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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

The Importance of Craft in Activism within a Digital Age: An illustrated essay critiquing how socially engaged practitioners, including myself, have addressed activism through craft

Figure  1:  WSPU’s  Apron,  by  Manchester  Suffragettes  for  Rose  Lamartine  Yates  (1875  –  1954)

In this essay I seek to explore the various ways in which practitioners have approached activism through craft. During this discussion I will look into the rise of craft over recent years, the effects technology has had on activism, and explore how the two relate. An Introduction on Craft Craft as a vehicle for activism in particular is an interesting topic of discussion. There is an increased awareness of the environment and sustainability within the current zeitgeist, and this awareness is informing the decision making process of the modern consumer. Over recent years we have seen a mammoth resurgence of craft. According to the BBC ‘the Hobby Craft chain of home craft stores has seen its profits nearly double over the past few years…’ and crafting has now ‘…become a booming industry’ (Hampsheir, P. 2013). The recession hitting the UK in 2009 resulted in job losses running into its millions. Redundancy and austerity across the nation saw people taking the plunge into starting their own businesses; an audacious move many would agree, with the economic downfall amplifying risk and making money tougher to borrow. However, taking the plunge has proved a fruitful one for many. With support turning to locally produced over branded, handmade over machine produced, and sustainably becoming high on the list of 1  

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

priorities for people in the UK, craft in particular is becoming a thriving business. In 2013 over 20,000 people attended the Olympia Craft Fair in London, and websites such as Folksy.com, ‘which launched in 2008 and focuses exclusively on UK designers and makers’ saw ‘sales increasing by 526% from June 2009 to June 2012’ (Barford, V. 2012) An Introduction on Internet Activism The speed in which information can be now shared in what is hailed as the digital revolution, has meant an increased awareness in social and political issues has developed. ‘In fact, the past five years may have had more of an impact on all aspects of philanthropy with the advent of web 2.0 technology or social media.’ (Young, J. 2013.) In his article published in The New Statesman ‘Let's Stop Pretending Internet Activism is the Real Thing’, Joe Rivers discusses the current state of modern day activism, and the nation’s apparent lack of political engagement. Rivers suggests that the ‘standard riposte is that people today are less politically engaged’. I must disagree with this. People are politically engaged, it’s just simply much more passive. Political engagement is seen through the increase of internet petitions, on political issues such as tax increases, the environment, animal welfare and civil rights. It’s also seen via internet forums, comment threads and social networking websites such as Facebook and Twitter. Passive engagement is a symptom of the digital age not just within politics and social issues, but in other areas of our lives. Our inquisitiveness and thirst for knowledge is hindered through impatience, and the expectation that we can know anything within a few taps on a screen. We no longer experiment, hypothesise or enquire. We don’t connect with one another to fact find, just open an app and connect with Google instead. Rivers proposes ‘the double-edged sword of the internet means that whilst everybody is given a platform to make their views known, it also gives the impression that a simple show of opinion is enough.’ I completely agree with this, before the days of the internet we had to invest time and effort to support the causes that matter to us. In 1979 the UK trade union membership was at its highest at 13 million. 2012 saw the lowest figure since the end of WWII at just 6 million. Simply ‘ "Like" on Facebook an article you agree with? The truly passionate could always offer up a retweet as well. We can then all sleep soundly at night knowing that we’ve made a statement, we’ve done our bit and, lo and behold, awareness has been raised.’ (Rivers, J. 2013) Rarely a week goes by without a new e-petition popping up on my newsfeed. But what good do these actually do? Who is listening? In the article ‘Want to change the world? It won’t happen via your mouse button’ (Rickett, 2013) published recently in the Guardian, Oscar Rickett writes ‘Internet activism is not an extension of resistance; it's an expression of benign idleness.’ In many ways I agree with this statement. It is easy to ‘like’ or even ‘share’ a campaign, but what are people actually doing to solve these problems? We all know how much power social networking holds in society, I wonder if the method of simply raising awareness through ‘likes’ and ‘shares’ actually plays quite a significant role.

