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Business Planning and Developing an Infrastructure Today's business success comes as a result of careful planning . You must have a detailed written business plan that clearly defines what the ultimate goal is business to business,e-business, b2b b2c, the reason you are pursuing the goal, and each milestone that must be passed in order to reach your goal. It is an operational plan for achieving your goal. A complete success story is required to define your basic product, income objectives and specific operating procedures. To attract investors, obtain financing and hold onto the confidence of your creditors, particularly in times of cash flow shortages, a business plan is imperative. It provides an overall directional policy for the production, sales effort and profit goals of your product. It will be the basis or foundation of any financial proposals you submit. It is a long range "map" to guide your company to the goal you've set. The details the what, why, where, how and when, of your company. Writing a "winning" idea takes research and time. Don't try to do it all in just one or two days. Once you start, thousands of thoughts concerning it will begin racing through your mind. It's a good idea when you aren't actually working on your idea, to carry a pocket notebook and jot ideas down as they come -- for sales promotion, recruiting distributors, channel distribution, and other thoughts on how to operate and/or build your company. Later, evaluate your ideas, refine them, and integrate them into the overall picture. This is a logical organization of information every plan should cover. Take an objective and critical look at your ideas. Putting it all down on paper (a word processing program) allows you to change and refine it to function in the manner of a smoothly oiled machine. You'll spot weaknesses and strengthen them before they develop into problems. This will become an operating manual and valuable tool to keep on track, and guide you into a profitable, well-managed operation.

Because it's your idea, it's important that you are directly involved in the work. Seek out the advice of other people; talk with, listen to, and observe other people running similar businesses. Enlist the advice of consultants, accountants and attorneys -- but don't ever forget it has to be your idea! Statistics prove the greatest cause of failure is poor management and lack of foresight. Without direction by which to operate, no one can manage. Without a direction in which to aim its efforts, no company can attain any real success. Group Professionals specializes in writing business plans and executive summaries for success. Please contact us for free consultation concerning your plan.


Case studies

Business Evaluation Services is a National Mystery Shopper Service Provider Quality, integrity and strong work ethics are our foundation to success. We offer a variety of mystery shopper programs and tools that can assist you in your efforts to increase your sales and company growth. By utilizing our customer service mystery shopping evaluation program, you will benefit by: • • • • •

Our secret shoppers help you gain insight into what your customers believe about your products Increased profitability through higher closing rates Growing your repeat base of business due to higher customer service satisfaction Our Mystery shopping program offers the ability to learn specific areas your employees could benefit from by additional training Higher retention rates due

. Industrial client Specifications There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction, and manufacturing; the tertiary sector, which deals with services (such as law and medicine) and distribution of manufactured goods; and the quaternary sector, a relatively new type of knowledge industry focusing on technological research, design and development such as computer programming, and biochemistry. A fifth quinary sector has been proposed encompassing nonprofit activities. The economy is also broadly separated into public sector and private sector, with industry generally categorized as private. Industries are also any business or manufacturing. Industry in the sense of manufacturing became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, which upset previous mercantile and feudal economies through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the steel and coal production. It is aided by technological advances, and has continued to develop into new types and sectors to this day. Industrial countries then assumed a capitalist economic policy. Railroads and steam-powered ships began speedily establishing links with previously unreachable world markets, enabling private companies to develop to then-unheard of size and wealth. Following the Industrial Revolution, perhaps a third of the world's economic output is derived from manufacturing industries—more than agriculture's share.


Many developed countries (for example the UK, the U.S., and Canada) and many developing/semi-developed countries (People's Republic of China, India etc.) depend significantly on industry. Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence.

Industrial development Main article: Industrialisation The industrial revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production, with consequent changes in society. Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot.

Declining industries Historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced. A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations toward a post-industrial society. This is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, and the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturing is relocated to more economically-favorable locations through a process of offshoring. pINgOMANI Industrial technology Main article: Industrial technology There are several branches of technology and engineering specialised for industrial application. This includes mathematical models, patented inventions and craft skills. See automation, industrial architecture, industrial design, industrial process, industrial arts and industrial applicability.

Industry and society Main article: Industrial society


An industrial society can be defined in many ways. Today, industry is an important part of most societies and nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution, financing and industrial labor.

