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ARCHITECTURE THROUGH SENSES

PREPARATORY CENTER FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN S

DESIGN THESIS Submitted by

SAJID ALI AMBALIYASANA BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

ITM SAAD, VADODARA

ACADEMIC SESSION 2012-17


CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Architectural Design work embodied in this thesis entitled (Architecture through senses) was carried out by (Sajid Ali) at (ITM SAAD-School of Architecture Art and Design) in partial fulfilment of Bachelor in Architecture to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This work has been carried out under guidance and supervision of team of Design Thesis mentors and it is up to the satisfaction.

Date : Place :

Seal of the Institute

Prof. Meena Duttagupta

Prof.Jignesh Vyas

Associate Dean ITM SAAD

Principal ITM SAAD


AUTHOR S DECLARATION I, Sajid Ali am a student registered for the course bachelor of architecture [Professional] in the year 2012. I hereby declare the following. I am aware that plagiarism [the use of someone else s work without permission and/ or without acknowledging the original sources] is wrong. I confirm that the work submitted for the assessment for the above course is my own unaided work except where I have stated explicitly otherwise. I have followed the required conventions in referencing the thoughts, ideas, and visual materials of others. For this purpose, I have referred to the university library and the works of Pallasmaa, j.j.Gibsson and ar. Charles correa. I understand that the university of art and architecture may take disciplinary action against me if there is a brief that this is not my unaided work or that I have failed to acknowledge the source of the ideas or words in my own work.

(Signature of student) Sajid Ali Ambaliyasana B.Arch, Semester-X 123521050071


TEAM OF MENTORS Prof. Jignesh Vyas

Prof. Babar Yahya

Prof. Anil Navangul

Prof. Prashant Mody

Asso. Prof. Ruhee Gala

Asso. Prof. Dr. Dipali Kulkarni

Asso. Prof. Dimpal Anandani

Primary Guide

External Examiner

Name:

Name:

Signature:

Signature:


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Those who helped me along the wayTHANKS To, My parents Anwar ali and Rukaiya banu, my brother Abid ali, my cousin Imdad ali, and my dearest pals Jay vakharia, Akshay Prakash, Er. Jaffer ali and many others for all their timely support, ideas and their encouragement. To, My thesis guide Prof. Prakash pethe for their timely support and involvement in design development and all the faculty members who enlightened me with the bright side of architecture and even supported me during my days of falter. To, The most amazing and wonderful friends Ar. Sandeep khasnavis, Ar. Yuvraj gunjal, Tejas gupta and to all other friend s at the ITM UNIVERSITY. To, The most inspiring and motivational designers Ar. Charles correa, Ar. Tadao ando and Ar. Loui.I.kahn whose work has always enlightened me in achieving most humanous and soulful design character every building craves for, and made me honest and polite towards my work.


ABSTRACT This thesis studies the increasing awareness of the connectedness of the body to architecture. It act s as a platform for sens.able/sensual design. To fully engage with architecture on a physical and mental level involves an openness to the realm of the sensory. This is derived from the propositions that our experience of space is mediated through the senses. The aim is to create an architecture, mediated through the senses, that can emphasis on physical and mental interaction between bodies and built spaces. Without ignoring the traditional design generators of the function and comfort, architecture primarily situates body as vessels for viewing at spaces. This thesis acknowledges that human bodies do more than look-they feel, smell, taste, touch and are touched, they are highly specific and variable. Throughout my 4 years of architecture education I have become more and more aware that we are connected with architecture from the very first moments of our life. Architecture an important part of our environment, affects our experiences, feelings, memories, and ultimately the decisions we make. To exploring the connection between architecture and human experience was the intention for my thesis. Whether positive or negative, everything created or done by man has an affect on his environment. Some people are more aware of their architectural environment and some are less but at the end we all live with it and have at least an unconscious impression of it. Based on these impressions and the consciously experienced details of our environment, of events we have feelings and make judgment s and decisions. The moment you enter in any sensible building it holds a command on you and makes long lasting impressions on your conscious or sometimes unconscious mind, the way ambiance is planned, colors, texture , quality of light, sound and materials these are the small details that makes one feel conscious about that moment and space with respect to time .


© Copyright by Sajid Ali Ambaliyasana 2017


DEDICATED To my family


Architecture is the art of reconciliation between ourselves and the world, and this meditation takes place through the senses -Pallasmaa

ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT VISION

Sense [able] Architecture accentuating the human experience of space

ARCHITECTURE THROUGH SENSES DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

Often, it is only when we cannot do something that we realize how important all elements involved in our actions are. Since we strive to attain a very high level of control of our environment in accordance with our human needs, we tend to assume that environmental factors would not restrict our individual abilities and actions. However, it is a common fact that nobody can see without light, and if there is too much noise we cannot listen to what we want to.

Only a creature that has the visual faculty characteristic of a man can also vicariously "see" by touch. The level of form-perception at the command of a creature will be essentially the same for both senses, incommensurable as they are in terms of their proper sensible qualities. Blind men can "see" by means of their hands, not because they are devoid of eyes but because they are being sendowed with the general faculty of "vision" and only happen to be deprived of the primary organ of sight. (Jonas,H., 1966:318)


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

CONTENTS

Acknowledgement Abstraction Chapter-01 (The fix-Prelude, Phenomenology, Psychology, Philosophy).....Pg-13 Chapter-02 (Introduction- defining the blindness).....Pg-29 Chapter-03 (Narrative- literature, law and sections).....Pg-54 Chapter-04 (Significance, statement of intent, justification).....Pg-65 Chapter-05 (Precedents, inferences, program).....Pg-69 Chapter-06 (Site selection- site analysis).....Pg-88 Chapter-07 (Conceptual program, design).....Pg-97 Conclusion Reference/Bibliography


THESIS FRAMEWORK Like all contemporary (and thus controversial) architectural topics, sense.able architecture has many implications and caveats. Its complexity and ambiguity must be addressed in order to be investigated acutely. This thesis document discusses the experiential value of architecture through the presentation of the topic in reference to theory behind it [theory], pertinent design methodologies [concepts], and the author s specific approach and application of the research [design]. To this end the paper will consist of five parts structured as follows;

OUTLINE

C1 / Relevancy

C2 / Theory

C3 / Precedent

C4 / Site

C5 /

>>

Design

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

framew ork

The first chapter has the function of a more elaborate introduction on why multisensory design is a topic relevant to research.

The second chapter takes a closer look at the theory behind experiencing space in architecture phenomenology.

The third chapter analyses precedents that bespeak the possibilities of designing for experience and the senses. Chapter four looks at the placement of the center through site identification site and context analysis.

Chapter five introduces concepts of material and space applications to address the sensory experience of architecture as well as outlines the execution of an Islamic cultural center for the public in response to the topic of bodily engagement in critique of flat architecture.


I have always thought it would be a blessing if each person could be blind and deaf for a few days during his early adult life. Darkness would make him appreciate sight; silence would teach him the joys of sound. - Hellen keller (Blind and deaf)

13


THE FIX

The issue with society + architecture Issue!

society + architecture = vision dominates other senses

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

chapter-01


THE BEGINNING

.

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

PRELUDE

This Prelude provides a foundation for the argument concerning the need for sensory balance by focusing in on the issue modern society s overreliance on vision. This is done by discussing the hegemony of image in modern consciousness, by explaining the role and nature of the image , and deprivation of sensory involvement in modern life. Next to this it will reveal some of my bias towards the topic of sensual architecture, for no piece of writing is ever fully objective. Like any theoretical argument, the views shared in the next chapter, or the entire thesis for that matter, might not be shared by all. However I feel that a critique of the state of architecture has to be first evaluated according to the current state of our society. To help support my thesis and build a theoretical foundation, I draw my first argument from the debate by theorists who view our current society as an ocularcentric society.


.

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

THE ORIGIN

Arguably, the most reflected and discussed human sense through the history of philosophy has been vision. Likewise, architecture, since the eighteenth century has predominantly focused its practice, theory, education and critique of the eye, emphasizing form, geometry and focused Gestalt. Until the early beginnings of modernity, architecture aspired to express the order of the world through proportionality as an analogue of cosmic harmony (Pallasmaa, 2005 p. 2). As early as the time of Plato and Aristotle, philosophical writings have been abounded with ocular metaphors that analogize knowledge as clear vision and light as a metaphor of truth.


OBJECT OF STUDY

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this thesis is to understand the issues involved with creating a building that stimulates the senses to offer a more intimate connection with space. It has its roots in the theory of phenomenology, therefore its fundamental concepts will be explored at a base level, however phenomenology is an encompassing theory that is too broad, immeasurable and unpredictable a topic to delve into too deeply on its own. Instead I have focused on what is at the core of phenomenological thinking accentuating the experience of space. To do this I have focused in on the relationship between experience and its source (external stimuli) - which is mediated through the senses.

Considering sensorial qualities, there is a predetermination and intention behind the material and spatial language employed, and the ramifications this has on experience. Conventionally, vision (or aesthetics) in all probability is considered, overtly - to a point where a sensorial hierarchy exists to our sensual experience of space. The problem is while architecture, as it stands, is dominated by vision, the other sensors remain over stimulated or underdifferentiated. I share the criticism by phenomenologist s that this visual bias results in homogenous and banal architecture devoid of any lived, sensual experiences. Sensual implies an experience that gratifies the senses. Lived experience implies experiencing space not only physically, but mentally as well. The main concept and designing criteria s will be based on the 5 human senses. The objective of this thesis is to understand the issues involved with creating a building that stimulates the senses to offer a more intimate connection with space. It has its roots in the theory of phenomenology, however phenomenology is a vast subject but I will be exploring its core dimensions of it-accentuating the experience of space. To do this I will be focusing on relation between architectural space and human body. In this thesis I will explore what it means to design with the senses by pushing the limits of sensory design. My concept is to merge the field of landscape architecture and the relating scientific fields is a concept that has not been researched. There are lot of people who suffer from depression, unhealthy lifestyles, dark thoughts, stress, feeling lost and miserable . The unhealthy inner being is the origin of all the problems in society-related to crime, and social as well as economical. This project is intended to bring positivity and good will power in them to stand in a society.


/

/ taste /how does this space taste?

how does this space sound? hear

smell how does this space smell?

/

touch how does this space feel?

Issue: aside from function - the question I most ask m yself when designing is concerned with vision.

F 1.1

uneven echoes shouting

shadow

laughing

walls

ripple

splash friends playing

water splashing talking music

hear

see smell taste

pool light water girl standing

wet sharp

sour sweet

touch

bitter

cold hot

wet shadow bumpy

chlorine

smooth hard hot slippery soft

F 1.2

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

see/how does this space look?

The goals is: accentuating certain senses in certain spaces, NOT sensory overload.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

ARCHITECTURE AND HUMAN SENSES

A research about the senses in relation to architecture and their status of importance in current architecture.

