Farm Animals By Autumn Farm animals can be really cool to take care of and to play with or watch. It‟s really fun to learn about farm animals. What food comes from the animals? Milk comes from cows, bacon comes from pigs and eggs from chickens. Farmers who have these animals can use them for their own uses or sell them to make a profit. These foods can be bought at a local grocery store. People need to learn how to take care of these animals. Feeding them the right amount of food is one way to take care of them. Chickens eat corn, worms, grasses and grains. Goats eat grasses and shrubs. Cows eat plants and grasses and dogs eat mostly anything. Pigs eat fruits and shrubs and sheep eat mostly grasses. Farmers also need to know what kind of temperatures or environments they can live in. There‟s a fantasy book about farm animals called Charlotte's Web. It was written by E.B. White. It‟s about the friendship between a spider and a pig. Farm animals could be pets. Miniature cows, chickens, goats, donkeys, dogs and sheep all those make good pets. Most of the animals sleep during the night. Most people that have a farm have a barn or a ranch for the animals to live in. Farming can be a great experience by taking care of the animals and learning what things can come from the animals. Website used: www.ask.com
cArToOn Animals By: Lucas Cartoon animals are funny,exiting, fun, old and happy. There have been cartoons for a long time the but first cartoon with emotes was Steamboat Willie. He is more commonly known as Mickey Mouse. He was created by Disney in November 18, 1928. The people who make cartoons are animators. There are two different types of animators: drawers and computer animators. Famous cartoonists include Rudolf Isling, Chuck Jones, and Walt Disney. Walt Disney made this cartoon by hand. It is Steamboat Willie. The business of animation will be around for a long time making it a good investment. If you want to try your hand at being an animator play this game: http://spongebob.nick.com/cartoon-creator/ (CHOOSE ANIMAL GAMES) The 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 4th grade students at Abiding Savior were asked what their favorite cartoon animal was. Perry the Platypus from Phinas and Ferb won next was â€œotherâ€? and third road runner from Looney Toons in fourth place was Bugs Bunny also Looney Toons. Cartoons are all different and fun and exciting. WEBSITES USED: google.com and wikipedia.com
Famous Pets By: Rose Movie stars and presidents have pets. These pets become famous because of their owners, they are cute or funny or they may even be in movies and TV shows. One of the most popular celebrity pets is manâ€&#x;s best friend, the dog. Jessica Simpson and Justin Bieber are two celebrities with dogs. Another celebrity who has a pet is Harry Potter star Rupert Grint (Ron Weasley) reportedly has a micro pig. Most pet are pampered like their owners with lots of fancy clothes and big homes. Their pets are like our pets in that they get sick, die, and have funny names like Noodles and Noody bear Even presidents had pets. There is a president pets museum. Theodore Roosevelt had snakes, dogs, cats, a badger, birds, guinea pigs and even more! Franklin D Roosevelt accidentally left his dog, a Scottish terrier named Fala, in the Aleutian Islands. He used tax payer dollars to get his dog back. George Washington had Polly the parrot, 36 hounds. John Adams had horses. Thomas Jefferson had a mocking bird, two bear cubs that were gifts from Lewis and Clark. James Madison had a parrot called Macaw and sheep. James Monroe had a spaniel. To read more presidents pets at the link at the bottom. Why are some pets so famous? Maybe because of their owners or they might be in movies or TV shows. Some animals are in classic movies like Lassie and Black Beauty. Some pet owners put the pets on line because they did some thing cute or funny. Here is a little quiz about the article 1. What is Rupert Grintâ€&#x;s pet? a dog b parrot c pig 2 Which president left his pet in the Aleutian islands? a Franklin d Roosevelt b George Washington c Thomas Jefferson The answers are in the article.
Vanessa Williams and her dog.
President Harding with his dog Laddie.
Read more: about Rupert Grint pet pig here http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0768598.html.