The Importance of Craft in Activism within a Digital Age When I think of the history of how craft has been used in activism throughout history it’s impossible not to refer to the work of the Suffragettes, and their dedication in campaigning for not only the right for women to vote, but for their political representation and equality. In the early 1900’s women were ‘skilled at needlework and so there was already a hidden resource of women who could be called to arms’. (Byatt, A. 2013)

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

In the lecture ‘From Soap Boxes to Tea Sets: How the Suffragette Movement got into People’s Hearts and Homes’, Antonia Byatt, director of Literature Strategy at Arts Council England, talks passionately about the Suffragette movement (Byatt, A. 2013)1. Byatt quotes Mary Lowndes, founder of the Artists Suffrage League in saying ‘a banner was not just a placard but a thing to float in the wind, to flicker in the breeze, to flirt its colours for your pleasure, to half show and half conceal a device you long to unravel: you do not want to read it, you want to worship it’. I find this quote beautiful, and really evokes the sense of pride and passion the Suffragettes had behind the cause. I recently attended a protest against the Figure2: Suffrage  Banner  produced  between  1910-­‐1912    by  the   Women’s  Social  and  Political  Union  –  Museum  of  London culling of badgers as part of the ‘Cure Not Kill’ campaign held by Care For the Wild International. I didn’t previously know about the march, but noticed a protest banner made by the Leeds Green Party. The large handmade banner stood out amongst the sea of people and immediately caught my eye. It caused me to enquire further into what the protest was about, resulting in me staying, learning about the campaign, and signing a petition. I later researched the issue further and developed a strong support for the campaign. According to Sarah Corbett, founder of the Craftivist Collective, handmade protest banners ‘catch the attention of passers by in a respectful and thought provoking way without forcing [their] views on them’ (Corbett, S. 2013 p.5-6) The term craftivism was coined by Betsy Greer, and she defines the term as ‘a way of looking at life where voicing opinions through creativity makes your voice stronger, your compassion deeper & your quest for justice more infinite.’ (Greer, B. 2013) I can personally relate to the non-threatening methods of craftivism. In her book A Little Book of Craftivism, Corbett talks about how she struggled with traditional methods of activism, she identified that it was counterFigure  3:  Leeds  Green  Party  Protest  Banner,  2013 productive and not for her; ‘I found myself feeling discouraged and exhausted. Shouting and marching drained me; I didn’t like demonising people and telling them what to do. (Corbett, S. 2013 p.3) I have often felt this way about activism, and that I am not the right person be an activist, even though I am socially and politically engaged, and that I want to fight for the issues that really matter to me. I find the work of Sarah Corbett inspiring, and when I attended her                                                                                                                         1

A video of the lecture can be viewed online here http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/from-soap-boxes-to-tea-setshow-the-suffragette-movement-got-into-people where a written transcript is also available

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

workshop at Leeds College of Art in 2013, I really discovered a form of activism that I could truly get behind. The success of the Craftivist Collective has lead to them supporting campaigns such as Save the Children’s Race Against Hunger Campaign with I’m a Piece, and Oxfam’s Grow campaign.

Figure 4:  The  ‘Don’t  Blow  It’  project,  Sarah  Corbett.  A  hand  stitched  letter  on  a  handkerchief  addressed  to  an  MP  to  use   their  influence  and  power  to  support  the  most  venerable  in  society.

An example of craftivism from the Craftivist Collective is the ‘Don’t Blow It’ project, where participants hand stitch letters to their MP’s as a means of lobbying and petitioning. Receiving an item like this by hand cannot go ignored in the same way that another faceless typed up letter produced from a template can. These handkerchiefs have been hand crafted by a human being. ‘Through a seemingly simple act of making, craftivists can bring about change in the world, be it tiny or tremendous’ (Greer, B. 2013) The MP who received this particular handkerchief from Corbett now keeps in on her desk to encourage her both politically and personally.