At first, the question of senses in architecture seems to be un necessary. Buildings are rather functional constructs that, if possible, should include an aesthetical component. Besides the functional demands the question for design should be how the people feel inside the building and how they are going to experience the space. Not only in terms of how the space looks, but also how it touches, how it smells, sounds and maybe even tastes. Architecture is a multisensory experience. Architects should make use of these facts to create buildings that are more intense. The 5 main senses are vision, taste, touch, smell, and hearing. But it is agreed that there are at least seven senses for humans, and a minimum of two more in other species. VISION- has a strong connection to architecture. The first impression we get from architecture relies most of the time on first view that we get on it. And still we perceive architecture with all our senses. From the beginning of time vision is considered as the important sense. Plato regarded vision as humanity s greatest gift.

TOUCH- an intimate sense- The eye is the organ of distance, whereas touch is the sense of nearness, intimacy and affection. The eye observes and investigates, whereas the touch approaches and feels. We can feel if a room is brightly lid or if it is a dim. In the same way as we can feel the sunlight on our skin. So light is a good method to address touch in architecture. But the skin can sense more things, it can read texture, weight, density and temperature of matter.

ACOUSTIC- the silent sense- Hearing is a very incorporating sense. It is omni rectional, not focused like vision. A view at a building will not show the person watching the building but a building will return the sound of a person walking in it and listening to the sound. And still most of the time acoustic remain an unconscious background experience but in the right places it can create the right atmosphere for almost spiritual sceneries. SMELL- space s odor- One in a million we need only a little amount of molecules of substance to trigger an impulse of smell in a nerve end, and we can smell more than ten thousand different scents. If it is a new scent it is possible to remember the scent and identify it again later. These could be


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

used in architecture to stimulate emotions, to guide, or to distract. Every city has its own smell in the same way every building has a smell.

TASTE- more a combination of two- The taste of architecture. The human tongue can only distinguish among 7-8 distinct type of taste, while the nose can distinguish among hundreds of substances, even in minute quantities. Olfaction amplifies the sense of taste. This rule is also applicable to taste in architecture. It turns out clear that there is not a literal taste of architecture since the ferry tale of Hansel and Gretel. And still architecture can stimulate the sense of taste. In this case together with the sense of vision not with smell. Vision becomes transferred to taste. Certain colors and delicate details evoke oral sensation. A delicately colored, polished stone surface is subliminally sensed by the tongue .


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

THE EYES OF THE SKIN

Juhani Pallasmaa, in his book Eyes of the Skin approaches experiences of the world in a multi-sensory way, focusing especially on the built environment. Architecture must strive to provide an experience to engage all the senses. Pallasmaa states, It is evident that life-enhancing architecture has to address all the senses simultaneously, and help to fuse our image of self with the experience of the world (12). How have we perceived the world of vision in the past and why is this important for us to know? The invention of drawing in perspective view focused our attention on the eye [as] the center point of the perceptual world as well as the concept of the self (18). People began to consider eyesight as the center of the world. Descartes regarded vision as the most universal and noble of the senses (22), yet he also considered touch equal to vision. Touch, according to Descartes, was more certain and less vulnerable to error than vision (22). Through personal experience, I have discovered that vision does not answer all questions of perception. There are things that you must touch in order to understand completely. We not only perceive with eyesight, but with all the senses. Pallasmaa quotes Maurice Merleau-Ponty, saying My perception is [therefore] not a sum of visual, tactile and audible givens; I perceive in a total way with my whole being: I grasp a unique structure of the thing, a unique way of being, which speaks to all my senses at once (23).

figure- 1.3- the eyes of the skin


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

How do we experience the world? Pallasmaa states, An architectural work is not experienced as a collection of isolated visual pictures, but in its fully embodied material and spiritual presence (48). Specific snapshots and images from our sequential experiences are remembered specifically. As we walk through a space, we notice movement and how our body relates to that space. We confront architecture and it affects our memory. A meaningful architectural experience is not simply a series of retinal images. The elements of architecture are not visual units or Gestalt; they are encounters, confrontations that interact with memory (67). Design must interact with emotions, senses, and memory to provide a meaningful experience. Our views of perception are constantly changing. We have begun to notice our other senses. Ashley Montagu, an anthropologist, is quoted by Pallasmaa saying, We in the Western world are beginning to discover our neglected senses. This growing awareness represents something of an overdue insurgency against the painful deprivation of sensory experience we have suffered in our technological world (41). Pallasmaa refers to this new awareness of the senses as a projection from numerous architects around the world who are attempting to re-sensualize architecture. This resensualization occurs through the increased use and sense of materiality, hapticity, texture, weight, density, space, and light. Through experience and interaction with this architecture in a personal way, experience becomes more personal and less distant. This thesis aims to describe principles which encourage this re-sensualization of architecture.

figure- 1.4- new york museum for the blind


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

THE EMBODIED IMAGE

We tend to focus on vision as the primary sense, leaving our other senses under-utilized. We subconsciously use these other senses more than we realize. Regardless of the immediate character of visual perception, paradoxically we have already unconsciously touched a surface before we become aware of its visual characteristics; we understand its texture, hardness, temperature, moisture instantaneously. (p52) Architecture is not just about visual image; rather, it is about embodied image. The embodied image is a spatialized, materialized, and multi-sensory lived experience (p11). Architectural design should take into account the role of the body and our personal relationship to it. If we detach ourselves, architecture becomes merely an image and we deny any sort of interaction with it. The image is usually thought of in terms of the purely visual and fixed picture, but a characteristic quality of the senses is their tendency to mingle and integrate; a visual image is always accompanied with repercussions connotating experiences in other sense modalities (p51). Architecture is able to emphasize these interactions our senses have with our environment and give us a heightened realization of our perception. Thus, the impact of architecture on the human experience is too deeply existentially rooted to be approached solely as an element of visual design. (p124)

figure- 1.5- A blind beggar and his boy- Jose de Ribera- Allen memorial museum


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

THE THINKING HAND

We are not usually aware that an unconscious experience of touch is unavoidably concealed in vision. As we look, the eye touches, and before we see an object, we have already touched it and judged its weight, temperature, and surface texture (p101). This book examines the relationship between the brain and hand as it pertains to perception of our environment. It analyzes the essence of the hand and its seminole role in the evolution of human skills, intelligence, and conceptual capacities (p21). The hand is an integral part of our society. Without it, we would not be able to function even more so than if we did not have vision. How does our hand relate back to our brain and what is the relationship between the brain and the hand? Pallasmaa quotes Wilson in The Hand as he says, The brain does not live inside the head, even though it is its formal habitat. It reaches out to the body, and with the body it reaches out to the world. We can say that the brain ends at the spinal cord, and that the spinal cord ends at the peripheral nerve, and the peripheral nerve ends at the neuromuscular junction, and on and on down to the quarks, but brain is hand and hand is brain, and their interdependence includes everything else right down to the quarks (p33). A professor at the University of Virginia named Sanda Iliescu teaches drawings to students through the sense of touch. The students are not able to see the objects they are assigned to draw; rather, they must read into a cubic volume made of black cloth and figure out the object through the sense of touch. It is remarkable that students pay attention to entirely different characteristics and qualities of objects in their drawings when observing them through their hands instead of the eyes. (p95). The drawings made from visual observance are drastically different in ambience compared to those made by tactile observance. This conversation ties in to talk about computer- generated designs. This is a highly debated topic in the context of architectural design. Ashley Montagu is an anthropologist who comments on the role of skin as one of our organs. [The skin] is the oldest and the most sensitive of our organs, our first medium of communication, and our most efficient protector [ ] Even the transparent cornea of the eye is overlain by a layer of modified skin [ ] Touch is the parent of our eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. It is the sense which became differentiated into the others, a fact that seems to be recognized in the ageold evaluation of touch as the mother of the senses (p100).


The experience of space

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

PHENOMENOLOGY

At the heart of my thesis is the objective of amplifying the senses in architecture, however it was essential to me that it goes deeper than simply the amplification of the senses to avoid superficiality. By focusing on sensual stimulation, it is important to understand the motive behind this action. This led me on to the path of understanding what sensual stimulation means to the body on mental level, and this is where the theory of phenomenology comes into play- phenomenologists writings are concerned broadly with exploring the ontological significance of architecture. There is a tendency in modern architecture to perceive space as abstract, removed from the body and emotions. Space in the phenomenology mould it is to be perceived not as abstract, neutral space, but as the space of lived experience . Therefore phenomenology offers a depth model for understanding the human experience in architecture. From the offset, it is important to note that although there are many aspects to the theory of phenomenology, once eroded to its most basic level, it can be understood as the enriching of experience of space. THE RELEVANCE OF PHENOMENOLOGY WITH THE SENSES

Norberg schulz in his book Genius loci (1980) proposes that, phenomenology was conceived as a returned to things a opposed to abstractions and mental constructions . Ultimately arguing for the architectural language that caters for experience, perception and stimulates the full penchant of our senses through a return to essential architectural elements lost in modern architecture. This shift in articulation places man at the center of the architecture and reenlist a space-body dialogue by uniting us with the built environment through an architectural language that promotes intimacy and is done according to the human senses. The challenge lies not in a single sensory experience, but space that stimulates more than one sense. Pallasmaa proclaims that every touching experience of architecture is multisensory; qualities of space, matter and scale are equally measured by eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue, skeleton and muscles (pallasamaa-2000). Multi sensory stimulation is explained by James j Gibson , not in terms of our five senses as we know them namely smell, taste, see, hear and feel, but rather as a collection of these. He describes them as five sensory systems that include visual systems, auditory systems, the taste-smell systems, the basic orienting system and the haptic system,(pallasamaa-2005). Lefebvre maintains that space should be experienced by the means of the body walks, tastes, smells and quite simply lives in a space , and not read,(wiles-2003).


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

CONCLUSION

I believe there is a correlation between phenomenology and the development of the senses. If we interpret phenomenology in architecture as enriching the experience of space, and that, our body is the subject of this experiences- then the idea of the amplifying the senses is quite helpful. However moving beyond the senses towards methods that trigger and create emotions and memories is imperative to the concept of phenomenology in architecture and should be utilized. One of the key aspects to phenomenology is that: essentially a space is physically experienced, but is not just physical space, it is mental too. In other words, our experience of a space happens in our imaginations as much as in physical reality. Its that, there is a very real meaning to space. Because we are fundamentally beings that are spatial- space as it is conceived, interpreted and understood through the experience of the occupant is as real as the physical built brick and mortar . Physical space is linked to a mental space through human experience. Therefore as a designer, I think you are part phenomenologist if you are interested in sensory/imaginary/experience of the space you are designing. Therefore this thesis take this position it is a exploration of phenomenology through human senses.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

PSYCHOLOGY

HOW DO WE PERCEIVE SPACE- The origin of all possible reflections about the relations we establish in space and within space is rooted in our human condition. WE cannot analyze human perception outside a time space context, anymore than study space from any contingence other than human. In the efforts to understand these relations different categories can be distinguished. Since we all perceive, and live in the world, we take for granted our abilities to understand our spatial environments. However this implicit knowledge about our own capacities is not enough to support a deeper comprehension of how our senses work to do so. Nor is it sufficient to a comprehension of how we perceive different spatial organizations and how they influence our feelings and understanding. The original Aristotelian classification of five senses- vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste- as channels of sensations, relates different kind of stimuli from the external world to a corresponding organ. We see with our eyes, we hear with our ears, we touch with our hands and skin, we smell with our nose and we taste with our mouth.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

PHILOSOPHY

My philosophy is important in my design as it acts to unify elements within the concept. Eastern philosophies have held an influence on many of my designs.. Bringing people into an awareness of their space is what I can offer for others to help bring them back to themselves and into the realization of the space you are in.


