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FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION A Teacher’s Guide

Edited by Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey Supervised by Zoe Gavriilidou


Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey (Editor), Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide ISBN: 978-618-5147-41-9 May 2015

Cover (photo & design):

Dimitris Economidis https://500px.com/economid

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Iraklis Lampadariou www.lampadariou.eu

Language’s parallels: Theory and teaching practice Series Editor: Zoe Gavriilidou, Professor at Democritus University of Thrace

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Contents CONTRIBUTORS ........................................................................................................................... 8 EDITOR’S PREFACE..................................................................................................................... 11 PART I THEORETICAL OVERVIEW 1. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES ...................................................................................16 2. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION...........................................................32 PART II ACTIVITIES FOR CLASSROOM STRATEGY INSTRUCTION 1. ACTIVITIES FOR MAINSTREAM PRIMARY SCHOOLS ......................................................52 2. ACTIVITIES FOR MAINSTREAM LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS ................................116 3. ACTIVITIES FOR MINORITY PRIMARY & LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS ................175


Contributors Ioannis Agaliotis is an Associate Professor of “Instructional Methodology for the Education of Individuals with Disabilities”. He has extensive teaching experience in primary general and special education units, and he has participated in several research and training programmes focusing on educational assessment, instruction and inclusion of students with disabilities His research interests include educational assessment and differentiated instruction of language, mathematics, and social skills to students with special needs and disabilities. Eleni Agathopoulou is a tenured Assistant Professor at the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. She holds an M.A. in Applied Linguistics from the University of Reading, U.K. and a PhD in Linguistics from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. She is interested in various aspects of applied linguistics, particularly in second language acquisition and teaching. She has published and presented papers on second language morphology, focus-on-form instruction and learning strategies. Thomaï Alexiou is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Her expertise is on early foreign language learning, methodology of teaching languages and material development for very young learners. She has also authored and edited textbooks for children learning English as a foreign language. Zoe Gavriilidou (BA, D.E.A., PhD) is Professor of Linguistics and Head of the Department of Greek at the Democritus University of Thrace. She has participated in research projects and is currently the supervising coordinator of the THALES 379335 Project, co-funded by national resources and the EU. She is the author of school books and member of the experts’ commitees for the revision of Greek curricula at primary and secondary education. Her main a research interests are in applied linguistics, language teaching, linguistic testing and pedagogical lexicography. Edgar Joycey (BSc., PGCE., DipTEFL., M.Ed., PhD) is a Foreign Language Instructor of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. His interests revolve around helping prospective teachers learn about and cope with the different decisions they will have to make throughout their professional life, and the effect of holding a lifelong-learning stance towards teaching and training. Penelope Kambakis-Vougiouklis is Professor of Linguistics, Department of Greek, Democritus University. She holds a BA in English, Aristotle University (1976) and an MA and PhD from the University of Wales (1988 and 1992). Her scientific interests include


Contributors

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mathematical models in language teaching, communication strategies with emphasis on guessing as a processing and/or a learning as well as confidence as a factor of success in communication, and, finally Modern Greek dialectology. Zoe Kantaridou (MA in Linguistics, PhD in Applied Linguistics) is a teacher of English for Academic Purposes at the University of Macedonia, Greece. Her research interests lie in the areas of motivation, curriculum design, task-based teaching, learning styles and strategies and intercultural communication. She has authored two textbooks, one on teaching reading and academic vocabulary in English and another on Business English for Higher education students in Greece. Vassilia Kazamia (MA, PhD Leeds University, UK) is a Senior Teaching Fellow in English for Specific/Academic Purposes at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Her PhD thesis was “Language learning strategies of Greek adult EFL learners”. Her research interests include learners’ individual differences, ESP course design, CEF professional profiles and communication for professional purposes. She has co-authored ESP materials (currently used by academic institutions in Greece). She reviews at Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning. James Milton is Professor of Applied Linguistics at Swansea University UK. A long-term interest in measuring lexical breadth and establishing normative data for learning and progress has led to extensive publications including Modelling and Assessing Vocabulary Knowledge (CUP 2007 with Michael Daller and Jeanine Treffers-Daller), Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition (Multilingual Matters 2009) and Dimensions of Vocabulary Knowledge (Palgrave Macmillan 2014 with Tess Fitzpatrick). Lydia Mitits has been a practising EFL teacher since 1989. She has taught English as a FL in primary, secondary and tertiary education. She holds a MA in TEFL and a PhD in Applied Linguistics. She has presented in national and international conferences and published peer reviewed research papers on multilingualism, language learning strategies, instrument adaptation, etc. in books and conference proceedings. Her main research interests lie in the fields of Multilingualism, Language Teaching Methodology and Language Assessment. Iris Papadopoulou (MA and PhD in Linguistics, University of Essex, UK) teaches English for Academic Purposes at the University of Macedonia. She has extensive teaching experience as EFL teacher in the private sector and EAP teacher in tertiary education. She has authored two coursebooks developing academic research reading and writing and one on Business English. Research interests: intercultural communication, extensive reading, curriculum design, learning strategies and motivation to learn.


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Maria Platsidou is an Associate Professor of Developmental Psychology (MA and PhD in Cognitive Development) at the University of Macedonia, Greece, where she teaches courses on developmental and educational psychology. She was also a Visiting Scholar at MaxPlanck Institute in Munich and in Fuller School of Psychology, USA. Her current research interests include emotional intelligence and life quality, burnout and job satisfaction, and learning processing, styles and strategies. Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey (BA, DipTEFL, MA, PhD) is Professor Emerita of the School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Her research interests and publications focus on SLA, Language Learning Strategies and Styles, Greek as an S/FL, and Multilingualism. She has authored Language Learning Strategies in the FL Classroom (2010), co-authored The Temporal System of MG: Studies from the perspective of Greek as a foreign language (2011), and is the Editor of the Journal of Applied Linguistics. Anna Sarafianou is a TESOL teacher in Greek upper secondary education. She holds a MEd. in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) from the University of Edinburgh. She holds a PhD in Applied Linguistics from the Department of Greek of the Democritus University of Thrace. Athina Sipitanou is an Associate Professor at the University of Macedonia in ThessalonikiGreece, specialising in “Pedagogy and Adult Education” and her teaching duties and research interests concern Pedagogy, Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. She has participated in more than 90 congresses and her scientific views are presented in her 5 books, while she has more than 65 publications to present. She participates in European University networks of studies and research. Areti-Maria Sougari is an Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics in the Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Some of her work appears in TESOL Quarterly, Language and Education, the Journal of Applied Linguistics and other journals as well as in edited book volumes. Her research interests include teaching English to young learners, teacher education and development and teaching English as an International Language Athina Vrettou holds an MA in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics and a PhD in Applied Linguistics from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. She has been teaching EFL in primary education for over twenty years. Her research interests primarily concern language learning strategies and motivation in second language acquisition.


EDITOR’S PREFACE The present guide is the collaborative work of university teachers, and EFL primary and secondary school teachers who have completed postgraduate studies, all specialising in applied linguistics and language learning strategy research. It is the fruition of the inspiration and initiative of Prof. Zoe Gavriilidou, who is academically responsible for the THALES project, a major project currently in progress in Greece that is co-financed by Greece and the European Union. The project is run collaboratively by four university Departments, and aims primarily at investigating the strategic profiles of learners of primary and lower secondary schools in Greece learning English as a foreign language (EFL), as well as the strategic profiles of Muslim learners attending minority schools in Thrace, North-Eastern Greece, learning both Greek as a second language and EFL. Besides having this primary aim, the project’s additional aim is to explore the strategic profiles of EFL teachers in Greece, given these are formed through the general teaching practices they promote and depict the degree of adoption of language strategy instruction and its integration in their EFL classes. Despite the fact that language learning strategy research has already stimulated more than 40 years of constant academic interest, and scholars have acknowledged the contribution of strategies to enhancing language learning awareness and language competence, language learning strategy instruction has not been extensively promoted or at least explicitly implemented by language teachers. Issues related to ways of how learners can be instructed in what strategies can do and how they can be applied to make them effective remain relatively unexplored. The present guide aspires to fill that lack of information and application. The guide is intended for practising EFL teachers in Greece in both mainstream and minority primary and secondary schools. It results from the research conducted within the framework of the THALES project which concerned the perceived promotion of language learning strategy practices in the EFL classroom by primary and secondary school teachers in the Greek state school sector, who responded to a relevant questionnaire specifically designed for this purpose. The guide is an instrument for teachers to turn to whenever they seek information about acquiring knowledge, understanding, and skill regarding implementation of explicit and integrated language learning strategy instruction within their everyday teaching practices. Our recommendation is that the guide complements the main coursebooks, and offers extra ideas, while at the same time it shows teachers how they can sensitise their learners towards the employment of strategies in order to increase their language proficiency, learning awareness, and self-regulation. The guide is divided into two parts, supervised and coordinated by Zoe Gavriilidou and Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey.


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Part I presents a theoretical overview of language learning strategies and of language learning strategy instruction. More specifically, in its first section, Zoe Kantaridou introduces the reader to the concept of ‘strategy’. At first, she presents experts’ definitions of language learning strategies which frame their main characteristics and allow for grouping strategies into several types that work on different aspects of human cognition, behaviour and affect; secondly, she identifies several situational and learner-related variables that affect selection and preference of strategy types by individual learners; and thirdly, she discusses briefly different ways of assessing strategy use. In the second section, Athina Vrettou offers a concise introduction to language learning strategy instruction, and supports explicit and integrated classroom strategy instruction. Furthermore, she presents models of such instruction, and goes through the steps that teachers should follow whenever they decide to promote such practice. Part II is concerned with actual activities which have incorporated in them explicit and integrated language learning strategy instruction. Interested teachers, therefore, may select the activities they find most appropriate for the type of school they teach in and use them with their classes so that learners become informed and learn to select and use strategies more consistently and effectively. Thus, teachers who teach in mainstream primary schools can find activities which have been constructed by the team of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, namely, Eleni Agathopoulou, Thomaï Alexiou, Edgar Joycey, Vassilia Kazamia, and Areti-Maria Sougari and supervised/coordinated by Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey for that level. Similarly, teachers who teach in mainstream lower secondary schools can select activities which have been constructed by Zoe Kantaridou and Iris Papadopoulou, both of the University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, for that level. Their work was supervised/coordinated by Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey, Maria Platsidou, Athina Sipitanou and Ioannis Agaliotis. Finally, those teachers who are involved in teaching Muslim minority primary and secondary school learners can find relevant material for classroom strategy instruction, which has been prepared by Lydia Mitits and Anna Sarafianou and supervised/coordinated by Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey, AUTh, Zoe Gavriilidou and Penelope Kambakis-Vougiouklis from the Democritus University of Thrace team. Finally, James Milton undertook the responsibility for proofreading the manuscript. The separate levels, as they are presented in the following pages, are not inflexible. Once teachers have realised what is expected of them in order to promote strategy use explicitly, they can adapt the material to suit the level of their learners while also inventing, constructing and developing their own material. The Editor Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide


PART I THEORETICAL OVERVIEW

Supervision/Coordination Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey Zoe Gavriilidou


1. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES Zoe Kantaridou University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki

Introduction Language learning strategies (LLS) first appeared in ESL/EFL research literature in the early seventies when there was an agenda shift from teaching methods to language learning and in particular learner characteristics that potentially influence the language acquisition process (Psaltou-Joycey, 2010). It was part of the general shift from teacher-centered approaches to learner-centered methods and processes to facilitate language learning. Despite the general positive acceptance of the concept, especially at the practitioner level, there has been a dispute over the theoretical background that would solidly establish LLS into the SLA research agenda. The definitions presented in table 1 intend to show the diversity of levels that theorists have taken in defining them. Table 1: Definitions of LLS Rubin (1975: 43)

“Strategies are the techniques or devices a learner may use to acquire knowledge”. In other words, strategies contribute to the development of learner interlanguage and influence the learning process (Rubin 1987).

O’Malley & Chamot (1990: 1) (Oxford 1990: 16)

“Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to comprehend, learn or retain information”. “Learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more selfdirected, and more transferable to new situations. In other words, they are actions that assist the learner in the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information”.

Cohen (1998: 4)

“Language learning and language use strategies are defined as those processes which are consciously selected by learners and which may result in actions taken to enhance the learning or use of a second or foreign language, through the storage,


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retention recall and application of information about that language”. Griffiths (2008: 87) Oxford (2011: 12)

“LLS are activities consciously chosen by learners for the purpose of regulating their own language learning”. “Self-regulated L2 learning strategies are defined as deliberate, goal-directed attempts to manage and control efforts to learn the L2. These strategies are broad, teachable actions that learners choose from among alternatives and employ for L2 learning purposes”.

For some theorists LLS exist at the behavioural level as actions learners engage in to facilitate their learning, for others they exist at the mental/cognitive level. However, some features are recurrent in the literature. The features that the different approaches to the concept of LLS share are the following (Cohen, 1998, 2003; Dörnyei & Skehan, 2003; Ehrman & Oxford, 1996; Oxford 2011): a) b) c) d)

Strategies are activities, actively controlled by the learner Strategies are purposeful, goal-directed Strategies are employed to facilitate learning and language use across all skills Strategies are consciously applied to the learning situation, and, as the learner becomes more experienced, they may become more automated e) Strategy use involves regulation of the learning process by the learner f) Strategy choice depends on the needs of the task in hand and on individual characteristics of the learner g) Strategies often appear in groups, in orchestration, to produce better results for the learner Classification of strategies Several classification systems have been proposed (O’Malley & Chamot 1990, Wenden 1991, Cohen 1998), which further contribute to making the concept elusive and fuzzy (Ellis 1994: 530, Oxford 2011: 10). For the purpose of this introduction we will concentrate on Oxford’s (1990) taxonomy of LLS as it has been one of the most dominant in the literature and the one adopted in the present THALES research programme (see table 2).


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Table 2: Oxford’s taxonomy of LLS (1990) Memory strategies:  Creating mental linkages o Grouping o Associating/elaborating o Placing new words in context  Applying images and sounds o Using imagery o Semantic mapping o Using keywords o Representing sounds in memory  Reviewing well o Structured review  Employing action o Using physical response o Using mechanical techniques

Metacognitive strategies:  Centering learning o Overviewing and linking already known material o Paying attention o Delaying production to focus on listening  Arranging and planning your learning o Finding out about language learning o Organizing o Setting goals o Identifying the purpose of a language task o Planning for the language task o Seeking practice opportunities  Evaluating your learning o Self-monitoring o Self-evaluating

Cognitive strategies:  Practicing o Repeating o Formally practicing with sounds and writing systems o Recognizing formulas and patterns o Recombining o Practicing naturalistically  Receiving and sending messages o Getting the idea quickly o Using resources for receiving and sending messages  Analyzing and reasoning

Affective strategies:  Lowering your anxiety o Using progressive relaxation o Using music o Using laughter  Encouraging yourself o Making positive statements o Taking risks wisely o Rewarding yourself  Taking your emotional temperature o Listening to your body o Using a checklist o Writing a language learning diary


Language Learning Strategies

o Reasoning deductively o Analyzing expressions o Analyzing contrastively (across languages) o Translating o Transferring Creating structure for input and output o Taking notes o Summarizing o Highlighting

Compensation strategies:  Guessing intelligently (inferencing) o Using linguistic clues o Using other clues  Overcoming limitations o Switching to the mother tongue o Getting help o Using mime and gesture o Avoiding communication partially or totally o Selecting topic o Adjusting or approximating the message o Coining words o Using circumlocution or synonym

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o Discussing your feelings with someone else

Social strategies:  Asking questions o Asking for clarification or verification o Asking for correction  Cooperating o Cooperating with peers o Cooperating with proficient users of the new language  Empathizing with others o Developing cultural understanding o Becoming aware of others’ thoughts and feeling

Memory strategies, often called mnemonics, help learners store and retrieve new information (Oxford, 1990: 38). Cognitive strategies are the necessary learner tools for manipulation and transformation of the target language for learners to develop their interlanguage and produce their own target language utterances (Oxford, 1990: 43).


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Compensation strategies allow learners to deal with gaps in target language knowledge effectively whether guessing or adjusting their message to the available means (Oxford 1990: 47). Metacognitive strategies help learners coordinate their mental processes in order to facilitate their learning. Their purpose is to help learners cope with the load of new information to focus and organise both the direct demands of their tasks and their long-term goals as well as to evaluate their progress (Oxford, 1990: 136). Affective strategies allow learners to gain control over their emotions, motivation for and attitudes towards language learning. The role of the teacher is quite crucial in this domain as s/he can create a classroom environment that can support and enhance learners’ self-esteem, tolerance of ambiguity, risk-taking attitudes in case of cultural mismatches and face-challenging situations (Oxford, 1990: 140). Social strategies promote communication which is the very essence of language learning. If the ultimate aim of language learning is communicative competence, learners should practice language in interaction with others whether in class or outside (Oxford, 1990: 144). Since 1990, when Rebecca Oxford proposed the above model for LLS, there has been a proliferation of studies which introduced key elements from education psychology into the language teaching field (Crookes & Schmidt, 1991; Dörnyei, 1994a, 1994b; Oxford & Shearin, 1994; Schmidt, Boraie, & Kassaby, 1996; Skehan, 1989; Ushioda, 1996a, 1996b; Williams, 1994). These research results necessitated the adaptation of LLS into a more coherent framework such as the Strategic Self-Regulation (S2R) model proposed by Oxford in 2011. In educational psychology, self-regulation is a “multidimensional construct, including cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, behavioural, and environmental processes that learners can apply to enhance academic achievement” (Dörnyei, 2005: 191). Self-regulation is a “self-directive process through which learners transform their mental abilities into task-related academic skills” (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2001: 1). In this sense, self-regulation provides a better definition framework for research as it shifts focus from strategies as product to self-regulating processes of the learners (Dörnyei, 2005: 191).


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The basic features of self-regulated L2 learning strategies according to Oxford (2011: 14) are the following: They 

are employed consciously, involving four elements of consciousness (awareness, attention, intention, and effort)

make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more effective

are manifested through specific tactics in different contexts and for different purposes

reflect the whole multidimensional learner, not just the learner’s cognitive or metacognitive aspects

are often combined into strategy chains, i.e., groups of strategies working together

are applied in a given situation but can be transferred to other situations when relevant.