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Figure 5:  ‘My  Favorite  Thing  about  the  War  On  Terror  is  the   Language  of  The  War  on  Terror’,  2006  Lisa  Anne  Auerbach

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

Like Corbett, Lisa Anne Auerbach believes activism is powerful when subtle. Auerbach knits her personal political commentary into jumpers, taking ‘her inspiration from revolutionary quotes, philosophical and literary texts, pop songs and tabloid journalism headlines.’ (Klanten, R. et al. 2011) She achieves this restrained approach by using ‘humor to bring people into the work, and to temper what otherwise might be didactic, angry, or bitter sentiments.’ (Auerbach, L.A. cited by Maloney, P. 2009) She creates an ‘uncomfortable edginess, but [also wants] the sweaters to have a subtlety even when they are confrontational.’ (Auerbach, L.A. cited by Maloney, P. 2009) I cannot help but wonder if the work of Auerbach is activism? To clarify this I had to revisit the definition of activism itself. The Cambridge dictionary defines activism as ‘the use of direct and noticeable action to achieve a result, usually a political or social one.’ (dictionary.cambridge.org, 2013) Auerbach does use direct and noticeable action; we know this is true because her work has been published across various books, journals and websites. But does Auerbach’s work achieve a result? I doubt any politician has had their strategies influenced by her work, but the definition also includes social results, and I believe her work does achieve social results. Auerbach doesn’t focus on one issue in her craftivism, she comments on the current zeitgeist, and if her work encourages other people to become more socially or politically engaged, then to me, it fits the bill. Extremely direct action can be seen from the Snatchel Project, which ran across America during 2012.

Figure  6:  A  womb  knitted  by  a  craftivist  for  the  ‘Snatchel  Project’  in  2012  

After U.S. government announcements on regulating certain women’s health issues, such as abortion rights and contraception, women across America joined forces. They knitted wombs and sent them to

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

male senators, with letters expressing their opposition. Their tagline? ‘If we knit you a uterus, will you stay out of ours?’ Co-founder of the project Donna Druchunas speaks in an interview with Don’t Panic about the importance of the campaign; ‘it helps raise awareness about what is happening in government in a time when many people are turned off by negative advertising and loud-mouth media pundits. It also gives people, especially women, a chance to have their voices heard, and encourages many women who might not otherwise speak out or write to their representatives to get involved.’ (Druchunas, D. 2012) Here, Druchunas explains explicitly why this method of campaigning is so important. In another interview with ABC News, Druchunas points out ‘writing a letter doesn't feel like it makes an impact’… ‘an intern looks at all the letters and adds up those that are pro and against. You just become a checkmark.’ (Druchunas, D. cited by Bingham, A. 2012). This backs up my ideas on the importance of craftivism; a letter can be ignored, something made by a human being cannot – craft pieces have value, whether they are for a loved one, for sale, or for a political campaign. The work of the Suffragettes, Corbett’s Craftivist Collective, Auerbach’s knitwear, and Druchunas’ Snatchel Project have all been created for different reasons, but their intentions are all the same. Making a change is the ultimate goal for any campaigner, but the journey is of equal importance; raising awareness, making voices heard, and getting there one stitch at a time. As Margaret Mead said, ‘never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed it is the only thing that ever has’. (Mead, M. cited by Corbett, S. 2013, p.60) Ever since I attended the workshop by Sarah Corbett I have yearned to get involved and conduct my own craftivist project. When Leeds City Council announced its plans to compulsory purchase the land outside Leeds College of Art to make way for the proposed trolleybus scheme, I knew I had to fight against it. I was first a student at Leeds College of Art in 2007, and I am here again. It’s a school that has changed my life, and I deeply care about the future for Leeds College of Art. The compulsory purchase of land proposed is to make way for two-directional traffic to flow past the college on Blenheim Walk, replacing the current single flow of traffic. This will leave over 1500 students and staff at the college with a 2m wide pavement to access the building. The combination of this, and what is set to be one of the busiest roads in Leeds, with 20 000 vehicles using it daily, is a serious safety issue.2 Other issues that will be caused by the force purchase of land include; temporarily loss of use of the outdoor seating area that is necessary for students not only on a daily basis, but also as an exhibition space. The folly at the front of the building will also be lost, which is the only signpost the college has to invite the community into the college to take part in workshops, courses, and exhibitions. These changes will have a negative impact on future intake of students, and student experience as a whole. It was important to me to raise awareness about these issues. The proposal was relatively unknown across the college, and after conversations with fellow students explaining the situation people were genuinely shocked. I started the ‘This Belongs to Us’ campaign, featuring three pieces of craft-activism. The first two I produced simultaneously.                                                                                                                       2

Details on traffic statistics can be found at http://www.uktrafficdata.info/cp/leeds-a660-hyde-park-and-woodhouse-17374. The figure is an average worked out for two-directional traffic with projected annual increase included.