Then let us all do what is right, strive with all our might toward the unattainable, develop as fully as we can the gifts god has give us, and never stop learning. - Beethoven (Deaf)

29


DEFINING THE BLINDNESS

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

chapter-02


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

INTRODUCTION

Blind architecture. Architecture for the blind. Architecture without vision. What is architecture if you cannot see? How can we ignore our visual world to focus on perception through the other senses we so often forget? I woke up one summer morning a few weeks after graduating high school and was struck with the reality that, overnight, I had lost part of the vision in my left eye. After the immediate shock and the mysterious sudden loss of part of my retina, I realized just how valuable vision was. If I lost my eyesight, how would I live? How is a blind person supposed to navigate daily life? The blind utilize their other senses all of them in an integrated manner. Those of us who are sighted largely ignore these other senses. How might the designed world better orient and guide the visually-impaired? Can the designed world heighten the utilization of the non-visual senses? How might the designed world provide similar experiences to the visually-adept and visually-impaired? This thesis will begin with the process of researching through reading, precedent analysis, site visits, and interviews. Readings consist of varying topics those relating to architecture, cognitive psychology, phenomenology, universal design, sensation, and perception. Precedent analysis not only takes place in the two-dimensional study of plans, sections, and perspectives, but will also look at the different ways specific scenarios are represented. These scenarios include space, path, transition, and threshold. Site visits will be conducted to experience certain precedents. Oliver Sacks in Pallasmaa s The Embodied Image1 states, The world of the blind, of the blinded, it seems, can be especially rich in in-between states the inter sensory, the meta modal states for which we have no common language. And all of these blend into a single fundamental sense, a deep attentiveness, a slow, almost pre hensible attention, a sensuous, intimate being at one with the world which sight, with its quick, flickering, facile quality, continually distracts us from (p54). This quote opened me up to thinking about who actually has the handicap. Are the blind handicapped because they cannot see the world around them? Or are the sighted handicapped because their vision consumes and dulls all the other senses? I intend that this project will result in a raised awareness of how all the senses may be used to experience a place and what the architect s role in engaging these senses can be. My hypothesis is that there need not be a major difference between architecture for the blind and architecture for the sighted. It is important to note that multi-sensory design is needed across the full spectrum of senses. My goal is to design a space or spaces that will bring the blind and sighted together to learn about perception without vision.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

A common misconception is that a blind person cannot see anything, that someone who is blind sees nothing but empty black. The following series of images will portray different views a person with varying degrees of visual loss or impairment may experience. The original scene is shown below in .This is an image taken on the coast of Aperlae, Turkey. The object slightly to the right of center is an ancient tomb, which has been partially submerged with other portions of the ancient city.

figure- 1.6- Coast of Aperlae- Turkey


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

Pictures flatten the world around us, so the latter image is not what the eye sees originally. There are two eyes feeding information to the brain; therefore, we essentially have two images that feed into a stream of information and relay one image back to the brain. The visual field chart, portrayed in figure 1.7, shows the degree or cone of vision that a normal sighted person can see using both eyes. The two circles are representative of the left and right eyes, portraying the center of vision with the smallest circles.

figure- 1.7


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

The image of the coastline of Aperlae, Turkey (seen previously in figure 1.7), actually appears differently as it first enters the eyes. Laying the image over a visual field chart, we can see how this information is first reflected back onto the retina. figure- 1.8 portrays the vision of a person with full visual field and 20/20 visual acuity.

figure- 1.8


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

VISION LOSS

While it has no official definition, vision loss is a slight inability to see. This degree of loss will have a small effect on the individual, but not affect daily life too drastically. figure- 1.9 portrays 20/40 visual acuity, while figure- 2.0 portrays a scotoma in the eye.

figure- 1.9

figure- 2.0


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

Visual impairment, like vision loss, has no official definition but will be examined as a significant loss in vision. This is still not considered as legal blindness. Portrayed in the next few images are 20/70 acuity, 20/100 acuity, bitemporal hemianopsia , inferior hemianopsia , and a 40 degree cone of vision (figure 2.1).

figure- 2.1


figure- 2.3

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

figure- 2.2


figure- 2.5

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

figure- 2.4


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

LEGAL BLINDNESS

A person is legally blind if central visual acuity is 20/200 or less in the better eye with best possible correction, or that the visual field is 20 degrees or less. The following figures portray 20/200 visual acuity (figure 2.6) and a 20 degree cone of vision (figure 2.7).

figure- 2.6

figure- 2.7


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

TOTAL BLINDNESS

Total blindness, as the name implies, is when a person cannot neither see form nor make out lightness and darkness. This is portrayed in figure 2.8.

figure- 2.8


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND INTERVENTION

Early eye-examination is of utmost importance. All eye surgeons have been exposed to the frustration of an adult when informed that nothing can be done to improve vision in the lazy (amblyopic) eye. This can be prevented to a great extent if it can be detected around the age of 3 4years. It has been observed that 24 per cent have refractive errors and many of these errors are present at birth and go un-noticed for a long time. It is so more often when there is an imbalance of errors between the two eyes. SIGNS TO WATCH OUT FOR EARLY DETECTION (As Adopted by UNICEF)• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

General symptoms that may occur from birth Squints or blinks when looking at something. The eyes are crossed. Favors one eye more than the other when looking at an object. One or both of the eyes turn in or out. The pupils are hazy. Eyes are tearing excessively, they are red, or the eye-lids are encrusted with matter. Turns or tilts head abnormally. Has frequent or persistent sties. General Symptoms that may occur from 0-3 Months Child does not follow an object in his visual field. Child does not play with his hands. General Symptoms that may occur from 3-6 Months Child does not reach for toys in his visual field. Child does not make eye contact when being fed or cuddled. Child does not visually inspect objects in his hand.

General Symptoms that may occur from 6-9 Months• Child s motor skills such as rolling over, sitting or crawling. do not develop. • Child does not appear to discriminate between similar objects or people. • Child does not pick up small objects successfully. General Symptoms that may occur from 9-12 Months• Child shuts or covers one eye when focusing. • Child holds playthings very close to eyes. • Child bumps into large objects when crawling.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

• Child rubs his eyes excessively. • Child does not attempt to grasp spoon or cup when being fed. • Child does not appear to notice interesting or bright coloured objects that are at short distance. • Child does not imitate simple motor play such as waving bye-bye. General Symptoms that may occur from 2-5 Years• Stumbles over small objects. • Bumps into large objects, is clumsy and awkward. • Not interested in games involving catching, throwing, bouncing or tagging. • Not interested in tasks that require sustained visual concentration.

General Symptoms that may occur from School Age. Teacher or parent may observe in the child• Body is rigid while looking at distant or near objects. • Short attention span and daydreams. • Places head close to book or desk when colouring, reading or writing. • Uses unusual or fisted pencil grasp, frequently breaking pencil. • Has a spidery, excessively sloppy, or very hard to read hand writing. • Closes or covers one eye. • Dislikes tasks requiring sustained visual concentration; feels nervous, irritable, restless or unusually fatigued after maintaining visual concentration. • Loses place while reading and uses the finger or marker to guide the eyes. • Difficulty in remembering what is read. • Skips words and re-reads. • Difficulty remembering, identifying, and reproducing basic geometric forms. • Difficulty in sequential concepts. • Poor eye-hand coordination and unusual awkwardness including difficulty with stairs, throwing and catching ball, buttoning and unbuttoning and tying. • Gets easily frustrated, withdrawn and has difficulty in getting along with children.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

EDUCATION OF THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED

Education must aim at giving the blind child a knowledge of the realities around him, the confidence to cope with these realities, and the feeling that he is recognized and accepted as an individual in his own right. - Berthold Lowenfeld WHAT IS EDUCATION

Special Education- UNESCO (1983) has provided the most comprehensive and appropriate definition of special education. Special education is a form of education provided for those who are not achieving, or are not likely to achieve through ordinary educational provisions, the level of educational, social and other attainments appropriate to their age, and which has the aim of furthering their progress towards these levels . It includes integrated as well as residential school education. Gideon, John and others (1992) also consider special education as instruction that is designed to meet the needs of children who cannot profit from the regular curriculum. Carter s Dictionary of Education as reported by Bernardino (1963) defines special education as: The education of the pupils who deviate so from the relatively homogeneous group of so-called `normal pupils that the standard curriculum needs, involves modification of the standard curriculum in content, method of instruction, and expected rate of progress to provide optimum educational opportunities for such people . Jangira (1986), however, defines special education as the process of making educational provisions to meet special educational needs of children which can not be met by the arrangements available in ordinary education. By implication, both education of the talented and education of the disabled come within the purview of special education. Johnson (1994) disputes this contention and advocates that the traditional term special education is proposed to describe education of students with disabilities carried out entirely in an outside, parallel school system. To explain Special Education, Stein (1990) prefers the Greek term Pedagogy which means Take a child by the hand and lead him into life . The greatest challenge is to lead children out of school and prepare them for life. According to UNESCO (1983) Pedagogy is the systematic set of rules, or science involved in special education. The French term Pedagogie Speciale ; Spanish term Pedagogia.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

Especial ; and Russian term Pedagogika Special naja cover all branches of the science of education dealing with the upbringing and education of a typical children (UNESCO, 1983). Pedagogy, thus covers all branches of education of the children with all categories of disabilities and includes special as well as integrated education. RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL

According to Frampton & Kerney (1953), residential school for the visually impaired may be defined as:

A boarding school offering education and care to blind children from ages three to twenty-one, or from pre-school through the high school. Educationally speaking, these schools attempt to provide complete education and care for the blind children. These services include medical, academic, musical, social, vocational courses, placement, and follow-up. Tutle (1986) also confirms that the oldest, the most comprehensive and the most expensive delivery model is the residential school. It provides basic array of services: Instructional services including classroom, educational materials and equipment, offices and storage, teachers, aides and other specialists; • Food services including fully equipped kitchen, dining room, cooks, and other personnel; • Residential services including furnished rooms, linen, laundry, house-parents, and other personnel; • Extracurricular and recreational services, both on the campus and the community; • Health-care services including clinic and medical staff; • Maintenance and administrative services. The entire campus of the residential school is designed, equipped and staffed specifically to meet the needs of the visually impaired children. In addition to the classroom teachers, there may be other specialists in physical education, orientation & mobility, activities of daily living, music, craft teaching, occupational therapy, career counselling, vocational counselling, social work and psychology. The educational materials, educational and mobility devices and specialized equipment are accessible to all the students throughout the campus.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

Gideon, John and others (1992) have defined residential school as: A school in which the pupils are provided dormitory accommodation and live apart from normal family environment other than holidays and weekends. Generally, a residential school avails grant-in-aid from the State Department of Social Welfare or such other department. It avails and mobilizes public support as donations, endowments, sponsorship of meals or special events. The residential schools are symbols of public charity, pity and compassion for the visually impaired children. Most schools are managed by public

Charitable organizations and supported by the State Departments of Social Welfare.According to Lowenfeld (1983), however, the residential school for the blind has undergone a decisive change in character. It is no longer an institution which children enter with the expectation that they will remain there until graduation, returning to the regular world only for vacation. It no longer harbors groups of youngsters which remain, by and large, unchanged for many years until their members are scattered into a world from which they have for a long time been apart. The school for the blind no longer is an organization that has practically no contact with the stream of life in the general public school system of the state. It is a part of the stream into which it channels the pupils who have become adjusted, and from which it receives those who need special training or temporary adjustment.