Industrial labour Main article: Industrial labour Further information: industrial sociology, industrial and organizational psychology, industrial district, and industrial park In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population. This occurs typically in the manufacturing sector. A labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labor. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers. This movement first rose among industrial workers. Industrial organization

Industrial organization is a field of economics that studies the strategic behavior of firms, the structure of markets and their interactions. The study of industrial organization adds to the perfectly competitive model real-world frictions such as limited information, transaction cost, cost of adjusting prices, government actions, and barriers to entry by new firms into a market. It then considers how firms are organized and how they compete. Perhaps a most appropriate term is the "Economics of Imperfect Competition". The development of industrial organization as a separate field owed much to Edward Chamberlin, Edward S. Mason and Joe S. Bain. There are two major approaches to the study of industrial organization: the first approach is primarily descriptive and provides an overview of industrial organization. The second, price theory, uses microeconomic models to explain firm behavior and market structure. Structure, conduct, performance According to the structure-conduct-performance approach, an industry's performance (the success of an industry in producing benefits for the consumer) depends on the conduct of its firms, which then depends on the structure (factors that determine the competitiveness of the market). The structure of the industry then depends on basic conditions, such as technology and demand for a product. For example: in an industry with technology that the average cost of production falls as output increases, the industry tends to have one firm, or possibly a small number of firms.


Components that make up the structure, conduct, and performance model for industrial organization. Basic Conditions: Consumer Demand, Production, Elasticity of Demand, Technology, Substitutes, Raw Materials, Seasonality, Unionization, Rate of Growth, Product durability, Location, Lumpiness of orders, Scale of economies, Method of purchase, Scope economies Structure: Number of Buyers and Sellers, Barriers to entry of new firms, product differentiation, Vertical integration, Diversification Conduct: Advertising, Research and Development, Pricing behavior, Plant Investment, Legal Tactics, Product choice, Collusion, Merger and Contracts • •

Performance: Price, Production Efficiency, Allocative Efficiency, Equity, Product Quality, Technical Progress, Profits Government Policy: Regulation, Antitrust, Barriers to Entry, Taxes and Subsidies, Investment Incentives, Employment Incentives, Macroeconomic Policies

III. Economic planning system Development Feasibility and Implementation The feasibility of real estate development projects—whether they are "green field" developments, infill, or redevelopment—is affected by a complex set of market, financial, and political factors. While all development projects share common requirements to serve viable markets, meet financial underwriting criteria, and achieve public approvals, each project is unique in its particular circumstances. It is crucial to the success of each project that its unique issues be identified, analyzed, and resolved in the planning and implementation process in a manner that optimizes financial imperatives and public policy objectives. EPS brings a comprehensive understanding of these interrelated elements of project feasibility and a time-tested set of technical tools, capabilities, and experience to address them.

Development Impact Fees "Development impact fees" are one-time charges levied upon new development when building permits are issued and are used by local governments to fund capital improvements required to serve the new development. To meet constitutional (i.e., the Nolan and Dolan U.S. Supreme Court rulings) and statutory requirements (e.g., California's AB 1600), the amount of a given fee must be determined by a formula that is consistently applied and based upon a proportional distribution of costs


following "rational nexus" principles. Rational nexus means that a direct relationship exists between the fee charged to new development and the demonstrable need for public improvements and that the fee is proportional to benefits or impacts caused by new development.EPS prepares rigorous technical analyses for local jurisdictions that demonstrate the required rational nexus of a proposed impact fee to new development. The range of specific assignments Infrastructure Financing Plans EPS provides support for a wide range of local government activities necessary to fund and build capital improvements. We can help with planning facilities, arranging funding, and administering financing programs. Our goal is to ensure successful development projects and land use plans. We do that by preparing feasible financing plans that respond to public and private objectives and make creative use of available financing mechanisms. EPS services include: •

Forecasting demand

Identifying and forecasting potential funding sources

Allocating capital costs

Assessing the impacts of capital financing alternatives on project feasibility and public agency budgets

Analyzing the distribution of financial burden

Participating in public finance negotiations

Drafting development agreements formulating assessment rates

Applying special tax formulas

Supporting fee ordinances and resolution

Developing fee credit and reimbursement systems

School Facilities Development Providing a quality education and adequate school housing for all California students is an ever-increasing challenge. Statewide, the student population for K12 is expected to surge over the next decade. Many agencies are working to make sure California has adequate school housing, as are many private sector companies, such as developers, home builders, architects, and construction companies. EPS has experienced and qualified staff to assist clients in navigating the ins and outs of school financing. EPS offers an array of services to help school districts plan for the physical and financial needs of their schools including:


Comprehensive school facility master plans

School facility financing plans

Needs analyses

Pre-architectural services

Practice Areas

Local Government Organization Forms of "Government Organization" shape the quality and character of a community's economy and environment. A government structure provides communities with legal and financial mechanisms to construct and maintain infrastructure and manage public services. Local government organizations take many forms, and include special districts, cities, counties, and regional organizations. EPS's services often are required as a part of Local Agency Formation Commission proceedings (in California) or negotiations between existing entities involved in reorganizations or common purpose efforts. These proceedings and efforts include the formation of new government entities including municipal incorporation, annexations, special district formations, and joint exercise of powers organizations. As a part of its work, EPS typically prepares detailed pro forma budget forecasts for the new jurisdiction, documentation of alternative organizational options, and estimates of impacts upon existing entitie

Transit-Oriented Development After decades of auto dominance, cities throughout the country are planning and building new transit systems, including bus, light rail, commuter rail and high speed rail. While these systems will not replace the importance of automobile transport, they offer a valuable alternative mode choice, providing improved mobility and access to jobs and services for non-driving citizens. Perhaps more importantly, the improved access and the concentration of activity at station areas support infill and higher density development that can add to the vitality and sustainability of the urban fabric. EPS provides services related to transit-oriented development (TOD) including the following: •

Transit Corridor Studies

Station Area Planning

Station Area Development and Disposition


TOD-driven Revitalization Studies

Our work leveraging the benefits of transit is undertaken in a variety of settings from individual development projects around station areas, to district revitalization strategies, to development and disposition efforts on land served by transit.

Conservation Economics "Conservation economics" is the study of the economic and financial aspects of resource and land conservation. This work encompasses a range of land conservation efforts from local government open space and agricultural land preservation to the creation of public parks and parklands, economic evaluation of state and federal endangered species and wetland conservation mandates, implementation of habitat conservation programs, and technical support for conservation acquisitions. EPS prepares a range of technical analyses and services supporting land conservation. The range of specific assignments includes: •

Economic effects of parkland and open space

Open space and conservation implementation and acquisition programs

Economic effects of endangered species listings and habitat designations

Fiscal Impact Analysis Fiscal Analysis forecasts budgetary impacts resulting from new development or changes in the organization of services. Fiscal analysis analyzes operating revenues and service expenditures to determine net impacts. Two additional important questions are typically addressed by the analysis: (1) how, if at all, are levels of service affected; and (2) what measures can mitigate impacts on service levels and fiscal conditions? Fiscal impact studies are often completed within the context of: •

Land use plan evaluation and development project review

Financial negotiations between public and private entities

Reorganization of service providers

EPS utilizes computer models that emulate and forecast agency budgets based on input from affected agencies as well as case studies from similar projects. The forecasting assumptions draw on EPS's understanding of market analysis, infrastructure finance, and options for funding and organizing public services .


Retail Strategies Retail uses often provide the vitality that activates urban environments, giving identity and excitement to mixed-use developments and driving revitalization of moribund commercial centers and older downtown districts. They also are key contributors to local tax bases, helping to support vital municipal services . Understanding retail markets and the businesses that serve them is an essential tool to developing sound strategies for building and sustaining vital urban places. EPS provides a range of services related to creating, sustaining and reinvigorating retail commercial centers and districts. These include the following: •

Retail Market Studies

Town Center Development Strategies

Commercial Revitalization Strategies

Big Box Impact Studies

Retail/Mixed-Use Development and Disposition Agreements

These services are frequently provided in the context of multi-disciplinary planning teams, working for both public and private sector clients

Large-Scale Reuse and Development As our economy and urban areas mature and change, once vital military, maritime, railroad, airport and other such facilities have become obsolete and subject to redevelopment and reintegration into the urban fabric. These properties are often situated in prime locations and can become extremely valuable both from a financial and a community development standpoint. However, they typically require substantial investment in demolition, infrastructure, toxics remediation and site preparation, and are subject to contentious scrutiny from a host of governmental, community and interest groups. Managing the complex development, financial, and entitlement challenges in these projects is a demanding task. EPS has been extensively involved in the formulation of strategies and business terms to implement the reuse of obsolete facilities. Among the services we provide are: •

Military Base Reuse Business Planning

Military Base Conveyance Negotiations


Airport, Port and Other Facility Reuse Master Planning

Comprehensive Reuse Financing Programs

Developer Solicitation, Selection and Negotiations

Excess Property Disposition Strategy and Negotiations

EPS has been at the forefront of large-scale, complex property reuse, and has worked with planners, attorneys, engineers, developers and public agencies to develop innovative approaches

Urban Revitalization and Development As cities mature and economies change, downtowns and other urban districts can suffer from obsolescence and economic dislocation. Changing markets and competitive environments can leave these areas in a state of decline as they lose jobs and business customers and suffer from disinvestment and social maladies. Now, more than ever, it is essential that we reclaim declining districts and neighborhoods as "Greenfield" development on the periphery of urban areas becomes more difficult and limited. Restoring the vitality and function of older areas within the metropolitan economy will be a critical challenge to maintaining the health of our cities and neighborhoods from now on.

