THE WATER NEXUS
Exploring Dhakaâ€™s Waterscapes Through Hydrological, Ecological And Social Intervention
SAKIB MORTUZA | 21899913 Masters of Landscape Architecture The University of Western Australia Thesis_ May 2018
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[ABSTRACT] Half of the worldâ€™s total population is packed in urbanized areas and the improvement is mounting, specifically in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. The issue of deteriorating watercourses in urban territories is broad and developing every day. This occurs for some reasons: lack of proper hygiene, lack of water supply, inadequate drainage system, or simply not caring for the environment aspects in planning level. In Dhaka, the current water crisis and flood issues are not only an emergency of heavy precipitation, absence of appropriate drainage system or environmental change, yet additionally a cultural and socio-economic emergency where innovations, natures and cultures are all in variances. Practically every internal city dormant urban lakes have been filled up, encroached upon or allowed to decline. My thesis is an endeavor to recognize impaired and threatened urban water channels of this city, how it can be linked together which acts as a much needed urban ecological framework and explore the opportunities along with its socio-spatial context to emit the lack of public places in this metropolitan city of 15 million dwellers. The targets of this theory is to review the situation of the current water channels, conceivable effects of the inhabitants on use of these waterbodies, to make the reason for supportable environmental and financial improvement on an area/group and to re-establish and conserve degraded urban water channels both for practical needs and for recreational and aesthetic purposes. A socioenvironmental study is held on three case studies around similar context to compare the environmental, ecological, social, functional and aesthetical contexts of current waterbodies and recommended an integrated approach with strategies for sustainable placemaking through water bodies of entire Dhaka Metropolitan. The finally outcome of this was a urban water nexus designed to incorporate ecologocial system, sensitive water management to prevent flooding and recreational and educational public spaces which will act as a model of public places for future development.
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INTRODUCTION & Literature Review - Preface - Research Proposal - Historical Background
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[PREFACE] INTEGRATION OF WATER CHANNELS WITH THE CITY FRAMEWORK Bangladesh is a country of land and water. About 700 rivers including tributaries flow through the country constituting a waterway of total length around 24,140 kilometers (15,000 mi). Most of the country’s land is formed through silt brought by the rivers. Rivers are integral parts of Bangladesh & Bengali people’s life. In other words, rivers formed this country as a delta and have been contributing to spring life to this land with agriculture, food, electricity, transportation, and tranquil beauty, creating opportunity for different occupations, and providing very comfortable moderate climate. Due to over population and urban sprawl, the current development pattern of the country is culminating in filling up wetlands, changing the course of lakes, narrowing down and in some cases killing rivers, swamps and water bodies for urban development leaving great impact on environment. As a consequence, the country is being affected by frequent flood, deforestation, surge, cyclones, and rise of sea level due to global warming. Other than that, despite of being surrounded by water, there is scarcity for fresh water as they are not conserving properly. The concern for introducing an adoptive sustainable ecological network through hydrological intervention that connects people with water, protects environment as well as facilitates new developments has been noticed by scientists and scholars from every sector of development. This thesis will be emphasizing on establishing on environmental and functional features of Dhaka’s hydrological network that would especially be applicable on local context that leaves least impact on nature and respects the country’s tradition, heritage and lifestyle which are inseparable from our people. Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, is a major mega city in South Asia and the most densely populated in the world (22 million, 450000 person/sq km). It is situated on the intersection of three major rivers and just on the bank of two rivers Buriganga and Shitolokkha. The city has grown fully organically for 350 years since 1975. As it is a capital of delta formatted Bangladesh a highly fertile yet major flood prone zone. Increasing urbanization resulting to poorly planned settlements is becoming a major driver of disaster risks. Rapid and uncontrolled urbanization is increasing the exposure of populations and infrastructure to potential hazards. There is a need to better plan growth in terms of infrastructure and construction by taking into account the natural system of the land formation. Where a country full of water bodies there is are only 12% of water body left in Dhaka and only 2% inner water bodies.
Every year this city faces floods and water clotting. Most of the swamps, lakes and water bodies are infilled and there is no probation of major storm water runoff. In addition, drainage in Dhaka city is strictly controlled by land-relief and hence by gravitational drainage. Special care should be given to the improvement and alteration of the existing water bodies so that natural hydrological condition can cope with the artificial structural arrangements. Management of natural water channels must be the first concern for any development in Dhaka city because of its gifted settings. Other major problem is there are very less public places in Dhaka just about 0.5% of the total area. There are not too many spaces left in this city to think about places of mass gathering. Public places are the heart of a city, and Dhaka foremost lacks it. The project tends Some of the lakes are now being retrieved by govt. and using a designed public place but it is very disconnected with each other and has no prominent effect on the city problem. Although there are about 13 major channels running through the city but most of them are non-functional or encroached by the local residents and resulted unplanned growth. The only places for the city dwellers are Dhanmondi lake and Hairjheel development. In the course of the last four hundred years of urban advancement, Dhaka has totally lost its picture of ‘Venice of the East or the City of Channels’ as commented by James Taylor (Dani, 1962) and directly remains as ‘City of concrete’. Dhaka’s current development design seriously bargains its flood resilience and in this manner the city’s livability. Studies have demonstrated that more retention spaces are required since “the city has lost many hectares of wetland in most recent ten years” (Islam, 2009). It is obvious that Dhaka’s residents disregarded the presence of the majority of the internal city waterbodies or if nothing else abstained from going and few individuals appear to think about water issues, regardless of the possibility that the absence of water bodies causes an ever increasing number of issues amid the rainy season. In such point of view reclamation and protection of little stale lakes are ecologically vital. They give living space, sanctuary and nourishment for some types of fish and wildlife and are likewise a source of process water to industries (Dinar et al. 1995). Spatially little they are for the most part ignored in national nature assets management exercises and have experienced human-inferred changes that have expanded danger of contamination.
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Image 01: Hatirjheel Development in the heart of the city Image source: http://dhakadailyphoto.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/hatirjheel-by-night.html
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[RESEARCH PROPOSAL] THEORETICAL PROPOSITION
The current situation of Dhaka is very unfavorable in terms of inhabitant standard. It is one of the fastest growing mega city with poor living condition. The City has been suffering from many ecological problems including flooding, water logging and other related problems. Urbanization, which is occurring very fast and with larger scale in Dhaka, is the basic reason behind these problems. High rate of sprawl causes widespread urban area expansion and as a result canals, natural channels, wetland and other water bodies are quickly disappearing from it’s landscape. Natural vegetation, water bodies, streams, water and air corridors, energy flows and any other remnant natural features and phenomena are of the first category for a city’s sustainable development movement. The demand of such features is eminent for the city’s future development. Additionally, lacks of open urban spaces are hampering socio-cultural life of the inhabitants. My proposition has been conducted on the contextual value of hydrological interventions; its importance and necessity for a sustainable urban development to create an ecological framework and thus to come up a solution of providing open public places for the city inhabitants. The research is divided through some of these markers below:
In my thesis I will be proposing a framework of hydrological park and public places throughout the city, how the water bodies could serve as a major public functions. The major standouts of my proposal are:
>> Providing an overall introduction with importance and objective of the research. >> Contextual analysis of Bangladesh and Dhaka through geographical, ecological and socio-economical perspectives to support my theoretical proposition. >> Historical background research and comparison with the present scenario of Dhaka. >> Literature review on water supply, demand, scarcity in Dhaka city and other similar case studies for analytic comparison. The three case studies one is a local case study in Dhaka, other from two different projects with similar complexity. >> Conclude the result on the basis of theoretical perspective in Dhaka City’s context.
>> >> >> >> >> >> >> >>
Creating a link between the major water channels to create an ecological network for the city that will act as a framework for the rest of the city. Connect city dwellers with the hydrological intervention making it a major public place. Creating and ecological solution for grey water recycling by creating greenbelts of suitable plants and eradicating pathogens through natural process. Resurrecting of old streams and major water bodies. Creating bio-swales and bio retention areas for stormwater runoff, reduce downstream flooding, promote groundwater recharge and even hold stormwater for reuse. Making people aware through education by creating a favourable condition for public use, social gatherings and convenient to come closer to natural water bodies. Enrich aesthetic value of the city make attract people and tourist. Protecting city from sudden hazard.