Some strategies, such as planning and monitoring, are deployed for learning many subjects and for problem-solving in general throughout one’s life. Other strategies, such as structured reviewing or overcoming gaps in communicating, are mainly focused on language learning or communication. The S2R model includes both strategies and metastrategies in three dimensions: cognitive, affective, and sociocultural-interactive (SI). Metastrategies “powerfully influence” all three dimensions much as the conductor guides the performance of the different types of instruments in the orchestra, according to Oxford’s illustrative metaphor (Oxford, 2011: 18). They manage and control overall L2 learning in a dynamic way because of the changing needs of the learners, and adapt cognitive, affective, and SI strategies to the specific or general demands of the learning situation. Cognitive strategies refer to the processes of constructing, transforming, and applying L2 knowledge. Afffective strategies handle emotions, beliefs, attitudes, and motivation, while SI strategies deal with issues of context, communication, and culture in L2 learning. Table 3 summarises the strategies and metastrategies in the S2R model of language learning.


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Table 3: Strategic Self-Regulation (S2R) model (Oxford, 2011) Metastrategies

Strategies

8 metacognitive:  Paying attention to cognition broadly or more sharply  Planning for cognition  Obtaining and using (digital, print) resources  Organising (study environment, materials, prioritising)  Implementing plans for cognition  Orchestrating strategy use for fluency, accuracy and balance  Monitoring cognition  Evaluating progress, performance and strategy use

6 strategies in the cognitive dimension:  Using the senses to understand and remember  Activating knowledge  Reasoning (inductively, deductively)  Conceptualising with details (making distinction, analysing and decoding, sequencing, classifying, comparing)  Conceptualizing broadly (synthesising, summarising, linking)  Going beyond the immediate data (prediction, inference)

8 meta-affective:  Paying attention to affect broadly or more sharply  Planning for affect  Obtaining and using (digital, print) resources  Organising for affect  Implementing plans  Orchestrating affective strategy use  Monitoring affect  Evaluating affect 8 meta-sociocultural-interactive:  Paying attention to communication contexts and culture  Planning for different communication contexts and cultures  Obtaining and using (digital, print) resources  Organising for contexts, communication and culture  Implementing plans  Orchestrating strategy use  Monitoring cultural understanding in

2 strategies in the affective dimension:  Activating supportive emotions, beliefs, and attitudes  Generating and maintaining motivation (positive imagery, selfentertainment, extrinsic rewards, defensive mechanisms, self-talk, counter-discourse) 3 strategies in the socioculturalinteractive dimension:  Interacting to learn and communicate (online, in person, verbally or non-verbally)  Overcoming knowledge gaps in communication  Dealing with sociocultural contexts and identities


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specific contexts ďƒź Evaluating cultural understanding and strategy use in specific contexts

Parameters affecting strategy use The quantity and type of learning strategies used by learners is influenced by a variety of individual differences and situational or social factors. The choice of strategies may affect the speed, ease and enjoyment of acquisition as well as the level of proficiency the learner will achieve (Ellis, 1994: 530). Situational variables are external to the learner and are connected to the immediate learning context, whether the classroom or the wider social environment. These include the type, rate and quality of instruction, task requirements and materials, the opportunity to practice, the course status (i.e., compulsory vs elective course), teacher related variables, as well as the availability of language practice outside the classroom. Learner related variables include age, gender, aptitude, proficiency level, motivation, learning style, cultural background, attitudes and beliefs, field or study or career orientation, and various personality traits such as anxiety, self-esteem, tolerance of ambiguity, and general personal flexibility. They may also be influenced by the learner’s personal background in education in general and in language learning in particular. LLS and gender In relation to gender differences in strategy use, research has provided inconclusive results, thus, it is important for language teachers to help both male and female learners to achieve greater gains in L2 learning through the use of learning strategies. LLS and age Age differences in relation to strategy use seem to be influenced by a variety of learner characteristics such as individual difference factors (e.g. personality, learning style, personal circumstances, aptitude, attitudes to L2) and maturation, as well as by socio-affective (cultural shock, anxiety, identity disorientation), cognitive (knowledge of other languages, strategic awareness) and situational (classroom or distance learning, teaching method, hours of exposure to L2) factors. For a more


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

detailed review of the literature see Griffiths, 2008, and Psaltou-Joycey, 2010. On the whole, children seem to approach strategy use differently from adults who demonstrated more elaborate use. LLS and language achievement A large number of studies (Gavriilidou & Papanis, 2009; Green & Oxford, 1995; O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Oxford & Burry-Stock, 1995; Oxford & Nyikos, 1989; Psaltou-Joycey, 2003; Psaltou-Joycey & Kantaridou, 2009a, 2009b; Vrettou, 2009) have demonstrated a linear relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency level. In other words, learners at higher levels of proficiency reportedly used more strategies and had a wider range of strategies than their beginning or intermediate level peers. However, a smaller number of studies (Hong-Nam & Leavell, 2006; Kazamia, 2003) have produced a curvilinear relationship between proficiency level and strategy use, with intermediate level learners using more learning strategies than their low or high performing peers. A possible explanation for the above curvilinear relationship may be due to the fact that higher level learners seem to know the strategies which are most effective for them and utilise them but learners are not always fully aware of their use as they have become automated. Less proficient learners may use “a vast number of strategies but in a non-orchestrated, random way” (Ehrman & Oxford, 1995: 69). LLS and motivation Many prominent researchers have pointed out the importance of motivation for learning in general and language learning in particular. Simply put, “it is only sensible to assume that learning is most likely to occur when we want to learn” (Williams & Burden, 1997: 111) and thus “motivation is often seen as the key learner variable because without it nothing much happens” (Cohen & Dörnyei, 2002: 172). Research on motivation for language learning initially used dichotomies to describe types of motivation (integrative vs instrumental or intrinsic vs extrinsic) and favoured one over the other. Gardner (1985) claimed that integrative motivational orientation (desire to identify with L2 community) more positively affected achievement in language learning than instrumental (desire to practically benefit from the L2). Later studies (Dörnyei, Csizer, & Nemeth, 2006; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1991) proved that instrumental orientation can work equally well with learners of foreign language as well.


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Noels, Pelletier, Clément, & Vallerand (2000) concluded that intrinsic motivation (originating from within the individual) better correlates with achievement than the extrinsic type (arising from outside the learner, Ryan & Deci, 2000). However, these dichotomies are not necessarily exclusive but may be “working in concert with one another” (Ushioda, 2008: 22) in a dynamic and constantly changing manner (Dörnyei, 2001) as other individual variables such as age and the learning environment also change. Concerning secondary education, studies have shown that strategy use increases the higher the learners’ motivation is shown to be (Oxford, Young, Ito, & Sumrall, 1993; Vrettou, 2009). In other words, they indicated a linear increase of strategy use from the less motivated to the more motivated learners. Similar results were also demonstrated in primary education level, where Lan & Oxford (2003) found that motivation to learn English positively influenced the pupils’ use of all six categories of strategies. Caution is, however, suggested because there may be times when, despite their high motivation, learners may not be able to orchestrate their strategy use in an effective way at the metacognitive level (Yamamori, Isoda, Hiromori, & Oxford, 2003). LLS and cultural background Research has shown that learners from different cultural backgrounds make use of different strategy categories at varying degrees of frequency (Mochizuki, 1999; Politzer & McGroaty, 1985; Psaltou-Joycey, 2008) with European learners using them more frequently (Griffiths, 2003). As culture is a complex concept involving many of the elements that form the learner’s identity, teachers should make an effort to expose learners to a variety of LLS from which learners can choose the ones suitable to their personality and cultural background. Characteristics of good language learners Early research into language learning strategies mostly concentrated on the characteristics of ‘good language learners’ in an attempt to pinpoint their specific features that stand out in order to use them to help their less successful peers. It should become clear here that the long list of studies in this area (Griffiths, 2008; Naiman, Frohlich, Stern, & Todesco, 1996) did not produce any list of ‘good’ learning strategies employed by good language learners. Rather, they indicated broad categories of learner strategies efficiently employed by the good language learners.


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Naiman, et al. (1996, as cited in Ellis, 1994 and Psaltou-Joycey, 2010) indicated five broad categories: (1) active involvement in the language learning task, (2) realisation of language as a system, (3) realisation of language as a means of communication and culturally appropriate interaction, (4) management of affective demands, initially and in the long-run, and (5) monitoring of L2 performance mainly by testing inferences and making adjustments. On the whole, studies on the characteristics of ‘good language learners’ converge towards the conclusion that success in language learning seems to involve attention to the formal properties of the language, attention to meaning when trying to communicate, active involvement in the learning process, and awareness of metacognitive strategies (Ellis, 1994). Research methods and instruments The fact that language learning strategies are complex cognitive skills implies that they are not easily observable and consequently the methods and instruments used for their research should be carefully deliberated according to the research objective. Different data collection methods produce different results at varying degrees of detail for the diverse learning and teaching variables involved. Having expressed these words of caution for potential researchers, we can present a variety of data collection methods that are at hand. Data may be qualitative and more in-depth through structured interviews, diaries and think-aloud protocols, or more quantitative involving larger numbers. Learners may be asked directly of the way they handle their learning and the strategies they use as in structured interviews, or they may even be given a task to do during which they voice their stream of thoughts and the decisions they make while completing it, as in think-aloud protocols. Data can also be collected using learners diaries or journals and self-report questionnaires. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods enhances the variety and detail of the data for clearer results. For more detailed information on research instruments consult Dörnyei (2001, 2010); Psaltou-Joycey (2010).


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Benefits from strategy use Strategy use has two basic benefits for learners. Firstly, it significantly assists the language learning process and improves learners’ performance through a learning spiral between motivation and performance. Griffiths (2013) calls this the ‘tornado effect’. She explains that from the few core strategies that primary learners use (either on their own or through strategy instruction) their performance improves and consequently they become motivated to adopt more strategies for further positive results. Secondly, it promotes learner autonomy both during the learning process and in the communication efforts the learners may get engaged in. A similar causal spiral is also suggested between motivation and autonomy in learning through the use of LLS (Spratt, Humphreys, & Chan, 2002). With regard to the quality of teaching, the teaching of learning strategies ‘enhances’ the role of the teacher from being the sole source of target language provision to that of a facilitator of the learning process, as s/he provides learners with alternative, more interactive ways of approaching the language learning process rather than the mere exposure to the language system. Doctoral theses in strategy use in Greek education In recent years, a number of doctoral theses have been written by researchers who have investigated various aspects of language learning strategy use by learners learning foreign languages, mainly English, in Greece. Together with articles researching individual learner differences and affecting frequency of strategy use, these studies constitute a considerable body of research that has taken place in the Greek context and which can provide useful information to interested bodies. Some of these theses are quoted below: Kantaridou, Ζ. (2004) Motivation and Involvement in Learning English for Academic Purposes. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Καρράς, Ι. Δ. (2012). Foreign language anxiety and the use of affective language learning strategies among Greek university learners in an ESP/EAP context. Unpublished PhD thesis. School of English, National Kapodistrian University of Athens. Kazamia, V. (2003). Language learning strategies of Greek adult learners of English. Unpublished PhD thesis. Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, School of Education, The Language Centre, University of Leeds, UK.


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Mitits, L. (2014). Mitits, L. (2015). Language Learning Strategies and Multilingualism. Kavala: Saita Publications. Παπάνης, A. (2008). Στρατηγικές εκμάθησης των Μουσουλμανόπαιδων της Θράκης που μαθαίνουν την Αγγλική ως ξένη γλώσσα. Αδημοσίευτη διδακτορική διατριβή. Τμήμα Επιστημών της Εκπαίδευσης στην Προσχολική Ηλικία, Σχολή Επιστημών Αγωγής, Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης. Ράλλη, Μαρία Α. (2011). Η ενσωμάτωση του ηλεκτρονικού υπολογιστή, ως γνωστικού εργαλείου, στη διδασκαλία γνωστικών και μεταγνωστικών στρατηγικών γραπτού λόγου σε μαθητές δημοτικού με ή χωρίς δυσκολίες παραγωγής γραπτού λόγου. Αδημοσίευτη

διδακτορική

διατριβή.

Τμήμα

Δημοτικής

Εκπαίδευσης,

Πανεπιστήμιο Κρήτης. Vrettou, A. (2011). Patterns of Language Learning Strategy Use by Greek-speaking Young Learners of English. Unpublished PhD thesis. School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Xirofotou, E. (2012). Developing Strategies through Instruction in Greek EFL Classrooms: The Case of the Mediation Task for the KPG B2 Level Exams. Unpublished PhD thesis. School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.


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References Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. Harlow: Longman. Cohen, A. D. (2003). The learner’s side of foreign language learning: Where do styles, strategies, and tasks meet? IRAL 41(4), 279-291. Cohen, A. D. & Dörnyei, Z. (2002). Focus on the language learner: Motivation, styles and strategies. In N. Schmitt (Εd.), An Introduction to Applied Linguistics (pp. 170-190). London: Edward Arnold. Crookes, G. & Schmidt, R. W. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41, 469-512. Dörnyei, Z. (1994a). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 78, 273-284. Dörnyei, Z. (1994b). Understanding L2 motivation: On with the challenge! Modern Language Journal, 78, 515-523. Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow: Longman. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Dörnyei, Z. (2010). Questionnaires in Second Language Research: Construction, Administration, and Processing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. Dörnyei, Z., Csizér, K., & Németh, N. (2006). Motivation, Language Attitudes and Globalisation: A Hungarian Perspective. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Dörnyei Z. & Shekan, P. (2003). Individual differences in second language learning. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds), A Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp 590-630). Oxford: Blackwell. Ellis, R. (1994). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OUP. Erhman, M. & Oxford, R. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 67-89. Gardner, R. C. & MacIntyre, P. D. (1991). An instrumental motivation in language study: Who says it isn’t effective? Studies in Second language Acquisition, 13: 57-72. Gavriilidou, Z. & Papanis, A. (2009). The effect of strategy instruction on strategy use by Muslim pupils learning English as a foreign language. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 25, 47-63. Green, J. Μ. & Oxford, R. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 261-297. Griffiths, C. (2003). Patterns of language strategy use. System, 31, 367-383. Griffiths, C. (2008). Lessons from the Good Language Learners. Cambridge: CUP. Griffiths, C. (2013). The Strategy Factor in Successful Language Learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Hong-Nam, K. & Leavell, A. G. (2006). Language learning strategy use of ESL learners in intensive English learning contexts. System 34, 399-415. Lan, R. & Oxford, R. L. (2003). Language learning strategy profiles of elementary school learners in Taiwan. IRAL 41, 339-379. Mochizuki, A. (1999). Language learning strategies used by Japanese university learners. RELC Journal, 3(2), 101-113. Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., Stern, H. H., & Todesco, A. (1996). The Good Language Learner. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters


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Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self‐determination theory. Language Learning, 50(1), 5785. O’Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: CUP. Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston: Heile and Heile. Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and Researching Language Learning Strategies. Harlow, England: Pearson Education Ltd. Oxford, R. L. & Burry-Stock, J. A. (1995). Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of the strategy inventory for language learning (SILL). System, 23, 1-23. Oxford, R. L., Young, P-O., Ito, S., & Sumrall, M. (1993). Learning a language by satellite television: What influences student achievement? System, 22(1), 31-48. Oxford, R. L. & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university learners. Modern Language Journal, 73(3), 291-300. Oxford, R. & Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. Modern Language Journal, 78, 12-28. Politzer, R. & McGroaty, M. (1985). An explanatory study of learning behaviours and their relationship to gains in linguistic and communicative competence. TESOL Quarterly, 19(1), 103124. Psaltou-Joycey, A. (2003). Strategy use by Greek university learners of English. In E. MelaAthanasopoulou (Ed.), Selected Papers on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics of the 13th International Symposium of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics (pp. 591-601). School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Psaltou-Joycey A. (2008). Cross-cultural differences in the use of learning strategies by learners of Greek as a second language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 29(3), 310-324. Psaltou-Joycey, A. (2010). Language Learning Strategies in a Foreign Language Classroom. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press. Psaltou-Joycey, A. & Kantaridou, Z. (2009a). Plurilingualism, language learning strategy use and learning style preferences. International Journal of Multilingualism, 6, 460-475. Psaltou-Joycey, A. & Kantaridou, Z. (2009b). Foreign Language learning strategy profiles of university learners in Greece. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 25, 107-127. Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner” can tell us. TESOL Quarterly 9(1), 41-51. Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Self-Determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well-being”. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. Schmidt, R., Boraie, D. & Kassaby, O. (1996). Foreign language motivation: Internal structure and external connections. In R. Oxford (Ed.), Language Learning Motivation: Pathways to the New Century (pp. 9-40). University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI. Skehan, P. (1989). Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. Edward Arnold, London. Spratt, M., Humphreys, G., & Chan, V. (2002). Autonomy and motivation: Which comes first? Language Teaching Research, 6(3), 245-266.


