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REFERENCING & BIBLIOGRAPHY A Short Guide for S1 & S2 pupils It is important that you acknowledge all resources that you read / consult whilst you do your research. This shows you have done background reading. It is done through a process called referencing and bibliography. If you are quoting or referring to a passage in a book that supports your ideas, arguments or conclusions, you have to acknowledge the source of the information. This is called referencing and gives credit to other author’s works that you have used. Importantly it will show that you are not plagiarising someone else’s work: • Copying work directly and handing it in as your own • Using other peoples opinions or ideas without acknowledgment • Rearranging / restructuring (paraphrasing) other people’s work using only a few of your own words without acknowledgement Plagiarism is unethical and is a form of copyright theft which, in school will lead to you losing marks and not getting such a good grade for your work. If the work is submitted for exam purposes (eg. folios, dissertations) and you are found to have been plagiarising, then you will fail the course. At S1/2 level you are not expected to use referencing, but you still should use your own words and any resources (books, internet websites, articles, etc) that you have used in putting your projects or investigations together should be listed in a bibliography at the end of your work.

If you are interested in learning more about this topic and learning how to follow the standard for referencing and bibliography have a look at the following website: Anglia Ruskin University Library:

In S1 and S2 the most you are likely to be asked to do is produce a bibliography when you do a project or investigation or similar piece of work. A bibliography is a list of books, magazine articles and websites that you have read and used information from whilst doing your research. They should be relevant to the topic you have written about. The following is the format we suggest you to use for your Ancient Civilisations investigation. It is similar (but not necessarily the same) to what you might be asked for when you are writing folio pieces or dissertations in S4-S6. Book Surname, Initial(s). Title. Publisher. Year Baquendo, W. Eyewitness Aztec. Dorling Kindersley, 2006

Books – edited Surname, Initial(s). (ed) or (eds). Title. Publisher. Year Steele, P. (ed). The Roman Empire. OUP, 2003

Journal Article Surname, Initial(s). Title of article. Journal title. Year. Volume (issue number), Page nos Breeze, D. J. A Roman Legacy. Historic Scotland. 2006. Winter. p26-29 Bibby, M. Egyptology: Riddles of Ancient Egypt. Focus. 2004. 138, p51-58


Title of website. Available from: <URL> [Date accessed] Ancient History in-depth: Greeks. Available from: < >[Date accessed: 24/02/10]

Referencing & Bibliograhy