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[GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT] GEOGRAPHICAL COMPLEXITIES AND THE IMPACT OF THE GANGES-BRAHMAPUTRA-MEGHNA DELTA OF BANGLADESH Bengal Delta two Himalayan rivers, the ganges and the brahmaputra, which drain to the bay of bengal as a combined river, carry the largest sediment load. These two rivers together with another non-Himalayan river, the meghna, have built one of the largest delta in the world known as the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta or the Bengal Delta. On its northeastward migration, the Ganges built several deltas and then abandoned them before finally occupying its present position. The Brahmaputra had an eastward course as revealed by rennellâ€™s atlas, building the early Brahmaputra delta near Mymensingh. At present the river has a straight southward course. However, while these two rivers previously debouched individually to the Bay of Bengal, at present they combine before finally emptying into the bay. The Bengal delta covers a large area of the bengal basin, which occupies about 35% of the total area of Bangladesh. The delta areas of Bangladesh are densely populated, with a predominance of agricultural activities due to the high fertility of the soils. The livelihood of most people depends on the environmental conditions of the delta, in terms of land cultivation, fishing, navigation, common property resources (eg from the sundarbans mangrove forest), and other economic activities. Continual land accretion and erosion in this large and constantly evolving delta influences the population, settlement pattern and the socio-cultural fabric of Bangladesh. The influence of the Ganges began to dominate the deposition system. Neotectonic activity and Quaternary sea level fluctuation largely control the development of deltaic arcs in Bengal Basin. Delta building activity by the existing rivers continued throughout the Quaternary and pushed the shoreline towards east and southeast. Due to continuous upliftment of this region, each younger formation was deposited further seaward than the preceding one, leaving a portion of the latter uncovered by the younger one. The Early Pleistocene, with its high sea level, is marked by a zone of small deltas around the inner boundary of the basin. Each time the sea level dropped there was deep dissection of the unconsolidated delta sediments. In a glacial stage, the sea level was extended and the rivers were in the progradational or valley cutting stage.As the delta is tide dominated with strong fluvial influence, the sediments were deposited more in the sea floor rather than redistributed by ocean waves and currents. As a consequence, the depositional plain rose. In the next interglacial stage, with rising sea level, the rivers were in the degradational or valley
filling stage. At this time the river processes subducted by ocean processes, more deposition occurs at the river mouth. In both cases the delta building activity progressed directly or indirectly. It is obvious that the highly dynamic nature of the Meghna deltaic plain is the result of interaction between the two strong opposing agents of delta-building activities, fluvial and marine processes. While the fluvial processes are huge seasonal fluxes of water and sediment, the primary marine process is a semidiurnal tide with strong fortnightly variation. While the morphologic changes of sandwip Island and adjacent areas are primarily the result of strong tidal currents, the same changes of the bhola Island are primarily the result of river currents. Therefore, the erosion at Bhola is highly seasonal. hatiya Island and adjacent areas have the influences of both the tide and river flux, yet in some areas, such as the morphologic changes of Urirchar the development is dependent on the tidal meeting dynamics, which are dominated by the amplitude and phase differences between the two tides coming through the Hatiya and Sandwip channels. Three of the four deltaic arcs in West Bengal are equivalent to the three deltaic arcs in Bangladesh. The arcs in West Bengal are: Recent Deltaic Plain, Younger Deltaic Plain, Older Deltaic Plain and Laterite Upland and the equivalent arcs of the first three are the Sundarban (Recent Ganges-Brahmaputra delta), Chandina Deltaic Plain (Early Ganges-BrahmaputraMeghna Delta), the Barind-Madhupur Tract, respectively. (Banglapedia.com)
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Image 02: Delta of Bangladesh Image source: Google Maps
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[HISTORICAL BACKGROUND] GEOGRAPHICAL COMPLEXITIES AND THE IMPACT OF THE GANGES-BRAHMAPUTRA-MEGHNA DELTA OF BANGLADESH “The city stands upon the northern bank of the boorigonga, about eight miles above its confluence with the dullaserry. The river, which is here deep and navigable, by large boats, expands in the season of inundation to a considerable breadth, and gives to Dacca with its minarets and spacious buildings, the appearance, like that of Venice of the west, of a city rising from the surface of the water.” (Taylor, 1840)
Image 03: “Dhaka City across Buriganga River” - a painting by Frederick William Alexander de Fabeck in 1861 Image source: https://twitter.com/reesedward/status/693260051390210049
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Once known as the Venice of West, evidently depicts the intertwined relationship of water bodies with the origin of Dhaka, located at the midst of the largest delta in the World; born from the alluvial soils by the Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems (Mowla 2011). The city existed with an interconnected web of river channels through Buriganga, Balu, Turag, Tongi canal and Shitalakhya as well as were crisscrossed by numerous water channels through and around the city creating important hydrographic links with primary river ways that drained the city while serving as service and commuting artery (Mowla & Mozumder 2015). The city and its people always had a connection with the waterways. Flights of steps by the river created a communal space, locally known as ghat, which created a threshold for daily activities, interaction and recreation. The settlements grew by the riverbanks that created navigation routed through interconnected canal ways. (Mowla, 2000 & 2010)
thriving city of that era. The second Phase of development took place in Vikrampur which became the most important city of Bengal Delta in the beginning of 10th century for its international trade and strategic retreat location from Northern Invasion. The Pal Dynasty flourished by the close source of water or river (Iqbal, 2013). During Sultanate period, Sonargaon flourished as the capital influenced by the same geological location and hydroecological feature of Bengal Delta. Possibly the reason behind shifting of the cityâ€™s placements were caused by the decline and change in the vagaries of river courses (Iqbal, 2013).
Lastly, the final revival of Modern Dhaka originated as Jahangir Nagar during the Mughal period when possibly the erosion related problems ceased to a great extent and the river course remained settled for a long period. Dhaka remained the administrative Historical Progression of Dhaka center of Mughal reign for a hundred years from 1610 AD and became one of the largest city in the world during the period of Although the most known history of Dhaka as an urban center Shaista khan (1663-79). Mughals didnot build a traditional walled goes back 400 years, but the city has gone through several city around Dhaka, since the surrounding river ways provided cycles of birth, decline and rebirth as an important commercial geostrategic protection from invasion (Iqbal, 2013). hub for over 2500 years. Four major ancient cities were formed, declined and reborn within 40-45 mile radius of current Dhaka During 1870s, the commercial hub Narayanganj connected city; all of them were born encircling the same lifeline by the Dhaka with the Bay of Bengal through Shitalakhya River with confluence of Ganges (Current Buriganga) and Brahmaputra. its deep harbor that allowed large ship movements. Till 1905, The regions proximity to inland rivers and maritime gaze of Indian the city developed by the bank of Buriganga, highlighting the Ocean catered for trade internationally and thus has always been importance of the river as the major trade and commuting an important trading center throughout history (Iqbal, 2013). artery as well as means of water supply and climate enhancer (Iqbal, 2013). The first evident settlement here was found in Waribateswar, 45 mile away from current city centre, developed as a prominent After1880, with the development of railways on the outskirts of city of Gangaridae or ancient Janapada of Banga, during 600- the existing city, the Buriganga started to lose its appeal as the 400 BC. The proximity to Indian Ocean facilitated trade within major trade route. The city started expanding north wide facing Meditteranean and Southeast Asian Countries making it a its back to the waterways (Iqbal, 2013).
Image 04: Transition of Dhakaâ€™s waterbodies over the year (Source: google)
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[HISTORICAL BACKGROUND] Master Plan The first study and vision of future plan for Dhaka was proposed by Patrick Geddes in 1917 that greatly emphasized on preserving Dhaka’s existing natural interconnected network of canals. His vision linked Dhaka’s importance as the industrial and commercial hub with its inter connected web of water channels. However, this vision was never implemented for Dhaka. During British and Pakistan Period, following European planning principles, the development pattern started emphasizing automobile based infrastructure. Discouragement from water mobility resulted into drastic reduction in urban water bodies due to the development pattern during this period. Even today the contemporary urban planning of Dhaka follows the colonial direction and mostly ignores traditional water way centered development pattern (Mowla, 2011). Modernist Developments endeavored to rebuild the representation of nature rather than integrating with nature (Iqbal, 2013). The first Master plan for Dhaka was prepared in 1958. It was prepared for an anticipated population of only 2 million (Mowla, 2011). In 1971, Bangladesh separated from Pakistan and reinstated the capital status of Dhaka, in accordance with its historical political significance influenced by geographical location (Iqbal, 2013). Since independence, Dhaka city’s population increased tremendously, from 0.1 million in 1905 to 13 million in 2013. During the last 100 years of rapid urbanization of Dhaka it failed to integrate water bodies with the development plan (Mowla 2010). A Revised Dhaka Metropolitan Area Development Plan (DMDP ’95), introduced a comprehensive vision for wetland preservation which eventually was not adopted. Revised DAP, 2010, moved significantly away from the water retention and open green area plans and focused on building infrastructure and buildings. As a result, many roads and structures were built by encroaching water bodies and canal flow were interrupted by making box culverts.
Image 05: Structure Plan Policy Areas_built and Natural areas of Dhaka, DMDP 1998-2015 Image Source: Mowla, 2013
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Water Recreation History of Dhaka The first study and vision of future plan for Dhaka was proposed The popularity of water based recreation is very clear and significant in our history. During 1800s and until 1940s the “Buckland Bundh” was the famous promenade place for the city dwellers and also acted as leisure center. Travel loving people came to the “Bundh” area after work to get fresh and relieved from the monotony. The aristocratic people lived adjacent to the Bundh area and they were fascinated about the morning and evening promenade on the Bundh. On Saturdays and Thursdays the English soldiers’ band troop played their instruments in front of the city dwellers on the Bundh and entertained them. All civic came from outside the city area got a hearty reception from the dwellers on the Bundh and then entered into the city.During 1864, initiatives were taken by Mr. Buckland to construct a one mile metal road Bundh from Forashgonj to Babubazar which was known as the ‘Bucklands Bundh’. Wrought iron benches were placed at intervals on the Bundh, parks and gardens werecreated to enhance its beauty. River ghat points ‘Shiber Ghat’, ‘Shyam Bazar Ghat’, ‘Lal Kuthir Ghat’, ‘Nawab Barir Ghat’ and’ Gohona Ghat’ were different in their characteristics like their names . Rabindranath Tagore spent his time adjacent to the Bundh area in barge (bazra) to relish the beauty of the River Buriganga. Municipality took care of the Bundh. Bazaars sit on the Bundh early in the morning and ends before 8 am. After that Municipality cleaned the Bundh area and they did the job twice a day. In the evening aristocratic people visited this place. Clean roads, Wrought iron benches, parks and gardens and the opportunity created to relish gently blowing pleasant breeze faced a tragic death with the help of government initiatives. In 1963 the Government claimed the possession of the Bundh and gave the ownership to the Inland Water Transport Authority (IWTA) who now has possession of the whole strip. The IWTA got involved in commercial trade trap and had destroyed the Bundh by degrees (Gosh, K 2009)).  RAJUK from time to time wanted to develop the area through landscape development schemes. The UAP (1995-2000) pointed that immediate action for the implementation of Buckland embankment development as a recreation center is required.