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Ushioda, E. (1996a). Learner Autonomy 5: The Role of Motivation. Dublin: Authentik. Ushioda, E. (1996b) Developing a dynamic concept of motivation. In T. Hickey & J. Williams (Eds), Language, Education and Society in a Changing World (pp. 239-245). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Wenden, A. (1991). Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy. Hempstead: Prentice Hall Hemel. Williams, M. (1994). Motivation in foreign and second language learning: An interactive perspective. Educational and Child Psychology, 11, 77-84. Yamamori, K., Isoda, T., Hiromori, T., & Oxford, R. L. (2003). Using cluster analysis to uncover L2 learner differences in strategy use, will to learn, and achievement over time. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 41(4), 271-278. Zimmerman, B. J. & Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives (2nd edition). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


2. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION Athina Vrettou Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Teaching language learning strategies A basic premise of Joan Rubin’s (1975, 1981) pioneering research into the strategies of the ‘good’ or ‘successful’ language learners was that these strategies could be taught to less successful learners in order to assist them in their struggle to learn an L2. Research has demonstrated the positive effect of strategy intervention upon learning under the proper conditions (Nunan, 1997; Oxford, 2011; Plonsky, 2011). In the mid-eighties it was believed that ‘good’ learners possessed strategic attributes that poorer ones lacked. That proved to be false since research studies showed that both successful and unsuccessful learners used language learning strategies but to different degrees. In fact, in a few cases, lower proficiency learners deployed the same amount of strategies as higher proficiency ones (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990) but in an unorchestrated and random way (Ehrman & Oxford, 1995). Investigation into the quality of strategy use revealed that strategic learners are metacognitively aware of their learning selecting, using, and orchestrating (i.e., properly combining) the strategies which are appropriate for an L2 task at hand (Anderson, 2008) and for their personality, goals and stage of learning (Ehrman & Oxford, 1995). In other words, it is not the number of strategies that is important but rather the use they are put to and their proper combination (Chamot, 2008). Issues related to strategy instruction The terms ‘language learning strategy instruction’ (Chamot, 2004) or ‘strategy training’ (Hassan et al., 2005) refer to any intervention focusing on strategies to be adopted and used autonomously by learners in order to improve their L2 learning and performance (Chen, 2007; Hassan et al, 2005; Oxford, 1990). Other terms are ‘strategies-based instruction’ (SBI) and ‘styles-and-strategies-based instruction (SSBI)’, where learning strategies (or learning styles and strategies) are at the heart of L2 assistance. Oxford (2011) proposes the term ‘self-regulated strategy


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instruction’ in order to underscore the ultimate purpose of goal-directed actions that learners can select from and employ to manage and control their learning. In strategy intervention research, important issues have emerged about particular teaching approaches to be followed. To be more specific, these issues are related to explicit versus implicit instruction, integrated versus separate ‘learning how to learn’ courses, and the transfer of strategies to new tasks (Chamot, 2004, 2005; Oxford, 2011). Explicit and integrated strategy instruction In implicit teaching of strategies, those are not overtly mentioned by the teacher (or the textbook); learners are told how to perform classroom activities without any explanation or modelling (Oxford, 2011). On the other hand, explicitness involves the teacher clearly naming the strategy, demonstrating its use, explaining its usefulness, and student practice of the strategy. Moreover, learners learn how to evaluate the used strategy and transfer it to new tasks (Chamot, Barnhardt, ElDinary, & Robbins, 1999; Grenfell & Harris, 1999; Oxford, 1990). Years of research in L1 (Graham & Harris, 2000) and L2 (Grenfell & Harris, 2004) support explicit language learning strategy instruction. One fine example, among others, is the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) model, which combines academic content, learning strategies and academic language skills, and addresses learners learning English as a second language in American schools. Five different evaluations in various school settings yielded significant gains in content knowledge and skills, English proficiency and learning strategies (Chamot, 2007). Another issue is whether strategy instruction should be integrated into an ordinary L2 class or taught separately in ‘learning-to-learn’ courses and training programmes. Many scholars advocate direct integrated instruction into the L2 curriculum because it gives learners the opportunity to practice learning strategies with real L2 tasks (Chamot et al., 1999; Cohen, 1998; Grenfell & Harris, 1999). On the other hand, some experts have had success with separate ‘learning-to-learn’ courses and programmes at U.S. universities (Oxford, 2011). A separate strategy course has the advantage of taking less time and effort to plan than training all teachers to teach strategies. Furthermore, it is argued that strategies learnt within a language


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class are less likely to transfer to other tasks (Chamot, 2004), provided that no information is given as far as strategy transfer is concerned. Given the young age and the needs of learners in primary and secondary education, teachers should definitely opt for direct, explicit instruction of strategies and incorporate that instruction into their regular classroom work. Besides, it would be ideal if all teachers in all subject areas could implement explicit strategy training so that transfer of strategies learnt in one class to some other class could be facilitated to a large extent (Chamot, 2008). Language of instruction The language of instruction is an issue in second and foreign language contexts. According to research, beginning level learners could face major difficulties understanding when and how strategies could be used if explanations were to be made in the target language (Chamot & Keatly, 2003, as cited in Oxford, 2011). Some other studies have used a combination of the native language and the target one in simplified form with success. For example, some secondary foreign language teachers of French and German in London gave some of the strategy instruction materials in English (i.e., those concerning learners’ planning and evaluation of their work) while descriptions of strategies, checklists and strategy activities were in simplified French and German (Grenfell & Harris, 1999). When all learners share the same L1, initial strategy instruction can be in the learners’ native language. Of course, that takes time from exposing them to the target language. The alternative might be to give an L2 name for the strategy, explain its use simply in the L2 and repeatedly present the strategy (Chamot et al., 1999). Grenfell and Harris (1999) suggest using the target language as much as possible but recognise that for beginners’ classes that might be difficult so that introduction to and reflection on strategies might preferably be conveyed in the L1. Transfer of strategies to new tasks Early studies on language learning strategies in first language contexts showed that learners experienced difficulties in transferring strategies to new tasks and later research found significant increase in transfer when learners were assisted in understanding their own learning processes enhancing their metacognition (Belmont, Butterfield, & Ferretti, 1982). In the following years, the pivotal role of


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metacognition and metacognitive learning strategies was acknowledged in language learning (Anderson, 2008; Chamot & O’Malley, 1994a, 1994b; Chamot et al., 1999; Cotterall & Murray, 2009; Grenfell & Harris, 1999). Thus, the issue of transfer is rather complicated. There are indications, however, that if learners are empowered with metacognitive knowledge and experience, strategy transfer could be feasible and could further facilitate the learning process (Harris, 2004, as reported in Chamot, 2004). Effectiveness of strategy intervention Research into strategy instruction has been an active domain in SLA since the early 1980’s with over 400 empirical, theoretical and review articles (Plonsky, 2010, as cited in Plonsky, 2011). Empirical support has been found in various studies, at least regarding short-term effects of strategy intervention (Harris et al., 2005). The overall results have been rather mixed, with studies being successful (Graham & Macaro, 2008; Gunning & Oxford, 2014; Nakatani, 2005), some partially successful (Cohen, 1998; O’Malley and Chamot, 1990) and some others unsuccessful (Griffiths, 2003b, as reported in Griffiths, 2013; Rossiter, 2003). The lack of success in some results led researchers to argue that time spent on teaching strategies in the classroom had rather be channelled into teaching content (Rees-Miller, 1993; Rossiter, 2003). Griffiths (2013) claims that learners’ negative perception of strategies can lead to discouraging results. Some of the reasons Plonsky (2011) gives for raised doubts about the effectiveness of strategy instruction are methodological flaws of previous research, the complexity of variables involved in language learning strategy use, lack of valid and reliable instruments as well as uncertainty concerning long-term effects. The most frequently investigated skill in strategy instruction research is reading. Taylor, Stevens and Asher’s (2006) meta-analysis of reading strategy instruction studies showed that training in reading strategies can positively affect second and foreign language reading. Additionally, there can be increase of metacognitive awareness and control in L2 reading as well as significant increase of enjoyment of English reading (Auerbach & Paxton, 1997). In the Greek context, explicit teaching of the strategies of summary making and graphic representation of the text


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structure led to improvement of the overall reading comprehension abilities of university learners attending an EFL course (Ριζούλη, 2013). Similarly, a multiplereading strategy intervention on primary school learners enhanced their reading skill with comprehension gains maintained three months after the withdrawal of the treatment (Manoli, 2013). Writing is a very demanding skill that has also generated interventions aiming to enhance learners’ strategic repertoires and capacities. Despite the scarcity of relevant studies (Manchón, Roca de Larios, & Murphy, 2007), there is positive evidence of strategy instruction on improvement of writing performance (Bishop, 2001; Sengupta, 2000), on the ability to plan, monitor and evaluate a writing task (Nguyen & Gu, 2013) and on the level of confidence and autonomy they acquire (Manchón et al. 2007; Nguyen & Gu, 2013). In Greece, Xirofotou (2012) found the positive influence of the instruction of written mediation strategies to EFL adolescents who were involved in exam preparation for the written mediation activity of the KPG writing module at B2 level; there was also improvement in the learners’ metacognitive behaviour with parallel lessening of feelings of anxiety (Tsiriotakis, 2013). Several studies have investigated the effect of teaching strategies on learners’ listening abilities. Significant increase was evidenced not only in aspects of listening comprehension of oral texts (Carrier, 2003; Ross & Rost, 1991; Thomson & Rubin, 1996; Vandergrift & Tafaghodtari, 2010) but also in learners’ confidence in listening (Graham & Macaro, 2008), in positive attitudes towards strategy instruction, transfer of strategies to new tasks and durability of strategy use after the intervention (Ozeki, 2000). Fewer studies have sought to assist learners in improving their speaking capacities with varying degrees of success (Cohen, Weaver, & Li, 1998; O’Malley & Chamot, 1990). However, more challenging is research into oral communication (or oral interaction) as it involves listening, speaking and some degree of cultural understanding. Relative intervention studies have demonstrated gains for oral interaction (Dadour & Robbins, 1996; Naughton, 2006) together with enhancement of strategic awareness and use (Nakatani, 2005). As for explicit instruction on vocabulary strategies, it was found to be beneficial on the development of lexical knowledge of EFL learners (for example, Bornay, 2011;


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Mizumoto & Takeuchi, 2009), especially when emphasis was laid on metacognitive strategy training (Rasekh & Ranjbary, 2003). Furthermore, strategy instruction has proved to be useful for increasing learners’ overall strategy use (Chamot, 2007; Harris et al., 2005; and in the Greek context, Gavriilidou & Papanis, 2009; Σαραφιανού, 2013), boosting self-confidence (Chamot et al., 1999) as well as their motivation and perceived utility of strategies (Nunan, 1997). Overall, a large meta-analysis of well-designed empirical evidence of strategy instruction data confirmed that results are mostly in favour of strategy intervention emphasising the need for exploring its long-term effects in the future (Plonsky, 2011). Classroom models of strategy intervention A number of classroom models for teaching language learning strategies have been developed over the years (for instance, Chamot et al. 1999; Cohen, 1998; Grenfell & Harris, 1999; Macaro, 2001; Oxford, 1990). They all start instruction with a lot of direct explicit assistance (or scaffolding), which is gradually withdrawn so that learners can increase the responsibility they assume for strategy use. All the models share a sequence of five steps: 1) Preparation: the teacher raises learners’ awareness of the strategies they are already using. 2) Presentation: the teacher uses a simple, easy-to-remember name for the new strategy, models (i.e., demonstrates) it and explains its use. 3) Practice: the learners are provided with a lot of opportunities to practise the new strategy. 4) Evaluation: the learners reflect on their strategy use to assess its usefulness. 5) Expansion: the learners transfer the strategy to new tasks in order to realise its effectiveness in a variety of contexts. Interestingly, in the phase of initial awareness raising, when there is enough time, Oxford (1990, 2011) proposes a variety of strategy awareness games (such as the Embedded Strategies Game and the Strategy Search Game, both in Oxford, 1990, pp. 2435). In these games, learners are given various tasks/situations, and have to brainstorm the strategies which they will need to accomplish them. In this way,


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discovery of strategies and assessment of those used can be conducted through play in an enjoyable manner. Concerning the strategy presentation phase, which is conducted by the teacher in most models, Macaro (2001) and (Oxford (2011) recommend that a student could also assume the demonstration and naming of the new strategy. Additionally, making strategy combinations (in strategy chains) for a specific task or purpose is particularly stressed by Macaro (2001) and Oxford (2011) as well. Finally, the gradual removal (or fading) of scaffolding takes place in the practice phase in the CALLA model (Chamot, 2004) but in other models (Grenfell & Harris, 1999; Macaro, 2001; Oxford, 2011) it occurs slightly later. To summarise, comparison of all the existing models shows many similarities among them. Their common denominator is the development of learners who are conscious of their learning and can use strategies responsibly and independently in order to become more effective. Facilitating the strategy instruction process for young learners School-aged learners in primary and lower secondary education have special needs in regard to their linguistic and cultural background, their goals for learning a second or foreign language and their motivation. That is why they require special treatment as compared to older learners (Rubin, Chamot, Harris, & Anderson, 2007). Ways to raise young learners’ awareness of strategies Language learning strategy instruction begins by helping learners become aware of what strategies really are and what strategies they are currently using (Cohen, 1998; Chamot et al., 1999; Grenfell & Harris, 1999; Macaro, 2001; Oxford, 2011). The goal is to familiarise learners with the concept of strategies and get them to think about their learning. Teachers can start with a short introduction on strategies before proceeding to identification of the strategies that their learners are already using. Teachers can utilise very simple language to explain that strategies are the tools to make learning easier, faster and more enjoyable. They can bolster up learners’ confidence and help them aim at higher levels of proficiency without great difficulty. In fact, strategies have been used since antiquity. For example, in Ancient Greece, ‘bards’ or storytellers used mnemonic (or memory) techniques or devices to help them remember their lines.


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Subsequently, learners can be asked what kind of strategies they use to complete various tasks in the classroom, such as to learn new vocabulary, understand oral or written texts or write an email. While learners describe what they do for learning, teachers can list their responses, then name the strategies and ask how many learners use each strategy. Finding out how many strategies they are using, learners can be motivated to learn even more of them. Another alternative might be to ask learners to do a certain task ‘cold’ in the classroom and then discuss what strategies they used for it (Grenfell & Harris, 1999). Another common way to raise learners’ consciousness is through completion of questionnaires, addressed especially to older learners. For younger learners, original questionnaires have been developed (such as Cohen & Oxford’s (2002) Young Learners’ Language Strategy Use Survey) or in adapted form (e.g. the THALES Questionnaire for Young Learners). These can prove to be useful in the last grades of primary school or in secondary school. Ways to present strategies to young learners Initially, strategies may seem abstract to young learners and difficult to understand, especially in the early years of primary school. That is why teachers should be very analytical making the new strategy to be modelled very concrete. That can generally be done by ‘thinking aloud’ during the performance of an L2 task. In other words, teachers can describe their thinking, explaining in detail every single step they take while using the specific strategy (Chamot, 2009). After the ‘think-aloud’, the teacher holds a discussion of the process asking learners to remember what actions he/she took first, second, third, etc. and why. Then he/she names the strategy, saying, for example, “I used the strategy of ‘predicting’ to figure out what the story is about”. Since some learners might already know the strategy, the teacher can ask them whether they have used it and why. That can be very beneficial for realising the different tasks and contexts that a strategy can be employed for (Rubin et al., 2007). Another way to make strategies more concrete for young learners is visual representation. For this reason, the Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport (2007) recommends flashcards which depict strategies to be instructed in the first two grades of primary school in Canada. To reinforce comprehension of strategies, Gunning, Lalonde, Schink and Watts (2001, 2002, 2003) and Gunning, Lalonde and


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Watts (2006, 2007) used strategy posters with simplified names; for example, the strategy of ‘using circumlocution’ was given the name “say it in a different way”. Using mascots is also a resourceful way of presenting language learning strategies (Gunning et al., 2006, 2007; Robbins, n.d.). Robbins (n.d.) associated the abstract concepts of strategies with cuddly mascots. Since stuffed animals are children’s favourites, they could be concrete reminders of a particular language strategy in the classroom. Thus, “Monitoring Monkey”, “Planning Panda”, “Checking Chick”, “Cooperating Cow”, and many more were created. Toy tool box items have also been suggested for modelling strategies through play, for instance, “Saw” for ‘problem solving’ or “Measuring Tape” for ‘evaluating’ (Robbins, n.d.). What is more, Gunning et al. (2006, 2007) used a combination of the following props: a puppet with posters for the first and second grades; posters with pictures of a mascot for the third and fourth grade; and posters with pictures of pre-adolescent characters for the fifth and sixth grades. Gunning et al. (2002) also employed a “strategy wheel” with smiley illustrations and simple names of strategies. All the above tools can prove to be helpful for adjusting language learning strategy instruction to young learners’ personality and needs. Ways for young learners to practise strategies After presentation of the strategies, learners need to be provided with ample practice opportunities. Practice of strategies can be done with any classroom language tasks as long as they pose some degree of challenge. In other words, tasks should not be too easy as that will not make the learners use strategies. Extensive practice and assistance from the teacher can familiarise learners with the appropriate use of the strategies which the tasks may require. There is gradual removal of that support so that learners can increasingly take responsibility as well as authority for their strategy use (Rubin et al., 2007). Activities should be carefully selected in order to build up young learners’ confidence. Additionally, since social interaction plays an important role in an individual’s cognitive development (Donato & McCormick, 1994), activities that require collaboration, problem solving, role-playing and hands-on experiences could be very helpful in strategy use. In pair- and group-work, learners could observe their peers use and possibly explain the strategies to one another getting a


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deeper understanding of the value of those strategies (Harris et al. 2001; Rubin et al., 2007). Ways to facilitate self-evaluation for young learners After practising the new strategies, the learners need to reflect on the process of their application of strategies and assess how successful they were for performing the L2 task. That is the metacognitive strategy of ‘evaluation’. To be more specific, teachers can ask the learners to note down the strategies they used for a given activity or assignment, how each strategy worked for them, and indicate any adjustment they made for each strategy. Then they can start a class discussion about the usefulness of the strategies for the task. Alternatively, teachers can ask learners to complete checklists or write down their experiences and thoughts in learning logs (Chamot et al., 1999). At the end of the evaluation phase, learners may realise that some strategies are more effective for them than some others for particular language tasks. As all learners have their special needs and preferences, especially the younger ones, they should then be allowed to feel free to opt for those strategies which are more appropriate for them building their own repertoire which they could draw upon in the future. Ways to facilitate strategy transfer with young learners Learnt strategies do not automatically transfer from one context to another. Metacognition can play a vital role in that transfer, as Wenden’s (1999) review of relative research indicates. Therefore, teachers can promote strategy transfer in two ways: first, by explicitly instructing strategies to enhance learners’ metacognitive abilities, and second, by discussing with their learners how particular strategies can be employed in different contexts. In fact, the teacher might then ask the learners to apply a specific learnt strategy to an L1 content class and then report on the effectiveness of that strategy (Rubin et al., 2007). Having two contexts to practise rather than one could prove to be beneficial for school-aged learners. Cross-disciplinary comparisons and connections may be facilitative in fostering a common approach to ‘learning how to learn’ in general, which can only add to the development of a confident, independent and autonomous language user (Harris & Grenfell, 2004).