Here's a dog dress-up game http://www.girlsgogames.com/game/perez__teddy_hilton_red_carpet.html
Sea Animals By: Dylan Sea animals are one of God‟s many wonderful creations. Some examples, such as turtles, starfish, whales, and dolphins, live in the sea. Many people‟s favorite sea animal is the whale. Whales are very cool animals to study or watch. Whales are mammals, not fish, so they can‟t breathe under water. Whales are huge animals but are hard to see because they aren‟t above the surface long. The blue whale is the biggest mammal on the earth, weighing up to 100 tons. As whales are young they have hair like a lot of land mammals (but not near as much.) To see live whales, follow this link: http://seaworldparks.com/en/seaworld-sandiego/Animals/Webcams/Shamu-Cam Starfish are very interesting and beautiful animals with all of their many colors, bones and flexibility. There are about 1,800 types of starfish in the sea. Starfish are in the phylum echinodermata, and they are related to sand dollars. Sand dollars are animals even though most people think they are a plant. Dolphins are like whales in that they are mammals. The Bottlenose Dolphin live all over the world. They live in packs or groups and have very interesting behaviors. They have amazing adaptions that allows them to thrive in harsh environments. Some examples of this are their swimming speed and diving. All of these sea creatures are still around today. Enjoy them when you can.
House Pets By: Olivia Here are some really cool facts about all different kinds of house pets! It can help you take care and know more about the pets you love!!!!!!!!!!!!! There are many types of different house pets like cate, dogs, hamsters and reptiles. Cats make good house pets. They can be different sizes. There are many different types of species of cats. Cats have a tail so when they are falling they use their tail to rotate and land on their feet. Dogs can be house pets too. They can be easy to teach tricks. Just say speak a couple times and they will most likely bark. Dogs can be taught to fetch and roll over also. Some common house dogs are collies, bulldogs, pit bulls, German Shepherd and Beagles. Dogs may look cute and sweet but when they are with a police officer on duty DO NOT PET THEM! It will make them want to play more than doing their duties. The officer will get mad at the dog. So do not pet them. Now let‟s talk about hamsters. They are very fat and cute! They are very fast runners! Make sure to close the gate so they don‟t run away! They will get out and they will get hurt too! One more possible house pet is the reptile. Some reptiles, like snakes, slither and do not walk because they don‟t have any feet or arms. They can also stretch their jaws really far, so they can eat food whole. They bite their pray with their fangs so then it will poison the body and the prey will die. Then they will swallow (like a mouse) them whole. They also swallow eggs whole. House pets are really fun and playful. Click here to go play games about cats!!!!!!!!!!!!! http://www.girlsgogames.com/games/cat_games/cat_games.html http://www.girlgamesnow.com/games/pet_games.html http://www.shockwave.com/gamelanding/paradisepetsalon.jsp http://www.myanimalgames.com/cat/Hamster-games/1.html
Zoo Animals By Sophia The first zoo established was in Vienna, Austria, in 1752. Zoos have been popular ever since then. They can be found anywhere around the world. Some people like to adopt zoo animals. They do this by contacting their local zoo and they give between $20-$5,000 and get an adoption paper and a picture of the animal. The price of the adoption depends on the animal. One amazing animal at the zoo is the sun bear. Sun bear cubs weigh only 712oz when born. They can live up to 30 years in zoos. At the San Diego zoo, the cubs eat something like dog kibble! Sun Bears are the smallest bear specie. Sun bears are also hard to breed. Go to this link to see some sun bear cubs: http://tinyurl.com/3d84n7l There are so many fun facts about zoo animals. An elephant can feel a fly land on its back! The unique sound elephants make can be heard 5 miles away by other elephants. Also when an animal dies, they leave the animal in the cage until every animal can see it‟s dead. If the animal is a solitary type, they go into a long depression period. Elephants, rhinos, hippos, and giraffes are VERY hard to move! Some people think that okapis changed into zebras. The okapi, (left) is part of the giraffe family. Mr. Steve Bircher is a worker at the St. Louis Zoo. He has been a zoo worker for thirty years. He also said that his job “is extremely satisfying. I can‟t imagine doing something else.” Sometimes the zoo will get an animal by boat and they may even use Fed Ex. According to Mr. Bircher, they have also transported an elephant by plane. He also said that the St. Louis Zoo symbol is always the female Lesser Kudu, seen here.
Zoos care for animals, provide entertainment for people, and offer a cool way to learn about animals through shows and classes. Visit your local zoo today! Here are the websites I used for this articlegoogle.com ask.com stlouiszoo.com yahooanswers.com sandiegozoo.org ehow.com http://www.bbc.co.uk/help/web/mothballing/
Prairie Animals By: Beth
This is a sleeping coyote!