Image 06: Bucklands Bund and Dhaka’s historical of urban progression Image Source: Mowla, 2013
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[CONTEXT ANALYSIS ] DHAKA’S ANATOMY IN RELATION TO IT’S WETLANDS Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA) is the investigation region of this research and it is situated between longitude 90°20’E and 90°30’E and latitude 23°40’N and 23°55’N. The aggregate region of Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA) range is 306 km2 [N. Islam,1996]. Total inhabitants are around 9.3 million [Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics]. Waterways all around bound the fringe of Dhaka. The strategic location of Dhaka connects it with the rest of the nation with a system of waterways and rivers. Toward the start of urbanization, this district took the benefits of this stream framework at full degree [O. Check , 2001]. The waterway Buriganga lies in the south, the Balu River in the east and the Turag River in the north and west. James Rannell, who reviewed the waterways of east Bengal in 1765, stated “the kingdom of Bengal, especially the eastern part, is normally the most helpful for exchange inside itself of any nation on the planet; for the streams separated into such various branches, to the point that the general population have the accommodation of water carriage to and from any essential place” (letter from J. Rannell to the Reverend Gilbert Barrington, Vicar of Chudleigh, Devon, refered to in Ahmed, 1986).
The various waterways and trenches crisscrossing Dhaka helped in simple transportation and communication method as well as functioned as natural waste channel for this deltaic city. This unplanned and unauthored development is deteroiting Dhaka day by day. Until 2005, no study is done so far covering the various aspects that are responsible for the rapid decline of the state of the Riverfronts and canals in a comprehensive manner. This research investigates the components that are responsible for destroying the riverbanks and the canals consequently and tries to find out how this destruction can be stopped through proper planning and redevelop the critical areas. In the event that we can not manage the utilization of riverbanks, the waterway won’t survive furthermore, over the long haul, Dhaka won’t be a bearable city at all. Saving and restoring waterways is an essential framework for the city development authorities to save this city.
Dhaka being arranged in the focal point of the then east Bengal had a critical command on all these water courses [Rahman and Hossain, 2008].
interlinked with the extreme development of Dhaka City which has created as a politico-authoritative center, having picked up and afterward lost its position through the political advancement of the nation. Because of the centralization of both internal and foreign investment, Dhaka has encountered gigantic movement from the rural populace of Bangladesh in recent years. In any case, a critical drawback to this has been the dramatic ascent in population concentration. What’s more, the territory of Dhaka’s foundation is deficient and unfit to stay aware of developing urban weights. Huge parts of the city’s populace are living in slums and squatter settlements and are encountering to a great degree low living standards, low efficiency and joblessness.
The Buriganga river is considered as life-line of Dhaka city. Over the circumstances, Buriganga has lost its magnificence, potential, life, and course and turned out to be dead because of negligence. The Riverbank land and its tributary canals and waterbodies which runs through the city is utilized by the influential section of the society for their own particular advantage. The authority is exploring different avenues regarding activities to spare the waterway and its bank none of which came about to be fruitful and the streams are slowly is rotting.
Image 07: Trend of loss of wetlands in Dhaka Metro Dhaka begins with a general profile of the city featuring its topography Image Source: Analysis of Lansat TM/ETM Image 1989, 1999 and IRS LISS and population characteristics. The urbanization of Bangladesh is
Image 08: Population Growth Progression of Bangladesh Image Source: https://www.slideshare.net/CPWF/ bangladesh-delta-plan
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MAJOR WATER BODIES IN DHAKA USED AS PUBLIC GATHERINGS
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[CONTEXT ANALYSIS ] DHAKA’S CANAL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM
In spite of the fact that the total number of channels is contentious, Institute of Water Modeling (IWM) has distinguished that presently, there are 50 channels exists in Dhaka. The channels inside the mega city Dhaka and the waterways encompassing the city were acting as natural drainage system, water reservoir, and the river route. However, this regular stream is seriously hampered by human intercessions, like landfilling, squander dumping and so forth., also, the current condition of these canals ended up grimly. There has been some research done on 13 most important canals among 50 which are responsible for flowing out the city’s clotted water to adjacent waterways arranged at the fringe zone of the city. Here are some of the studies shown below on these canals which were done by University of Dhaka and University of Calgary. The list of these major channels are :
Image 09: Population Growth Progression of Bangladesh Image Source: A. Istiaq, M.S. Mahmud, M.H. Rafi (2014);Encroachment of Canals of Dhaka City, Bangladesh: An Investigative Approach
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Unauthorized Land Filling Filling in a wetland happens when different incidental material is utilized to fill in the area of a wetland and to raise the last height of the site. History of urban development in Dhaka exhibits that the city is being extending toward the eastern part, low-lying regions, in the current decades. These urban developments are for the most part happening on to the wetlands in the eastern part, which were suggested to act as a retention basin for urban depleted water. The fringe zone of Dhaka city is vivaciously filled off by land organizations. These organizations frequently are infringing channels such that it forbids the regular outflow of water during storm and rains and hence make waterlogging. In primary stage these organizations mock laws and claims these canal areas as their own particular by putting bamboo sticks in the waterway and they gradually fills up the low-lying territories by conveying sand/earth from other areas utilizing country vessels and motor boats.
Illegal Construction Over Water Channels Another significant proccess of infringement is building houses over the channel. These structures are based on columns and the passage way is made by waterway filling. In some cases to infringe, bamboo posts are situated and settled on the water body bed along the bank and stretching out into the main body of the wetland. At that point huts and shops are based on these stilts. The proprietors of these structures are then beginning recovering area by earth fills and dumping rubbish. Beside this style, some powerful individuals utilize religious foundation for infringing. In few trenches of Dhaka city, we have discovered that the preparatory phase of infringement is through setting up a mosque in the canal. No administration organization can move that mosque on account of its religious hugeness. By giving the reason of building streets to that mosque the neighborhood persuasive individuals begin to infringe the waterways.
Solid Waste Dumping Solid waste dumping in the canal is a standout amongst the most widely recognized procedures of infringement. Frequently waterways becomes dumping ground for residential and industrial wastes and breeding grounds for mosquitoes. (A. Istiaq, M.S. Mahmud, M.H. Rafi;2014). Dhaka city does not have an incorporated solid waste administration framework and thus both solid and fluid waste is dumped in the waterways. Regularly the waste is noticeable in the streets, channels side and in the drains. There is no sterile landfill or any facilities like incineration. Around 400 tons out of normal 3,500 tons of solid waste, produced in the city consistently, stay on the streets, open spaces and in trenches. These wastes are at times so huge in sum that the channel water stream neglects to divert them and causes water clog. Consequently dumping of solid waste turns into a procedure of infringement.
Taking Advantage of Lack of Awareness of Local People and Govt. Agencies The absence of awareness to both legislative offices and individuals abet this infringement procedure. Land organizations keep filling up land on account of RAJUKâ€™s(Capital Development Authority of Bangladesh) ignorance and debasement. Some cases, RAJUK itself is engaged with unplanned wetland filling. Dhaka Water Supply and Sewarage Authority is additionally in charge of keeping up continuous water flow in any case, but the lack of skilled labor, infrastructure, they fail to protect these canals from infringement. In addition, general people, who live adjacent to waterway, are frequently not especially mindful of the result of tossing waste into the channels or obstructing the common water stream by working up houses over it. As a result, it has been discovered that neighborhood individuals are in charge of infringement or water blockage.
Image 10: Encroached Canals of Dhaka Image Source: A. Istiaq, M.S. Mahmud, M.H. Rafi (2014);Encroachment of Canals of Dhaka City, Bangladesh: An Investigative Approach
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[CONTEXT ANALYSIS ] ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS Flood Crisis Dhaka city encounters a deluge each time it rains intensely. Every time significant floods occur in the nation and each time it rains, the city of Dhaka faces intense drainage problem issues. Parts of the city submerged under water. In the densely populated city, troubles of people know no limits. In 1954, 1956, 1988, 1998 decimating floods happened to submerge 70 percent or a greater amount of the nation. Alongside the nation the vast majority of the Dhaka city aside from pockets of high spots went under different depths of water. There was flood surges in old city, eastern and western parts. However in prior years, as the eastern and western parts of the city were generally rural lowlands with a very few inhabitants, flood disasters stayed confined on the city fringes only. There was no tremendous cry and enduring of individuals as it is today in the eastern part. Notwithstanding immense speculation throughout the years, especially after 1988 flood crisis when entire city of Dhaka went submerged, the 1998 flood seemed most devastating. About Dhaka city, wastewater management and drainage situation aggravated due to silted-up, clotted sewarage channels. WASA’s restricted storm water waste system is too deficient for a city of 850 sq.km (Greater Dhaka). Wetlands of Dhaka metro area perform a substantial role to decrease impact of flood (JICA 1992; Dewan 2006). Within the ridge area, these flood plain wetlands perform as flood retention areas. Outside the embankment they are active flood plains of adjacent rivers. Bangladesh atomic energy commission and SWMC (Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and SWMC, 2002) carried out a study on Dhaka’s flood plain area to find the impact of land filling commotion on the surrounding hydrology. Research findings states that; the land development will intesify the water level of the river, which may cause drainage problem in the areas and flow velocity of the river will also increase. On the other hand, forceful land filling will prevent the water to flow out naturally. Consequently, water will be logged in the city and thus create flooding.