Frampton (1953) emphasize that the residential school has outlasted many social, educational, and economic changes and survives today rigorous and alert to its task. It will remain a bulwark for the future, insuring to the visually impaired the most productive and practical method of teaching. INTEGRATED EDUCATION

It refers to the measures taken to provide educational resources, within the ordinary educational system, for those children who need them, the aim of integration is to avoid or reduce restrictions on any aspects of a child s development which might result from segregated education. To Kristiansen (1989) to be integrated means to be transferred from a segregated or isolated position to an ordinary environment, with the rights and obligations that are linked to it.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

According to Namgayel (1985) integrated education refers to meaningful involvement of such youngsters into on going regular educational programme to whatever extent it is feasible and beneficial, in a given instance, with the ultimate goal being optimal academic and social as well as personal learning of each child. According to Mani integrated education means providing equal educational opportunities and experiences to children with disabilities with the assistance of a trained specialist teacher in the least restrictive environment such as a regular school. Integration is also referred to as day school, common school, ordinary school, regular school, normal school, standard school movement. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

As adopted in the Salmanca Framework for Action, Article 7, the fundamental principle of the inclusive school is that all children should learn together, wherever possible, regardless of any difficulties or differences that they may have. Inclusive school must recognize and respond to the diverse needs of their students, accommodating both different styles and rates of learning and ensuring quality education to all through appropriate curricula, organizational arrangements, teaching strategies, resource use and partnership with committees. There should be a continuum of support and services to match the continuum of special needs encountered in every school. Johnson (1994) provides most comprehensive definition of inclusive education: It is a flexible and individualized support system for children and young people with special educational needs (because of a disability or for other reasons). It forms an integral component of the overall education system, and is provided in regular schools committed to an appropriate education for all.

Johnson (1994) lists the following distinguishing features of inclusive education• It preferably takes place in a regular class, in the student s nearest, regular school. • Separation from the regular class environment, whether partially or in exceptional cases fully, occurs only where there is evidence that education in a regular class, accompanied by supplementary support and services,


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

• fails to meet educational, emotional and social needs of such students. • It recognizes, and responds to, the diversity of children s needs and abilities, including differences in their ways and paces of learning. • It encourages use of individualized teaching methods, adapted curricula and teaching devices. • It is a team work of the whole school with class teacher provided with the following support services plays the major role: • Supply of special teaching aids and material. • Availability of assistance by parents, volunteers or older students. • Modification or adaptation of physical environment, curriculum, time table and evaluation procedure as per specific needs of the child. • Provision of in service training to upgrade knowledge and skills of the class teacher. • Appropriate services of guidance and counselling. Johnson (1994) concludes that with careful planning, it should be possible to meet the unique needs of all students within one unified system of education a system that recognizes and accommodates for differences. The following words of Benget Lindqvist, United Nations Special Rapporteur on Disability amply clarify the concept of inclusive education (UNESCO, 1998).

It is not our education systems that have a right to certain types of children. It is the school system of a country that must be adjusted to meet the needs of all children . SIGNIFICANCE DIFFERENCE

Education per se is generally defined on the basis of aims or objectives, while special education is defined on the basis of the educant and the mechanics or arrangement for his education. Special education has the same objective as general education. There is improvement in the method, mode and system of imparting instructions as per the specific needs of the select target group. All modes of education - residential, integrated and inclusive have the same goal of formal education of the disadvantaged groups. They, however, differ in the means of achieving the same. The residential education focuses at attainment of education through special schools, whereas integrated education aims at providing education to disadvantaged children within the


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

ordinary educational system. Mainstreaming in the United States, Integration in the United Kingdom and India, Normalization in Scandinavian countries, though differing in conceptual and operational nuances, have the common denominator of educating children with special needs, as far as possible, in ordinary schools (Jangira, 1986). STATUS OF EDUCATION OF THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED INDIA Acceptance in the Constitution

The basic structure of the Constitution of India as reflected in the Preamble ensures social, economic and political justice as well as equality of status and of opportunity to all citizens of India. It is thus constitutional obligation of the State to ensure equal justice and equality to all citizens including persons with disabilities and other marginalized groups of people. Similarly, the Directive Principles of State Policy embody the aims and objects of the State under the republican Constitution e.g. that it is a Welfare State. In other words, it shall strive to promote welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which social, economic and political justice shall inform all the institutions of normal life The State policy regarding right to work in case of disablement is enshrined in the Directive Principle under Section 41 of the Constitution of India. It states that the State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved wants. MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION OF THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED Residential Schools

Stein traces the beginning of the education of the visually impaired to a letter written by Diderot during 1748 and published in a newspaper in Paris as Letter about the blind for the use of those who can see . Dr. Diderot, a physician by profession had two visually impaired friends who influenced his thinking. It was only during 1784, that Mr. Valentin Huay established the first school for the visually impaired in Paris. Mr. Louis Braille, a student of this school later on


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

went and invented the embossed six dot system of reading and writing, now popularly known as Braille.

Frampton (1953), however, maintains that in the United States, groups of visually impaired children were first taught in a residential school on 15 March, 1832 and in a public school (integrated education) on 17 September, 1900 RESIDENTIAL EDUCATION IN INDIA

• 1887: Soon the good news travelled abroad. Miss Annie Sharp, a missionary, founded the first school for the visually impaired in India at Amritsar. It was shifted to Dehradun during 1903, now called the Sharp Memorial School for the Blind after its founder. • Mr. Bihari Shah started Calcutta School for the Blind. • 1889: An institution for the visually impaired run by the Canadian Presbyterian Mission established at Indore. • 1890: Ms. A. K. Askwith established the Palayamkottai School for the Blind • 1893: Ms. O Connor founded a class for the visually impaired at Ranchi • 1896: The Canadian Presbyterian Mission started a class for the visually impaired at Ujjain. • 1900: Mukti Mission established a Home for the Blind at Kodgaon, Poona. Ms. Millard founded the American Mission School for the Blind which was subsequently renamed as the Dadar School for the Blind. • 1900: Mr. M.M. Srinivas established the School for the Deaf and the Blind at Mysore. • 1902: The Victoria Memorial School for the Blind established in Mumbai. • 1915: The Baroda State founded the Mehsana School for the Blind. • 1917: N.S.D. Industrial Home for the Blind established in Mumbai. • 1919: The Blind Relief Association founded in Mumbai which established centres at Chalisgaon, Valsad and Surat. • 1922: Mr. B. N. Mitter founded Patna School for the Blind. • 1925: Happy Home for the Blind founded in Mumbai. Mr. Sahabzada Aftab Ahmed Khan founded Ahmadi School for the Blind at Aligarh. • 1929: Madras Association for the Blind founded. Dr. Kugelberg founded Tirpattur School for the Blind. • 1932: K. K. School and Home for the Blind founded at Bhavnagar. • 1934: Mr. V. H. Telang founded Poona School and Industrial Home for the Blind. • 1939: Govt. School for the Deaf and the Blind established at Hydrabad. • 1940: Dr. Mary Scott started Kalimpong School for the Blind.


• • • • • • • • • • • •

• •

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

1941: Mr. Subhodh Chandra Ray founded All India Lighthouse for the Blind at Calcutta. 1943: St. Dunstan of London established the St. Dunstan s Hostel for Indian War Blinded at Dehradun. (The venue now accommodates the National Institute for the Visually Handicapped). 1944: Sir Clutha Mackenzie submitted Report on Blindness in India. The Blind Relief Association established in New Delhi. 1945: The Navrangpura School for the Blind established at Ahmedabad. 1949: Model School for the Blind established at Dehradun. 1950: Jagdish Patel established Blind People s Association at Ahmedabad. 1951: The National Association for the Blind established in Mumbai. 1957: Blind Boys Academy established at Narendrapur, West Bengal. 1958: Divine Light School for the Blind established at Whitefield, Bangalore. 1960: A School for the Blind established at Bhubneshwar. 1962: Andhra Blind Mission School established at Nasrapur. 1963: Bharat Blind School established at Shahadara, Delhi. 1969: Shree Ramna Maharishi Academy for the Blind established at Bangalore. 1981: A large number of schools for the visually impaired established across the country as a part of observation of the International Year of Disabled Persons. 1995: The Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 envisages promotion of all modes of education including residential education. 1998: The Scheme of Assistance for the Promotion of Voluntary Education also supports establishment of special schools for visually impaired children with multiple disabilities. 2000: There are 300 schools for the visually impaired across the country covering 20,000 visually impaired children. This coverage is merely 3 percent of the population of the school-age visually impaired children in the country.

PREPARATORY SCHOOLS

This mode of education is also becoming popular in the developing countries. In this model, visually impaired children are provided one or two years of preparatory services at a central place. This place may be a day centre or a residential centre. At the centre, the children are imparted training in skill development, pre-braille braille, orientation & mobility, activities of daily living and socialization. After this training, they are enrolled into regular schools.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

They may be covered under the Resource Model or Itinerant Model of education. This model is a combination of the residential as well as regular school education. The beginning is made with special instructions with the objective of promoting integrated education. This model as reported by Punongong (1990) has been adopted in Thailand. The children come to the education centre from their rural homes and stay for approximately one year in the hostel. First they are taught basic living skills, such as personal hygiene , independence in daily living skills, getting around with and without a cane, and trust in others. After acquiring these skills, the children enter the preparatory programme, held at a centralized place or the child s home attended by the Itinerant Teacher. They learn to read braille, use abacus and stylus. Then they are enrolled into a regular school under the Itinerant Mode of Integrated Education. SPED CENTERS

According to Gregorio (1981) the most effective access route in the Philippines today that enables the school - age visually impaired children to benefit from services and education in the least restrictive manner is the Special Education Centre, popularly known as the SPED Centre. The physical dimension of a SPED Centre may be anywhere from an unused classroom in a common school, a shared space in the library, or a school clinic, to a corner in a hallway or even an area underneath the stairways of the school. The SPED Centre makes available to the school age visually impaired child a variety of educational services ranging from resource room instruction and partial integration for some, full integration in regular classes and special classes for the visually impaired whose multiple disabilities may prevent him from getting the most out of education along with sighted peers. The distance of the home of each child becomes the determinant of the specific programme plan for him. For the visually impaired child who resides far away from SPED Centre, itinerant teaching is adopted while resource room services are provided to students who live near the Centre. The SPED Centre provides the following servicesSurvey, location, screening and assessment and referral services for prospective pupils.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

Selection of an appropriate programme plan viz. integration, partial integration, resource services in specific class etc.