Prairie animals are cool animals to learn about! What is a prairie animal? What do prairie animals do all day? What did the explorers of this region find when saw the prairie for the first time? The answers to these questions make prairie animals a very interesting group of animals. Prairie animals are animals that live in the grassland or also called the prairie. Prairie animals are mostly herbivores and mostly live in groups not alone. There are at least 24 different types of prairie animals. There are hundreds of species of grasses grow on the prairie, and they all have to adapt ways to survive in the heat and the dryness. In the fall, the grass turns a deep orange to purple color. It can grow three to eight feet tall. The prairie ecosystem used to be the main one between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River. In the east were tall grass prairies, and on the west were short grass prairies. They both were mixed prairie ecosystems. Today there is little left of these awesome ecosystems. People now understand how important the prairies are and are trying to restore them .
This is a bull snake and two kissing prairie dogs. Cute right!
There are many prairie animals and cool things about them. Adult bison grow to over six feet tall. Male bison, called bulls, can weigh up to 2000 pounds (a ton); a female up to 1000 pounds. Bison are the heaviest land animal in North America. Both male and female bison have horns that can grow up to 26 inches long. A bull snake, or gopher snake, is a large yellowish snake with many black or brown blotches along the top and sides of its body. When disturbed, a bull snake will hiss loudly and shake its
tail to scare off a predator and may shoot out and bite. Unlike the prairie rattler, its bite is not venomous or poisonous. Bull snakes eat mice and other small rodents and often live in the burrows already dug by mammals. Coyotes do not have permanent homes and have been known to travel great distances. Often at dusk or dawn, a coyote will make a series of barks and yaps, followed by a long howl, to alert the rest of the band of it's location. The coyote is the state animal of South Dakota. Explorers and pioneers described their first views of the prairie using words such as “abundant,” “luxurious,” “magnificent,” “gorgeous masses of variant beauty,” and birds singing “their songs of jubilee.” They reported seeing foxes, wolves, reptiles, and badgers roaming free.
This is a bunch of bison running through the water and this is a river between the Rocky Mountains. Awesome!
Go to these web sites and have fun and learn cool facts about prairie stuff! http://www.tallgrass.org/poetry.htm http://www.bellmuseum.org/distancelearning/prairie/build/ http://timpanogos.wordpress.com/2007/09/09/build-a-prairie-online-game-for-geography-histo ry-biology/http://games.artie.com/dons-prairie-dog-hunt-url.html lhttp://www.ahsd25.k12.il.us/prairie/animal_slider.html
A Man‟s Best Friend By: Emma If your family is thinking about getting a dog you should probably get a puppy. Puppies can be trained to live in a house and obey master‟s orders. It will be a lot easier than buying one that‟s not a puppy because it will be harder to train. Certain dogs can cost more than $3,000, depending on the species. When playing with a puppy it can be cute. However, puppies can bite with their newly formed adult teeth. Don‟t play too rough with puppy because it could get hurt. Dogs that are about two years or older would be good to play rough with as exercise. It can be good for them to develop those skills in case someone breaks into a house and the dog protects the family. When feeding a puppy be sure to get food that is for puppies. As a dog grows they will be ready to eat regular food. Be careful not to feed the god too much food because they could get over weight and become lazy. Dogs need to be active and have lots of playtime. Also, do not forget that puppies need lots of your love.