DHAKA METRO FLOOD FLOW ZONE, RETENTION POND & HOUSING LOCATION 1995-2015
INUNDATION MAP OF GREATER DHAKA
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SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS River Flood (external flooding) Flood plains remain inundated in certain part of the year by river flood. >> Major floods in 1954, 1955, 1970, 1974, 1980, 1987, 1988, 1998 and 2004. >> In 1988 inundated about 85% of the city (depth .3 to 4.5 m). >>1998 flood affected 56% of the city. >> 2004 flood inundated 50% of the city. >> In 1998 flood, 64 affected wards of Dhaka City had estimated total damage of of Tk 2.0 billion or $US 41.0 million (Mohit and Akther, 2002) .
Rain Flood (Internal Flooding) >> Water logging is a severe problem in monsoon. >> Drainage system of Dhaka serves less than 25% of the urban area. The remaining areas drain through overland flow into adjacent water courses or depression areas and eventually causes flooding. >> Dhaka city dwellers experienced the flooding due to heavy rainfall (341 ml, highest in last 50 years) in September, 2004. The two-day long monsoon rainfall almost collapsed the entire city function 1992; Dewan 2006). Within the ridge area, these flood plain wetlands perform as flood retention areas. Outside the embankment they are active flood plains of adjacent rivers.
Image 11: Images showing the devastated situation of flood crisis in Dhaka over the years. All Image source : google
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[CONTEXT ANALYSIS ] SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS Usable Water Crisis
Collapse of Natural Drainage System
Dhaka is the primate city of the nation as its share of national urban populace was 25% of every 1981, 31% out of 1991 and 34% of every 2001 separately (BBS, 2001). Dhaka’s predominance as far as population, as well as far as economy, exchange, trade, and organization is self-evident. In 1991 among the thirty-four mega urban areas of the world having a populace of more than five million, Dhaka positioned twenty-fifth (BBS, 1997) while in 2000 it positioned eleventh and it is anticipated to be the world’s fourth biggest city by the year 2015 with an expected populace of 21.1 million (Lizin, 2002). The expansion in populace implies the expansion in water request. An investigation has been made (Unnayan Shamannay, 2001-2003) in view of DWASA answer to discover the water request, supply and shortage in Dhaka city with the expanding number of population. According to a study conducted by SWMC (2000), about 95% of water supplied for Dhaka is extracted from underground and average annual decline of ground water within the city area throughout 1995 to 1999 varied from 1.02 m to 2.46 m (WASA 1991). Canals and low-lying land play significant role in ground water recharge function. The Table below demonstrates the popultion, water demand, supply and deficiency of water in various years at Dhaka city.
Cannels have an overwhelming part in seepage work. Tempest spillover from the encompassing ranges is put away in the lowland territories (Chowdhury 2001b). The aggregated run-off is bit by bit depleted to the fringe streams through waste trenches (Chowdhury 2001a). The drainage system of Dhaka city comprises of fortythree noteworthy channels. These canals used to deplete out the wastewater (residential and sewerage) and stormwater runoff to the encompassing streams. Substantial infringement forms in the edge channels are causing the inescapable crumple of the natural drainage system.
Image 12 : People are flocking to collect water wherever available. Source : POTENTIALS FOR WATER CONSERVATION IN DHAKA CITY, 2010
Aggravation of local ecology and Biodiversity Canals and other wetland significantly affect neighborhood environment and biodiversity (Mitsch 1994). In the greater part of the wetland and in additional channels, particularly the fertile floodplains have high agricultural value. Paddy and different harvests are developed here in the dry season. Amid the wet season, these wetlands converge with the nearby streams and move toward becoming angling grounds. Agribusiness and fishing in these wetlands and canals are particularly connected with the economy of local individuals. This makes a huge impact of overall ecological disbalance of the city. Along with the ecological factors there are other social attributes such as health decline, pollution increase and economic suferings occurs.
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[OPPORTUNITY ] POTENTIAL WATERSCAPES FOR PLACEMAKING A large portion of the fringe regions of Dhaka city are denied of the recreational facilities; very few recreational open opportunities are arranged and serve the inward city. To encourage recreational oppurtunities for individuals living in the fringe and in addition in the internal, a lively and vibrant alternative close by is the water bodies around Dhaka. At the point when there are discussions about Dhaka’s outside amusement, the pictures initially strikes one’s mind are the open spaces, parks, play areas, and so on. However, there is no insignificant specify about the immense possibilities of the waterways in and around Dhaka. People appreciate waterbased recreation intentionally or subconciously. Somebody doesn’t need to go to far-flung, exotic destination to see astonishing sights. The magnificence, secret, and history of Dhaka are for the most part holding up appropriate on the doorstep, prepared to be found and re-discovered. Inland waterways and outer fringe water channels are a living framework which has profited nations everywhere throughout the world and which can possibly increase recreational exercises (Ken and Guy, 1991). Inland water channels additionally upgrade correspondence, environmental improvement, enhancing cultural heritage, upgrading social legacy, advancing solid ways of life and enhanced prosperity and sports, improved transportion system, energize dynamic groups, can also act as a visual amenity and contribute to place making (The Inland Waterways Association’s proposals, 2010). Place making is the way toward holding the quintessence of a place while enhancing its physical and psychological perspectives with the goal that individuals are pulled in to that
place (Gunn, C. 1994). These places draw in guests on ends of the week as well as on weekdays and can go about as a catalyst for pulling in individuals in fascinating ways with the goal that individuals’ inclination are awakened to visit them. At the point when the communication amongst places and vistors are truly fulfilling, people feel to visit those spots over and over. Waterways additionally go about as a tourism resource and give a connection amongst existing and new attractions and bolster the occasion business through waterbased exercises (Waterways Ireland Final Report, 2006). People attracted to the waterways add to the economy of the waterway corridors through use on neighborhood services and ventures. The utilization of water in urban design to upgrade aesthetics is likewise notable. According to Kolbe, a city along a water-course, with the nearness of water, makes an intense esthetic image for the city (Kolbe, L. 2009). World over attempts have begun to restore eco-friendly and sustainable waterfronts to carter transportation, tourism, place making, and so forth (ITPI Journal, March, 2002). Dhaka has the fortune of riverbanks that are a natural treasure of potential public spaces. Through place making the city to can meet the recreational needs of its dwellers, as there seems to be very limited opportunities in Dhaka for residents to spend their leisure time or short holidays within the city. The natural streams of Dhaka can give excellent oppurtunities to upgrade all these.
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[OPPORTUNITY ] VISION OF A HOLISTIC GRAND CANAL Percieving the oppurtunity of waterbased urbanism, Bangladesh government along with BUET ( Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology) came up with a vision to restore the old water channels and connect them to create a grand canal which will run through the city. As we can see in MAP AA the historical map of Dhaka with low lieing areas and water channels running through the city. Bangladesh government has planned to revive the water bodies and disrupt the embankment at current. The blue highlighted spots in MAP BB is a proposal from BUET to revive the water channels. The red highlighted areas in MAP 02 can also be retrieved as a past resemble to water trails from past. But this is very hard in terms of current development has already occured in these areas. MAP CC is a proposal for this thesis to create a grad canal connecting all the past and present water channels ith poential public places and transportation hub. Dhaka city is suffering from traffic congestion and there are no formal water transport service. Bangladesh Government is thinking of a water based transport service which gives a more logical reasoning for reveving the old water trails. Though the government is only thinking about the transportaion service and a vessel for excess rainwater runoff there are also potential oppurtunity to create an ecological belt around the grand canal. The purposes of this canal are described in points below: >> Restoring old water trails and connecting them to create an ecologial framework for the city. >> Excess water runoff during monsoon season. >> Creating a new transportation system consisting water buses, boats and water taxis. >> Creating public spaces and ecological pockets to decrease pollution and enhance livability. >> Promoting local business and brand the city with sustainable waterfronts.