Provision of suitable requirements according to the specific type of disabling condition.

The operational capacity of the SPED Centre depends upon a number of local factors. In the Philippines, it has been demonstrated that the special education teacher can assume the leadership in setting up school-age pupils in regular schools which would certainly increase their chance for full participation in life. The SPED Centre Model is combination of all the five models mentioned earlier as it takes care of all models of education of the visually impaired. This model is individual need-based and in consonance with the local conditions and the environment of the child.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

Organized Efforts for the Education of the Blind in Pre- and Post-Independent IndiaThe residential model was rapidly replicated, not only in the USA but also beyond the shores of Europe and North America. The missionaries arrived in Asia and other parts of the world before the turn of the 19th Century, to offer education and rehabilitation services to blind people. In India, Miss Annie Sharp, a Christian missionary from England, founded the first school for the blind in Amritsar in 1887. There were just four schools for the blind at the turn of the Century. But the efforts in this direction by the voluntary organizations and the Christian missionaries continued. By 1944, when the report on blindness in India was submitted, there were 32 schools in undivided India. Most of these schools were being managed by private agencies, with grants from some state governments.

Significant landmarks in the history of education of the visually handicapped in India have been• State level decision to establish a Braille press to produce books in Braille in 1923. This could not be implemented due to non-existence of a uniform Braille code for Indian languages. • Setting up of a Committee in 1941 by the then Govt. of India to develop a uniform Braille code for Indian languages. • Submission of the Report on Blindness in India (1944) which is the basis of most of the services for the blind today. • Setting up of a Cell in the Ministry of Education in 1946 to promote education, training and rehabilitation of the blind. • Development and acceptance of Bharthi Braille , a common Braille code for Indian languages finalized in November 1950, replacing the earlier codes in the light of certain recommendations made by UNESCO. • Setting up of the first Braille press at Dehradun in 1951. • Establishment of National Association for the Blind in 1952 marking the beginning of concerted voluntary action in the field. • Setting up of first Vocational Training Centre for the Adult Blind Women in 1957 at Dehradun. • Establishment of the first School for the Blind by the Central Govt. in January 1959 at Rajpur, Dehradun (now located in the campus of NIVH, Dehradun). • Institution of the first Light Engineering course in 1961 at Dehradun. • Establishment of the first National Library for the Blind by the Central Government in 1962. • Govt. of India brought all its activities for the education, training and rehabilitation of the blind under one umbrella for better coordination in 1967 called National Centre for the Blind, Dehradun.


The hearing aids are very helpful for speech reading. Without the hearing aids, my voice becomes very loud, and I cannot control the quality of my voice. - Marlee matlin (Deaf)

54


NARRATIVE STATISTICS

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

chapter-03

All people have the right to be able to navigate effortlessly through the built environment. It is our job as designers to ensure the health, safety, and welfare of everyone who uses our buildings, therefore in designing we should consider every ones need. In this project I will explore different methods and techniques that can be used to create a design that appeals to all the senses, thus enabling the blind to better experience the world around tem. It comes as no surprise that architecture is mainly a visually based profession, but when every sense is considered it is undoubtedly make for a superior design and a better experience for all the users. Out of 37 million people across the globe who are blind, over 15 million are from India. Globally 250 million people suffers from deaf and dumb impairment of which 60 million people are from India position 2nd in this category. There are 2.68 Crores disabled in India as per census report of 2011.

There are 12.52 million children s suffering from problems like dyslexia and mental diseases. • • • • • • • • • •

SHOCKING FACTSEvery 5 seconds one person in our world goes blind. Every minute one child goes blind. 75 million people will be blind by 2020 (if trends continue). 45 million people in are blind &135 million people in the world are visually impaired. 90% of the world s blind people live in developing countries. 33.3 million of the world s blind people live in developing countries. There are 12 million blind people in India. 1 in 3 of three of the world's blind is Indian. INDIA HAS LARGEST BLIND POPULATION. As these figures suggest, blindness and other visual impairments are significant challenges in modern India. However, services for the visually impaired are overwhelmingly located in urban cities while a majority of the population lives in rural areas.


•

•

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

•

In India it is estimated that there are about 3000 to 4000 organisations working in the disability sector. If you see individual people with disabilities, you may feel good that so and so in spite of her disability has been able to progress. But that is not the issue, the issue is as to what is the total picture. The total picture in the entire country, less than 1% of children with disabilities are getting education. And If we look at the issue of employment, the statistics are horrific. Disability was never a welfare issue, a charity issue. It was and is a social issue, a socio-economic issue, a development issue. This country cannot talk of development and progress and moving into the 21st century leaving 6% of its population behind. Blindness is a disability which one can overcome with proper training and guidance. Persons affected by blindness need opportunities for quality education, skills, training, rehabilitation, employment and a full social and family life.

figure- 2.9- relative ratio of blindness-1:64


ESTIMATED POPULATION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED-

MALE

FEMALE

RURAL

URBAN

66,61,038

59,87,243

94,76,303

31,71,898

EDUCATIONAL STATUS-

NOT LITERATE IN NO.

RUR- 18,88,36 AL 9 URB- 3,15,546 AN

PRIMA R-Y

MIDDLE

% IN.NO. 8 6. 2 5 7. 6

% IN NO.

2 ,8 3 ,8 9 5

1 1 8 4 ,8 3 6 .3

1 ,4 2 ,7 9 0

2 3 4 2 ,7 8 2 .5

SEC & ABOVE

% IN NO. 3. 7

%

2. 3

5 4 ,5 4 0

1 1. 9

7.6 6 6 ,9 4 0

MALE

LOW VISION BLIND

UNEMPLOYED

In No.

%

1 ,3 8 ,3 7 6

4 2 ,2 3 8

BLIND

In No.

OUT OF LABOUR

% In No.

%

4 4 .9 3 ,7 1 5

0 .4 7 ,8 6 ,6 0 9

8 4 .7

3 3 .1 2 ,2 1 6

0 .6 2 ,4 4 ,8 4 6

6 6 .3

%

In No.

% In No.

%

1 ,4 4 ,4 7 3

4 .1

1 ,0 8 5

0 .1 1 0 ,3 6 ,9 7 3

9 5 .6

3 0 ,6 3 6

6 .9

-

-

9 3 .1

FEMALE In No. LOW VISION

EMPLOYED

4 ,1 3 ,3 6 4

SOURCE- CENSUS OF INDIA-2011M

EMPLOYMENT STATUS-


STATE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE-

STATE

LOW VISION IN NO.

BLIND %

IN.NO.

%

J& K 73,126

3.5

38,697

3.8

1 ,1 1 ,5 4 4

5 .6

2 9 ,3 2 9

5 .2

69,956

3.3

26,741

3.3

19,611

0.8

8,816

0.7

83,761

3.7

27,204

3.1

57,516

2.6

18,340

1.3

17,708

0.6

4,877

0.5

70,224

3.1

18,956

1.5

9 6 ,6 6 5

5 .2

2 7 ,6 8 0

2 .5

58,028

2.7

26,479

3.8

30,416

1.2

23,156

2.0

49,832

2.3

36,744

4.9

37,173

1.6

37,928

4.2

32,855

1.1

23,802

2.1

H im a cha l Pr a de sh Punj ab Chandigarh Ut t ranchal Haryana Delhi Raj ast han

Bihar Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur

SOURCE- CENSUS OF INDIA-2011M

U.P


LOW VISION

Assam W e st Be nga l Jharkhand Or issa Chat t isgarh Madhya Pradesh Guj rat M a ha r a sht r a Andhr a Pr a de sh/ t e l a - nga na Ka r na t a k a Goa La k shw a de e -p Kerala Tam il Nadu Pondiche r r y Andam an Nichobar

%

BLIND

%

48,710

2.2

18,187

1.9

7 7 ,8 1 0

4 .1

3 3 ,7 2 7

3 .7

54,271

2.2

9,432

0.9

1 ,1 7 ,3 4 9

6 .2

6 3 ,8 4 2

8 .3

73,346

3.6

33,758

3.5

79,834

3.9

19,126

3.1

68,638

2.7

21,956

4.5

9 7 ,4 2 0

4 .8

2 9 ,9 4 2

2 .8

1 ,4 6 ,9 0 8

7 .8

4 8 ,1 9 0

5 .9

8 1 ,1 7 6

4 .0

3 9 ,6 0 5

4 .1

16,440

0.7

42,635

5.2

8 7 ,8 1 1

4 .4

3 5 ,1 7 3

3 .2

74,687

3.6

16,340

1.3

77,590

3.8

43,959

4.5

1 ,3 6 ,3 0 1

6 .6

2 6 ,0 3 4

2 .5

32,783

1.6

36,050

3.7

&

2 0 ,7 9 ,4 8 9 .0 0

8 ,6 6 ,7 0 5 .0 0

SOURCE- CENSUS OF INDIA-2011M

STATE


AGE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE-

RURAL

URBAN

LOW VISION

BLIND

LOW VISION

IN NO.

% IN.NO.

% IN NO.

BLIND %

IN.NO.

%

0- 4

15,960

1.0 2,404

0.4 5,735

1.0

914

0.6

5- 9

23,940

2.0 5,771

0.9 13,954

2.0

2,924

2.0

10- 9

25,935

2.0 10,580

2.0 15,674

2.0

1,827

1.1

15- 19

27,930

2.0 10,099

1.0 8,411

2.0

2,376

2.0

20- 24

32,419

2.0 11,061

2.0 10,704

2.0

3,289

2.0

25- 29

33,915

2.0 8,175

1.0 8,219

2.0

3,655

2.0

30- 34

38,404

2.0 7,694

1.0 5,735

2.0

3,472

2.0

35- 39

37,407

2.0 15,389

2.4 10,131

2.0

3,655

2.0

40- 44

63,841

4.0 20,678

3.1 15,101

4.0

5,482

4.0

45- 49

91,272

6.0 31,258

5.0 20,071

6.0

7, 127

5.0

17,908

11. 3

50- 54

132,669

8.0 59,631

9.0 34,789

8.0

214,964

13. 0 112,530

17. 2 54,096

13. 0

22,294

14. 0

60&abo ve 864,343

54. 0 359,230

55. 0 207,780

54. 0

83,877

52

55- 59

1 6 ,0 3 ,0 0 0

6 ,5 4 ,5 0 0

4 ,1 0 ,4 0 0

1 ,5 8 ,8 0 0

SOURCE- CENSUS OF INDIA-2011M

AGE


Blindness in Telangana state

BLINDNESS SURVEY AND STATISTICS IN THE STATE TELANGANA STATE-

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

LITERATURE

OF ANDHRA PRADESH

PURPOSE- To determine the current prevalence and causes of blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh to assess if blindness has decreased since the last survey of 1986 1989.