EPS brings to bear an integrated set of skills and experience to address redevelopment and revitalization challenges. Services provided include the following: •

Market Analysis

Economic Base Studies

Revitalization Strategies

Economic Development Strategies

Redevelopment Program Strategies and Financing

Disposition and Development Strategies

Implementation Programming

Developer Solicitation and Negotiations

EPS often works with multi-disciplinary teams to address the multiple challenges in restoring economic vitality to districts and neighborhoods. Our work is carried out in close collaboration with city staff and elected officials, local residents, property and business owners, and other stakeholders who are essential to successful implementation.


Asset Valuation and Repositioning EPS provides asset valuation and repositioning services for real estate owners, investors, and developers of distressed real estate properties. Market and financial analysis of properties under a range of development options is essential to understanding the current and potential value of a property and determining the best course of action regarding repositioning, restructuring, and/or disposition. Long a leader in providing real estate and public financing services to private and public development entities, EPS also assists banks, REITS, other real estate equity firms, and land-secured financing districts with an assessment of market and development conditions and potentials in a dynamic credit and financing environment. Examples of EPS's services include market and financial analysis and absorption studies to revalue and reposition the following: •

Master Planned Communities/Residential Developments

High-Density Housing and Mixed-Use Developments

Deteriorating Shopping Centers

Office Buildings and Business and R&D Parks.

State Governments and the Emergence of the New Economy Despite the recent downturn in the stock market and the uncertain fortunes of technology companies, increasing attention is being paid to the significant impact of the so-called “New Economy” on America’s future prosperity. The New Economy is more than just a handful of corporations and business startups, far more even than the Internet and World Wide Web. It represents an accelerating cycle of capital investment and job creation, fueled by increasing productivity and innovation in the production and distribution of goods and services. While the recession has put a temporary damper on economic expansion, brought about job losses, postponed investments, and increased bankruptcies, a new round of business and job growth can be expected, with technological advancement serving as an engine of economic competitiveness. Fundamentally, the New Economy is characterized by three key features of modern activity: it is knowledge- and information-based; it is technologyand communications-intensive; and it is globally oriented. Governors have recognized the vitality and importance of the long-term structural Such approaches include placing greater emphasis on strengthening higher education and university research, investing in transportation and infrastructure projects ranging from international airports to broadband telecommunications systems, promoting global trade networks for the state’s businesses, attracting and retaining technology companies


and highly skilled “knowledge” workers, encouraging venture capital investment and business financing for technology commercialization, and generating technology-focused industry clusters.

Why Governors and State Governments are Essential for Metropolitan Economic Strategy Every state government has power over local governments within its boundaries and responsibility for maintaining and enhancing prosperity and quality of life for the state’s citizens. In recognizing that metropolitan economic strategy is the most effective way to generate and enhance statewide prosperity, a state government is in the best position—better than the federal or local governments—to mobilize the concentrated resources needed to invest effectively in improving the state’s economic competitiveness in the global marketplace. State governments control the bulk of funding and decisionmaking in key areas such as transportation and infrastructure and play a major role in education, research, workforce development, environmental protection, trade promotion, taxes and regulations, and many other vital aspects of investments, incentives, business climate, technological innovation, and public policy. The bottom line is clear: metropolitan economic strategy cannot succeed without strong state government support, and states will not thrive economically without focusing increasingly on metropolitan strategies.

Metropolitan Economic Strategy: Jump-Starting Regional Economic Growth Every metropolitan region experiences economic growth or decline, regardless of whether there are comprehensive plans or coordinated initiatives. Metropolitan regions function as fully integrated economies in terms of the production and distribution of goods and services, and they will function as such with or without a coherent economic strategy. A critical determinant of a region’s success is the decisionmaking process of private-sector executives, investors, entrepreneurs, and consultants who are making facility location commitments in the global marketplace, especially their evaluation of the synergy and attractiveness of metropolitan regions as centers of innovation that can provide businesses .Out

Sourcing Trends

It was a long year of intense ups and downs in the IT outsourcing industry. Consolidation among vendors and interest in remote infrastructure management increased, while overall outsourcing demand and IT services pricing decreased.