MAP AA : Dhaka Landuse Map 1975 Source: archsociety.com
MAP BB : Dhaka Landuse Map 2015 Source: www.rajukdhaka.gov.bd
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MAP CC : VISION OF A GRAND CANAL AND POTENTIAL PUBLIC SPACES
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[METHODOLOGY] SUSTAINABLE PLACEMAKING THROUGH WATER SENSITIVE DESIGN Water has a noteworthy influence in regular day to day existence. Beside exceptional encounters, for example, floods and droughts, a great many people don’t know about the capacity of water. Regular strategies for water management neglect to help the city to promote the significance of water resources. Under normal conditions, water works in a cycle of precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and evaporation. However, in urban ranges, this cycle is disrupted and can’t run its course. Urban water is polluted, can’t penetrate the ground because of paved surfaces and is discharged to the public draining systems leaving no time for evaporation. At long last, this adversely impacts groundwater revive, water supplies, the subjective and quantitative condition of accepting waterways, and urban atmosphere. Every one of the issues recorded clarify that there is a requirement for more compelling arrangements in overseeing urban water. The main source of urban waterways are cities inner canals and thoroghfare or perpheral rivers. Wetlands can be designed to meet many different aspects. Intermingling these aspects together can create a sustainable wetland. Some of these objectives can be simultaneously fulfilled. The major aspects of designing a sustainable water development can be seen in perspective of
ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS SOCIO-ECONOMICAL ASPECTS INFRASTRUCTURAL ASPECTS
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ECOLOGICAL CONSERVATION & SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE Wetlands can be intended to meet a wide range of targets. Some of these goals can be all the while satisfied. Targets of most wetland projects include: >> Water quality upgrade through absorption and transformation of sediments, nutrients and other pollutants, >> Water water storage and flood attenuation, >> Recharging of groundwater, >> Primary generation and food web support outline, - photosynthetic creation, - wild life creation, - food web and natural surroundings - export to adjacent ecosystems, >> Emit overabundance of aquatic vegetation such as algae, water hyacinth should be controlled. >>To combat deadly loss of dissolved oxygen, >> To promote moderate plant (algae, moss or water grass, water lily, smart weed, arrowhead etc.) growth which is essential to water bodies for oxygen, food and cover for fish and other aquatic organisms.
Image 13: Positve values of Sustainable water design Source: Artful Rainwater Design in the Urban Landscape (2006)
Image 14 : Water cycle in natural systems (left); in an urban area without sustainable stormwater management (middle); and in an urban area with sustainable stormwater management (right) Source: Sustainable Water Management in the City of the Future (2011)
Image 15: Ecological impact of stormwater management Source: Artful Rainwater Design in the Urban Landscape (2006)
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[METHODOLOGY] SUSTAINABLE PLACEMAKING THROUGH WATER SENSITIVE DESIGN Architects, landscape architects planners and different management groups are currently perceiving that artful rainwater management design can add value far beyond the necessary hydrological purpose and give a profound meaning of true placemaking, which reflects the purposes and worthiness of potential users. In spite of the fact that stormwater management must meet hydrological targets, (for example, stream rate, volume, recurrence, duration, and quality), they can likewise have other distinctive positive results, particularly added community value, for example, individuals satisfying scenes and designs that uncover something about water and regular site forms. To create the way of urban living in this era the designers and policymakers plan to experience urban life, authorities at all levels recognize the formation of public spaces and places as the core incremental process of city-making. What is more, given its power to achieve multiple outcomes quickly, effectively, and democratically, Placemaking and place-led governance (putting “place” at the center of policy and planning frameworks) is the fundamental component in this new urban agenda. As both a general thought and a hands-on approach for enhancing an area, city, or locale, placemaking motivates individuals to all things to reconsider and reinvent open spaces as the core of each community. Reinforcing the association amongst individuals and the spots they share, placemaking alludes to a synergistic procedure by which we can shape our public realms with a specific end goal to expand shared value. Something beyond advancing better urban outline, placemaking encourages innovative patterns of utilization, giving careful consideration to the physical, social, and cultural personalities that characterize a place and bolster its continuous advancement. With proper sustainable design approach, a feasible placemaking process gains by a neighbourhood group’s assets, motivation, and potential, and bolster the price of open spaces that add to individuals’ wellbeing, joy, prosperity and physiological value. Every city comprises of an entire arrangement of prospects that are pretty much sustainable. Ecological systems, as characteristic possibilities, play a lead part in accomplishing supportable factors inside the urban condition. Ecological systems, as characteristic possibilities, play a lead part in accomplishing supportable factors inside the urban condition. Thus any planning and design strategy, especially in large scale development such as public realms, should consider ecological networks. According to WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN (WSUD) the key guiding principles to asses the ecological sustainability these points are to be reviewed:
>> Decreasing consumable water demand through water effective machines and looking for substitute sources of water, for example, rainwater and treated wastewater reuse, coordinating of water quality and end uses. >>Limiting wastewater generation and treatment of water effective design to standard appropriate for emanating re-utilize openings or potentially discharge to accepting waters. >> Treating urban storm water to meet water quality goals for reuse and additionally release to surface waters. >>Utilizing stormwater in the urban scene to boost the visual and recreational amenity of advancements. (Wong, 2006) In order to assess the value of placemaking Elisa Penny packer and Stuart P Echols derived a methodology of classification that can assess these designs according to the diversity of settings, project type, and runoff method and termed them as amenity goals. In the context of placemaking, “amenity is understood as a feature focused on the experience of stormwater in a way that increases the landscape’s attractiveness or value.” Rest of this paper identifies and illuminates the precise amenity goals, objectives, and design techniques. The amenity goals in which the projects should be assessed are: Convenience: location, simplicity, or comfort Education: positive settings for knowledge Recreation: favorable circumstances for play and / or relaxation Safety: liberty from exposure to hazard or risk Social interaction: mixing together of people or bunches Branding of the place: semiotic articulation of estimations of the designer and/or proprietor Aesthetic richness: magnificence or joy as an after effect of design composition
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Education The key aspects of educational goals that can be achieved through design are: >> Make the stormwater treatment framework noticeable and decipherable. >> Create a story of hydrologic cycle. >> Make waterfront-related ancient rarities essential to design. >> Create images of past watershed conditions. >> Make the design framework perky, fascinating or baffling. >> Provide straightforward signage or displays with brief content and clear representation. >> Design the hydrological parks to welcome instructive recreations or exercises >> Create an assortment of spaces for gatherings to investigate, assemble or sit close to the waterr treatment framework. >> Create design frameworks that are touchable. Recreation Recreation implies giving conditions that are good to associating with the urban waterways framework in ways that are unwinding, diverting, and additionally invigorating. Rather than the educational classification, the attention here is on lively collaboration with delight as the expectation. The refinement amongst “education” and “recreation” is as a matter of fact nuanced, with impressive cover; however, it is exhibited as unmistakable classifications to help designers who wish to emphasize one over the other. Some of the key aspects of recreational goals which can be achieved through design are: >> Make outlooks with the views of the water. >> Make goal directs related toward water systems. >> Give seating utilizing walls, benches and different components with the perspectives of the waterflow. >> Provide paths in key areas that guarantee experiences with the ecological framework. >> Interface on location trails to off-site trail frameworks and destinations that guarantee experiences with the water. >> Give clear purposes of the section into hydrological system that are outwardly welcoming, strange and effortlessly open. >> Make territories that welcome climbing and physical exploration that adjust perceptions of wellbeing with experience.
URBAN WALK & LEARN
Image 16, Source: Author
DESIGNING SEATING FISHTANKS OR OTHER RECREATIONAL AMENITIES TO ATTRACT PEOPLE Image 17, Source: Author
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[METHODOLOGY] SUSTAINABLE PLACEMAKING THROUGH WATER SENSITIVE DESIGN Safety Safety goals pursue safe collaboration with water by mitigating the hazards connected with storm water. In our hostile society, this objective is integral to making water sensitive design conceivable. Both standing and running water frequently form a focal component of WSUD The featured safety goals which can be transformed into design are >> Give dividers, screens or railings that permit views but avert access to water. >> Give upland, riparian or wetland plant massing that permits views yet anticipates access to water edges. >>Utilize ‘midges, promenades or stages to allow spectators to see edges securely from above . >> Scatter rainwater into shallow storerooms utilizing stream splitters or tiered basins. >> Make “water brakes” to moderate waterfronts by suddenly altering stream course or by making little waterfalls that disseminate vitality. Public Relation/ Branding of the place As a class, public relations implies that either a component or the general design character puts forth a semiotic expression about the estimations of the individuals who made as well as claim the site. Any such design message is naturally an advertising signal, whether obvious or verifiable. The techniques to achieve PR goals are given below, >> Find water treatment frameworks near entries, patios or windows for higher visibility. >> Make oppurtunities for programming educational exercises. >> Use ordinarily accessible materials. >> Make little scale replicable interventions. >> Use common settings, for example, walkways and parking areas. >> Use new structures and materials. >> Use conventional water treatment strategies in new ways. >> Make the water trail bafflingly vanish and return. >> Make the water or water treatment framework touchable. >> Use refined/costly development techniques and materials.