METHODS- A population-based epidemiology study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Participants of all ages (n = 10,293), 87.3% of the 11,786 eligible, from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh, underwent interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity < 6/60 or central visual field < 20 in the better eye.

RESULTS- Two hundred seventy-five participants were blind, a prevalence of 1.84% (95% confidence interval, 1.49% 2.19%) when adjusted for the age, sex, and urban rural distribution of the population in 2000. The causes of this blindness were easily treatable in 60.3% (cataract, 44%; refractive error, 16.3%). Preventable corneal disease, glaucoma, complications of cataract surgery, and amblyopia caused another 19% of the blindness. Blindness was more likely with increasing age and decreasing socioeconomic status, and in female subjects and in rural areas. Among the 76 million population of Andhra Pradesh, 714,400 are estimated to have cataract-related blindness (615,600 cataract, 53,200 cataract surgery-related complications, 45,600 aphakia), and 228,000 refractive error-related blindness (159,600 myopia, 22,800 hyperopia, 45,600 refractive error-related amblyopia). If 95% of the cataract and refractive error blindness in Andhra Pradesh had been treated effectively, 3.4 and 7.4 million blind-person-years, respectively, could have been prevented. If 90% of the blindness due to preventable corneal disease and glaucoma had been prevented, another 2.7 million blind-person-years could have been prevented. CONCLUSIONS- The prevalence of blindness in this Indian state has increased from 1.5% in the late 1980s to 1.84% currently, as against the target of the National Program for Control of Blindness to reduce the prevalence to 0.3% by 2000. The number of people with cataract-related blindness has not reduced even with the eye care policy focus on cataract. Reduction of blindness in India will require strategies that are more effective than those that have been pursued so far.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

To have the appropriate plan to eliminate avoidable blindness in India, current population-based data on the magnitude and causes of blindness in all age groups are a prerequisite. A national survey done during 1986 1989 reported that 1.5% of the population in India was blind, with presenting visual acuity < 6/60 in the better eye, and that 80% of this blindness was caused by cataract. Consequently, in the 1990s the focus of the National Program for the Control of Blindness was almost exclusively on reducing cataract blindness, which included large funding under a World Bank cataract project. The original target of the National Program was to reduce the prevalence of blindness to 0.3% by 2000, though it was acknowledged by the mid-1990s that achievement of this target was unlikely. The current prevalence of blindness in the entire age range of the population is not known for India. Andhra Pradesh is a state in the southern part of India with a population of 76 million in 2000. The prevalence of blindness in Andhra Pradesh was reported as 1.5% in the 1986 1989 survey. From October 1996 to February 2000 we conducted the population-based Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) in one urban and three rural areas, representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh, to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and other levels of visual impairment, risk factors for various eye diseases, effect of visual impairment on quality of life, and barriers to access to eye care services. We reported earlier from the urban component of this study that the previous national survey likely overestimated the proportion of blindness attributed to cataract because detailed dilated eye examination was not done. In this article, we report the combined results from the three rural and one urban components of APEDS to estimate the current prevalence and causes of blindness in Andhra Pradesh. METHODS - The Ethics Committee of the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, approved the study design of APEDS. 8 This study followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. STUDY SAMPLE - We calculated a sample size of 10,000 persons, 5000 each below and above 30 years of age. This was based on the assumption that a 0.5% prevalence of an eye disease in either of these age groups may be of public health significance. The planned sample would estimate this prevalence as 0.3% to 0.8% at the 95% confidence level.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

The populations in the rural areas from which the samples were selected were 332,000 for West Godavari, 144,000 for Adilabad, and 248,000 for Mahabubnagar (estimated for the time of the study in each area using a growth rate of 1.8% per year since the last census of 1991); though the areas covered were similar in size, the total population covered varied because of different population densities in these three areas. The proportion of the four different castes (forward caste, backward caste, schedule caste, and schedule tribe) in the population in each rural area was determined based on information obtained from the Census of India and the Backward Class Welfare Office for each area. Because caste is a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status in our rural populations, we aimed to get a sample with a caste distribution similar to that in the population in each of the three rural areas. To achieve this, the two castes with the largest population in each eligible village in the sampling areas were noted, and the villages were stratified according to these castes. The two largest castes in each village were chosen to have a large enough number of subjects for each selected cluster. A total of 23 to 24 villages were selected in each of the three rural areas under the four caste strata using stratified random sampling with probability of selection proportionate to size, such that the proportion of each caste in the sample would be similar to that in the population in each of the three rural areas. In each selected village the section where the caste selected according to the sampling scheme lived (the different castes mostly live in homogenous clusters in Indian villages) was demarcated. These areas (clusters) were mapped and the number of households and members in each household was listed. Every second to fifth household was systematically selected in each cluster to obtain roughly equal number of households in each cluster. Approximately half the clusters in each of the three rural areas were randomly assigned to have persons of all ages in the selected households eligible for the study, and the other half to have only those 30 years of age eligible for the study. This was done to obtain a similar number of participants in the <30- and 30-years age groups. Without this approach the desired approximately equal sample in these two age groups would not have been achieved because the population structure of India is pyramidal. This oversampling of the 30-years age group was later adjusted in the calculations to obtain estimates of blindness for the entire population. The sampling of the urban sample in Hyderabad has been described previously. The major difference between the urban and rural sampling was that the former was selected from blocks stratified by socioeconomic status and religion, whereas the latter were selected from villages stratified by caste.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

LAW AND SECTIONS

The main objectives of the persons with disabilities act, 1966 enacted by the government of India on January 1,1966 are to create barrier free environment for persons with disabilities and to make sure special provisions for the integration of persons with disabilities into the social mainstream. Sections 44 to 46 deal with non- descrimination in transport on the roads and in the built environment.


I hope you hear inside my voice of sorrow and that it motivates you to make a better tomorrow, this place cruel no where could be much colder, if we don t change, the world will soon be over, living just enough, just enough for the city. - Stevie wonder (Blind)

65


SIGNIFICANCE

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

chapter-04

Since there has not been much research regarding the expressive architectural spaces and the quality of natural light by selecting buildings with similar material of construction and analyzing the space for different effects, this study provides an opportunity to address different issues related to light and expression of a space in a collective manner, this may help to design an articulated spaces.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

STATEMENT OF INTENT

The intent of this thesis is to Design architecture that is remembered for its sensory experiences and not for its visual aesthetics or appeal .

Vision is the most common form of communication in architecture. The other senses are unfortunately neglected. Whereas it is through the senses- TOUCH, SMELL, TASTE AND SOUND that architecture can have a deeper effect.

Specially challenged people have the right to be able to navigate effortlessly through the built environment. Disabled people use other senses to help themselves, navigation through and the action of experiencing a place depends on a persons ability to collect information through his or her senses. This thesis will examine the experience of specially challenged ,socially, and mentally stressed through the architectural experiences. A design that considers all the senses of human body. I intent to study different methods and techniques designers can employ to help the disabled navigate through, interact with, and experience built environments. Emphasis will be placed on designing for all the senses to create a space that all the people are able to experience and enjoy regardless of their disabilities.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

JUSTIFICATION

Designing with the senses is not a new concept in the field of architecture. However, merging the science of the human senses and a practical progressive use of landscape art in this project and to create something that has not been as heavily explored.

Physically disabled faces lot of troubles in adapting normal environment situations, so creating a place where they should not feel inferior. The rapid increase in disability and problems related to human senses so as a designer our duty is to understand such circumstances increasing day by day. Architects must understand the right and accessibility for them. In country like India such studies are necessary to be surveyed.


We act as though comfort and luxury were the chief requirements of life. All that we need to make us happy is something to be enthusiastic about. - Albert einstein (Autism)

69


PRECEDENTS ANALYSIS

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

chapter-05

It is important to look at existing structures that were designed for the blind or designed to be multi-sensory experiences so that the design process may be more informed. How have structures for the blind been designed to adapt to the blind community s needs? My hypothesis is that there need not be a major difference between architecture for the blind and architecture for the sighted. It is important to note that multi-sensory design is needed across the board. How do multi-sensory buildings address experience through all the senses and which strategies can I use in design? I am not designing specifically for the blind; rather, I embrace a process in design aimed to create a multi-sensory experience. As I examine each precedent, I will focus on space, edge, path, transition, threshold, and landmark. These are architecture elements used to guide people in and throughout space. Within those individual categories, I will critically analyze how each one of those acts in the visual, tactile, and acoustic realms.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

CENTER FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED-

Architect: Taller de Arquitectura Mauricio Rocha Location: Mexico City, Mexico Year: 2001 The Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired (CBVI) is located in Mexico City, Mexico in one of the most disadvantaged and highly-populated parts of the city. Iztapalapa is the district with the largest population of visually impaired individuals in Mexico City. The whole center, approximately 91,000 sqft, was designed to enhance spatial perception and use the five senses to supply a strengthened experience. A water channel runs through the center of the plaza, so that the sound of the water guides users along their way. Plants are also used in outlying gardens to orient users to different areas or zones of the complex. SPACE- (main outdoor corridor)

The following diagrams focus on the feeling of space in two areas within the Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired. figure 3.0 shows the main outdoor corridor in plan as well as an arrow to denote where the view in perspective is. You can see that the outdoor space in general goes from wall to wall face and breeches across a channel of water running from left to right in the diagram. There are no overhangs into the main space, so it has a very open feel. Abstract representation of space appears in figure- 3.1. Since it is a very open space, there is no upward boundary to the acoustics; therefore, the space sounds very open, vast, and unenclosed.

figure- 3.0

figure- 3.1


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

EDGE- (main outdoor corridor)

Edge is highlighted in the plan and perspectives below (figure- 3.2 and figure3.3). While the sighted can see the large hard blocks as an edge- definer, someone who is blind finds the edge with the touch of their cane. Walls have grooves in them, marking a specific type of room by the style of the pattern on the walls (figure- 3.2). This technic could be useful for the design process. The edge is not defined by a distinct change in texture or material; rather, the visitor may hear the sound echoing off the walls (figure3.3) as a way to orient themselves in space.

figure- 3.2

figure- 3.3

figure- 3.4

figure- 3.5


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

PATH- (main outdoor corridor)

We once again take a look at the main outdoor corridor, this time focusing more on path. The main path through the space runs along a channel of water, as seen in figure- 3.6and figure- 3.7. The channel of water orients visitors in the direction of the main gathering space. This channel is highlighted in figure- 3.8. Supporting gathering spaces within buildings lie parallel to the channel and path. Sound of the water directs and orients the visitor, while the path is far enough away from the wall faces to denote a separate space and acoustic quality. A strip of pebbles next to the water (figure- 3.9) acts as a tactile warning so that the blind feel it with their sight cane and do not fall into the channel.

figure- 3.6

figure- 3.7

figure- 3.8

figure- 3.9


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

THRESHOLD- (main outdoor corridor)

In the main outdoor space, threshold to enter another space occurs on the cross-axes that run perpendicular to the channel of water seen previously (figure 4.0). Thresholds highlighted in figure 4.0 act as a movement from one space to another, as they ramp down to the small outdoor corridors. They create moments of compression before moving into the next space, although there is no vertical compression (figure 4.1). Openness of the threshold makes them easy to find and easy to have multiple users at the same time.