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Guidebooks and course materials for strategy assistance Over the years, a great many guidebooks (e.g. Brown, 2001; Ellis & Sinclair, 1989; Keatley, Anstrom, & Chamot, 2004; Paige, Cohen, Kappler, Chi, & Lassegard, 2006) have been written urging learners towards strategic thinking and behaviour. Among them, are three guidebooks produced by the National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC) promoting integrated strategy instruction into L2 classrooms: one for elementary immersion schools (NCLRC, 2003), one for secondary schools (NCLRC, 2004), and one for university-level education (NCLRC, n.d.). A rationale for teaching strategies is provided together with many practical and useful activities for learners. Many international publishers of ELT student books have incorporated language learning strategies into their editions calling them by different names such as ‘strategies’, ‘tips’, ‘tactics’, etc. One example is the Tapestry Series (e.g. Fragiadakis & Maurer, 2005) for EFL college learners in North America, Asia and the Middle East. Emphasis is placed on the four language skills, primarily through the teaching of language learning strategies, which are a primary component of the series. Gunning and her colleagues wrote materials for integrating language learning strategies into Quebec’s L2 school curriculum. Using attractive mascots and assessment tools for young learners, they produced a variety of books such as The Spinning Series (Gunning & Lalonde, 1995), A Tiny Twist to English (Gunning et al., 2006, 2007), and A New Twist to English (Gunning et al., 2001, 2002, 2003). All these materials aim to create strategic and autonomous learners maximising their performance in a second or foreign language. Conclusion: Why teach strategies? Drawing on research, it appears that learners who employ language learning strategies are more effective and motivated. They are more adept at planning, organising and evaluating their thinking and learning processes. They are familiar with the appropriate use of a large number of strategies on many language tasks in a variety of contexts. The aim of strategy instruction is to assist learners in building a strategic repertoire. Knowing how and when to apply each strategy, they can select those strategies which are more appropriate for their personalities and needs on the one hand, and


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more effective for particular L2 tasks on the other. Gradually, they can become more responsible and independent learners with the ability to deploy strategies consciously and autonomously reinforcing their learning. A wide range of learner strategy guidebooks, L2 textbooks and course materials are the result of long-lasting efforts at successful implementation of language learning instruction. Strategies are one more tool to empower a student’s potential for learning a second or foreign language.


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References Anderson, N. J. (2008). Metacognition and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from Good Language Learners (pp. 99-109). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Auerbach, E., R., & Paxton, D. (1997). “It’s not the English thing”: Bringing reading research into the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 237-261. Belmont, J. M., Butterfield, E. C., & Ferretti, R. P. (1982). To secure transfer of training: Instruct selfmanagement skills. In D. C. Detterman, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), How and How Much Can Intelligence be Increased? (pp. 147-154). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Bishop, G. (2001). Using quality and accuracy ratings to quantify the value added of a dictionary skills training course. Language Learning Journal, 24, 62-69. Bornay, N. (2011). Explicit strategy training in vocabulary learning for beginning Spanish learners. FULGOR (Flinders University Languages Group Online Review), 4(3), 18-31. Brown, H. D. (2001). Strategies for Success: A practical Guide to Learning English. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson ESL. Carrier, K. A. (2003). Improving high school English language learners’ second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 27, 383-408. Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1(1), 14-26. Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language Learning Strategy Instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112-130. Chamot, A. U. (2007). Accelerating academic achievement of English language learners: A synthesis of five evaluations of the CALLA model. In J. Cummins, & C. Davison (Eds.), The International Handbook of English Language Learning, Part I (pp. 317-331). Norwell, MA: Springer. Chamot, A. U. (2008). Strategy instruction and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from Good Language Learners (pp. 266-281). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chamot, A. U. (2009). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Second edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education/Longman. Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P., & Robbins, J. (1999). Learning Strategies Handbook. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman. Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1994a). Language learner and learner strategies. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages (pp. 371-392). London, UK: Academic Press. Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1994b). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. White Plains, NY: Longman. Chen, Y. (2007). Learning to learn: The impact of strategy training. English Language Teaching Journal, 61, 20-29. Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. London, UK, and New York, NY: Longman. Cohen, A. D., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Young Learners’ Language Strategy Use Survey. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.


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Cohen, A. D., Weaver, S. J., & Li, T. Y. (1998). The impact of strategies-based instruction on speaking a foreign language. In A. D. Cohen (Ed.) Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language (pp. 107156). London, UK: Longman. Cotterall, S., & Murray, G. (2009). Enhancing metacognitive knowledge: Structure, affordances and self. System, 37, 34-45. Dadour, E. S., & Robbins, J. (1996). University-level studies using strategy instruction to improve speaking ability in Egypt and Japan. In R. L. Oxford (Ed.) Language Learning Strategies Around the World: Cross-cultural Perspectives (pp. 157-166). Manoa: University of Hawai’i Press. Donato, R., & McCormick, D. (1994). A sociocultural perspective on language learning strategies: The role of mediation. The Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 453-464. Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 67-89. Ellis, G., & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to Learn English: A Course in Learner Training. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Fragiadakis, H. K., & Maurer, V. (2005). Tapestry Listening and Speaking 4, Middle East edition. London, UK: Thomson Heinle. Gavriilidou, Z., & Papanis, A. (2009). The effect of strategy instruction on strategy use by Muslim learners learning English as a foreign language. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 25, 47-63. Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2000). Writing development: The role of cognitive, motivational, and social/contextual factors. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 3-12. Graham, S., & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy instruction in listening for lower-intermediate learners of French. Language Learning, 58(4), 747-783. Grenfell, M., & Harris, V. (1999). Modern Languages and Learning Strategies in Theory and Practice. London, UK: Routledge. Grenfell, M., & Harris, V. (2004). Language-learning strategies: A case for cross-curricular collaboration. Language Awareness, 13(2), 116-130. Griffiths, C. (2013). The Strategy Factor in Successful Language Learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Gunning, P., & Lalonde, R. (1995). The Spinning Series: Level 2. Montréal, Québec: Lidec. Gunning, P., Lalonde, R., Schinck, M., & Watts, W. (2001). A New Twist to English, Cycle 2, Book 2. Montréal, Québec: Lidec. Gunning, P., Lalonde, R., Schinck, M., & Watts, W. (2002). A New Twist to English, Cycle 3, Book 1. Montréal, Québec: Lidec. Gunning, P., Lalonde, R., Schinck, M., & Watts, W. (2003). A new twist to English, Cycle 3, Book 2. Montréal, Québec: Lidec. Gunning, P., Lalonde, R., & Watts, W. (2006). A Tiny Twist to English, Cycle 1, Book 1. Montréal, Québec: Lidec. Gunning, P., Lalonde, R., & Watts, W. (2007). A Tiny Twist to English, Cycle 1, Book 2. Montréal, Québec: Lidec. Gunning, P., & Oxford, R. L. (2014). Children’s learning strategy use and the effects of strategy instruction on success in learning ESL in Canada. System, 43, 82-100.


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Harris, V., & Grenfell, M. (2004). Language-learning strategies: A case for cross-curricular collaboration. Language awareness, 13(2), 116-130. Harris, V., Gaspar, A, Jones, B., Ingvarsdóttir, H., Neuburg, R., Pálos, I., Schindler, I. (2001). Helping Learners Learn: Exploring Instruction in Language Classrooms Across Europe. European Centre for Modern Languages: Council of Europe. Hassan, X., Macaro, E., Mason, D., Nye, G., Smith, P., & Vanderplank, R. (2005). Strategy training in language learning – a systematic review of available research: Review conducted by the Modern Languages Review Group. Retrieved from http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=F%2fOA%3d&tabid=296&mid= 1147&language=en-US Keatley, C. W., Anstrom, K. A., & Chamot, A. U. (2004). Keys to Learning: Skills and Strategies for Newcomers. New York: Pearson EFL. Macaro, E. (2001). Learning Strategies in Foreign and Second Language Classrooms. London, UK: Continuum. Manchόn, R. M., Roca de Larios, J., & Murphy, L. (2007). A review of writing strategies: Focus on conceptualizations and impact of first language. In A. D. Cohen, & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language Learner Strategies (pp. 229-250). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Manoli, P. G. (2013). Developing reading strategies in elementary EFL classrooms. Unpublished PhD dissertation. School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Early Childhood Education. Volos, Greece: University of Thessaly. Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport, or MELS. (2007). Self-monitoring: A Handbook on Developing Metacognitive Strategies with First-year Elementary Cycle One ESL Learners. Montréal, Québec. Retrieved from: http://eslinsight.qc.ca/IMG/pdf/Self-monitoring.pdf Mizumoto, A., & Takeuchi, O. (2009). Examining the effectiveness of explicit instruction of vocabulary learning strategies with Japanese EFL university learners. Language Teaching Research, 13, 425449. Nakatani, Y. (2005). The effects of awareness-raising on oral communication strategy use. The Modern Language Journal, 89(1), 76-91. National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). (2003). The Elementary Immersion Learning Strategies Resource Guide. Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nclrc. org/eils/pdfs/intro.pdf National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). (2004). Sailing the Five Cs with Learning Strategies: A Resource Guide for Secondary Foreign Language Educators. Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center. Retrieved from://www.nclrc.org/sailing/pdfs/sfle.pdf National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). (n.d.). Developing Autonomy in Language Learners: Learning Strategies Instruction in Higher Education. Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nclrc.org/guides/HED/pdfs/full.pdf Naughton, D. (2006). Cooperative strategy training and oral interaction: Enhancing small group communication in the language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 90(2), 169-184.


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Nguyen, L. T. C., & Gu, Y. (2013). Strategy-based instruction: A learner-focused approach to developing learner autonomy. Language Teaching Research, 17(1), 9-30. Nunan, D. (1997). Does learner strategy training make a difference? Lenguas Modernas, 24, 123-142. O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and Researching Language Learning Strategies. Harlow, England: Pearson Education. Ozeki, N. (2000). Listening Strategy Instruction for Female EFL College Learners in Japan. Tokyo: Macmillan Language House. Paige, M. R., Cohen, A. D., Kappler, B., Chi, J. C., & Lassegard, J. P. (2006). Maximizing Study Abroad: A Student’s Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. Plonsky, L. (2011). The effectiveness of second language strategy instruction: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 61(4), 993-1038. Rasekh, Z. E., & Ranjbary, R. (2003). Metacognitive strategy training for vocabulary learning. TESL-EJ, 7(2), 1-14. Retrieved from: http://tesl-ej.org/ej26/a5.html Rees-Miller, J. (1993). A critical appraisal of learner training: Theoretical bases and teaching implications. Tesol Quarterly, 27(4), 679-689. Ριζούλη, Θ. (2013). Η συμβολή των γνωστικών στρατηγικών της περίληψης και της γραφικής αναπαράστασης της δομής κειμένου στη βελτίωση της κατανόησης και της χρήσης των στρατηγικών: Ένα πρόγραμμα παρέμβασης σε Έλληνες φοιτητές στο μάθημα της Αγγλικής ως ξένης γλώσσας. Αδημοσίευτη Διδακτορική Διατριβή. Τμήμα Εκπαιδευτικής και Κοινωνικής Πολιτικής. Θεσσαλονίκη: Πανεπιστήμιο Μακεδονίας. Robbins,

J.

(n.d.).

Cuddly

learning

strategies:

Animal

mascots.

Retrieved

from:

http://jillrobbins.com/calla/animals/cuddly.html Ross, S., & Rost, M. (1991). Learner use of strategies in interaction: Typology and teachability. Language Learning, 41(2), 235-273. Rossiter, M. J. (2003). The effects of affective strategy training in the ESL classroom. TESL-EJ, 7(2), 114. Retrieved from: http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/ issues/volume7/ej26/ej26a2/ Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9(1), 41-51. Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 2, 117131. Rubin, J., Chamot, A. U., Harris, V., & Anderson, N. J. (2007). Intervening in the use of strategies. In A. D. Cohen, & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language Learner Strategies (pp. 141-160). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Σαραφιανού, A. (2013). Στρατηγικές εκμάθησης της ξένης γλώσσας: Η άμεση και ενσωματωμένη διδασκαλία στο πλαίσιο εφαρμογής ενός παρεμβατικού προγράμματος καλλιέργειας στρατηγικής εκμάθησης της αγγλικής γλώσσας σε μαθητές δευτέρας τάξης Λυκείου.


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide Αδημοσίευτη Διδακτορική Διατριβή. Τμήμα Ελληνικής Φιλολογίας. Κομοτηνή: Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης.

Sengupta, S. (2000). An investigation into the effects of revision strategy instruction on L2 secondary school learners. System, 28(1), 97-113. Taylor, A., Stevens, J. R., & Asher, J. W. (2006). The effects of explicit reading strategy training on L2 reading comprehension: A meta-analysis. In J. M. Norris, & L. Ortega (Eds.), Synthesizing Research on Language Learning and Teaching (pp. 213-244). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. Thomson, I., & Rubin, J. (1996). Can strategy instruction improve listening comprehension? Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 331-342. Tsiriotakis, I. K. (2013). Written difficulties and feelings of anxiety during the acquisition of English as a foreign language. Unpublished PhD thesis. Faculty of Education, Department of Primary Education. Rethymnon, Greece: University of Crete. Vandergrift, L., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2010). Teaching L2 learners how to listen does make a difference: An empirical study. Language Learning, 60(2), 470-497. Wenden, A. L. (1999). Metacognitive knowledge and language learning. Applied Linguistics, 19(4), 515537. Xirofotou, Ε. (2012). Developing strategies through instruction in Greek EFL classrooms: The case of the mediation task for the KPG B2 level exams. Unpublished PhD thesis. Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English. Thessaloniki, Greece: Aristotle University.


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PART II ACTIVITIES FOR CLASSROOM STRATEGY INSTRUCTION

Supervision/Coordination Angeliki Psaltou/Joycey Zoe Gavriilidou


1. ACTIVITIES FOR MAINSTREAM PRIMARY SCHOOLS Eleni Agathopoulou, Thoma誰 Alexiou, Edgar Joycey, Vassilia Kazamia, and Areti-Maria Sougari Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Supervision/Coodrination Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey


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ACTIVITY 1: RHYMING WORDS Main strategy: using rhymes to remember new words (memory) Assisting strategies: creating mental linkages through grouping and association, placing new words in a context (memory), cooperation (social), selective attention (metacognitive) Language level: A1-A2 Skills practised: All Time of activity: 15-20 min

Description of the activity The learners play rhyming games to learn new vocabulary. Preparation The teacher introduces/reminds the learners of the concept of rhymes, namely that a word rhymes with another one if they end in identical sounds. The teacher also points out that rhyming sounds may be spelled in a different way. Then s/he tells the class that they will have to find rhymes for new words working in groups of four or five members. S/he explains that word association through rhyme is considered very effective for learning and retention of vocabulary. The learners are told that this activity will have the form of a game. Modelling Using words already known to the learners, the teacher first gives examples of words that rhyme with each other, for example, read-bread, most-toast‌ and then s/he asks the class to find words that rhyme with the words s/he utters, e.g. writer (lighter), bowl (-whole), sing (-bring) etc. The teacher also writes the words on the board or uses cards with pictures of things/actions and the words that describe them. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher introduces two new vocabulary items that rhyme with words previously taught, either by writing the words on the board or using flashcards with


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the written forms of the words and pictures showing what these words mean. Each word should be pronounced at least twice. The learners are asked to offer examples of words that rhyme with the new ones. The teacher writes all answers on the board and discusses with the whole class whether all of the words they suggested really rhyme with the new ones. Near-rhymes, e.g. turtle-circle, may also be acceptable especially when it is difficult to find a fully rhyming word. Then the class is asked to split into 4 groups of 5 or 6 learners. The teacher introduces two more new words in the way described above or uses pictures of these words in the coursebook. If there are such pictures in the coursebook but their written form does not accompany the picture, the teacher writes the words on the board. The teacher pronounces these new words aloud for the whole class to listen, as many times as s/he thinks it is necessary for the learners to link the written form with the sound. Then the learners are told that in 5 minutes time they have to think of as many words as they can that rhyme or near-rhyme with the two words and write them down. When their time is up, the teacher tells the learners to stop and asks each group to report the rhymes they found. The teacher writes all of the rhymes on the board and discusses with the whole class whether all of the words they thought of really rhyme with the two new words and which rhymes they like the best. If a rhyming word offered by one group is unknown to other learners in class, members of this group are asked to explain the meaning of these words. Lastly, this activity can be a competition game: the group that offers the largest number of rhymes is the winner. During the group activity, the teacher goes around the room to check if there are problems and to offer explanations or ideas. For some variations of the above activity, see https://tesolatrennertnyc.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/quick-activity-idearhyming-game/ Evaluation After the activity ask the learners to comment on what they think about it. Do they think the use of rhymes helps them learn new words? Why or Why not?


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Expansion/Transfer Rhymes can be used whenever they apply: to help learners remember words that can be grouped according to how they sound. For instance, when teaching country names and nationalities (see Unit 3, Grade 4 coursebook), the learners can be asked to create rhyming groups with the new words, for example, Albania(n)-Romania(n). For better retention they may group them in bubble diagrams like the following.

Rhymes can be used in the following activities too, adding fun to the practice of grammar, for example past tense or ‘going to’. Short dialogues in the form of verses, where the learners are asked to fill in the missing word (orally or in written) in the second verse with a word or a phrase that rhymes or near-rhymes with the last word of the first verse. A. Past tense When I was one It wasn’t much ____ (fun) / I couldn’t _____ (run) / My life had just _____ (begun) When I was two I went to the _____ (zoo) / My clothes were _____ (blue) When I was three I went up a ______ (tree)


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B. Going to What are you going to do when you’re twenty-one? I’m going to _____( buy a water gun) What are you going to do when you’re thirteen/fourteen? I’m going to ____ (meet a queen, work in a canteen) What are you going to do when you’re twenty/thirty? I’m going to ____ (travel to Turkey, buy a turkey) What are you going to do when you’re fifty/sixty? I’m going to ____ (move to another city) The above activity was adapted from Joan Kang Shin’s online materials: http://api.ning.com/files/TsF241h2WnDoTodY*5hkswK*7FwJtqFFHELFTg*SLVNzqnDIcSOZgEFrlF*qCzOWQ6wiqeehpL*ukmtvnk2wPJoG3F8JPUb/SongsTeachingEnglis htoYoungLearnersSHIN.pdf Teaching Objective To enhance mnemonic techniques for learning and recalling new vocabulary. Teaching Materials Flashcards (hard copies or in ppt. slides), or pictures from the learners’ books, as described above. A picture like the following can serve as a warm-up for rhyming activities.