The market for IT outsourcing is expected to rebound a bit in 2010, say industry watchers. For instance, more than 75 percent of the service providers polled by EquaTerra in the third quarter of this year reported continued growth in their deal pipeline, which was up 10 percent from the previous quarter and 34 percent from the same period last year. But don't expect too robust a revival. Outsourcing consultancy Everest predicts that although suppliers will see a resurgence in demand for IT and business process outsourcing services in 2009, growth rates are unlikely to return to pre-2008 levels. Both suppliers and outsourcing customers could be in for a bumpy ride in 2010. Here are 10 trends to look out for as the IT services industry finds its feet in the "new normal" of the post-recession. 1. Transformers 2. Sure, outsourcing customers will still want vendors to transform IT in 2010. But revolutionizing IT service delivery is expensive and difficult. "Optimization is the new transformation," says Mark Toon, CEO of outsourcing consultancy EquaTerra. "Ultimately, organizations will still want to 'transform' how they deliver back office services, but they typically will want to move in pragmatic, incremental steps and focus on achieving best in class, standardized and optimized delivery models." 2. If at First You Don't Succeed, Renegotiate. There has been an increase in the number of contracts being renegotiated and rebid during the past 12 months, according to outsourcing consultancy Compass America, and that will continue in 2010. "While many organizations remain keen to avoid the costs of new capital and migrating to new suppliers," says Tom Schramm, EquaTerra's managing director of finance and accounting, "investment is being made in ensuring existing suppliers and internal processes are delivering optimum value." 3. Multi-Sourcing Malaise. Multi-sourcing seems ideal in theory—work with best-inclass IT service providers and keep costs in check, thanks to the competition. In reality, it's been difficult at best and disastrous at worst for many customers. Organizations are reassessing their approach to selective sourcing and multi-sourcing, and realizing that they need to have a certain level of maturity in terms of processes, governance and vendor management in order to make the multi-vendor model work," says Bob Mathers, senior consultant with Compass America. "Organizations that have pursued multi-sourcing without investing in management capabilities are finding themselves longing for the problems they used to have with their one and only vendor." Watch for reevaluation and restructuring of these relationships next year. 4. Captive No More? While certain companies will continue to set up fully-owned IT delivery centers abroad, look for more captive center divestitures in the new year and a "marginally lower" number of new captives being set up, predicts Everest.


5. The Urge to Merge. The number of top-tier service providers shrunk this year, creating both challenges and opportunities for other vendors in 2010. "Consolidation at firms, including HP, EDS, Dell, Perot, ACS and Xerox, may represent an opportunity for their competitors," says Charles Arnold, managing director of EquaTerra's IT advisory for the Americas. "From acquiring former staff of top-tier providers to snapping up now empty chairs at the bidding table, competitive providers may be able to leverage this chance to grow capability and market share in 2010." The M&A party is likely to continue after we've rung in the new year. "This consolidation will most likely involve tier two and tier three providers, as they struggle to compete with the breadth and depth that their tier one competitors can offer," says David Rutchik, partner with outsourcing consultancy Pace Harmon. "We would not be surprised to see a non-offshore provider acquiring an offshore-based provider." Everest predicts that most consolidation in 2010 will focus on acquisitions of "adjacent and complementary capabilities across functions, verticals and geographies," as opposed to mergers solely to increase scale. 1. Offshoring to...America? The greenback has had a grueling year. That could play out in some interesting ways. "With the continued decline in value of the dollar and sluggish employment, I would expect to see more U.S.-based sourcing solutions evaluated by private and public sector clients across the globe," says Peter Iannone, EquaTerra's executive director for the Americas

Management consulting is becoming more prevalent in non-business related fields as well. As the need for professional and specialized advice grows, other industries such as government, quasi-government and non-for-profit agencies are turning to the same managerial principles that have helped the private sector for years. One important and recent change in the industry has been the spin-off or separation of the consulting and the accounting units of the large diversified firms. For these firms, which began business as accounting firms, management consulting was a new extension to their business. But after a number of highly publicized scandals over accounting practices, , accountancies began divestiture of their management consulting units, to more easily comply with the tighter regulatory scrutiny that follower.

Business Planning and Developing an Infrastructure  

Today's business success comes as a result of careful planning . You must have a detailed written business plan that clearly defines what th...

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