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SALMONELLOSES


P.M Poultry Diseases 4th year series By Mohamed Mahmoud Salem gab AllahAssistant lecturer of pathology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, Tukh; 13736 , Qalyuobia, EGYPT


SALMONELLOSIS


SALMONELLOSES 53. Fowl paratyphoid is an acute or chronic disease in domestic fowl and many other avian or mammalian species, caused by some motile Salmonella serotypes that are not host-specific. The highest morbidity and death rates are usually observed during the first 2 weeks after hatching.

The chickens are drowsy, with eyes closed, ruffled feathers and grouped near the sources of heat. 25


ORGAN : LESIONS : SUSP.DIS. :

Baby chick Pasty vent Salmonellosis


SALMONELLOSES 36, 37. Pullorum disease is an acute systemic disease in chickens and turkey poults. The infection is transmitted with eggs and is commonly

characterized by a white diarrhoea and high death rate, whereas adult birds are asymptomatic carriers. The morbidity and the mortality rates increase about the 7 th - 10th day after hatching. The affected chickens appear somnolent, depressed and

their growth is retarded. The

feathers around the vent in many chickens is stained with diarrhoeic faeces or pasted with dry faeces.


SALMONELLOSES 36, 37. Pullorum disease is an acute systemic disease in chickens and turkey poults. The infection is transmitted with eggs and is commonly characterized by a white

diarrhoea and high death rate, whereas adult birds are asymptomatic carriers. The morbidity and the mortality rates increase about the 7 th - 10th day after hatching. The affected chickens appear somnolent, depressed and their growth is retarded. The feathers around the vent in many chickens is stained with diarrhoeic faeces or pasted with dry faeces.


SALMONELLOSES 41. Sometimes, greyish-whitish

milliary necroses are found out in the liver. S. pullorum is transmitted by infected eggs of layer hens that are carriers. Many hatched infected chickens spread the microorganism by a horizontal route to other birds via the gastrointestinal and the urinary tracts. Adult carrier birds also spread the agent through their excreta


SALMONELLOSES 56. Sometimes, necrotic foci in

the liver are discovered . The infection of small chickens occurs by penetration of microorganisms into the egg after faecal contamination. The transmission of agents could be done also by a contaminated source of animal protein (meat and bone meal etc.). The rodents are a significant reservoir of paratyphoid microorganisms. The treatment inhibits but does not eradicate the infection. The appropriate treatment minimizes the death rate until the birds develop immunity.


SALMONELLOSES 44. Acute fowl typhoid. In some instances, the enlarged liver is mottled with multiple milliary necroses. The outbreaks are observed primarily in hens and turkeys, but the disease is sometimes encountered in other domestic or wild fowl.


SALMONELLOSES 45. Acute fowl typhoid. In other cases, the size of liver

necroses varies from milliary to spots with a diameter of 1 - 2 cm. Unlike pullorum disease, fowl typhoid is lasting for months.


SALMONELLOSES 43. Acute fowl typhoid. The outbreaks usually begin with a sharp decline in forage consumption and egg production. The fertilization and hatchability rates are considerably reduced . Diarrhoea appears. The death rate in acute fowl typhoid is high and varies between 10% and 90%. About 1/3 of chickens hatched from eggs from typhoid-infected flocks die. A characteristic lesion

for acute fowl typhoid in adult birds is the enlarged and bronze greenish tint of liver.


ORGAN : Liver and spleen LESIONS : Bronzy liver and congested spleen SUSP.DIS.Salmonellosis


ORGAN : LESIONS : SUSP.DIS. :

Liver Small focal necrosis Salmonellosis or Pasterullosis


ORGAN : Lung LESIONS : Brown discoloration SUSP.DIS. :

Salmonellosis


SALMONELLOSES 49. Acute fowl typhoid.

The lungs acquire a characteristic brown colour. Here, necroses and, following their organization, "sarcoma-like nodules" could be observed.


 ‫برونزى‬liver  ‫بنفسجى‬spleen  ‫بنى‬lung


ORGAN : Chest cavity LESIONS : Grayish white necrotic foci on lung SUSP.DIS:Salmonellosis


SALMONELLOSES 50. Chronic fowl typhoid. The lesions are primarily in the gonads. The ovaries are

affected by inflammatory and degenerative changes.