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

I created bunting, which read ‘This Belongs to Us’ and hung it outside the college alongside the land we are proposed to lose. The bunting is clear, but not so big that it is intimidating. The craftivist collective’s ethos in that the pieces should be discovered by the viewer, and not forced upon people, to me is an important aspect to be followed, in that it encourages people to really take notice of the message when it is discovered. The message I chose is a statement that isn’t offensive, and reflects the thoughts of the people inside. With increasing costs of higher education, the statement is

Figure 7:  My  craftivist  piece  ‘This  Belongs  to  Use’  bunting  across  the  land  Leeds   College  of  Art  are  proposed  to  lose  by  Leeds  City  Council

especially true. Students are not willing to compromise when their learning comes at such a high price.

Figure 8:  My  craftivist  placard  informing  passers  by  how  much  traffic  the  trolley  bus   will  cause  to  pass  Leeds  College  of  Art

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It was important that the campaign was also informative. I cross-stitched a placard to explain the issue and its effects in the most concise way possible so people would take notice. After hanging these pieces I felt a strong sense of pride for my work, and fear too at the thought of leaving them. I was reminded of Mary Lowndes’ words; ‘a banner was not just a placard but a thing to float in the wind, to flicker in the breeze, to flirt its colours for your pleasure, to half show and half conceal a device you long to unravel: you do not

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

want to read it, you want to worship it’, and mine was doing just that. Corbett described how when she started making craft for activism it offered a ‘way to reflect in a way that [she] hadn’t really made time for before.’ (Corbett, S. 2013 p5) I identified with this entirely when I started producing these pieces. The process of making and thinking lead me onto the next step of my project, which I hadn’t anticipated in the beginning. I questioned how I could get the people who mattered the most to take notice. The success of my project had already been recognised by the college principle, and had inspired other students. So much so a fellow undergraduate produced a film documentary opposing the trolleybus scheme and featured my campaign in it. But how could I change the minds of those who can make a difference? I hosted an event to invite students and staff to hand-stitch their signature onto a petition I would later send to Hilary Benn, our local MP who is currently in support of the trolleybus scheme. I was expecting

Figure 9:  My  poster  inviting  students  and  staff  to  hand-­‐stitch  their  n ame  onto  a  petition   opposing  the  trolley  bus  address  to  our  MP  Hilary  Benn

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

perhaps 20 people at the most to take part in the event as it was held at a tough part of the year when most students had deadlines on the horizon. 27 had confirmed on Facebook, so my estimations sat slightly under this.

Figure 10:  Screenshot  of  the  Hand-­‐Stitched  Petition  Against  The  Trolleybus  Facebook  event

In the end I collected 47 hand-stitched signatures to add onto my on-going petition, and I received emails from more students who want to take part next semester.

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

This journey has confirmed to me why craftivism is so important. When an issue arises that will cause negative impact on a group of people, they will give up their time to fight against it. It was up to us as art and design students to campaign in a creative, and thought provoking way. The people who took part in my petition really enjoyed sitting down to reflect on an issue whilst making something real. It gave people the chance to talk about the issue in a social situation. To see people campaigning in an environment that wasn’t behind their computer screens was refreshing, and they felt it too; ‘the power of craft is contagious’ (Levine, F. 2011 p.5) The resurgence of craft over recent years is no accident. Everything that used to be physical has somehow migrated to the digital world and only exists as data in cyber space. We no longer pour our deepest darkest thoughts into a treasured notebook secured with a silver lock, we upload them onto our blogs – edited, contorted into what we want others to perceive as our thoughts. Emails replaced letters, which have been replaced further by social networking and learning about each other’s lives passively via our newsfeeds. Kindles are rapidly replacing books. My initial response when the Kindle was first launched was a solemn vow that I would never own one, that books are to be held, flicked though, smelled (yes, smelled) and cherished. While I still believe the sentiment behind this vow, I have since divorced many of my books after hauling them through several house moves, and I am sad to say, I have given in. I own a Kindle. I firmly believe that we are now moving into a revival of the tangible. What we perceive as real is slipping away behind our screens, resulting in a yearning for things that are palpable. The world is a fast-paced place, people are looking for real things to do with their time to slow things down a little. How do I know this? Because I crave these things myself, and I know it’s not just me. Sure there is room for armchair activism, it’s surely better than nothing. It allows voices to be heard in numbers. What better way to rally up these numbers by using a global network? But the prefix of activism should never be forgotten. Active. If we care about an issue, and we really want to do something about it, we need to get up and do something. Craft is just one-way of ‘looking at life where voicing opinions through creativity makes your voice stronger, your compassion deeper & your quest for justice more infinite’ (Greer, B. 2013), it is creativity that is key.