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Source: http://selvipoem.blogspot.gr/2011/04/rhyme.html Flashcards of rhyming words like the following can easily be found on the Internet

Source: https://www.pinterest.com/evelynvazquez/rjmas/ A very useful website for rhymes and near-rhymes: http://www.rhymezone.com/


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ACTIVITY 2: DEVELOPING DICTIONARY SKILLS Main strategy: looking up unknown words in a dictionary (cognitive) Assisting strategies: taking notes, using resources (cognitive), cooperation (social) and selective attention (metacognitive) Language level: A2 Skills practised: reading, writing and speaking Time of activity: 10-20 min

Description of the activity: A series of game-like activities which aim to help learners develop their dictionary skills. Preparation Ask the learners about their use of dictionaries, for example, how often they look up words, if it takes them a long time to find the words they need, if there are some symbols they do not understand etc. Advise the learners not to overuse dictionaries, since the meaning of new words may sometimes be guessed from context or from their form (as in e.g. greenhouse, or unfriendly). However if it is very hard to deduce the meaning as already described, we need to use a dictionary and for this reason inform the class that they will carry out a series of activities to help them enhance their dictionary skills. Before starting the activities, discuss what information we can find for every word in a dictionary in addition to what this word means, namely, its pronunciation, what part of speech it is, abbreviations like adj., n.c., n.u., vi, vt etc. (for adjective, noun uncountable, noun countable, verb intransitive, verb transitive, respectively), synonyms and other information depending on the type of dictionary. In many dictionaries words are also contextualized in sentences. The above can be illustrated with examples from dictionaries such as the one in the picture below (from the Oxford English-Greek Learner's Dictionary by D.N. Stavropoulos and A.S. Hornby, 1998, p. 35). This discussion is important because, in our experience, many learners who use bilingual dictionaries just read the translation of a word disregarding all other information.


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Modelling For each of the activities the teacher offers examples, as described in detail below. Practice/Scaffolding Split the class into groups of four or five learners and give each group a copy of the same English-Greek dictionary. Activity 1: Alphabetising by order Give each group a handout with sets of known words (5-6 in each set) and explain that they will have to number the words in alphabetical order, according to their first letter. Those who finish first and get all of the sets right, are the winners. Example: Predictable _5__ Friendly

_3__

Can

_2__

Go

_4__

Beach

_1__

Well

_6__

Adapted from: http://www.palmbeachschools.org/multicultural/documents/FCATDictionaryWork book.pdf


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A similar activity can be carried out by asking the learners to alphabetize by order according to their first letter the days of the week, months, five objects they can see in the classroom, fruit names etc. Also, the activity can be based on lists in the learners’ coursebook, as for example, the lists of professions on p. 62 and p. 64, shown below, respectively.

Activity 2: Speed Word Search Name each group of learners with a letter, A, B, C, D, E, and assign a number to each learner in every group, e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4. Thus one learner will be called A1, another one B1 or C2 etc. Write a new word on the board, and ask the learners to find it in the dictionary as quickly as possible. Continue with other words. The number of words used in the activity will depend on the number of learner groups as well as the number of learners in each group. For each word, only one learner from each group will have to look it up. To illustrate, write the word ‘brain’ and say ‘1’. Only learners with this number in each group will use the dictionary to look up the word and the first learner who says the correct page number is the winner. The teacher declares that the winner is A1/B1 etc. This is continued with at least four of five words so that all learners in each group have a chance to win. The winner gets a point for the whole group and the group with most of the points is the winner. As a follow up you may ask the learners to write down sentences containing the new words, either in class or for homework.


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Activity 3: Mystery Word Using the same method as in Activity 1 regarding names for learners in each group (i.e. A1, B1, C2 etc.) give clues for the words they have to look up, e.g. “It begins with the third letter of the alphabet. Its second letter is “r”. It consists of one syllable. Its last letter is “h”. It comes before “crusade” in the dictionary. (Answer: “crunch”). This is continued and the terms for winning the game are the same as those in Activity 2. Use new words and as a follow up the learners write down sentences containing the new words, either in class or for homework. Activities 2 and 3 are based the ones found in http://www.minds-inbloom.com/2010/01/8-fun-dictionary-activities.html Evaluation After each activity ask the learners to comment on what they think about it. Do they find it helps them improve their dictionary skills and learn new words? Why or Why not? Expansion/Transfer The learners keep a notebook of new vocabulary items where they write down one word per day with its definition, what part of speech it is, and a sentence containing this word. They share these words once a week with two other classmates. More advanced learners can also note down synonyms, antonyms, suffixes etc. (Adapted from http://www.minds-in-bloom.com/2010/01/8-fun-dictionary-activities.html) Graphic organisers like the following one may help in this task.


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Source: http://www.ladybugsteacherfiles.com/2011/03/vocabulary-graphicorganizer.html For similar graphic organisers (called “Vocabulary Cluster Maps”), see http://www.dailyteachingtools.com/free-graphic-organizers-s.html Teaching Objective Research shows that selective dictionary use may enhance vocabulary development and reading skills (Prichard, 2008). Moreover it has been found that if a text contains more than about 5% of unknown vocabulary, guessing the meaning from context becomes especially hard (Laufer, 1997) and necessitates the use of a dictionary for text comprehension. Teaching Materials Multiple copies of the same dictionary and handouts. Also the learners’ coursebook (see the example in Activity 3).


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ACTIVITY 3: ACTING OUT WORD MEANINGS Main strategy: using gestures to overcome limitations in meaning (compensation) Assisting strategies: imagery (memory), cooperation (social), selective attention (metacognitive) Language level: A1-A2 Skills practised: speaking and listening Time of activity: 15-20 min

Description of the activity The learners have practice in acting out words/phrases/clauses. It may be used as an introduction to or a variation for acting-out activities found in the learners’ coursebook (See teaching materials below). Preparation The teacher explains that the class will be divided in groups of four to practise how to make others understand the meaning of words, phrases etc. by acting them out. The teacher also explains that this is a very useful strategy to compensate for words we need to use and we don’t know/remember when interacting in a foreign language. The learners are told that the activity can be viewed as a game aiming at finding the best way(s) to act out the meaning of pictures. Modelling The teacher acts out the meaning of words/phrases etc. (e.g. ‘rain’, ‘wait for someone’, ‘brush one’s teeth’), and asks learners to guess the meaning. If the learners find it difficult to understand the meaning, s/he explains what s/he meant by writing the words etc. on the board and asks them to try and act them out themselves in a better way. The class discusses which acting out/gestures they found more helpful to understand the meaning. The teacher can also make it difficult on purpose, to encourage the involvement of learners at the modelling stage.


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Alternatively/In addition, the teacher may act out the meaning of each picture in two (slightly) different ways and ask the learners to tell which one they thought best to understand what s/he meant to say and why. Practice/Scaffolding In all groups, each learner is given two pictures and hides them from the other group members. No learner in the same group has the same pair of pictures but the whole set (all 8 pictures) is the same for all groups. In turns, each learner tries to make the rest of the group understand what is shown in his/her pictures. They discuss and decide which of the act outs they considered the most successful in demonstrating the meaning of what was depicted in the pictures. Each group present their ‘best’ act outs in the whole class. Consolidation/assimilation of new vocabulary, after the learners have been taught the new words: In pair work, the learners carry out short dialogues where they have to act out what they are shown in pictures hidden from their interlocutors. Example: A. What’s the weather like in Athens? B. It’s….( acts out ‘windy’) A. Oh, it’s windy, right? During the group activity, the teacher goes around the room to check if there are problems and to offer explanations or ideas, such as how to act out some words, for example, to hold arms above head in a circle for ‘the sun’ or ‘sunny’, to flutter fingers downward for ‘rain’, to wrap arms around body and shiver for ‘cold’ etc. Evaluation After the activity ask the learners to comment on what they think about the strategy of acting out new language items. Does this strategy seem to be helpful? Why or Why not? Expansion/Transfer When the learners face difficulties in expressing themselves in English, remind them that they may try to act out what they want to say. Point out/demonstrate more examples where acting out can signify meaning. For example, one can act out how an action is carried out, adding the use of facial expressions, as in ‘talk angrily’, ‘walk fast/slowly’, ‘wait anxiously’ etc. Acting out can also be used to indicate plural


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number, e.g. by linking one’s fingers for ‘plural’, for past tense, by waving one’s hand over one’s shoulder etc. Teaching Objective To make one’s interlocutor(s) understand what one means when one lacks the linguistic means for this purpose. Teaching Materials Photocopies of sets of pictures from the learners’ coursebook, for example: 

Grade 4: the weather (p. 51), habitual actions (p. 59 and p. 67) and animals (p. 71).

Grade 5: objects for Christmas decorations (p. 50), weekend activities (p. 52) and cooking (pp. 54-55).

Grade 6: daily activities (p. 5 and p. 9), going shopping (p. 13) and creatures (p. 26)

For variety, the teacher may use sets of pictures depicting the same objects, actions etc. as those in the learners’ coursebook but slightly different and possibly more attractive or funnier. Such pictures are easily found on the Internet, as for example the ones below, for ‘windy’, ‘duck’, ‘taking a bath’ and ‘tooth brushing’.

Source: http://www.michaellutin.com/monkey_windy_wig.jpg


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Source: http://funnystack.com/category/funny-duck/page/9/

Source: http://kittentoob.com/cat-tips/best-practices-bathing-cat

Source: http://jessicalouise.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/toothbrush-funnywacky-crazy-silly-wild-thumb.jpg Activities relevant with acting-out in the learners’ Coursebooks: Grade 4, p. 65 and Grade 6, p. 9. A good online source with lists of ‘easy’, ‘medium’ etc. words to act out, see https://www.thegamegal.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Charades-Easy.pdf


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ACTIVITY 4: EXPRESSING EMOTIONS Main strategy: discussing one’s feelings about learning English (affective) Language level: A1-A2 Skills practised: Speaking Time of activity: 20 min

Description of the activity The teacher presents adjectives which indicate feelings and asks learners to classify them in positive and negative states. Then s/he introduces sentences which describe learning situations and asks learners to use them in order to express their emotional state when learning or practising tasks. The activity can be used as follow up or/and expansion of the vocabulary presented in the textbook for the fifth graders (5th Grade of the Primary School) on: 1. p. 27 “C Writing: How do you feel…” 2. p. 35 “A. Say how you feel…..”, 3. p.36 “Now I can ….talk about learners’ feelings and school life”, 4. p. 108 “Learning Strategies in English”. Also it could be practised with the fourth graders (4th Grade of the Primary School) on: - p. 45 “Strategy corner – Speaking” - p. 81 “Strategy corner – Songs and games” Preparation First the teacher explains that learning a new language can cause uncertainty or even uneasiness and this can be discomforting and by implication lead to a negative attitude towards learning English. Moreover it can interfere in learner process of learning strategy acquisition (Ely, 1995). Discussing one’s feelings with peers, teachers and family is a strategy that can uncover negative states and smooth any unpleasant feelings that discourage a learner. Also when this is carried out in class, learners may realize that similar


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feelings are experienced by their peers, so it is a natural reaction. There is also benefit when positive feelings are shared as well. The success or pride or confidence experienced by the learner, make him/her energetic and motivated to proceed In order to familiarise learners with the strategy of expressing their feelings, the teacher introduces a list of adjectives that denote emotional states and explains their meaning. Then the teacher asks learners to classify each adjective as positive namely under “the sunny column” or as negative, that is under “the stormy column”. Modelling In order for the learners to consolidate the meaning of adjectives and work further on feelings, the teacher can show pictures of faces (provided below) and ask learners to identify the feeling pictured in each portrait. Then the teacher selects an adjective and picture and expresses his/her own feelings when s/he studied grammar. ‘When I studied grammar I felt _______’ Practice/Scaffolding The teacher introduces the sentences “When I ….. I feel…” and asks learners to use one of the adjectives presented. Learners have a range of adjectives to choose from and may accurately express their feelings. Therefore they start describing the feelings triggered by the learning situations they are involved in and they develop gradually feeling awareness. Moreover, they listen to other learners’ feelings so they realize that similar emotional states are experienced by their peers. Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks the learners whether they liked the discussion on feelings and suggests that it would be beneficial to repeat it not only in class but also at home. Expansion/Transfer When the teacher identifies learning situations which seem to cause negative feelings s/he can use the activity again. It is also recommended to use the activity when learners are successful in learning situations so that positive feelings are spelled out; this can increase learners’ motivation and self confidence.


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Teaching objective The aim of this activity is to introduce adjectives which express emotional states so that learners can choose from a spectrum of emotions in order to identify and discuss how they feel when learning English. Teaching material: The list of adjectives, the classification grid, the learning situations, the pictures of faces are provided below. Table 1: Pairs of adjectives and classification grids

Happy

Sad

Excited

Bored

Clear

Confused

Pleased

Annoyed

Proud

Ashamed

Confident

Uncertain

Patient

Impatient

Cool

Uptight

Successful

Unsuccessful

Learning Situations 

When I read a text and I don’t understand many words I feel

When I do my exercises I feel

When I write a short essay I feel ………….

When I listen to English songs I feel …….

When I study grammar I feel ……

When I speak in English in class I feel ……

Table 2: Clipart pictures

……….

……..


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All clipart pictures were accessed from https://www.google.gr/search?q=feelings+clipart+free+google&biw=1093&bih=459& tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=uZ7LVM-yJ8jqUtLsgcAB&ved=0CDAQ7Ak on 29/1/2015.


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ACTIVITY 5: HOW DID YOU FIND THE STRATEGIES? Main strategy: evaluating your learning (self-evaluation of specific language learning strategies) Language level: A1-A2 Skills practised: Speaking Time of activity: 20 min

Teaching objective This activity introduces self evaluation and aims to train learners to resort to it. It also encourages learners to share their experiences about strategy use with their teacher and classmates. Self evaluation helps learners to reflect on their learning, to realise what actually works well for them and thus gradually take charge of their learning Description of the activity The activity aims to initiate discussion about the effectiveness of language learning strategies through a game called ‘Why & Because’. The purpose is to urge learners to share their experiences about the use of learning strategies and identify what was successful and what was not. Preparation The teacher lists 5 strategies on the blackboard and asks learners to identify silently one strategy that was effective for them. Then s/he splits the class in two groups the ‘The WhyS’ and the ‘The BecauseS’. Modelling To illustrate how the game is played the teacher says to the learners: ‘The WhyS’ are asked to write secretly on a piece of paper the strategy that was effective for them in a question form, for example “Why did I like guessing from context?”


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‘The BecauseS’ are asked to write secretly the reason that rendered the strategy effective for them, for example “Because I did not have to look it up in the dictionary”. Then the teacher collects all papers which should be kept secret. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher says that it is learners’ turn now to write their ‘WhyS’ and ‘BecauseS’ secretly on small pieces of paper. Once learners complete their writings, the teacher collects them in two boxes. Then s/he first picks randomly a paper from the Why Box and reads the question to the class. S/he proceeds with the Because Box where once more, s/he selects randomly an answer and reads it aloud. In most cases the outcome would be funny, the answers do not match the questions, and this makes learners laugh. At this point the teacher would elaborate further by asking learners to guess which strategy of those on the list might correspond to the because paper. When learners, start guessing about which ‘Why paper’ would match which ‘Because paper’, discussion is initiated and learners respond spontaneously because all this process is part of a game. Thus the teacher can further trigger questions such as “What was useful in this strategy?” ‘Why?” “Would you use it again?” Or “What was wrong with this strategy?” “Why?” “Would you replace this strategy with another?” Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks the learners whether they liked the game and explicitly states that this was a self-evaluation activity. Expansion/Transfer The teacher distributes a table where learners write new strategies and this time learners complete it themselves. Then they discuss the results of this mini evaluation with their peers and the teacher. What do you think? Yes? No? Please answer the questions


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Strategy

Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Helped me a lot to

Was not effective

Shall I use it again?

learn

for my learning

(YES? NO?

This self-evaluation about strategies can be transferred to any learning activity.