figure- 4.0

figure- 4.1


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

LANDMARK- (main outdoor corridor)

Landmark as an architectural element is an important piece in this main outdoor corridor, as it seeks to orient the user (both blind and sighted). Landmark is typically a result of the other elements, and becomes that element which users seek to orient themselves in a space. The acoustic landmark is the sound of the water channel (figure- 4.2), which runs throughout the entire outdoor space. There is a strip of pebbles along the water s edge (figure- 4.3) to warn someone that a drop is coming. Another landmark primarily for the sighted is the large building in the distance. It is different from the rest and therefore a hierarchical landmark (figure- 4.4).

figure- 4.2

figure- 4.3

figure- 4.4

figure- 4.5


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

TRANSITION- (small outdoor corridor)

The small outdoor corridor transition occurs between the path and the three opposing square rooms below the transition zone shown in figure- 4.6 and figure- 4.7. In this series, we will look at the transition from path to rooms. The alternation of horizontal planes versus empty space above causes dramatic shadows as well as a play with acoustics, seen in figure- 4.8. Tactile transition is evident and obvious for those with a sight cane, as it is a change in the size of the tiles (figure- 4.9). A sight cane user would feel the tile change and note that there is something of importance in line with the materiality change. The change is not as obvious for those who observe the space visually. Multisensory experience could be enhanced by changing the color as well as texture, not only the size of the tiles.

figure- 4.6

figure- 4.7

figure- 4.8

figure- 4.9


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

HAZELWOOD SCHOOL

Architect: Alan Dunlop Architect Limited Location: Glasglow, Scotland Year: 2007 Hazelwood School, situated in the suburbs to the south of Glasglow, was designed through an architectural competition as an educational facility for young people, ages 2-18, who are blind and deaf. These dual sensoryimpaired children experience their education in a rather new type of project one specifically designed to enhance the experience of those who experience physical handicap and some form of cognitive impairment. The architect Alan Dunlop says, I was determined to create a school which would support the needs of the children and the aspirations of their parents, a place of safety and ambition that would free the teacher and inspire the child. The building has received multiple national and international awards. Hazelwood s educational staff aims to create and foster independence, aided by the architectural elements found in the building. The school s head teacher says, Adults who are blind and have learning difficulties can lead passive lives. But the more independence they have, the more choices they will be able to make and the more stimulating their lives will be. Orientation within the building supports this independence. A sensory wall was developed in the circulation core as a navigational tool to allow the children to move around the school safely. Students follow this folded cork plane that lines one side of the internal street to guide themselves independently between rooms. Within the wall of this internal street lie storage units, making use of poche that otherwise would have been left untouched. In early schemes, classrooms, music rooms, and clinician rooms were like stepping-stones along a linear route, Dunlop says of the internal street. Now there is still a clear route with well-defined elements along it, but it s much more sensual.17 Glazing along this internal street consists of louvre-protected windows and clerestory windows. Classrooms primarily contain clerestory windows, as expansive full- height windows may distract students who have partial sight or low vision. The architect was asked to not make everything too safe. Head teacher Monica McGeever says, There are corners in this building, there are challenges. The world is not built like a school environment. The following analysis looks at this internal street of circulation as well as a point of entry through which students access the internal street. The internal circulation seemed to foster independent movement, but how did students approach the building from the exterior? There must be a point at which the building became less of a crutch and more of a learning opportunity to take into the outside world.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

SPACE- (internal street)

The internal street acts as a spine to unite the classrooms and exterior spaces. From this space, students may access classrooms in one direction and outdoor spaces in the other. In the plan of figure- 5.0, you may notice a hint at the curvilinear features of this internal street. The space is visualized in figure- 5.1, where one may note the glazing acts to highlight the cork wall on the opposite side. The amount of light is evenly spread and not overwhelming to those with low vision. figure- 5.1 shows how acoustics may act in this space an echo off the hard floor material dissipates up into the high ceiling. Some sound is also absorbed into the cork wall. This space will be louder than the classroom spaces to denote it is more heavily-occupied.

figure- 5.0

figure- 5.1


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

EDGE- (internal street)

Edge of the internal street is marked strongly by the cork wall (highlighted in figure- 5.2) and reinforced by a strip along the floor shown in figure- 5.3.

figure- 5.2

figure- 5.3

figure- 5.4

figure- 5.5


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

PATH- (internal street)

Looking once again at the internal street, we note that the space itself is the path (as seen in figure- 5.6). There is no specific path within the space, although students may naturally drift more towards the sensory wall to guide them through the space. Silhouettes portrayed in figure- 5.7 allude to the movement of students on the path. figure- 5.8 highlights the cork portion of the sensory wall a material that absorbs sound. This helps to dull sound on one side of the path, making an acoustic pull towards the more quiet area. The tactile hand rail, as well as a vent along the opposite side of the path, are highlighted in figure- 5.9. These tactile features denote the edge of path.

figure- 5.6

figure- 5.7

figure- 5.8

figure- 5.9


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

LANDMARK- (internal street)

At the point of entry, visually one may see the door as a landmark (figure- 6.0). The most significant landmark that the user may remember is the texture of the floor material. It is directional (leading the user in the direction of the entry point), but also is a metal mesh placed over wooden planks (figure6.1). It is very unique and the user may use this difference in material as a way to remember which space this is.

figure- 6.0

figure- 6.2

figure- 6.1

figure- 6.3


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

TRANSITION- (internal street)

Transition from the internal street to classrooms is highlighted in the plan of figure- 6.4 and shown in visual perspective in figure- 6.5. These transition spots happen at varying intervals throughout the internal street. The curvilinear nature of the internal street is truly reflected in the pure curve along the glazed wall. On the opposite wall which contains the sensory cork wall, the students do not move in a completely curvilinear path; rather, they feel the sudden change when there is an approaching transition between the internal street and another space. Students are able to move gracefully along the sensory wall and feel openings along the tactile hand rail, as shown in red.

figure- 6.4

figure- 6.5


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

TRANSITION- (external street)

The transition between the exterior and interior is marked in the plan shown in figure- 6.6. As one approaches the transition between indoor and outdoor, there is a glass overhang above the door as seen in figure- 6.7. This overhang is a visual marker of change as well as an acoustic barrier. When one stands under the glass overhang, the sound is captured by the highlighted overhang in figure- 6.7. The sound quality is different and more enclosed than if that person were to stand out in the open space.

figure- 6.6

figure- 6.7


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

INFERENCES

Visual imitation of spaces has resulted in the neglecting of other senses; hence in this thesis I would neglect the vision and activate the other senses through architecture. •

• •

• •

SENSITIVITY TO TOUCH- exposed concrete, brick and stone are chosen as primary material as it offers sense of touch and texture, which can be used at human height. SENSIVITY TO SOUND- change in volume of space, change in material of ceiling and walls also change in floor material to understand the space. SENSIVITY TO LIGHT- alternate light and dark spaces to create different sensations of light in the eye, soft light corners must be designed and harsh light must be handled carefully. SENSIVITY TO SMELL- strong smell elements must be introduced wherever it is required like- eucalyptus tree, lemon tree, rose plantations, herbs garden and also water blending with essence of design. SENSIVITY TO ORIENTATION- the design must be oriented linearly or in an curved form for better navigation through the spaces. LEGIBILITY OF DESIGN- a well oriented and planned design must be incorporated.


NUMBER

DESCRIPTION

SPACE REQ.-SQ.MT.APPROX.

A

ADMINISTRATION

01

Waiting/Atrium

325

02

Reception

28

03

Director office

28

04

N.A.B office

28

05

Health care office

28

06

H.R office

28

07

Principal office

28

08

Head teacher office

28

09

Meeting room

44

10

Conference room

44

11

Administration

44

12

Washrooms

64

13

Storage

14 731

B

PREPARATORY CENTER

01

Nursery classrooms

336

02

Toilet training area

78

03

Secondary classrooms

336

04

Toilet training area

78

05

Leavers classrooms

456

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

PROGRAMME


DESCRIPTION

SPACE REQ.-SQ.MT.APPROX.

06

Braille library/Talking library

154

07

Snoezelen room

144

09

Music room/Recording room

80

08

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Art and craft classroom

Ict room

40

84

Group room/Social skill classroom

40

Physiotherapy room

60

Hydro therapy room Auditorium

124

220

Gymnasium/Soft play room

78

Meditation

140

Indoor sports

Parents room/Interview room Staff room

560 38

60

After school hours

60

21

Examination room

25

22

Specialist room

50

23

Nurse room

14

24

Reprographics

30

25

Resource room

40

26

Washroom

64

27

Plant room

20

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

NUMBER


DESCRIPTION

SPACE REQ.-SQ.MT.APPROX.

28

Storage

23 3432

C

ACCOMODATION

01

Dorm rooms

480

02

Staff residence

340

03

Dining room

310

04

Kitchen

66

05

Laundry

24

06

Storage

16 1236

D

RECREATIONAL

01

Outdoor flexible areas

1950

02

Landscape and sensory gardens

11813* 13763

TOTAL BUILT UP AREA- 7350 SQ.MT. TOTAL SITE AREA- 21613 SQ.MT. *Excluding the transition free areas.

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

NUMBER


I can very well do without god both in my life and in my painting, but I cannot, suffering as I am do without something which is greater than I am, which is my life, power to create. - Vincent van gough (Mental illness)

88


SITE ANALYSIS

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

chapter-06

The process of selecting a site factors in technical requirements having significant effect on feasibility and cost effectiveness of a site. Combined with the educational and public use, these result in a set of standards against which the potential of a site can be evaluated. These criteria includeSize, shape. Location- depending on need in that particular area. Topography/drainage. Access/traffic. Utilities. Security/safety.