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

Bibliography Barford, V. BBC News - 'Etsy, Folksy and the mania for making crafts' 2013[ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine19599168. [Accessed 22 November 2013]. Bingham, A. 2012. Activists to Congressmen: If We Knit You a Uterus, Will You Stay Out of Ours?. [online] Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/activist s-sending-knitted-vaginascongressmen/story?id=16014922 [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014]. Byatt, A. Gresham College 2013 ‘From Soap Boxes to Tea Sets: How the Suffragette Movement got into People’s Hearts and Homes’ [Online Video]. 10 June 2013. Available from: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-andevents/from-soap-boxes-to-tea-sets-how-thesuffragette-movement-got-into-people [Accessed: 26 November 2013] Chandler, A & Neumark, N 2005 ‘At a Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet’ Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Cooney, E. 2012 ‘The fabulous Craftivist Collective supports the Grow campaign’ [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/getinvolved/campaign-with-us/south-eastblog/2012/08/the-fabulous-craftivist-collectivesupport-the-grow-campaign [Accessed: 17 December 2013] Corbett, S. 2013. ‘A Little Book of Craftivism’ London: Cicada. Craftivist-collective.com. 2011. Project: “Don’t Blow It” through the power of hand embroidered handkerchiefs!. [online] Available at: http://craftivist-collective.com/all/newproject-tell-politicians-dont-blow-it-through-thepower-of-hand-embroidered-handkerchiefs/ [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014].

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Denny, S, 2012.' Threads of Change'. Huck, [Online]. Avril/Mai 2012, 40-13. Available at: http://issuu.com/huckmagazine/docs/huck32 [Accessed 25 November 2013]. Dictionary.cambridge.org. 2013. activism noun - definition in the British English Dictionary & Thesaurus - Cambridge Dictionaries Online. [online] Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/briti sh/activism?q=activism# [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014]. Druchunas, D. 2012. The Snatchel Project. Interviewed by Tshepo Mokoena [ONLINE] http://www.dontpaniconline.com/magazine/ra dar/the-snatchel-project, 22nd April 2012. [Accessed on 3 January 2014] Greer, B. 2013 ‘Craftivism 101’ [ONLINE] Available at: http://craftivism.com/blog.html/2013/06/craft ivism-101/ [Accessed: 17 December 2013] Greer, B. 2013 ‘Craftivism Definition' [ONLINE] Available at: http://craftivism.com/definition.html [Accessed 22 November 2013]. Hampsheir, P. BBC News - 'Getting your hobby to pay its way as a business'' 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business22442296. [Accessed 22 November 2013]. Howard, L. 2012. 'Close-Knit or Conservative? 2012 Marks a New Feminist Phenomenon' Insight Magazine, [ONLINE]. February 2012, 18 - 19. Available at: http://issuu.com/unrinsight/docs/feb_2012_in sight [Accessed 25 November 2013]. Joannou, M. and Purvis, J. 1998. ‘The women's suffrage movement’ Manchester: Manchester University Press.