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ACTIVITY 6: FIND THE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES Main strategy: developing cultural understanding (social) Assisting strategies: using background knowledge, using selective attention (metacognitive), making inferences (compensation), using resources (cognitive), cooperating with others (social) Language level: A1 Skills practised: speaking and writing Time of activity: 10 min

Description of the activity The activity is based on the popular game ‘find the differences’ where the learner is required to find differences between two seemingly identical pictures. In this case though, learners will be given clues in a set of pictures and they will be asked to trace similarities and differences between two countries, namely Greece and Britain. It is an analytic task and more specifically, a problem solving activity (emphasising on discovery learning), which aims at learners’ production of spoken or written language and the development of cognitive skills such as observation, perception, classification and inductive learning; research shows that high scores on this game correlate significantly with language learning success (Alexiou, 2009). Based on the material used in the textbook for the fourth graders (4th Grade of the Primary School, textbook (p.38, “This is where I live” unit) the teacher organises a ‘Find the similarities and differences’ activity. Preparation Prior to the game, the teacher asks learners to think of main differences and similarities between the two countries and asks them to make inferences and predictions. This part activates their background knowledge. Then s/he explains the activity and how important it is to know the culture of the language and how this encourages learning the specific language. The teacher explains that the class will be divided in two or 3 groups (depending on the size of class, it can be a whole class activity or pair activity as well) and each group will have 2 minutes to study a set of


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cards. Then they will be asked to understand the clues given in the pictures and they will write down similarities and differences between Greece and Britain. Example answers: Differences The Greek flag is blue and white and the British flag is blue, white and red. The currency in Greece is the Euro while the British currency is the Pound. A popular game in Greece is football while in Britain it is cricket. People in Greece drive on the right but in Britain they drive on the left. Greek phone booths are blue and grey and in Britain they are red. Similarities Greek and British children like watching Pepa pig. Greek and British children like playing pokemon. Greek and British children like Harry Potter. Greeks and British like eating chips/fries. Modelling In order for the learners to understand the game, the teacher can model it with elaborating about differences and similarities and at the end, provide one difference and one similarity. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher has prepared large colourful (laminated) printouts of the pictures (examples given below) and hands them out to each group. The groups are asked to observe carefully the sets of pictures and decide on differences and similarities. The group that finds the differences and similarities first wins the game and we may ask a representative to come to the blackboard and write down the sentences that the other learners will dictate to him/her. To make the game more challenging, the groups can also be asked to provide more differences and similarities they can think of. The teacher advises the learners to cooperate, classify the pictures and access information sources (internet, if this is possible) if they have questions. Alternatively, more pictures can be added to the set. Evaluation


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After the activity the teacher asks the learners whether they found the game interesting and whether it was challenging for them to find the similarities and differences between the two countries. Then s/he asks learners whether they liked learning things about the English culture and if they are curious about it. S/he then encourages learners to go on the internet and find more things regarding the British culture. A project on different aspects of the British culture can also be assigned. This could be accompanied by language differences regarding different cultural conceptions, e,g., Greetings and time intervals, etc. Expansion/Transfer The teacher suggests that learners could play this game with other countries as well, preferably with the home countries of immigrant learners in the class or of their parents. Teaching objective The specific type of game is commonly played with young children, as it promotes the development of observation skills and can be used for learning new groups of words and/or sentences or for the retrieval and assimilation of prior knowledge. Thus the teaching objective for the specific strategy is to observe, perceive differences and similarities and recall vocabulary & structure needed for the task in order to learn about the culture of the target language. Obviously, the game will enable learners to learn in a playful manner and it will contribute to the enhancement of both their perceptive and language skills. In the case of the textbook used as reference we may introduce or reiterate the vocabulary and structures of the specific unit. Thus the game may be used either as a preparation (warm up) activity or as a revision activity. Teaching material: (example of set of pictures that work as clues/prompts)


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ACTIVITY 7: SHORT TERM MEMORY GAME Main strategy: using mechanical techniques (memory) Assisting strategies: imagery (memory), activating background knowledge, selective attention (metacognitive)] Language level: A1 Skills practised: speaking and writing Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity Based on the material used in the textbook for the fourth graders (4th Grade of the Primary School, textbook (p.79, “Animals in danger” unit) the teacher organizes a short term memory game. The activity is based on the well-known ‘Kim’s game’, a game that aids the assimilation of vocabulary. This means that the game needs to include words that have already been taught. It is a rote learning game and research shows that high scores on this game correlate significantly with language learning success (Alexiou, 2009). Preparation Prior to the game, the teacher asks learners to recall the meaning and the spelling of the words, which are given in cards. Then s/he explains that memory plays a significant role in learning a language and that we can train memory through mnemonic techniques and memory games. The teacher explains that the class will be divided in two groups (depending on the size of class-can be a whole class activity or pair activity as well) and each group will have 1 minute to study a set of cards and then they will be asked to write down as many as they can remember. Since all words belong to the same thematic category – animals (goldfish, dog, cat, bird, iguana, sheep, cow, duck, tortoise) the teacher proposes that the learners can make inferences. S/he also suggests that learners can activate their background knowledge (anything they know about the specific animals) and asks them to use imagery (e.g. imagining the animals in certain contexts) so as to remember as many words as possible. Selective attention will also be used here and that the learners will need to cooperate in their groups.


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Modelling In order for the learners to understand the game, the teacher can model it with only 2-3 items. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher has prepared large colorful (laminated) printouts of the pictures (given below) and hands them out to each group. S/he sets the clock for one minute and lets learners observe the set. Then s/he covers the set of pictures with a cloth so that they cannot see it and each group makes a list on a piece of paper of all the animals that can be recalled. This part will take 2-3 minutes. Then the discussion of the items remembered will take 2-3 minutes. The group that remembers the most cards wins the game and we may ask a representative to come to the blackboard and write down the words that the other learners will dictate to him/her. To make the game more challenging, the groups can also be asked to recall the order of the set of pictures. Alternatively, more pictures can be added to the set. Finally, the teacher can take away and replace cards and ask the group to recall what is missing and what has been added. Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks the learners whether they found the memory strategy with the use of cards helpful and if they intend to use it in the future so as to remember or revise words. Expansion/Transfer The teacher suggests that learners could play this game either with different thematic areas (fruit, clothes, weather etc) or with other language features as well (action verbs, picture stories, whole sentences, etc). Memory can be trained in many ways throughout life. Teaching objective The specific game is commonly played with young children, as it promotes the development of memory and observation skills and can be used for learning new groups of objects or for the retrieval and assimilation of prior knowledge. Rote learning is implemented here and it is undoubtedly an important factor in L2


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learning but also activates techniques that help us memorise new information, store it and recall it when required. Several kinds of memory have been tested yet not all of them proved to be relevant to language learning. Memory is divided in three major stages: encoding, storage and recall, namely immediate and active retrieval of information stored (Glassman, 2001: 159). Thus the teaching objective for the specific strategy is to store and be able to recall the vocabulary items involved. Obviously, the game will enable the learners to learn in a playful manner and it will contribute to the enhancement of both their memory and language skills. In the case of the textbook used as reference we may introduce or reiterate the vocabulary of the specific unit. Thus the game may be used either as a preparation (warm up) activity or as a revision activity. Teaching material: pictures and a cloth


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ACTIVITY 8: FILL IN THE GAP Main strategy: guessing intelligently (compensation) Assisting strategies: using background knowledge, using selective attention (metacognitive), analysing and reasoning (cognitive), cooperating (social) Language level: A2 Skills practised: reading, speaking and writing Time of activity: 10-12 min

Description of the activity It is a fill in the gap activity, which aims at learners’ production of written language and the development of guesswork strategies. Based on the text used in the textbook for the sixth graders (6th Grade of the Primary School, textbook (Unit 4, Lesson 2) the teacher takes out the highly infrequent words and asks learners to guess them while reading the text. As learners have never been instructed the specific words, this will require analytic skills, such as analysing expressions, using induction, and guessing parts from whole. Preparation The teacher asks learners to read through the excerpts and think of the words missing. All words will be on top but they will have to select the appropriate ones. The teacher asks learners to make predictions about the words missing and their meaning while s/he also encourages learners to guess the specific genre of the list of words. S/he explains that learners will need to guess the words missing and how important it is to make inferences and guess the meaning of the words they do not know. The teacher explains that it is very important to try and guess words not only for higher levels but also mainly for real life situations (reading a sign, a label, an article, etc). S/he also suggests that learners can activate their background knowledge-even in L1 (anything they know about the topic ‘airplanes’) and advises learners to cooperate.


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Example lightweight, orbit, engine, seaplanes , cargo, speed These planes carry passengers and _______. Their speed is just below the speed of sound (350-750 MPH). Their ______ is very powerful and they can travel very quickly with many people and goods. 760 MPH is the _______ of sound. These planes can fly up to five times the speed of sound (760 -3500 MPH). They have a special engine and they are designed with __________ materials. Do you know why? To have less drag. Most of the early planes can fly at 100-350 MPH. Examples of this kind of planes are the two- and four-seater passenger planes and that can land on water. Rockets fly at speeds 5 to 10 times the speed of sound (3500-7000 MPH) as they ________. They have a very powerful engine in order to travel at this speed. Modelling In order for the learners to understand the game, the teacher can model it with providing an example. Perhaps in this case s/he can introduce the sentence “Boeings are planes that travel very fast” at the beginning. S/he can elicit from the learners the word ‘Boeing’ by emphasising the clues ‘…are planes…’ and ‘…travel very fast’. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher has prepared the text and has removed the unknown words. S/he can divide the class into groups (depending on the size) and ask them to guess where each word goes and what it means. Some brainstorming may also be necessary at this point to help learners with the most difficult words (e.g. cargo, orbit). Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks the learners whether they found the activity interesting and whether it was challenging for them to guess the words missing and understand their meaning. Then s/he asks learners the criteria that led them to make the specific guesses. The teacher encourages learners to discover and share the clues that led them to the guesses. Expansion/Transfer


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The teacher suggests learners to complete a story by defining the highlighted words (teacher can highlight important words in advance) with the aid of the context. Pictures are also provided and learners are asked to match the pictures with their close synonym. Teaching objective This is a common language activity but the explicitness of the instruction lies in the fact that learners are then asked to consciously recall the clues of the text that helped them make guesses. The activity may be used as a preparation (warm up) activity in order to learn new vocabulary. Teaching material The excerpts from the book.


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ACTIVITY 9: STUDYING AT HOME! Strategy name: arranging and planning your learning (metacognitive) Assisting strategy: self-evaluation (metacognitive) Language level: A1 Skills practised: speaking and writing Time of activity: 20 min

Description of the activity The teacher prompts learners to talk about how they organise their work at home and how much time they spend studying English. Preparation The teacher invites learners to think about how important it is to study at home; they offer their reasons for studying. The teacher explains that this activity will be done individually and then they will all share their views so as to realise the importance of studying. In the end they have to state whether they ought to spend more time on a particular subject in order to improve their performance. Modelling The teacher states that as a learner she remembers that she studied Maths for 1 hour a day, English for 30 minutes, whereas Art for 20 minutes. In total, she studied ... minutes. Then it is their turn. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher gives learners their daily schedule of all subjects, so as to remind them of what subjects they are taught on a daily basis. Then she tells them that they should write down how much time they spend each day of the week studying English. In the end they have to sum up the time spent on studying English during the week.


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Evaluation The teacher prompts learners to consider what they have learnt from this activity. Such questions could be asked: Do you study enough? Are you satisfied with the learning outcomes based on the time devoted to studying? Expansion/Transfer The teacher invites learners to consider how much time they spend on studying all subjects during the week. First, they will be asked to do so for every subject on a daily basis, and then to sum up the time devoted to each subject weekly. Learners can be invited to state the conclusions drawn from this. Teaching objective Learners should be invited to reflect upon their learning experience in order to realise whether the subject of English is given proper attention to their daily schedule and whether their efforts are paid off. Teaching material A. I study English on (day) for ...(minutes) Minutes Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Total B. I study (subject) on (day) for ...(minutes) Monday English Maths Greek History Religion Geography Total

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Total


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ACTIVITY 10: HOW I VIEW MY LEARNING Strategy name: sharing/discussing your feelings with others (affective) Language level: A1-A2 Skills practised: writing (optionally reading) Time of activity: 10 min Description of the activity The learners write down on a piece of paper their feelings regarding their language learning experience at school. Preparation For the purpose of this activity, the teacher does not need to have prepared the learners for something particular. All teachers ought to be interested in how their learners feel about the subject they teach. That is why the teacher could have prepared checklists to draw specific information from the learners or to just ask learners to jot down their views about their learning. Learners’ anonymity is retained during this activity so as to allow learners to write freely how they relate to the learning of English. Modelling The teacher explains that today they can share their secrets regarding their language learning experience. S/he tells them that she would like to share her secrets and explains that she would like to share with them her line of thinking regarding learning English and another foreign language. S/he draws a happy face on the whiteboard and says that s/he likes English because she likes the English people and writes it down. Then s/he draws an unhappy face

and writes down

that s/he does not like French because s/he cannot speak with a French accent. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher distributes pieces of paper and asks learners to draw a happy or an unhappy face and write down their views about learning English, so as to give them a chance to share their secret. The learners do not have to reveal their name and they can write either in their mother tongue or in English. Then the teacher collects the pieces of paper and reads the learners’ secrets during his/her free time. The


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information drawn should be carefully considered. Alternatively, the teacher could use a grid like the one below; in this case, the teacher can prompt learners to tick or draw happy/unhappy faces next to the statements, which can be adjusted to the learners’ proficiency level. Evaluation The teacher invites learners to express their feelings now that they have had the opportunity to share their feelings with the teacher. Expansion/Transfer Once the activity is over, the teacher states that happy and unhappy faces can be drawn in relation to various activities as well as other school subjects. The learners are prompted to write down their feelings so as to put their thoughts together and help them reach certain conclusions regarding what further steps should be taken. Teaching objective The teacher explains that sharing feelings with parents, friends, relatives, and teachers helps individuals form a clearer idea about the completion of a particular undertaking, relationships, a certain procedure that should be followed, etc. The focus of this particular activity is on helping learners realise their own feelings about learning English. Once the teacher has access to this information, s/he can decide upon a future course of action. Teaching material Whiteboard; Piece of paper Please √ the appropriate box I like learning English because English is a useful language I want to speak with other people English is an easy language I like the British people I like the American people


Activities for Mainstream Primary Schools

I like the English language I like listening to songs in English I am good at it We have a good time in class The teacher is nice

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ACTIVITY 11: HOW I FEEL TOWARDS LEARNING ENGLISH Strategy name: sharing/discussing feelings with others (affective) Assisting strategies: cooperating with others (social), taking notes (cognitive) Language level: A1-A2 Skills practised: speaking and writing Time of activity: 20 min

Description of the activity Based on the material available in the Learner’s Book English 6th Grade and more specifically with reference to Unit 1, Lesson 2, p. 6, the teacher can invite learners to share their feelings towards learning English. Preparation In the activity incorporated in the learner’s book, learners had the opportunity to state their preferences. As it is essential that learners be aware of the importance of sharing their feelings towards learning English, the teacher highlights that different people have different preferences when it comes to school subjects. Feelings ought to be shared so as to help individuals understand their inner thoughts and try to find a solution with the help of others. Modelling The teacher becomes the first one to state why she likes English by being as explicit as possible to the learners. Then s/he could state why s/he doesn’t like a particular school subject (e.g. maths). S/he invites learners to give advice on how to cope with a particular language, English in our case. Write on the board, “I like English because...”, “I don’t like French because ...”. The teacher also writes on the board expressions that could be used when giving advice and invites learners to do so. Practice/Scaffolding Once the teacher has modelled the process, the learners are divided into groups of four. S/he sets the context according to which all the members are invited to state the reasons why they have positive or negative feelings towards learning English. In


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the case of negative feelings, learners should offer advice to their classmates (the learner says: “I don’t like English because I get low grades” and one of the learners offers advice: “You should study harder”. One of the learners takes notes regarding the positive feelings and creates a grid like the one at the end of the activity. Another learner writes down the negative feelings and writes the advice on a piece of paper. During the whole process, the teacher circulates in class and provides help when asked. At the end the teacher collects all the positive feelings and creates a poster with the reasons given for considering learning English a positive experience. Then s/he invites learners to report the negative feelings and writes them on the board. Afterwards s/he collects the pieces of paper with the advice given and distributes them to the various groups. The learners have to guess and match the advice with the reason for not liking English. Further advice is sought. Evaluation Upon completion of the activity, the learners are invited to share their thoughts regarding future application of this particular language learning strategy: sharing feelings with someone else. Expansion/Transfer The teacher states that sharing feelings with others should be undertaken with peers, parents, relatives, and teachers. Of course, the importance of sharing feelings is not limited to the learning of English but to the other school subjects as well. Both positive and negative feelings ought to be considered so as to understand what could contribute to effective learning. Teaching objective Sharing feelings with others helps the emotional development of children and thus activities that encourage learners to take their emotional temperature should be incorporated in the language learning process (Oxford 1990). Teaching material Whiteboard Handout


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I like English because...

I don’t like English because...


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ACTIVITY 12: REMEMBERING A FACE Strategy name: using mechanical means (memory) Assisting strategies: using selective attention (metacognitive), using resources (cognitive), cooperating with others (social) Language level: A1 Skills practised: speaking Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity The activity is based on the need we sometimes have to 'identify a person’. The learner is required to recall a person’s face by recognising/remembering the features it has. In this case, first learners will be presented with pictorial variations of each of the main facial features, and with the language used to describe the features. Then, they will be shown glimpses of different faces, and when those have been removed from sight, the learners will use their knowledge of features to help another person rebuild one of the faces they have had to remember/identify. The activity aims at learners’ production of spoken language and the development of cognitive skills such as recognition and observation. Preparation Primarily, the teacher tells the learners that it is valuable to learn to use their memory when learning a language, as language learning involves both remembering what we want to say and the words we need to use to say it. The strategy which will enhance memory retention is the use of flash cards as the combination of speech with visual representations greatly improves memorisation. S/he argues how important it is to learn to look closely, to develop the selective attention ability. Selective attention helps learners form mental pictures that help memory. Modelling The teacher provides an example by showing a picture of a face (either a photograph or a sketch drawn on the board) and then showing the picture of a


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chosen feature (e.g. a nose) and the showing and the he flash card with the word (nose). S/he follows this by showing an adjective that matches the feature on the face in the picture (e.g. long) and makes the learners look at the picture of the face as s/he tells them that ‘this person has a long nose’. For the example to work, the teacher would make sure the picture did have a feature that matches the variety of the feature s/he uses as an example. Next, the teacher shows a picture of a face to the class and asks them to look at it intensely for a few seconds, and then hides it, after which s/he asks them what they remember about the face. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher has a story to tell, such as the one below. S/he reads it slowly to the class, but as she does so, every time she tells them about one of the people in the story, she shows the class a picture/photo/sketch of his/her face. S/he tells them to look at the pictures carefully in order to remember the features of the face in each one. When the story finishes, s/he puts the pictures on the board (they may not be in the order they were in the story). The pictures stay on the board for 2-3 minutes for them to look at. The teacher then puts the learners in pairs, and then says each of them must describe one of the people in the story (the teacher whispers in the ear of each learner which person, or gives a slip of paper to each student with the person written on it) to their partner as if they were talking to the reporter, too. However, s/he removes the pictures from the board while the learners do this. The partner tries to sketch the face as if it were to be printed in the newspaper. Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks the learners whether they found it valuable to try and remember the features and details about the people and whether the pictures that were used made it easier for them to learn the words and remember the right ones. Expansion/Transfer They can also try and describe a famous person, a picture of whom they have at home or find on the internet (using resources). Teaching objective The activity promotes the development of memory and of observation skills and can be used for learning new groups of words and/or sentences or for the retrieval and


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assimilation of prior knowledge. Thus the teaching objective for the specific activity is to observe, perceive and recall vocabulary & structure needed for the task in order to learn about identifying people by using mechanical techniques (flashcards) for memorisation and paying attention to specific details (features). Language: Example sentences: Simple S/he has got a large (wide) nose. S/he has got big (round) eyes. His/Her mouth is large and wide. Complex S/he has got a large nose with small nostrils. S/he has got big eyes with thin eyebrows. His/Her ears are large and stick out. Features Nose (fat, thin, long, short, big, small) Eyes (round, almond-shaped, big, wide-eyed, brown/blue) Mouth (wide, big, etc.) Story: This is a story a witness/passer-by told a newspaper reporter I heard a noise as I walked past a shop. I turned to look and a saw a man come out of the shop running. He looked at me, but then ran down the street. He had a plastic bag. Then another man walked out. He looked up and down the street. I think he was looking for his friend. Then he decided to cross the road. He was wearing a brown coat and holding a case. I went into the shop and saw the lady owner crying. She told me the men had taken some money. I telephoned the police and after a few minutes, a policeman came and the woman told him the story.