PROVIDING SAFE WALKWAYS AND SAFE VIEWPOINTS IS VERY NECCESSARY Image 18, Source: Author
DESIGNING BOLD INFRASTRUCTURE INCREASE THE PR VALUE OF THE PLACE Image 19, Source: Author
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Aesthetics Aesthetic richness implies that the design is formed to make an experience of magnificence and joy concentrated on water ecology. The research infers the techniques that encourage consideration regarding water entirely through compositional means are very worthy. In the broadest terms, the composition may address visual, auditory and tactile encounter. Some of the design techniques to achieve this goals are >> Make water accumulation basins as a components/central points. >> Make optical awareness or themes with bowls that held plants and water: depressed, raised, orthogonal, bended, natural, geometric, little, huge. >> Balance common components with manmade components, for example, cut grass, steel or concrete. >> Contrast river rock and riparian grasses for compositional differentiation. >> Make unified plans by repeating arrangement of bioswales, bowls, weirs, raingardens, and so on. >> Make changes in sound pitch by permitting water to fall on various structures, for example, level square, metal tubes, drums and lakes. >> Allow users to touch water in various structures, for example, streaming, falling, sprinkling, standing, sheeting, or damp surfaces where water can soak in or dissipate. CREATING CONNECTION WITH WATER THROUGH DECKS ENHANCE THE AESTHETHICS OF WATER THROUGH REFLECTION Image 20, Source: Author
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[CASE STUDY 01 ] DHANMONDI LAKE, DHAKA, BANGLADESH_ study of a project respecting local context
Dhanmondi is an extreme example of such an urban sprawl. It is, located in the central part of the city is one of the high class residential areas of Dhaka city. It is the first planned area, developed in the early fifties to provide residential accommodation to high and higher middle income groups of population in Dhaka city. The settlement of 472 acres structure centers upon a natural depression - eventually named Dhanmondi Lake. The water body was later excavated to create a somewhat gridiron system of 1000 number of quite large residential plots. Previously, the 5-metre deep, 37-hectare Lake was a navigational channel connected to the surrounding river system- which later used to function as a storm water drain through a linkage with Begunbari Khal. Since 1990s’, an uncontrolled growth of shopping complexes, educational institutions, clinics and hospitals, banks and other commercial activities ruthlessly changed the residential character of the area into a mixed land use pattern. Moreover, the generous garden plots with single houses were subdivided. In 2006 the plot numbers increased to 1585 and multistory high density apartment buildings dominate the trend. Consequently, the area’s population and transport congestion multiplied exponentially and densities reached an unmanageable situation. The infrastructure and other facilities were stretched beyond limits, which in turn resulted in environmental degradation. The lake became a dump yard of pollution - receiving unauthorized sewerage outlets, drainage discharges, surface run-off and even solid waste from various sources. The public sphere along the lake side was therefore detached through a 2 meter high boundary wall and remain the back of the neighborhood. As a consequence, the lakeside plot owners attempt to extend their original plot boundary towards the lake side. This common practice of encroachment threatened to the shrinkage of the lake by expansion of the built up area. ESSENCE OF THE PLACE The Bangabandhu Memorial Museum acts as one of the major landmark of the city which is situated in Dhanmondi 32. The place also has an political and historical impact on our country. A major urban gathering occurs in this residential zone due to various occasions. It is the first waterfront development for the local inhabitants and also encourage city dwellers from other areas. The public realms which is developed surrounding the lake stages different spontaneous activities which enriches our culture. Image 21: Dhanmondi Masterplan Source: Author
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Dhanmondi lake was developed not very soon ago. It was initiated in 1998 by VITTI STHAPATI BRINDO. The necessity of a public space near the Dhanmondi lake began from the public congestion infront of the Bangabandhu memorial museum at road 32. Later the full development process was initiated. DESIGN APPROACH The lake was made accessible to the public realm, by increasing both - physical and visual connectivity between the lake side water front and the neighborhood. However, the concept was not appreciated by the client DCC. The bureaucratic thinking process in a rapidly urbanizing context, suggests that, all development projects be protected by safety fences where public access is restricted. This orthodox thinking of the client was rejected bythe design team and continued to carry on with an open idea of connectivity. The visibility was ensured by replacing high fences with low green hedges so that the lake become visible form the periphery roads. Physical connectivity was achieved by insulating walk ways through the periphery of the lake side and also approaching from the side roads from accessible locations. To make this links sustainable, some passive activities became a pre requisite along the walkways . The circular path around the lake side acted as the-necklace and the facilities that generate moderate traffic resembled as the precious stone concerning the oneness of the sustainable issues.
Image 22: Dhanmondi lake Masterplan Source: Author
Image 23: Dhanmondi lake public places Source: Author
The scheme looked for some moderate function that will generate less traffic in the residential area. Functions like, Food kiosk. Drink corner. Small restaurants, Community boat club, Community health club, Open air theatre and childrenâ€™s play area, were distributed in different visually and spatially strategic locations throughout the development. The concept was to act these functions as attractor, to bring in more people in the lake side areas. A few large green spaces were selected in strategic locations with better visibility towards the lake and accessible from within the neighborhood. To avoid direct traffic flow from the busy and congested peripheral roads of the neighborhood, contributing to the major road network of the city, the functions were embedded in more localized areas. Considering the management aspects of the project and to make it financially self sustainable, these facilities would generate income and hence could be maintained modestly by a public private partnership. In reality, the idea contributed to the restoration of the overall environmental quality of the serine lake side area.
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[CASE STUDY 01 ] IDESIGN CONSIDERATIONS TO REVITALIZE THE LAKE AND THE LAKE SIDE AREA Dhanmondi Lake development project was undertaken to provide a place of recreation for the urban community of Dhaka City. This was a part of a long demand of the urban dwellers for their physical as well as mental nourishment. The first thing came in to consideration to revitalize the lake and the lake side area was to decontaminate the lake water, shape up the water shade area, open it up and make it easy accessible to public. The lake was made accessible to the public realm, by increasing both - physical and visual connectivity between the lake side water front and the neighborhood. With an open idea of connectivity, the visibility was ensuring by replacing high fences with low green hedges so that the lake becomes visible from the periphery roads. Physical connectivity was achieved by insulating walk ways through the periphery of the lake side and also approaching from the side roads from accessible locations. Some passive activities became a pre requisite along the walk ways to make this links sustainable. The circular path around the lake side acted as the-necklace and the facilities that generate moderate traffic resembled as the precious stone concerning the oneness of the sustainable issues. A few large green spaces were selected in strategic locations with better visibility towards the lake and accessible from within the neighborhood. Functions like, food kiosk, drink corner, small restaurants, community boat club, community health club, open air theatre and childrenâ€™s play area, were distributed in different visually and spatially strategic locations throughout the development. The concept was to act these functions as attractor, to bring in more people in the lake side areas. To implement this idea the functions were appropriately placed: To avoid direct traffic flow from the busy and congested peripheral roads of the neighborhood, contributing to the major road network of the city, the functions were embedded in more localized areas. Considering the management aspects of the project and to make it financially self sustainable, these facilities would generate income and hence could be maintained modestly by a public private partnership. In reality, the idea contributed to the restoration of the overall environmental quality of the serene lake side area.
image 24: Identification of successful activity nodes along Dhanmandi lake area to increase the quality of prevailing urban spaces and later public response (Source: Vitti Sthapati Brindo Ltd, Dhaka 2017)
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OUTCOME OF THE LAKE RESTORATION PROJECT In reality, the project appears to be a successful model by restoring the lake and environment of the neighborhood. It is considered as a paradigmatic strategic urban project in a developing city like Dhaka. The scheme significantly restores and manages an urban water front development and incorporates visionary design strategies to avoid encroachment by the city. An increased connectivity throughout the spaces in the lake side development scheme, has successfully integrated the segregated water body and the residential neighborhood into a continuous whole. The spatial intelligence of the design process lies, in the creation of a high level of social and spatial interface among people from different parts of the city. The success of Dhanmondi Lake Redevelopment Project opens the possibilities for urban design in Dhaka. Though the neighborhood has been made accessible to the public realm through inclusion of a City scale recreational area, this causes new problems like, traffic congestion, poor maintenance of the area; hence the chance of farther environmental deterioration etc. However, these minor issues are causing problem only to the local people facing the main peripheral access routes of Dhanmondi. In broader aspect, it is an overwhelmingly successful project by accommodating all class of people from the global context of the city â€“ within a minimum financial and physical intervention through the residential neighborhood.
Image 26: Dhanmondi Analysis; Source: Author
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[CASE STUDY 02 ] ROTTERDAM WATERPLAN 2, ROTTERDAME, NETHERLANDS_ a large scale integrated approach CONCEPT OF THE DESIGN Applying water as an oppurtunity to enhance ciy’s attractiveness by creating and implementing newer solution for stormwater storage in dense urban area through an integrative approach. DESIGN APPROACH After Amsterdam, Rotterdam is the second biggest city in the Netherlands. It is home to the biggest port in Europe and, until outperformed by Shanghai in 2004, it was the world’s busiest port. Rotterdam’s cityscape is intensely affected by harbor development. Because of the way that Rotterdam is situated 2 meters underneath ocean level, the city is encompassed by dikes and has a complex pumping framework that shields the city from flooding. Up to now, water management methodologies have seen water principally as an invasive threat, concentrating on safety, quantity and quality issues. This changed in 2007, when it turned out to be progressively evident that Rotterdam will be genuinely affected by climate change (higher water level because of rising ocean levels; flooding caused by expanded precipitation) (Municipality of Rotterdam et al.2007a). In the meantime, Rotterdam was battling with population decrease, especially among working individuals, and different issues like the redevelopment of old harbor areas. In response of that Rotterdam created Waterplan 2, a comprehensive joint approach to spatial planning and water management. As a delta city, Rotterdam has since quite a while ago viewed water as one of its principal attractions, and now, with the second water design, Rotterdam uses water as an opportunity, focusing on management strategies that provide safety while improving the cityscape and encouraging interaction with water. The main goal is to actualize the following objectives all through the city, creating a comprehensive plan as Rotterdam Watercity 2030.