SALMONELLOSES 51. Chronic fowl typhoid. Frequently, affected follicles are deformed and appear like thick

pendulating masses. Fowl typhoid should be differentiated from other salmonelloses, E. coli infections, Pasteurella spp. infections etc. If breeder flocks are proved to be carriers of the infection, their eggs should not be used for breeding.


SALMONELLOSES 52. Chronic fowl typhoid. Sometimes, the going out of yolk from degenerated follicles results in fibrinous adhesive

peritonitis. Taking into consideration that chemotherapy does not eliminate the carriership, the treatment of poultry infected with fowl typhoid or pullorum disease is not justified and is never recommended.


ORGAN : Ovaries LESIONS : Misshaped, discolored, pedunculated ova with long stal SUSP.DIS. : Chronic salmonellosis


SALMONELLOSES 39, 40. The aetiological agent is S . pul/orum, a non-motile Gram-negative microorganism. S. pul/orum is very resistant under moderate climatic conditions and could survive for months. It could be killed by fumigation with formaldehyde of breeder eggs in the hatchery.

Typical for this form are the greyishwhitish nodes in one or some of the following places: heart (39), lungs, liver; gizzard walls (40) and intestines, the peritoneum.


SALMONELLOSES 39, 40. The aetiological agent is S . pul/orum, a non-motile Gram-negative microorganism. S. pul/orum is very resistant under moderate climatic conditions and could survive for months. It could be killed by fumigation with formaldehyde of breeder eggs in the hatchery. Typical for

this form are the greyish-whitish

nodes in one or some of the following places: heart (39), lungs, liver; gizzard walls (40) and intestines, the peritoneum.


SALMONELLOSES 42. Ureters are often filled

with urates. For confirmation of the diagnosis, S. pullorum should be isolated and typed. Pullorum disease must be differentiated from other salmonelloses, E. coli infections, Aspergillus that produces similar pulmonary lesions, Staphylococcus aureus, causing arthrites etc. Sometimes,

the pulmonary nodes resemble the tumours in Marek's disease.


SALMONELLOSES 47. Acute fowl typhoid. Often, enteritis, especially of

the anterior part of small intestine, sometimes with ulcerations, is present. The aetiological agent is Salmonella gallina rum. This organism usually shares common antigens with S. pullorum and the two microorganisms often give a crossagglutination reaction .


SALMONELLOSES 48. Acute fowl typhoid. More rarely, myocardial necroses due to Salmonella toxins are detected . The transmission of the infection by contaminated eggs is especially important. Moreover, the transmission of S. gallinarum occurs mainly among growing or productive flocks and the death rate among adult birds is higher.


SALMONELLOSES 46. Acute fowl typhoid. The spleen is 2-3 times bigger, sometimes with greyish-whitish nodules prominating on the surface, representing hyperplasic follicles.


ORGAN : Opened Cecai LESIONS : Typhlitis (Casious caecal core). SUSP.DIS. : Salmonellosis


SALMONELLOSES 54. Diarrhoea, dehydration and pasted down appearance around the vent are observed. Pathoanatomically, marked catarrhal haemorrhagic enteritis is observed .

Often the caeca are filled with gelatinous, fibrinous, cheeselike exudate . This is a finding, characteristic for salmonellosis, but it is not specific for any of serotypes.


SALMONELLOSES 55. The inflammatory

fibrinous exudate in caeca often forms casts with the shape of mucosal folds. The aetiological agents are about 10 - 15 Salmonella serotypes and the most common isolates are S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium . Most fowl paratyphoid organisms contain an endotoxin , respons ible for their pathogenic effects.


SALMONELLOSES 38. The oedema of tibiotarsal

joints is a frequent associated sign. Pullorum disease is widely distributed among all age groups of chickens and turkeys. The highest losses are in birds under the age of 4 weeks.


ORGAN : LESIONS : SUSP.DIS. :

Opened joint Straw-yellow colored exudates (arthritis) Salmonellosis



Salmonelloses