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Teaching material: (example of set of pictures/sketches that work as clues/prompts) For the opening activity:

From Clip Art. (Windows Vista)

From: www.fotosearch.com For the features:

From Clip Art (Windows Vista)


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For the story:

From: www.fotosearch.com


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ACTIVITY 13a: JUDGING DRESSING Strategy name: using background knowledge (metacognitive); cooperating with peers (social) Assisting strategies: associating/elaborating, using mechanical techniques − realia, cards, cutouts (memory) Language level: A2 Skills practised: speaking and listening Time of activity: 20 min

Description of the activity Based on the games in which people dress a model/silhouette with images of items of clothing to decide on the coordinates that best match and suit, the teacher organises a cooperative activity where learners change items of clothing to decide on the best outfit for a doll/model/silhouette. The activity engages learners’ personal views, and demands personal judgements be made, so besides increasing motivation, it creates success in language learning in a naturalistic manner. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher invites learners to talk about their favourite clothes (brainstorming) and also shows the class pictures of items of clothing or children dressed up, and checks whether the learners know the English for the items along with adjectives to describe them (colours, sizes, shapes, etc.). Then s/he explains that using their own background knowledge in a topic plays a significant role in helping people learning a language because they feel (a) more involved/motivated, given that their knowledge is seen as valuable, and (b) their learning is facilitated because they are able to make associations between old and new knowledge. She also explains that they are going to do the activity in pairs as cooperating with peers makes the task more enjoyable and realistic but also increases their self-confidence. The learners are told they will be given a drawing/silhouette of a boy (or girl) along with various cut-outs of several items of clothing, and that they will have to work in pairs and try different items to decide on which final match of items is best for a


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specific occasion (e.g. a wedding, going to church, going on a picnic, etc.) using the knowledge or experience they have had for such real-life events. Alternatively, learners will be given different pictures of children dressed in various types of clothes and they will have to decide on the one they think is most/least appropriate for the particular occasion. This will be done very quickly (max 6 mins). The teacher also tells them to try and use English when doing this and that when they finish this activity, they will have to describe their final picture to the class. Modelling In order for the learners to understand what they have to do in the activity, the teacher models it with only 2-3 items using visual forms. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher has prepared large colorful (laminated) hand-drawn printouts of the pictures of individual items of clothes or of a dressed couple and shows them/it to the learners to check the language of the items and their features. Then the learners, in pairs, are given a silhouette or picture of a body and smaller cutouts of the clothes items and the teacher tells them to try different ‘clothes’ for a designated occasion until they decide on the best outfit. They will tell their teacher of their decision and will describe the picture to their classmates. Evaluation After the activity, the teacher asks whether the learners liked using their background knowledge to understand and learn new vocabulary and whether they found working in pairs better than working on their own or not and why. Expansion/Transfer The activity could be expanded to other forms of obtaining new knowledge and understanding information by relying on background knowledge and cooperation: making lists of clothing for a particular occasion (a party, a wedding, seaside holiday). Teachers may transfer the activity – and the strategies associated with it – to understanding a reading/listening text.


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Teaching objective The activity activates the strategies of drawing on background knowledge, and of cooperating with peers through providing practice for describing clothing and helping learners develop listening and speaking skills, Teaching material: pictures and a table to fill out

http://www.matalan.co.uk/kids-clothing/girls/shop-by-age/teen-girls-8-16yrs


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v

http://www.matalan.co.uk/kids-clothing/boys/shop-by-age/teen-boys-8-16yrs


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Activities for Mainstream Primary Schools

Colour Jacket Shirt Blouse Top T-shirt Trousers/Jeans Shoes Jewellery

Language I like the …… jacket. I want the ….. blouse. Let’s try the ….. tie. The ….. trousers look good. I think the ….. is good/bad. (S)he is wearing a …… . She has got a ……. .

Size

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Shape

Length

Material


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ACTIVITY 13b (FOLLOW-UP): EXPRESSING DRESSING PREFERENCES Strategy name: selective attention (metacognitive) Assisting strategy: note-taking (cognitive) Language level: A2 Skills practised: speaking, listening and writing Time of activity: 20 min

Description of the activity This follow-up activity involves the whole class which is requested to pay selective attention and to take notes in order to engage learners in expressing personal views and make personal judgements. Preparation The teacher tells learners that after the first activity (13a), they will have a followup activity that involves them in listening to make notes of important information. In this activity learners will have to pay selective attention to specific details while their classmates describe the outfits. S/he will explain that this practice of selective attention will help them pick out important information and this is good for them because they will think about what they have to use when they make a decision about choices and also when they speak (or write). Therefore, s/he informs them that they will hear several descriptions of the clothes a boy/girl from the initially formed pairs has presented, and that they will have to listen, take notes, and decide which they like and then justify their preference of the outfit orally from their notes. Modelling The teacher supplies a brief description using the clothes two pupils/learners are wearing, taking care not to embarrass them. One learner takes notes while the teacher is speaking and then s/he consults his/her notes and talks about the outfit s/he prefers and explains why.


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Practice/Scaffolding While a member from each pair describes the outfit they liked most, the other individuals in the class listen and make notes on tables (see below for an example). The teacher has told them to listen for the specific information from the descriptions each time. The learners are told to indicate the outfit they like and that the teacher will circulate and check. The teacher informs them about this final stage and tells them it is to help them focus on what they have to listen to. The learners have to speak from notes about the outfit they found most interesting. Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks the learners how listening for specific information and taking notes made it easier for them to make descriptions. S/he may also ask them whether they liked expressing their own views and how doing so helped them learn. Expansion/Transfer Looking for specific information (selective attention) and taking notes can be used for reading comprehension. Learners may be instructed how to write a summary from notes. Teaching objective The activity besides providing practice for describing clothing and helping learners develop listening and speaking skills, activates the strategies of selective attention and taking notes. Teaching material A notebook A table such as the following could be copied into the notebook or on paper.

jacket top

1st pupil

2nd pupil

3rd pupil

4th pupil

5th pupil

description

description

description

description

description


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blouse skirt trousers dress shoes jewellery T-shirt

Language (S)he is wearing a …… . (S)he has got a ……. . Her/His ……… is/are ……… . Her/His shirt/blouse/top, etc. is over/under his her ……… . The shirt/blouse is (colour/size/shape). There is a flower/badge on the shirt/blouse.


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ACTIVITY 14: INTRODUCING PARKLAND ACTIONS Strategy name: guessing intelligently: using linguistic and non-linguistic clues (compensation);

overviewing

and

linking

with

already

known

material

(metacognitive) Assisting strategies: analysing contrastively across languages (cognitive) Language level: A2 Skills practised: reading Time of activity: 20 min

Description of the activity This activity is based on getting learners to work out the meaning of signs/notices they may encounter. For the particular signs being used in this activity, learners are guided to use clues from the environment, and to examine expressions that are associated with each of the signs (using linguistic and non-linguistic clues). The teacher introduces the scene, which is an area of parkland, and elicits what people/children do there. Then a list of ‘consequences’ of actions and ‘explanations’ for signs is presented, followed by the wordings of specific signs that learners are unlikely to be able to understand. However, they will be helped to understand these through being guided to make references to the ‘consequences/explanations’ and draw on their knowledge of the environment. Preparation The teacher explains that it is useful for learners to guess meanings of expressions/words by drawing on their own knowledge as it makes learning more meaningful and long-lasting. S/he explains that in order to practise these strategies, they are going to do an activity that uses signs and notices they may see in a park. They are told they may not be able to understand the messages in the signs/notices at first, but that they are not to worry because they will be able to do so after they have been helped to draw on knowledge and language they already have. Drawing on what they already know will improve their ability to ‘guess intelligently’ as both strategies help learners become better learners and use these strategies when the teacher is not present.


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Modelling Given the reading nature of the activity, there is no need for models of the language to be presented because there is a variety of signs and such signs don’t use specific patterns. The learners have to use guesswork to understand each sign (guessing intelligently).

The

teacher

may

ensure

the

language

of

the

‘consequences/explanations’ is known so that the purpose of the task is not ruined. Then the teacher demonstrates that the sign, “Dogs not allowed in the playground”, may have the ‘consequence/explanation’, “They may make the sand dirty”; or, the sign “Children must be accompanied” may be derived from the linguistically expressed ‘consequence’, “Children may get lost”; or about the ‘explanation’, “Children may get hurt”, along with extra non-linguistic clues such as the sign being in the playground part of a park. The teacher may introduce orally/write on the board the following expressions to the learners for them to use in order to tell their teacher of the matches they make: “I think the consequence/explanation ‘………’ goes with the sign/notice ‘…….’.” “I think the sign ‘……’ goes… (under the tree/near the bench/on the grass, etc).” Practice/Scaffolding In order to familiarise the learners with the topic of the lesson, the teacher has prepared a largish picture (or several) of a park to elicit what the learners know about parks, and to ask them what people do in these places (using background knowledge). S/he makes a list on the board of learner suggestions, or presents one s/he had prepared beforehand. Learners have to find ‘consequences’ that would happen if they don’t follow the notices, and ‘explanations’ for some of the signs. They are told they have to use the ‘consequences/explanations’ to help them guess which ‘sign/notice’ each ‘consequence/explanation’ matches (note that a sign may match with a consequence or with an explanation, and sometimes several signs can match with one consequence/explanation). Once they have worked out which sign goes with which consequence/explanation, they have to decide the best position to place it on a large sketch/picture of a park (if a large picture/sketch is not available, then several smaller pictures of more specific areas in a park can be used).


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Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks whether the learners liked using their background knowledge about parks to understand language they meet and how they felt about guessing and using language expressions that were linked to the ‘signs’. The activity of trying to understand the signs by using the ‘consequences/explanations’ and guessing intelligently clues engages learners and makes them realise how to use these to guess the meanings. Doing so helps learners become independent in learning a language by working out by themselves what language expressions mean and how clues from the immediate situation can help. Expansion/Transfer The activity could be used to deal with signs and notices in other places, e.g. on the bus, in a cinema, etc. Doing so would, apart from teaching encounters with new uses of the language, also increase learner confidence at relying on what they already know in order to guess intelligently. Teachers may transfer the activity – and the strategies associated with it – to understanding a reading/listening text. The teacher may also expand the activity by asking learners to find similar signs/notices in their own country and language. Such an activity will give them the opportunity to ‘analyse contrastively across languages’ (a cognitive strategy) similar expressions but also it may enhance their ‘cultural understanding’ as they will be able to find out similarities and differences between what is allowed and what is not in their respective countries. Teaching objective The activity provides practice of ‘overviewing and linking with already known material’ and of ‘guessing intelligently’, by getting learners to draw on their own linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge and on language related to the new language they are first presented with. Teaching material Pictures The teacher prepares a large sketch of a park for use when the learners have to decide where the best place for each sign is. There are also some ‘signs/notices’ and ‘consequences/explanations’ on flash cards, and a table which has the ‘consequences/explanations’ in the first column and spaces in the second column


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for the learners to write the ‘signs/notices’ they think go with each consequence. The flash cards may be stuck on the board with blu-tack or may be projected onto a smart board. Some pictures of parkland for the opening stage:

(ALL four are from www.bestourism.com)

Examples of signs with unknown words and meanings: flash cards Keep on a lead

No picking flowers

Bag it and bin it

Swimming is dangerous

Keep off the grass

Wrap it, don’t drop it

Don’t leave it in the park

Kite flying allowed

No roller skates or skateboards


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Ride bikes in the lanes

Picnic area

Sailing and paddling only

Please don’t write here

No ball games here

No sleeping allowed

Examples of consequences/explanations: flash cards There are no trees here

We want it to stay green

Take your rubbish with you

Gum on the ground sticks

Running dogs frighten people

Other people want to see them

Keep the park a quiet place

You may hit walkers

Graffiti is ugly

Dog dirt is not nice

The water is deep and cold

The benches are for sitting on

Table of consequences/explanations with spaces for signs (there may be more than one sign for each consequence/explanation): Consequences/Explanations Other people want to see them There are no trees here Gum on the ground sticks The benches are for sitting on The water is deep and cold

Signs


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We want it to stay green Graffiti is ugly Keep the park a quiet place Take your rubbish with you Running dogs frighten people You may hit walkers Dog dirt is not nice

Example of an illustration of a park (for learners to place the signs):


Activities for Mainstream Primary Schools

Examples of smaller areas of a park for use with last task if a large picture is not available

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References Alexiou, T. (2009. Young learnersʼ cognitive skills and their role in foreign language vocabulary learning. In M. Nikolov (Ed.), Early Learning of Modern Foreign Languages: Processes and Outcomes (pp. 46-61). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Brewster, J., Ellis, G. & Girard, D. (2002). The Primary English Teacher’s Guide. Harlow: Penguin. Ely, C. M. (1995). Tolerance of ambiguity and the teaching of ESL. In J. M. Reid (Ed.), Learning Styles in the ESL/EFL Classroom (pp. 87-95). Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Glassman, W. E. (2001). Approaches to Psychology (3rd ed.). Buckingham-Philadelphia: Open University Press. Laufer, B. (1997). The lexical plight in second language reading: Words you don’t know, words you think you know, and words you can’t guess. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds), Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition (pp. 20-34). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Prichard, C. (2008). Evaluating L2 readers’ vocabulary strategies and dictionary use. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(2), 216-231. Stavropoulos, D. N., & Hornby, A. S. (1998). Oxford English-Greek Learner´s Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.


2. ACTIVITIES FOR MAINSTREAM LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS Zoe Kantaridou and Iris Papadopoulou University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki

Supervision/Coordination Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey Maria Platsidou Athina Sipitanou Ioannis Agaliotis


Activities for Mainstream Lower Secondary Schools

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ACTIVITY 1: POKEMON PORTMANTEAU Strategy name: analysing and reasoning (cognitive) Assisting strategies: reasoning deductively, analysing expressions (cognitive); guessing intelligently (compensation) Language level: A2 Skills practised: speaking, reading Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity The activity takes advantage of Pokemon characters to explain how portmanteau words are formed, and, in general, how to understand word meaning from word components. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher tells learners that when they read a passage and encounter an unknown word, they can guess the meaning from its constituent parts. For instance, ‘A Fearless Friend’ (Think Teen, Lower Secondary School, 2nd grade, workbook: advanced (p.124, Unit 7) is ‘a friend without fear’. Then s/he explains that there is a particular type of compound words called portmanteau words. Portmanteau words are the result of blending of two separate words into one, like for instance, motel from ‘motor’ and ‘hotel’. Then the teacher explains that they will be looking at some Pokemons and will be guessing why they were given the specific name. Modelling In order for the learners to understand the activity, the teacher asks them if they know what Pokemon means and explains it’s a blend/portmanteau of the words pocket & monster.


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Practice/Scaffolding The teacher asks learners what strategy they follow when they encounter an unknown word in a passage. Then s/he gives a list of Pokemon names (perhaps accompanied with pictures) and tells learners to explain them with reference to aspects/parts. Evaluation After the activity, the teacher asks the learners whether they believe the strategy of analysing word meaning is helpful and if they intend to use it in the future so as to guess the meaning of unknown words. The teacher may indicate that there is an additional benefit of learning new words by analysing them into their parts. Expansion/Transfer Further

practice

can

be

made

with

items

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_portmanteaus

from

(organised

the

Wikipedia

in

conceptual

categories, animals, art, cuisine, marketing, etc.): brunch:

from breakfast and lunch

smog:

from smoke and fog

Brangelina:

from Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie

Sitcom:

from situational and comedy

Mockumentary: from mock and documentary Learners can be asked to look for such words and their analyses and present them in class. Furthermore, the strategy can be expanded to a general etymological analysis of unknown words in reading comprehension. e.g. He faced insurmountable difficulties. In

- sur

- mount

(opposite)

(=above)

- able (ride)

(That which cannot be overcome)

(adjective)


Activities for Mainstream Lower Secondary Schools

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Teaching objective The activity helps show learners how we can understand words by stydying their etymology (PokĂŠmon name) (Analysing expressions, cognitive). Teaching material for the activity: 1. sneasel 2. squirtle 3. venomoth 4. charmander 5. snorlax 6. beedrill 7. psyduck 8. ivysaur Key 1. Sneasel:

sneaky + weasel

2. squirtle:

squirrel + turtle

3. venomoth:

venom + moth

4. charmander:

char + salamander

5. snorlax:

snore + relax

6. beedrill:

bee + drill

7. psyduck:

psycho + duck

8. ivysaur:

ivy + dinosaur


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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.


Activities for Mainstream Lower Secondary Schools

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ACTIVITY 2: SCHOOL LIFE AROUND THE WORLD Strategy name: guessing intelligently/making inferences (compensation) (inspired by Sailing the 5 C’s with strategies strategy: 6 ‘One big (or small) happy family’ Chamot, A. U., Meloni, C. F., & Bartoshesky, A. (2006). Sailing the 5 Cs with Learning Strategies. A Resource Guide for Secondary Foreign Language Educators p. 66.) Assisting strategies: reasoning inductively, analysing contrastively across cultures (cognitive) Language level: B1 Skill practised: speaking Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity The activity can be taught before any unit talking about different cross-cultural habits and can be used to get learners to make inferences about school life and education in the countries depicted in the photos. The teacher can explain to learners that making inferences is a very useful strategy in learning a foreign language, or a foreign culture, by observing, forming inferences (guesses), then verifying or correcting them. Preparation The teacher explains that the learners will look at photographs of classrooms from different parts of the world. They will describe them and then form inferences about the quality and variety of facilities, the teacher/learner ratio, and learner attire. It would be convenient if it followed a unit on school life (e.g. Unit 4, lesson 10, Unit of Think Teen workbook for the second grade (2nd Grade of Junior High School, textbook advanced), then learners would be familiar with the relevant vocabulary for the discussion.