Flightless Birds By: Mark Flightless birds don‟t have the ability to fly. Many things about their bodies are why they cannot fly. Being flightless makes life harder for these birds. There are multiple reasons why they can‟t fly. They have too many feathers all over their body but flying birds have feathers in feather tracks. Flightless birds have smaller wings while flying birds have larger wings. Flightless birds have symmetrical feathers and flying birds have asymmetrical feathers. Being flightless causes these birds to have some disadvantages. First of all, some mammals are effective predators and flight is a convenient way to escape. Secondly, they compete with mammals for food. Some mammals, such as possums, can climb trees. However, flightless birds have to stay on the ground for food. This forces them to compete with mammals and birds that can fly for food. For more info on flightless birds visit ask.com and ask the question “How many flightless birds are there?‟‟
Acting Animals By: Emily
Black Beauty [Highland Dale] Animals have played a starring role in TV and movies a long time. Dogs and horses are two famous animals that are used in TV and movies. Animal trainers train all different kinds of animals. Some of the most famous animal actors are dogs and horses. Lassie a famous Collie was played by Pal and eight of his offspring. Another animal actor was Terry, who was Toto from The Wizard of Oz. Terry also has a biography written about him by Willard Carroll. Toto made $125 a week. Moose was a dog who played Eddy on the show Fraiser. Highland Dale was the name of the horse that stared in the movie Black Beauty. Highland Dale made $5,000 a week. Animal trainers have a lot of knowledge. Jen, an animal trainer in California, said each animal has its own personality so you have to pick the right personality for the job. Other animal trainers said that some animals are smarter than others but, some just learn at different speeds. One of the animal trainers, Gary Gero, trained the dog Hugo [Fang], Scabbers the rat, Gizmo [Hedwig] and Mrs. Norris the cat who were all in the Harry Potter movies. Patience is also needed to train animals because theyâ€&#x;re most likely not going to get it down on their first try. Wherever the animals come from, whoever trained the animals, and whatever kind of animal they are we still love them all. From an ant to an elephant we love them just the same.
For more information go to: www.2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?=5802 dogblog.dogster.com/2008/05/31/interview-with-mark-dumas-animal-trainer-for-themovies/ www.biography.com/animalographies/movie-animals.jsp
Lassie [Pal or his offspring] with his star on the Hollywood walk of fame.
ASLS Animals By: Courtney What are the least and the most popular pets at Abiding Savior Lutheran School? Students in first, second, third and fifth grade shared some information about their pets. Who takes care of their animals and what are their favorites? Some of the most popular pets at ASLS are dogs, fish, and cats. Out of 25 fifth graders, the most popular pets are dogs with sixteen people and cats with six people. In fifth grade most people take care of their own pets. The most popular pets in first grade are dogs, cats, and fish. In first grade most people either take care of their pets by themselves or their parents take care of their pets for them. Most second graders have a dog or a turtle. The care of these pets was split between their parents, their siblings, or they take care of their pets by themselves. In 3rd grade most people have a dog or a cat. So what are the least popular pets at ASLS? In 1st grade the least popular pets are rabbits, turtles, snakes, birds, frogs, and an iguana. 2nd graders said their least popular pet is the snake. The least popular pets in 3rd grade are snakes, birds, and turtles. Some of these pets may sound strange but really if you have the right environment and the skills to take care of these animals you can make them your pet. These animals can be found at a shelter or at a pet store like Petco or Petsmart. Some parts of caring for the animal include: medical needs, food, what environment it needs to live in, how much attention it needs, and how it interacts with humans. Never leave a pet in the car, because it could die. Different pets have different needs. Rabbits need to be fed two times day. Food and water, and they need a lot of attention. Dogs need an area to run around, food and water,plus a lot of love. Cats need a place to go potty, food and water, love, and a place to run. Birds need a cage with food and water a lot of room to fly. fish need a tank with water and you have to sprinkle fish food one time a day usually at night. Snakes need a warm habitat. Different turtles need certain things to survive so it will depend on what kind of turtle it is. Frogs need an aquarium that is covered with something that isnâ€&#x;t in the sun
. This is one of the many types of dogs. Dogs were one of the most popular pets at ASLS.
*Some of the animals I mentioned had too much information so check out these links!* Want to learn more? Check out these links where I got some information! http://www.ehow.com/how_2321453_care-pet-turtle.html http://www.ehow.com/how_4741318_care-pet-hedgehog.html http://www.ehow.com/how_12701_care-frogs.html http://www.ehow.com/how_6544510_care-iguana.html
Amphibians By Andrew How many amphibians are there in the world? There are about 6,000 types of amphibians. Some examples are the frog, the toad, and also the newt, which is like a salamander. Amphibians were the first invertebrates to walk on land. Amphibians can be colorful or dark colored. Most range from two to five inches in length when flat on the ground. Most amphibians eat insects like flies or other insects and spiders. Frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts, what do all of these animals have in common? All of these animals have slimy skin and live on land or in water. They have adapted to the tropical biome. Amphibians live in the rain forest and by pools, and other wet habitats. Sometimes amphibians can live at zoos and aquariums in the United States. Nature experts can help people understand amphibians. There are also television shows and books about amphibians. Scientists can learn about amphibians by dissecting them. They can learn about what is in their body.