But in this thesis I would be neglecting the visual appeal but consider the strong natural characteristics such as• Natural smell site offers, may be present landscape elements. • Site must be near natural water body, so that it offers the essence of sound and tranquility. • Site must be away from heavy noisy areas.

figure- 6.8

figure- 6.9


HYDERABAD

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

Hyderabad located in southern India on the Deccan plateau at an average altitude of over 542 meters above sea level, wit pleasant climate throughout the year, with a metropolitan population of over 7.75 million, making it the fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration of India. Hyderabad is the IT capital of India, city which has large number of educational and research institutes and constitutes a greater male and female population, and has potential to consume sensory design preparatory center for the blind children s within it s limits.

figure- 7.0- Urban agglomeration

figure- 7.1- Population density


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

Site inventory

Feeder areas for the preparatory center (Proximity)

figure- 7.2- Khajaguda- manikonda, Hyderabad

Telangana has largest number of population suffering from blindness and hearing disabilities after Orissa and Himachal as per the census report of India. The reason for choosing site in Hyderabad is that it is the fastest growing urban agglomeration of states towards western Deccan regions and due to that more number of villages lying in it s suburbs can be beneficial from this project, also Hyderabad has least blind schools as compared to other cities in India, at present there are three schools, and besides this all three lies in the heart of the city, which makes it difficult to reach by the kids living in rural areas (outer suburbs of the city) and due to that it lacks in educational exposure among blind population.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

MACRO CONTEXT

SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK- HUDA has designed the city in four spatial frameworks- green corridors in old city, hitech city (economic node), reserved recreational framework (activity spines) along the selected lakes and highly economic nodes where public and private investment are prioritized and facilitated- lanco hill area and gachibowli hi-tech is set to develop by 2030 and is under atkins designs companies, with progressive development of India s tallest residential tower- (signature tower).

figure- 7.3- Lanco hills- signature tower

figure- 7.4- Google- hydrabad

GEOMORPHOLOGY- Rocky mountains with stone and gravel, with clay and silt covering the areas near the lakes, majorly found in khajaguda area.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

HYDROLOGY- The khajaguda lake is the main lake of khajaguda area, and musi river which flows to westwards past the north side of cbd and old districts of Hyderabad originating from eastern districts, in all there are 2857 lakes and water bodies in and around city.

figure- 7.5- Khajaguda lake

figure- 7.6- Musi river

ECOLOGY- Chiefly, scrub and dry deciduous type of trees is seen in the study area, as of 2007, 730 genera of species are recorded. TOPOGRAPHY- Khajaguda is geographically situated on the 17 ̊24 56.69 N and 78 ̊21 45.73 E. It is 536 meter above sea level and is nestled between the malakunta, khajaguda hills, boulder hills, naga hills, and silent hills, these ridges runs radial according the city sprawl.

figure- 7.7- lanco hills

CLIMATE- Khajaguda falls under tropical monsoon climate. The annual mean temperature is around 28 ̊-30 ̊C, it mainly has dry and wet winter s with average temperature between 18 ̊-26 ̊C, and hot and warm during summers with average temperature between 32 ̊- 42 ̊C, with pleasant winds during springs and partly a layer of fog in the atmosphere. Khajaguda has north easterly winds during winters and south westerly during summers, with an average speed of 10 km/h, and average annual rainfall is about 772mm.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

MICRO CONTEXT

SITE ANALYSIS- The proposed site under investigation is located on the northern edge of the Jawaharlal Nehru outer ring road (which connects Hyderabad with the other major metropolitan cities of southern IndiaMumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai). This road is well maintained and connected with khajaguda area and holds least intensity of traffic on it, this makes this area as favorable location for the project. The site is surrounded by the collection of old and new buildings, and some are under construction (mostly residential and institutional). There are two schools under the proximity of site (Oak ridge international school on the north and Delhi public school on the east). The north of the site is entirely covered with dense trees (arboretums) and a residential housing on the north-eastern of site, south-eastern and south of site is covered with khajaguda lake and khajaguda hills (Khajaguda hills, extensively known among tourists and locals as camping and hiking spot of the city), which supports vivid flora of southern India. The site is well connected with the roads passing from it s north and east.

TOPOGRAPHY- Based on the site observations, there are two type of soilloamy and clayey soil with a ratio of 70:30, clayey soil mostly found on the edge of the lake and rest area is covered with loamy and fine sand particles, the slope on the site is 2-6% range, but most part of the site however, seems relatively flat, according to the soil survey done by the huda, both of this soils are well suited to urban development.


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

figure- 7.8- contour graphs

UTILITIES- There is considerably all the utilities and services available around site as it is a residential and institutional zone and part of urban development vision 2031. There is a main sewer line passing from the north close to the main road and passes through the outer ring road towards suburbs of the city, there is adequate street lights on the road connecting to the site, also availability of water is good.

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS- Vehicular- There are no roads passing on the site the only road that boarders the site is national highway- outer ring road on the west of site, a ten lane highway which maintains the steady flow of traffic throughout the day. Pedestrian- There are two pedestrian roads connecting the site one on the north which is loosely defined dirt path and other from the east road which is quiet well maintained and also used as vehicular road.

figure- 7.9- vehicular and pedestrian traffic , major road junctions

SITE CHARACTER- The site has all the elements which evokes stimuli of all human senses, a water body which provides tranquility effect and flora species which generates great aroma around the site which houses large species of birds during evening producing alluring sound on the site.

figure- 8.0- khajaguda hills

figure- 8.1- khajaguda hills


figure- 8.2- visualizing sound from site

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

SOUNDSCAPE ANALYSIS

With the objective of addressing those non-visual aspects of each zone and a way to capture the Soundscape of the site, various sounds were recorded on each zone. The result was a series of waveforms from site elements such as birds, the sound of the stream, the humming of the highway among others. Sounds were recorded at several locations on the site with the purpose of understanding how distinctive the soundscape can be even within relatively small areas. The strategy to visually map these sounds was to break the soundscape into the individual sounds that compose it. In zone A, four distinct sound types were identified: Blue jay, a plane, stream, and the humming highway. Then every element s sound wave was projected onto the particular site location in which it could be heard and later touch in the physical model.

figure- 8.3- recorded sound frequencies


I paint my own reality. The only thing I know is that I paint because I need to, and I paint whatever passes through my head without any other consideration. - Frida kahlo (Polio)

97


CONCEPTUAL PROGRAM

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

chapter-07

The combination of reciprocal sensory interferences becomes a compositional tool: sight, hearing and touch take turns in a succession of indefinite and simultaneous spatial perceptions. (Altro-studio)

The diagram depicts some concepts I picked up in the readings by Bloomer, Pallasmaa, and Gibson. Pallasmaa believes that the five senses are broken down into two groups: (1) vision and hearing are the sociable senses and (2) touch, taste, and smell are the senses of private function managed by a culture code. In addition to the five senses, Gibson believes there are two more senses: the basic-orienting and haptic sense. Pallasmaa goes into detail of what these senses might represent (vision-fire, touch-earth, taste-water, etc. refer to diagram) and how the qualities/characteristics of the senses manifest different spatial qualities (vision-sense of separation and distance, touchsense of doing, taste-material texture and weight, etc.)


CO N C E P TS I M P O R TA N T

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

The senses. That which is seen, touched, tasted, smelt, heard and analysed by the mind and experience A trigger for connecting to a counter part in the human experience. The senses are a prompt, therefore, alone it cannot be responsible for architectural experience.

Memory. A connection to something familiar and a way people connect to architecture the counterpart in the human experience; that which is prompted by image for the purpose of triggering a response the measure against which new images are compared. Memory is an important player in eliciting a response to architecture. Perception. A construct through which architecture and space are understood- the consolidation of the collection of images and feelings that are memories into an ideal- when observation and experience have been judged for their value and distilled to a principle- Perception has a tremendous impact on the human experience as it is the framework through which image and memory are analysed and understood.

Lived Experience. A mental + physical experience

the senses. see, hear, touch, smell, taste

memory. Perception

lived experience

DESIGN

MOD EL

S en ses > m em o ry > p erc ep tio n =

MA P

lived ex p erien c e


CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

REFLECTIVE LIGHT BOX LVL.-(8.80 m) PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

Section - AA’

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

Section - BB’

INDOOR GYMNASIUM LVL.-(8.85 m) PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.L.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

Section - CC’

CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

REFLECTIVE LIGHT BOX LVL.-(8.80 m)

REFLECTIVE LIGHT BOX LVL.-(8.80 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

Section - DD’

Section - EE’

CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

Section - FF’

REFLECTIVE LIGHT BOX LVL.-(8.80 m)

REFLECTIVE LIGHT BOX LVL.-(8.80 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

Section - GG’


CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

INDOOR GYMNASIUM LVL.-(8.85 m) PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-03-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-02-(5.55 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

Section - HH’

Section - II’

CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

INDOOR GYMNASIUM LVL.-(8.85 m) PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

South west elevation

CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

REFLECTIVE LIGHT BOX LVL.-(8.80 m)

INDOOR GYMNASIUM LVL.-(8.85 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(3.95 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

North west elevation

South east elevation

CLERESTORY NORTH SKYLIGHT LVL.-(10.65 m)

PARAPET LVL.-(7.60 m) F.F.LVL.-02-(7.30 m)

F.F.LVL.-01-(5.55 m)

PLINTH LVL.-(0.60 m) GROUND LVL.-(0.00 m)

North east elevation


DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

CONCLUSION

The role of education is one of the most important elements in our society. Although human beings continuously learn through their experiences and impressions, the most important years in determining all the actions and decisions which will be made later in life are during their childhood. Architecture has in this case a very important role since it is a relevant part of our environment. It in uences us from the beginning of our life and creates the background for our social, cultural, economical education. Therefore, architecture has not only the duty to create functional and well designed spaces but also to provide possibilities to animate human instincts and habits by interacting with all of the human senses. To re ect my work from a different person I would like to end my book with a quote from Peter Zumthor. We all experienced architecture before we have even heard the word. [...] The roots of our architectural understanding lie in our architectural experience: our room, our house, our street, our village, our town, our landscape, - we experience them all early on, unconsciously, and we subsequently compare them with the countryside, towns, and houses that we experience later on. The roots of our understanding of architecture lie in our childhood, in our youth; they lie in our biography. 1


BIBLIOGRAPHY

DESIGNING FOR THE SENSES

REFERENCE LIST

Internet Sources www.lighthouse.org Lighthouse International is the most well know resource for research, rehabilitation and education for the visually impaired. www.gdba.org.uk Guide Dogs for the blind association, provides practical living skills and training in issues such as mobility, reading and writing. www.afb.org American Foundation for the Blind provides useful information about accessibility, visual impair- ments among others. www.census.gov/ Census of India provides authentic information on disability act and population count on blindness in rural as well as in urban part of country. www.diesign-for-all.org Design and Disability website that includes reports and cases on visually accessible products. www.ode.state.oh.us/ossb Ohio School for the Blind Web site, Hazelwood school glasglow, anchor school for the blind. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Book Sources Langer, Monika. Merleau-Ponty s Phenomenology of Perception: A Guide and Commentary. Talla- hassee, Florida: The Florida State University Press. 1989. Norberg-Schulz. Genius Loci. New York : Rizzoli International Publications, INC. 1980. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Chichester, Great Britain: Wiley-Academy, 2005. Pallasmaa, Juhani. Encounters: Architectural Essays. Rakennustieto Oy , Karisto Oy, Hameenlinna, 2005 Jonas, Hans, and Lawrence Vogel. The Phenomenon of Life toward a Philosophical Biology. Evan- ston, Ill.: Northwestern UP, 2001. Print T.T. Moore and E. Zube (Eds.). Advances in Environment, Behavior, and Design. New York: Plenum, 1987. Seamon, David. Phenomenology and Environment Behavior Research. Ed. G.T. Moore and E. Tuan, Yi-Fu. Space and Place. Saint Paul: University of Minnesota Press. 1977. The thinking hand-Existential and embodied wisdom in architecture-Juhani pallasmaa-2009. The embodied image-Imagination and imaginary in architecture-Juhani pallasmaa-2011.


I prefer listening to talking, reading to socializing, and cozy chats to group settings. - Susan Cain- Quiet

Sajid ali B.arch

+91 8238311913 sajidali4692@gmail.com

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