Image 27: Waterplan 2 sees Rotterdam integrate urban and water management planning (Source: Water Sensitive Urban Design Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future,2006 )
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PROJECT GOALS >> Protection: Protect Rotterdam against flooding, both inside and outside the barriers. >>Clean Water: Ensure water quality required by the European structure directive on the water to enhance the urban areas’ amenity. >>Attractive City: Integrate urban design and comprehensive planning with water management to take care of water issues and upgrade the city’s appeal as a place to live, work and unwind. >>Sewers: Reorganize stormwater runoff by means of decentralized inventive arrangements that flawlessly coordinate the particular area.
DESIGN OUTCOME These goals should be reached by executing creative solutions for water administration that additionally improve the urban quality, for example, green rooftops, water squares, water gardens, and inventive detainment zones. A standout amongst the most creative arrangements utilized by the City of Rotterdam is the water square (otherwise called water court). Imagined by De Urbanisten and Studio Marco Vermeulen, this arrangement adds to the nature of open space and uses technical frameworks to handle stormwater. Amid dry periods, the square is utilized as an open space, while amid heavy rainfall, the square is utilized for impermanent water stockpiling. A pilot sort of water square has been outlined and will be executed to distinguish issues and enhance the idea. Beginning execution is anticipated 2011 at two different sites. The design of the pilot sort of the water square incorporates a games field and a play area. The area is found around 1 meter beneath the level of the encompassing ground and flanked on all sides by steps where individuals can sit and watch. The pitch is partitioned into various
Image 28: Rendering of the pilot water square with different water levels (Source: Water Sensitive Urban Design Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future,2006 )
areas for playing, set at various levels. For 90% of the year, the space is dry and utilized for amusement. The space changes its capacity just amid substantial rain: Then water streams flow visibly into the square – starting at the playground area, filling the carefully arranged hollows in the ground and gradually creates streams, brooks, and small ponds. In the event that the rain endures longer, the games field tops off too. At the point when completely filled, the water square can hold a most extreme of 1,000 cubic meters. After the rain closes, the water will remain for a couple of hours and afterward is gradually released to Rotterdam’s sewer frameworks. (Boer 2010)
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[CASE STUDY 02 ] WATER SENSITIVE DESIGN Rotterdam’s Waterplan 2 made procedures to influence the city to water sensitivity to raise the dikes yet in addition to build facilities for brief water stockpiling inside the city. The arrangement stipulates that all new advancements in the edges must be worked with expansive water supports, while more compact and, by and large, innovative solutions. INTEGRATION IN SURROUNDING AREA The measures that are proposed by Waterplan 2 are an aftereffect of a coordinated effort between different planners,departments and water boards.The general point was to create site appropriate strategies for various parts of the city. For instance, proposition for Rotterdam Noord’s local locations use water squares, green rooftops what’s more, water gardens to upgrade the allure and cohesiveness of the areas, while in Rotterdam Zuid, development concentrates on associating waterways and expanding the part of existing surface water bodies for water management and recreation. Amid the planning stage, the city even began to examine new design options for water storage in densed urban zones: Water squares of 50 distinctive size and shape, water avenues, cisterns below ground, green rooftops and blue rooftops. . FUNCTIONAL DESIGN SOLUTION To recognize the areas that are reasonable for making water squares, height estimations were taken, flowoff simulations modelled and water detention capacities computed. In the meantime, the planners commissioned design studies to represent how the water squares could be laid out. Moreover, they considered the whole cityscape to identify structures, which were appropriate for retrofitting with green and blue rooftops. Besides, pilot ventures, for example, an open underground parking structure at the Rotterdam Museum Park, which
has a maintenance reservoir that holds water amid substantial rain, serve to give data to future undertakings. APPROPRIATE USABILTY Every one of the ideas created in Rotterdam’s Waterplan 2 go for making open spaces accessible for water capacity yet, in addition, improve their convenience. The water squares, for instance, are composed such that makes them an alluring place to play, sit and wait. Notwithstanding amid and after rain, when water is stored in the squares, planners developed ideas for how these places can be used as water playgrounds or even for boating. The same applies to other stormwater facilites proposed by the arrangement, e.g. green rooftops fulfill their capacity of keeping water, as well as giving space to nature. Water boulevards work as typical open activity zones for around 90% of the year and hold water amid substantial downpours. To total up, Rotterdam has influenced the most to out of the thoughts for various utilizations for urban spaces. INTEGRATIVE PLANNING An upgrade of city anticipating this scale is unmistakably a mindboggling undertaking. Rotterdam’s Waterplan 2 reacts to a full scope of requests set on the improvement of a city. Water administration and arranging were mutually set up from the begin of Waterplan 2 and subsequently necessary in the improvement of objectives and systems. Expensive city wide systems were produced and additionally separated by area and after that individual neighborhoods. Singular arrangements subsequently mirror the all-inclusive strategy, while in the meantime reacting to singular group needs. Moreover, arrangements normally fill in as open parks or group gardens and were likewise composed in view of future improvement objectives.
Image 29: Design studies showing how squares for temporary water storage could look (Source: Municipilaty of Rotterdame)
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Image 30: Rotterdam has identified where water squares should ideally be located (Source: Municipilaty of Rotterdame)
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[CASE STUDY 03 ] SYYDNEY WATER RETENTION PARK_ water sensitive design The expansion of stormwater treatment and reuse within Sydney Park provide significant value fo the park as both an environmental and landscape resource The implementation ol stormwater treatment facilities provides opportunities to enhance the existing landscape,
>> To ensure the treatment systems provide a high quality source of water it is proposed to use the latest advances in treatment technology deluding the use of saturated zones for increased pollutant removal and stable treatment systems These systems can improve
further impiement previous masterplanning initiatives and provide additional experiences and moments lor the pubic. The design buildsupon the existing water bodies strengthening the connection between them both visually and functionally. Water is the core element and the bio-retention and swales adjoin them establishing a cohesive water treatment system. New pathways direct park users to nodes and open spaces via an enhanced journey through the site lining the Bio-retention zones with dwelling spaces and nodes at strategic locaiions 10 engage the user with the water treatment system
performance by 10 io 25% compared 1 o standard bioreiention syslems
Strategy 1. Water And Bio-Retentlon New bio-retention is integrated along the eastern edge of Wetland 2; for low flows, bio-retention is terraced down the northeast ol wetland 2 adioining the gully edge; and west of Westland 4 adjacent the new circuit path. The fotowing strategies guided the water ard bio-retention design >> Use separate pumps for low flow ard high flows to minimise energy use of the pumps and efficient pumping arrangements >> For stormflows utilise a pumping arrangement which has multiple pumps to provde the required flow rate, which reduces the reliance on one single pump, ard reduces the startup energy and power requirements for the site.
>> The bioretention systems will be lined to ensure that they do not crease additional leachate from the undedying landfill >> To ensure water reuse is of suitable quality it is proposed to use a two step filtration process and a UV disinfection system to eliminate pathogens. >> Welland 5 will be used as the man storage system rather than the previously proposed Wetland 1. This strategy has three main advantages over the use ol wetland as a storage. This allows the storage to be located at the lowest pont in the park which the other wetlands can drain by gravity to utilisation ol Wetland 5 reduces the reliance on the existing rccrcutation pump to harvest water and transport it to the storage pond thereby improving tbe reliability of the overall harvesting scheme. Wetland 5 is able lo cope with water level fluctuation due its gentle slopng baiters and surrounding vegetation Finally this opton provides greater flexibility for the design of Wetland l in an active precinct in Sydney Park.