This is a blue poison arrow frog. Amphibians can be all different colors like green, blue and orange. The Malagasy rainbow frog actually has all the colors of the rainbow. Amphibians can also camouflage themselves to blend in with their surroundings. This helps them be safe from any enemies or other animals. Frogs live in lower grounds and by wet biomes. They have moist skin. They lay their eggs in the moist biomes. Amphibians are uncommon in the deserts. They are cold blooded animals so their body temperature is same as their surroundings. So they can live in the tundra and the alpines. Some amphibians in England are dormant in the winter. Websites used: www.ask.com www.wikipedia.com www.SmithsonianNationalZoologicalPark.com
Extinct Animals By: Kyle
How do we know about these animals? Nobody really knows who found the first fossil of the dinosaurs. There is scientific proof of the first ocean creature. A skull was found by a bunch of workers in a Dutch mine in 1764. The creature‟s name was Mosasaurs. Scientists have discovered bones and can tell how old they are by “reading them.” They can tell if bones were slashed from battle or something like that. It is very hard to find bones. Scientists need to know where to look and how deep to dig before they start. The hardest part can be thinking where the bones might be located. Scientists can learn about extinct animals by examining their bones. When dinosaurs died, their bones get buried by layers of dirt and rock. Then all the liquid and “squishy” dries out and the bones become petrified. Scientists have found many of the bones in the dessert, or dry places. However, they can also be found in oceans. Animals could also have gotten swept away into the ocean. The most common extinct animals are Dinosaurs. Some examples of dinosaurs are: Tyrannosaruas Rex, Velociraptor, and Triceratops. It is scary to think what would happen if a dinosaur was found alive! Websites used: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/soft-tissue-dinosaurfossil.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extinct_animals
Cats 101 By Katie Cats can be great pets. They need to be treated with lots of care. Some can be very nice and some unfortunately can be very scared and at the same time vicious.
How long have cats actually been around? According to Wikipedia, cats were with the early humans during neo-lithic times. Most people think cats started with the ancient Egyptians. The Europeans were the first to domesticate cats. Cats show up in many mythology stories. For example, in Islamic stories, Muhammad loved cats so much that if one of his cats was on his robe he wouldn't make the cat move. In Norse mythology, Freyia the goddess of beauty had a carriage pulled by cats. A lot of people think that a black cat is bad luck. The truth is theyâ€&#x;re not really, but in the middle ages people believed that black cats were related to witchcraft. However, it has been proven that none of these theories are true. But today we still have superstitions about black cats like if you see a black cat on Friday the thirteenth it'll bring you bad luck. Some people in China think that cats can see ghosts and can protect you from evil. There are a lot of famous cartoon cats like Tom in Tom and Jerry, Puss â€žn Boots, and Cat in the Hat. Disney has also made movies with cats in them like Oliver & Company and Stuart Little. Cats can be great pets. They are a part of history and can entertain us even today. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat
Deadly Animals/Insects By: Colton There are many different types of deadly animals/insects in the world. Some are so deadly to humans that they made Listverse.com‟s Top 10 list for deadliest animals/insects. Top Ten Deadliest Animals and Insects 10: The Golden Dart Frog 9: The Cape Buffalo 8: The Polar Bear 7: The Elephant 6: The Saltwater Crocodile 5: The African Lion 4: The Great White Shark 3: The Box Jelly Fish 2: The Asian Cobra 1: The Mosquito These animals may seem more different than alike. Some are big and some are small. Some sting and others bite. The one thing they all have in common is that they are all deadly. Do any of these animals/insects surprise you? People might wonder why the mosquito is on the top 10 deadliest list, especially since it‟s an insect. The mosquito carries deadly diseases like malaria, the west Nile virus, the deep woods syndrome, four-stomach acid reflux, and mosquito cancer. Mosquitoes cause over two million human deaths a year. Some might wonder why these animals are so deadly. People always tend to think it‟s the animal‟s fault. In reality, animals become deadly when humans enter their territory or when they feel we are threatening them, or their young. When animals feel threatened their defense mechanisms kick in and they do whatever it takes to survive. Have you ever heard the saying “the bigger the better”? That is not always the case when it comes to deadly animals. Although some of the deadliest animals are
very large, such as the elephant and Cape buffalo, others, such as the golden dart frog and mosquito, are very small. According to the top 10 list, the two milligram mosquito is actually more deadly than the two ton elephant.