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

Klanten, R. Hubner, M. & Bieber, A. 2011 ‘Art & Agenda: Political Art and Activism’, Berlin: Die Gestalten Verlag Levine, F. & Tapper, J. 2011 ‘Craft Activism: People, Ideas, and Projects from the New Community of Handmade and How You Can Join In’ New York: Potter Craft Maloney, P. 2009. Lisa Anne Auerbach. [online] Available at: http://artforum.com/words/id=23853 [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014]. Roe,M. BBC News - 'Can you make a living from your hobby?' 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business22404653. [Accessed 22 November 2013]. Rickett, O. ‘Want to change the world? It won't happen via your mouse button’ theguardian.com 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2 013/nov/22/change-the-world-charityfacebook-e-petition. [Accessed 26 November 2013]. Rivers, J. 'Let's stop pretending internet activism is the real thing' 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.newstatesman.com/voices/2013/0 8/lets-stop-pretending-internet-activism-realthing. [Accessed 22 November 2013]. Shoreditch Sisters WI Campaigns Group 'Previous Campaign “Embroideries” to raise awareness of female genital mutilations' 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://shoreditchsisterscampaigns.tumblr.com/ embroideriescampaign. [Accessed 25 November 2013]. Soles, D. & Soles, D. 2005. ‘How to plan, draft, revise, and write essays’ Bishop Lydeard: Studymates. Tapper, J & Levine, F. 2011 ‘Craft Activism: People, Ideas, and Projects from the New Community of Handmade and How You Can Join In’ New York: Potter Craft

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UK Traffic Data. n.d. Traffic statistics on the A660, Hyde Park and Woodhouse, Leeds. [online] Available at: http://www.uktrafficdata.info/cp/leeds-a660hyde-park-and-woodhouse-17374 [Accessed: 14 Jan 2014]. VADS: the online resource for visual arts Women's Library Suffrage Banner Collection. 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.vads.ac.uk/collections/FSB.html. [Accessed 26 November 2013]. Williams, K.A. 2011, '“Old Time Mem'ry”: Contemporary Urban Craftivism and the Politics of Doing-It-Yourself in Postindustrial America', Utopian Studies, 22, 2, pp. 303-320, Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost, viewed 22 November 2013 Womenineuropeanhistory.org. 2013. Emmeline Pankhurst - Women in European History. [online] Available at: http://womenineuropeanhistory.org/index.php ?title=Emmeline_Pankhurst [Accessed: 26 Nov 2013]. Young, J. 'Social Activism in the Digital Age: A Review of the books CauseWired and Tribes' Academia.edu. 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.academia.edu/4869600/Social_Ac tivism_in_the_Digital_Age_A_Review_of_the_ books_CauseWired_and_Tribes. [Accessed 22 November 2013]. Images Figure 1: Byatt, A. 2013, WSPU's Apron [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/sites/default/files/1 0jun13antoniabyatt_suffragettes.pdf [Accessed 26 November 13] Figure 2: Suffrage Banner, Museum of London, 2013 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://col4.museumoflondon.org.uk/mediaLib /170/media-170374/large.jpg [Accessed 26 November 13] Figure 3: Bailey, F. 2013 Green Party Banner, original photograph

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Frances Bailey:  The  Importance  of  Craft  in  Activism  within  a  Digital  Age  

Figure 4: Prime, R. 2011, ‘the hanky Craftivist Sarah C gave to her MP’ [ONLINE] Available at: http://craftivist-collective.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/06/img_1741.jpg [Accessed 3 January 2014]. Figure 5: Auerback, L.A. 2006, ‘My Favorite Thing about the War On Terror is the Language of The War on Terror’ [ONLINE] Available at: http://lisaanneauerbach.com/projects/Sweaters /WOT.html [Accessed 27 December 2013]. Figure 6: Dontpaniconline.com. 2012. The Snatchel Project. [online] Available at: http://www.dontpaniconline.com/media/maga

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zine/body/2012-0423/images/Snatchel_Elizabeth.jpg [Accessed: 4 Jan 2014]. Figure 7: Bailey, F. 2013 ‘This Belongs to Us’, original photograph Figure 8: Bailey, F. 2013 ‘Craftivist Placard’, original photograph Figure 9: Bailey, F. 2013 ‘Hand-Stitched Petition Event Poster’, original scan Figure 10: Bailey, F. 2013 ‘Hand-Stitched Petition Facebook Event’, screenshot

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The Importance of Craft in Activism Within a Digital Age  
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