Image 31 & 32 ;Source:https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/ landscape-urban-design/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
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Image 33: Masterplan Source:https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urbandesign/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
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Image 34: Water Harvesting Plan Source:https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urbandesign/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
Image 35-37: Bits of the design Source:https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urbandesign/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
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Image 38: Water transition process as public art Source:https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urbandesign/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
Image 39: Habitat Areas Source:https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urbandesign/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
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SITE ANALYSIS - Relation with the city - Surrounding Situation - Circumjacent Pictures
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ROADS AND ACCESS
PUBLIC AMENITIES & GREEN SPACES
Highways and Primary Roads
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Urban Nodes Site Dike Highway
NEW RESIDENTIAL AREA
FLOOD DIKE AIRPORT
CITY EXTENSION AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS
RESIDENTIAL AREA ZOO & BOTANICAL GARDEN
PERIPHERAL SUBURBS ARICHA HIGHWAY
DENSED URBAN BUILDFORMS
BURIGANGA RIVER CITY CORE
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Illegal settlements growing up along the edge of the dike
POTENTIAL FUTURE URBAN DEVEPLOMENT
Land grabing and enroahment
Brick Chimenys polluting water and air
L AKE /
(Requirement For New Amenities)
NEW HIGHRISE DEVEPLOMENT
WATER CHAN N
URBAN L AKE / GR EY
POTENTIAL FUTURE HOUSING DEVEPLOMENT
WATER C HAN
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(Green Link And Ecological Network)
UNLIKED WATER BODIES
NEW HOUSING DEVEPLOMENT (Requirement For Recreation & Sports)
ZOO & BOTANICAL GARDEN (Green Link And Ecological Network)
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Image 40: Unauthorized settlements meandering around the site Image source: Author
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Image 41: Local markets taking place along the dike road towards city Image source: Author
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Image 42: Landfilling going on both side of the dikes Image source: Author
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Image 43: Dredging pipes are installed to fill up existing waterbodies in the site Image source: Author
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DESIGN STRATEGIES -
Strategy Diagrams Placemaking Strategy Hydrological Strategy Ecological Strategy
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STRATEGIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER NEXUS
PEOPLE + WATER + LAND
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[SUSTAINABLE PLACEMAKING STRATEGY]
AVIARY & GARDEN
WATER HOPING WALKWAYS
SKATE RINGS CHILDREN PLAY AREA
Image 44: Idea: http://www.stoss.net/projects/48/thames-riverfront/
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[SUSTAINABLE PLACEMAKING STRATEGY]
LINK WITH THE CITY Linking the site with the rest of the city through major functions and events to give a sense of identity for the city dwellers. A vision of a water transport network undergoing through , and it can act as the hub of major tourist attraction for the city dweller, also for the rest of the world
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FUTURE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable amenities and function lays out the framework for future development. The rapid extension of the city and the increase of population creates a high demand for public places and recreational activities
EDUCATION & RECREATION ZONE AVIARIES AND ECOLOGOCIAL GARDENS
SPORT ACTIVITY WATER TRANSPORT AND WATER RECREATIONAL ACTIVITES NATIVE GARDENS AND SPORTS
LOCAL CONNECTION GARDENS & PUBLIC ARTS
PUBLIC AMENITIES & CHILDREN PLAY AREAS
Connect the residents of the community through aesthetically driven functional spaces with sustainable ecological approach
PROVIDING OPEN SPACES
Linking the high density community through educational ,recreational function and provide the open space for a dense community
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[WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGY] Riparian zone filtration and hydroponic plant treatment enhance water quality in transition process
Safely conveyance of stormwater to river in monsoon season through controlled outlets to the downstream to create a sustainable water cycle
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Safely conveyance of stormwater to transitional water spaces in the site to through series of dikes and levees Series of retention and detention ponds that channels the water through aquatic treatment and riparian filter zones to metabolize, aerate and nitroganate water
Storm water diversion from river through control dike to prevent upstream flooding RIVER WATER
Grey water intake from lake of residential development , water goes through fertilized retention ponds through pipes and curbs and finally sets in transitional ponds
Sand and rock filtration and other natural filtration system to remove sludge
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THE ECOLOGICAL CORRIDOR The site is close to the national zoo and botanical garden which contains a diverse range of plants and habitats. The strategy is to extend the corridor through site towards the future development
ZOO AND BOTANICAL GARDEN
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FLOOD BUFFER The green corridor will act as a flood buffer and industrial buffer for the city. Many industries grew in the fringe of the city which makes a high amount of pollution. The green corridor will decrease the pollution and enhance the water and air quality
GREEN SPACES AND SCATTERED WATERBODIES
GREEN BELT & GREEN FRAMEWORK Along the site there are existing green belts and unlinked water bodies. The goal is to create a ecological framework for the city conecting all aspects of green network within the city.
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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT -
Masterplan Exploded Geometry Stormwater runoff proposal Grey Water treatment proposal Vegetation Plan Public Spaces
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PUBLIC SPACES AND AMENITIES
AMPHITHEATRE WATER REACHERCH INSTITUTE ANGLING CLUB
THE LEVEE BRIDGE
NATURE LEARNING CENTER / CAMPING GROUND
WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
W1 GREY WATER TREATMENT PONDS W2 AQUA CULTURE BASIN W3 STORM WATER SETTELING BASIN
FIELD & SPORTS CLUB
W4 METABOLIZER BASIN W5 HYDROPONIC BASIN
SHADED SITTING PLACE
W6 INFLITRATION BASIN W7 DETENTION BASIN / FLOOD BUFFER PONDS
WATER TRANSPORT HUB
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CHILDREN PLAY AREA BUTTERFLY AND BIRDS AVIARY W1 TERRACED WEIRS
GARDEN & SCULPTURE PARK
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[EXPLODED GEOMETRY ]
WALKWAYS AND BOARDWALKS
OPEN AND GREEN SPACES
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[STORMWATER RUNOFF PROPOSAL ] TRANSITIONAL STRUCTURES AND SPACES
Image 45: Water inlet gate Image source: https://www.awmawatercontrol.com.au/projects/sa-water-weir-andfishway/
Image 46: Chaneling the river water to setteling basin through wiers Image source: http://www.lesateliers.info/addwthis-weir.htm
Image 47: Bridge Levee Image source: http://www.lesateli
Image 48: Grey Water outlet channel designed as public art Image source: https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urbandesign/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
Image 49: Rock levee and rock garden Image source: https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urbandesign/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st
Image 50: Terraced Levee Image source: From Stormwater M P
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Management to Artful Rainwater Design; Stuart E., Eliza
GREY WATER INTAKE FROM LAKE INTAKE FROM RIVER GREY WATER INTAKE CHANNEL STORM WATER INTAKE CHANNEL INTERNAL WATER MOVEMENT CHANNEL
RELEASE CHANNEL TRANSITION STRUCTURES AND SPACES 0m 50m 100m
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RIVER UP STREAM
DAM INLET GATE
RETENTION BASINS WIER LEVEES
AQUA CULTURE BASIN
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DETENTION BASINS BIO SWALES HYDROPONICS BASIN RIPARIAN EDGES
DAM OUTLET GATE
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[GREY WATER TREATMENT PROPOSAL ]
Image 51: Grey water and stornwater treatment diagram Image source: http://www.stoss.net/projects/6/taichung-gateway-park/
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[VEGETATION PLAN ] NATIVE TREES
RIPARIAN GRASS LANDS AND SHURBS
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Legends NATIVE TREES BIO-RETENTION ZONE AND INDIGENOUS PLANTS RIPARIAN GRASSLANDS RIPARIAN SHRUB EMBANKMENT LAWN INDIGENOUS FLOWER GARDEN
0m 50m 100m
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BIRDS EYE VIEW
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VIEW TOWARDS BIRDS AVIARY AND INFINITY DECK
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BOARD WALK ON THE RIPARIAN FIELDS ON WATER TREATMENT PONDS
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PLAYGROUND AND PUBLIC GATHERING PLACES
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[ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ] I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my supervisors Dr. Stephen Gibson and Professor Christopher Vernon who gave me the golden opportunity to do this the project on which I have been aiming to work on for many years; also helped me in doing a lot of research and I came to know about so many new things about “Water Sensitive Design”. Secondly, I would like to thank my fellow collueuges and friends from architecture network who helped me providing some datas and local informations for my research purpose. Special thanks to Tasbir Shatil for providing a lot of information about the project from Bangladesh. Thirdly, I would also like to thank my family who helped and encouraged me a lot in finalizing this project and experienced all of the ups and downs during my research tenure.
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County, C. (2007) Aquatic weed - CCMCD. Available at: http://www.citrusmosquito.org/aquatics.php (Accessed: 5 October 2017). Hoffman, T. (no date) Native water plants: Swan valley fish and lily farm. Available at: http://www.fishandlily.com.au/water_plants/native_plants/ (Accessed: 12 October 2017). Jacob, A. (2015) Artificial wetland improves river water quality. Available at: https://www.mediastatements.wa.gov.au/Pages/Barnett/2015/12/Artificial-wetland-improves-river-water-quality.aspx (Accessed: 14 October 2017). Cws.msu.edu. (2017). [online] Available at: http://cws.msu.edu/documents/Echols_Stormwaterasamenity.pdf [Accessed at: 8 Oct. 2017]. Civic Centre Park. (2017). Civic Centre Park. [online] Available at: https://www.google.com.au/maps/place/Civic+Centre+Park,+Cannington+WA+6107/@-32.0168885,115.9226231,16z/data=!4m5!3m4! 1s0x2a32bc3131d37af3:0x2753697242cdde2a!8m2!3d-32.0174637!4d115.92943 Bach PM, e. (2017). Can we model the implementation of water sensitive urban design in evolving cities? - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved : 5 October 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/25607682
WEBLINKS Bangladeshnews, 2009. http://www.bangladeshnews.com.bd/2009/07/30/restore-canals-wetlands-to-stopwaterlogging/.(accessed on 30 June, 2009) Bangladeshnews. 2010. http://www.bangladeshnews.com.bd/2010/06/29/40pc-wetlands-go-in-20-years/. (accessed June 29, 2010) DMDP.1995. Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan 1995-2015. GOB / RAJUK. Dhaka. http://dhakadailyphoto.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/hatirjheel-by-night.html https://twitter.com/reesedward/status/693260051390210049 DAP. 2010. Detailed Area Plan for Dhaka. Metropolitan Development Plan. GOB. 2010. https://www.slideshare.net/CPWF/bangladesh-delta-plan https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/projects/landscape-urban-design/sydney-park-water-re-use-project-by-turf-design-st https://www.rotterdam.nl/wonen-leven/waterplan-2/Waterplan-2-samenvatting-Engels.pdf http://lib.buet.ac.bd:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/436/Full%20%20Thesis%20.pdf?sequence=1 http://vitti.com.bd/ http://www.lesateliers.info/addwthis-weir.htm http://www.stoss.net/
A Water Sensitive Design Approach to Flood Management and Sustainable Placemaking