Humans can avoid fatal encounters with these animals by using common sense. When you are in the wild, be aware of your surroundings. Know the animals in your region and respect their territory. Make sure you are properly equipped to protect yourself in the case of an emergency. For example, you can protect yourself from mosquito borne diseases by using mosquito nets and mosquito repellents. The chance of a fatal encounter with one of the top ten deadliest animals or insects is very small. If you find yourself in a dangerous situation with a deadly animal stay calm and know what to do. Websites used in this report: http://listverse.com/2007/07/13/top-10-most-deadly-animals/ http://www.wikipedia.org/ http://www.google.com
Reptiles By Keeley Reptiles are one of the five categories of the animal kingdom groups. Reptiles mainly have dry scaly skin. Reptiles are known to live in areas that are warm, swampy, humid, or wet. Reptiles our omnivores which means they eat both plants and animals. Reptiles are known to be eaten by birds, larger reptiles, some mammals, and sometimes people. Reptiles need certain types of care. Reptiles must be fed once daily and have their water bowl changed daily also. Reptiles need a heating lamp, shelter, food and a water bowl with an occasional salt water bowl. Reptiles also need bedding and treats or toys. A reptileâ€&#x;s cage needs to be changed weekly to keep the pet healthy. For more information talk to a pet store clerks. There are many types of different reptiles. Some favorites are the corn snake, the Leopard Gecko, bearded dragon, California king snake, and the blue tongued skink. The corn snake is voted the most popular for it many colors and small size. For more information visit: http://www.kingsnake.com/rockymountain/RMHPages/RMHbest.htm. Venomous and poisonous reptiles can be found all over world. There are only two poisonous lizards, and there are over 400 poisonous snakes in the world .There more than 600 venomous snakes in the world. Venom comes from when the snake or lizard bites someone or something. Poisonous lizards and snakes hurt someone when eaten. There are also many other poisonous and venomous reptiles in the world. Some reptiles have different hunting techniques. Reptiles may hunt at night, evening or day. Many reptiles prey on small mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and other reptiles. Reptiles kill their prey by squeezing the life out of it, biting it, or poisoning it. Reptiles are known to have the element of surprise. They may strike from a hiding place or blend into the environment to be undetected by its prey. No matter where in the world reptiles will always be one of the worldâ€&#x;s most fascinating creatures.
This is a king corn snake
This is a bearded dragon
How to Take Care of Pets By Katarina Pets can be fun and active. Here are some simple tips to help make caring for animals easier. Dogs are very active pets. They need lots of exercise. Dogs need to be walked, unless they have a big back yard to play in. After they get some play time, they may need a good bath. Dogs also need a yearly check-up at the vet. Make sure they get all the shots they need. Puppies usually need to be fed twice a day, in the morning and evening. Older dogs need food only once a day. It doesn‟t matter when you feed them, as long as they‟re fed. Dogs will do well with this care. Cats are very curious animals. They get themselves into lots of trouble. They are also very good at defense. Cats need to be de-clawed if they are kept inside. Another option would be to get them a scratching post. Like dogs, cats need exercise too. They love to play with things like ribbon and yarn. Most cats should stay indoors or they won‟t live as long. Cats do not need a bath as often, because they bathe themselves. However, cats do need good grooming every day. Try these tips on your cat Rabbits need lots of care. Rabbits can easily have heart attacks when they are scared. Rabbits need hay, vegetables and water to stay healthy. It is also a good thing to clip their nails and play with them every day. Try these tips for your rabbit. All animals have different personalities and even though they may be the same breed, they still may be different. Be sure to give your pet the special care it needs. Here are some games! http://www.girlsgogames.com/game/animal_shelter.html http://www.funnygames.co.uk/take-care-of-your-pets.htm See which dog is right for you!
http://www.selectsmart.com/DOG/ References: http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0211622/