service and meeting all those beautiful people, just changed my whole attitude. I had to do it for my girls. I wanted to do it and apart from that, I had to do it for myself too, to try and ease the pain as much as possible.” “He senses that some of his anger is slowly making way for acceptance.” as the reporter said. Danny Hanley is a victim in heart, losing his two daughters was definitely hard for him to get over. He had hatred for the world because his emotionally attached which created him to become bias. He had resentment to the terrorist who have planned this terror to threaten certain countries including his home country, Australia. He even had hatred towards Indonesia country in specific but because going back to Bali for closure he have realized that he was bias for putting his feelings towards the attacks first instead of the whole situation. Hanley than have realized how nice people are in Bali and that after going there he have open his mind and taking in things as how he should have. He has done everything he could for his daughter, coming back to Bali in purpose of doing it for his Daughter.

• Rohan Gunaratna Dr. Rohan Gunaratna is the Head of RSIS's International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, Singapore. In this talk he shares his views about the root cause of terrorism, terrorist organisations and how terrorists justify their acts. Dr. Rohan Gunaratna have analyzed the minds of terrorist. Terrorist at a time have grew a hatred and resentment towards US leading them seeking for revenge because they believe that muslims was attacked. One of their ways was to attack the US. To set revenge to the US they have targeted specific locations that was the icon of power in economics, Governments and Politicians landmarks. We can see that their resentment have now become an act of Terrorism. They have form a specific ideology in their believes, believe that doing suicidal attacks gives you five advantages 1. You will go to Paradise 2. You will meet Allah (God) 3. Your sins will be all forgiven 4. Shaffan: meaning you can take your relatives to paradise with you 5. Loved by 7 beautiful girls in heaven

These believes made them feel that suicide is a shortcut to peace in the paradise and a short cut to meet Allah. They think that by doing this their sins will be erased and they are cleaned instead of being burnt in hell. To them Heaven is Paradise where we can have 7 beautiful girls and they will not age a day, they will be forever young, heaven is eternity. With their religious believes they have become fanatic that they have become extremist. These strong hatred toward the US builds up a group of Islam militants who think they are freedom fighter because they are protecting their Muslim Country from the US. This strongly states that the al-Qaeda and other Islamic militants are bias because of their religious believes and their emotionally attached with the Muslim countries. Al-Qaeda have been successful because they have indoctrinated others from all around the world. They have used Afghanistan to train 30-40 different groups of terrorist in Asia, Africa and a view other terrorist that came from Europe. This began the contemporary vague of terrorism. Small groups that are linked to al-Qaeda such as Jemaah Islamiyah simulated the al-Qaeda making them rise up because these leaders of small militant groups wants to sacrifice their lives because their beliefs in the ideology and that they should follow the steps that al-Qaeda have taken because by sacrificing their lives, they will go to heaven. Dr.Rohan then have research deeply of their thoughts and ideology by interviewing a member of al-Qaeda. He asked “so what if the female did the suicide attacks? what will they get in heaven?” “In the journey to reach heaven the female will transform into a man” This made Dr.Rohan laugh and made him even believe that the terrorist thoughts and ideology is bias. These ideology is evidently myths that they have created. This creation have made a big impact on their ideology on the contemporary terrorism, there is nothing in the al-Quran of these myths at all, so there was a lot of misinterpretation of religion.

• Indonesian Citizen Hendra Candra is an Indonesian citizen who is also a strong muslim. “JI have misinterpreted the al-Quran the completely wrong way. They are uneducated yet they educate kids to think the same way as they do. They are putting bad names to Islam and they are certainly twisting the Quran” he stated. The tone he is setting to the statement clearly shows that even if he is a muslim, he completely antagonistic towards terrorism. He specified that in the al-Quran there is no such thing as killing another living thing is a good thing, especially suicidal. Suicide will have the biggest punishment after life because it is giving up your life that god have gave you, he said “if you are a suicidal you have no respect for god and what he have given you.” He is disgraced and sad that terrorism and violence have become global. He is mostly very said because in their minds, this is what Allah have told them to do, while in fact this is what Allah have forbidden us to do. He is sad that other innocent people are attacked yet even more disrepute is that these terrorism doesn’t have major reason to terror these civilians. From his perspective i believe he speaks for other Muslim citizens who are against terrorism and what they have done

WHY HAVE TERRORIST BECOME GLOBAL? Every human have different believes and different understandings to the world. Terrorist are someone who threaten others by terrorizing to get the attention of other countries or perhaps sending a message. Terrorist have strong believes and most of them believe that they are a Freedom Fighter, meaning they are terrorizing in the goods of their country and doing this in God’s behalf. We are intelligent human beings who are able to do perhaps anything we can, with technology today we are able to communicate from all around the world and now have access to unlimited information. Having so we can organize a group and all would be interconnectedness. Terrorist today uses Technology such as the Internet to communicate with others all around the world, they uses code language so it would be hard to track them down. Terrorist does not work alone, they work in small groups. These groups are connected forming a wide terrorist network all around the world. He also uses global networks to recruit members. They would go to muslim countries pretending that they have a legitimate reason, they go in as cover to get access more people. We also have the power to manipulate other human beings, making them believe what we believe and make them feel the same as we does. Indoctrination have been a big part of terrorism.They take people from the slums and indoctrinate them by brainwashing them about the goods of suicide bombings. Indoctrinating poor and vulnerable people, picking them up from poor villages and slums knowing that the people there are in desperate need of money. He mostly looks for young kids perhaps in their teens and said that if they become the member of the shahid, that when they die, they will go to paradise and that the terrorist will give money to their families. One of the members of JI is Noordin M Top who is Indonesia’s most wanted Islamist Militant. He is the bomb maker and financier of Jamaah Islamiyah and is the Mastermind of 2003 JW Marriott hotel bombing in Jakarta,2004 Australian embassy bombing in Jakarta, 2005 Bali Bombings, 2009 JW Marriott - Ritz-Carlton bombings and assisted in the 2002 Bali Bombings. Noordin was nicknamed “Moneyman”. He was the indoctrinator. He have specialized in recruiting militants into becoming suicide bombers and collecting funds for militant activities. Trainer of the Jemaah Islamiyah, He also have trained 3 bali bombers on the 1st October 2005. He have successfully indoctrinated lots of innocent civilians to be suicide bombers. Living with people who have strong believes in somethings can also effect you, for example if we live with a muslim extremist who are fundamental with their believes we come like them because for your whole life you are thought that way and you are raised in that community so you don’t know better. Despite their believes al-Qur’an have never stated that to kill other people are allowed, in fact it is written there that if we kill other living things we will be punished severely. They have misinterpret the value and meaning of jihad, which actually means to do good for others. They have misinterpret it to becoming a so called freedom fighter and became a war against non believers.


Global Terror  

How did terrorism become global?

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