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Modelling In order for the learners to understand the activity, the teacher can model it with one picture. http://static.guim.co.uk/sysimages/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2011/11/2/1320 260445879/Harsh-schooling--the-50s--007.jpg

Example: Education in the 50’s “I see a classroom with old-fashioned desks, learners wear formal clothes, a suit and tie and are well groomed. I can infer there was a school uniform that all learners had to wear at school every day. In the particular classroom there are only boys, so I can infer that boys and girls were segregated back then (didn’t attend the same schools). The appearance of the teacher is strict, as he oversees the learner’s writing. I can infer that education was not liberal in those times and learners must have been fearful of their teachers.” Practice/Scaffolding The teacher then asks learners to describe in pairs the other photographs from China, Madagascar and Denmark. S/he stresses that inferences are not necessarily right or wrong, they must be reasonable and then checked against further (new) information. Evaluation After the activity, the teacher asks the learners whether they found the strategy helpful and if they intend to use it in the future by making extralinguistic inferences concerning cultural norms from a communication situation. Expansion/Transfer Photographs of any content can be used in this way, for instance, photographs of houses from different parts of the world, and learners could also infer the nationality of the inhabitant, say, African Watusi tribe (in clay huts), or Indonesian fisherman (straw hut close to the seaside), or simple rural houses, luxurious mansions with well protected gates, middle-class apartments, super modern penthouses. This will enhance the learners’ awareness of contrasts across cultures.


Activities for Mainstream Lower Secondary Schools

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For listening activities, learners can listen to a dialogue and infer the relationship that exists between interlocutors. The activity can also be used to practise modal verbs for inferences, as learners use modals of varying degrees of possibility to describe what is going on in the pictures. For instance, “education may not have been liberal in those times and learners must have been fearful of their teachers�. Teaching objective The activity promotes the development of critical thinking. The teaching objective is to enhance in learners the ability to think inductively and draw conclusions from observation. The teacher should emphasise that we must support our inferences with elements from the picture. Teaching material for the activity

China (http://factsanddetails.com/media/2/20080311-2004-Jingmi-class%20Nolls.jpg)


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Madagascar (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Diego_Suarez_Antsiranana_urban

_public_primary_school_(EPP)_Madagascar.jpg)

Denmark (http://fvhselliott.pbworks.com/f/Denmark%20113.jpg)


Activities for Mainstream Lower Secondary Schools

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ACTIVITY 3: DON’T TAKE IT FOR GRANTED! Strategy name: paying (selective) attention (metacognitive) Assisting strategies: getting the idea quickly, reasoning deductively (cognitive) Language level: B1 Skill practised: reading Time of activity: 15 mins

Description of the activity Applying selective attention will prove a useful strategy when the learner proofreads his/her written work, or when s/he tries to spot mistakes on work returned by the teacher. Selective attention is a metacognitive strategy which learners should develop and use for reading as well as for listening comprehension. It helps them comprehend a text by realising that they do not need to know every individual word to get to understand an oral or written text. The strategy can also prove useful when the learner scans a text (getting the idea quickly) for specific information, for fast reading. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher explains to the learners that they will examine a text with deliberate meaning errors which they will need to identify. Then s/he explains that this strategy heightens their selective attention, which will make them alert to any errors, help them spot specific information. Modelling The teacher illustrates what the learners are to do from an excerpt/summary of the movie ‘Madagascar’. He stresses that they are looking for plot and logical mistakes, not grammar mistakes. http://www.jumpstart.com/parents/dreamworks/madagascar/synopsis/madagasc ar-summary (adapted) Prompt: Spot 4 mistakes


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Living in New York’s Central Park Zoo, Marty and his friends – Alex the Lion, Gloria the Hippo, and Melman the Giraffe – have spent all their years inside this concrete jungle. The adventure ends when Marty joins from the zoo with a quartet of penguins – Skipper, Rico, Kowalski, and Private – and his three friends follow him, trying to make him leave but to no avail. On reaching Grand Central Station, the animals are mistaken to be friendly and are shipped off to a Kenyan wildlife park by the zoo authorities. Key Living in New York’s Central Park Zoo, Marty and his friends – Alex the Lion, Gloria the Hippo, and Melman the Giraffe – have spent all their years inside this concrete jungle. The adventure begins when Marty escapes from the zoo with a quartet of penguins – Skipper, Rico, Kowalski, and Private – and his three friends follow him, trying to make him return but to no avail. On reaching Grand Central Station, the animals are mistaken to be aggressive and are shipped off to a Kenyan wildlife park by the zoo authorities. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher presents learners with a story by Paulo Coelho (see Teaching material below). To activate their background knowledge, s/he asks them if they have heard of him, if they have read anything by him. S/he asks them to find three meaning errors/discrepancies.


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Evaluation After the activity, the teacher asks the learners whether they found the strategy helpful and if they intend to use it in the future so as to sharpen their attention to the details. She also asks them if ‘paying attention’ helped them comprehend the story better and/or more easily. Expansion/Transfer Alternatively, to exercise selective attention, the teacher can give learners well known myths, fairytales involving reversals of plot. This may be a challenging activity as it will go ‘against the grain’ of the well-learned myth and the reader might make leaps in meaning. Teaching objective The activity promotes the development of 127rganizational skills, specifically selective attention and paying attention. It also trains them in scanning (getting the idea quickly) reading texts for specific information. Teaching material “The power of the words” by Paulo Coelho on February 24, 2012. Two young kangaroos were playing in the forest when they rose into a very deep pit. They tried to jump out but couldn’t jump low enough to get out of the hole. Meanwhile, a big group of kangaroos started flying above the pit – the pit was very shallow and the gathered onlookers shouted to the two young kangaroos that it was impossible for them to get out. The older one of the two kangaroos heard the encouraging words of the spectators and after a while gave up and fell asleep, whilst the younger kept jumping and trying harder. Finally, he failed to jump out of the hole – the spectators were shocked and asked the kangaroo, “When we had told you so many times that it was possible to get out, what was the reason that you tried even harder?” The kangaroo was shocked because as he was partially deaf. He told them: “Looking at all of you standing there cheering me gave me the strength to succeed in my mission of getting out of the pit.” Always remember the affect your words have on others.


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Key “The power of the words” by Paulo Coelho on February 24, 2012.

Two young kangaroos were playing in the forest when they fell into a very deep pit. They tried to jump out but couldn’t jump high enough to get out of the hole. Meanwhile, a big group of kangaroos started gathering above the pit – the pit was very deep and the gathered onlookers shouted to the two young kangaroos that it was impossible for them to get out. The older one of the two kangaroos heard the disheartening words of the spectators and after a while gave up and fell asleep, whilst the younger kept jumping and trying harder. Finally, he managed to jump out of the hole – the spectators were shocked and asked the kangaroo, “When we had told you so many times that it was impossible to get out, what was the reason that you tried even harder?” The kangaroo was shocked because as he was partially deaf. He told them: “Looking at all of you standing there cheering me gave me the strength to succeed in my mission of getting out of the pit.” Always remember the affect your words have on others. Alternative text The Boy who Cried Wolf: Spot 5 mistakes A boy has the job of feeding a flock of sheep from wolves. If a wolf comes, he is to ring a stick and cry out “wolf”, so that the men from the village will come with their guns. After a few days with no wolf, the boy is getting interested, so he pretends that a wolf is attacking. The men come running, and praise the boy even when they lose no wolf, believing his story of the wolf having run off. The boy enjoys the attention, so repeats the trick. This time he is not praised – the men do not believe that there was a wolf. When a wolf really does attack, and the boy rings his bell and cries “wolf”, the men do not come, thinking that he is playing the trick again. The wolf takes one of the slimmest sheep. Source: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/pdfs/aesop/aesops_fables.pdf Key


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The Boy who Cried Wolf A boy has the job of protecting a flock of sheep from wolves. If a wolf comes, he is to ring a bell and cry out “wolf”, so that the men from the village will come with their guns. After a few days with no wolf, the boy is getting bored, so he pretends that a wolf is attacking. The men come running, and praise the boy even when they find no wolf, believing his story of the wolf having run off. The boy enjoys the attention, so repeats the trick. This time he is not praised – the men do not believe that there was a wolf. When a wolf really does attack, and the boy rings his bell and cries “wolf”, the men do not come, thinking that he is playing the trick again. The wolf takes one of the fattest sheep. Source: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/pdfs/aesop/aesops_fables.pdf


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ACTIVITY 4: BUILD AN IMAGE TO UNDERSTAND A STORY Strategy name: visualising (memory) Assisting strategy: highlighting (cognitive) Language level: B1 Skills practised: reading, speaking Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity A good way to remember new information is to create a mental image of it. Mental images of words can involve their position in the sentence or on the page, as well as symbolic representation of an abstract concept. A rough sketch of a ball on a line can be the visualisation of the proposition ‘on’. In the case of a text, visualisation can help reading comprehension. In this case, the visual aid is a schema of the scene unfolding in the text. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher explains to the learners that they will read an authentic text, not abridged for their competence level. They will use whatever words they understand, in order to build an image of the story, just like we build up a puzzle from its pieces. Then s/he explains that visualisation will help them understand the story on the one hand, despite the unknown words, and also help them learn new words by associating them with a meaningful whole. Modelling The teacher may provide an example from the first paragraph of the text. S/he will read the entire paragraph and then indicate how, understanding the highlighted phrases, it suffices to understand the rest. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher hands out a story by Paulo Coelho to learners with the particular phrases highlighted. He divides the class into two groups, and assigns to group A to


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try to understand the scene in the rich house and to group B the scene in the poor house, without checking the meaning of unknown words. Learners may protest that they do not know this word or that, but the teacher will reassure them and tell them to try to form an image in their minds of what is going on. Each group tells the other what happened in their scene in their own words. The teacher confirms or corrects them accordingly. Ideally, their idea is correct and the lesson learned is that, while reading, we can hinge our understanding of the text on the words we understand, and then guess the meaning of unknown words. Evaluation The teacher asks learners whether they found the strategy helpful and if they intend to use it in the future so as to understand an authentic text without resorting to a dictionary frequently. While using resources like the dictionary is a very good learning strategy, if learners look up unknown words too often, they will tend to lose sight of the story line, the core meaning, so it is important to first give themselves a chance to guess the meaning from the parts they understand. Expansion/Transfer If learners liked the story, they can find other, similar, short stories on the following sites: http://paulocoelhoblog.com/2012/10/03/the-two-jewels/, http://www.storymuseum.org.uk/1001stories Teaching objective The activity promotes the development of visualisation skills. The learners practise mentally envisioning aspects of the story and then construct the whole in their mind. Teaching material Things are never what they seem According to an ancient and familiar legend, whose precise origins I have been unable to ascertain, a week before Christmas, the Archangel Michael asked his angels to visit Earth; he wanted to find out if everything was ready for the celebration of Jesus' birth. He sent the angels in pairs, an older angel with a younger one, in order to get the broadest view possible of what was going on in the Christian world.


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One of these pairs of angels was sent to Brazil, where they arrived late at night. Since they had nowhere to sleep, they sought shelter in one of the large mansions that can be found in certain areas of Rio de Janeiro. The owner of the house, a nobleman on the brink of bankruptcy (a fairly common occurrence amongst the people of that city), was a fervent Catholic and he recognised the celestial envoys at once by their golden haloes. However, he was very busy getting ready for a big Christmas party and, having almost finished the decorations, he was reluctant to disrupt them in any way; and so he asked his visitors if they wouldn't mind sleeping in the basement. According to all the Christmas cards, it is always snowing at that time of year, but in Brazil, Christmas falls during the height of summer; it was, therefore, unbearably hot in the basement to which the two angels had been banished, and the humidity made the air almost unbreathable. They lay down on the hard floor, but just as they were beginning their prayers, the older angel noticed a crack in the wall. He got up, applied his divine powers to mending the crack, then resumed his nightly prayers. It was so hot in the basement that it was like spending the night in Hell. Despite their sleepless night, they still had to carry out the mission they had been given. The following day, they travelled the length and breadth of the great city with its 12 million inhabitants, its beaches and its mountains, its many contrasts. They filled in the requisite reports, and when night fell once more, they made for the interior; however, still confused by the time difference, they again found themselves with nowhere to sleep. They called at a modest house, and a couple came to the door. Unfamiliar with the depictions in medieval engravings of these messengers from God, the couple failed to recognise the pilgrims, but if the two men needed shelter, their house was at their disposal. They made them some supper, introduced them to their new baby and gave up their own bedroom to them, apologising for their poverty and for the terrible heat and for the fact that they could not afford an air-conditioning unit. When the angels woke the next day, they found the couple in floods of tears. Their only asset, a cow that provided them with milk and cheese and sustenance for the family, had been found dead in the field. They said goodbye to the pilgrims, embarrassed because, since they had no cow to milk, they could not even offer their guests any breakfast.


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When the angels were walking back down the dirt track, the younger angel gave vent to his anger: 'I simply cannot understand your behaviour! The first man had everything he could possibly want and yet you helped him, but when it came to that poor couple who welcomed us so warmly, you did absolutely nothing to relieve their suffering. ' 'Things are not always what they seem,' said the older angel. 'When we were in that awful basement, I noticed that there was a stash of gold hidden in the wall, left there by a previous owner. The crack exposed some of that gold, and so I decided to cover it up again, because the owner of the house had shown himself incapable of helping others in need. Yesterday, when we were sleeping in that kindly couple's bed, I noticed that a third guest had arrived: the angel of death. He had been sent to carry off their child. Now, I've known the angel of death for years and I managed to persuade him to take the life of the cow instead. Just remember what day we are about to commemorate: the only people who welcomed Mary were the shepherds, and because of that, they were the first to see the Saviour of the World.' (Translated into English by Margaret Jull Costa.)

Learners’ visualisations can look like this:


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ACTIVITY 5: STRANGE FACTS ABOUT OTHER COUNTRIES Strategy name: empathising with others/developing cultural understanding (social) Assisting strategies: making comparisons (cognitive), guessing intelligently by using non-linguistic clues (compensation) Language level: B1 Skills practised: speaking, reading Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity The most important function of language is that it brings people together, facilitates communication between people of (often) different backgrounds and provides access to the culture of the interlocutor. The need to approach a person of a different culture from yours may occur either at home (it may be a tourist during the summer holidays, or it may be an exchange learner from a foreign country), or abroad, when studying or working in a foreign country. In both cases, it will be significant for the success of the relationship to keep an open mind, look out for different habits, any taboo discussion topics, any gestures that may be misunderstood. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher explains to learners that they will be given situation cards with a crosscultural contact between a Greek person and one from a different country. Learners will have to guess the reasons why these contacts are not successful. Modelling The teacher gives learners an instance of crosscultural contact gone wrong, waits for them to provide guesses, then proceeds to the answer. Before providing the answer, perhaps s/he can give learners clues, such “why are we told with which hands he gave the gifts?” “Are they significant or are they distractions?”


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Yiannis met Hiro at University. They became friends and Hiro invited him to his home in Japan. Yiannis brought 12 white roses for Hiro’s mum and a tie for his dad. The tie was not wrapped; it was in a Duty Free bag. He gave the roses with his left hand and the tie with his right hand. Surprisingly, Hiro’s mum and dad seemed displeased and didn’t smile. What went wrong? http://www.1worldglobalgifts.com/japangiftgivingetiquette.htm Answer: White for the Japanese means death and white flowers are not a good gift. Gifts should be wrapped and given with both hands to show respect. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher gives learners more cases of cross-cultural contact gone wrong, waits for them to provide guesses, then proceeds to the answer. Before providing the answer, perhaps he can give learners clues. Evaluation After the activity, the teacher asks the learners whether they found the strategy helpful and if they were aware before this activity that there are such differences between people of these countries. Expansion/Transfer The purpose of this activity is to sensitise learners to crosscultural differences. Further practice can be made on (extralinguistic) topics like gift-giving, dining, social contact norms such as eye contact during conversation, turn-taking and silences in conversation, interrupting the interlocutor. Learners may even do a project, a PowerPoint presentation or a poster on individual countries, especially countries participating in the Comenius exchange program with their school.


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Teaching objective The objective of the activity is to develop in learners an awareness of different cultural practices existing worldwide, to alert learners to the fact that different peoples/nations around the world may have different norms of behaviour that one must respect so as not to offend them. Some of these norms can be rather enjoyable and funny. To be able to guess intelligently why something went wrong or why things happen the way they do, one needs sound intercultural knowledge. Thus, the objective of this strategy is to raise learners’ awareness of this need.

Case 1Yiannis went to Morocco to visit a friend’s family. Yiannis is left handed. They sat down at the table where the food was served. He reached out for the food and everyone gave him an angry look. What went wrong?1 Clue- ‘why are we told he is left-handed?’ Answer: In India and Morocco people eat with their hands but they only use the right hand for food. The left hand is considered unclean and it is for other duties. Case 2Yiannis left for Paris on a learner exchange trip. He’s out dining with his new friends’ family. His wine glass is empty, so he reaches out for the bottle and refills it. His company is not impressed. What went wrong? Clue- ‘why would ‘refilling your glass’ be considered rude?’ 1

http://hamariweb.com/images/featured/3585_fb.gif


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Answer: In France it is rude to only refill your glass without refilling everybody else’s.

Case 3Yiannis went to Hungary on a learner exchange program. He visits his friend’s house bringing a lovely Greek wine as a gift. He had trouble finding the house, so he is 40 minutes late. His friend’s mum gets to the door but is not as enthusiastic as Yiannis had hoped. What went wrong? Clue- ‘what gift do you bring when you visit someone for the first time?’ Answer: In Hungary you are not supposed to show up late and you’d better bring chocolates, flowers or some liquor, but not wine. Hungarians are proud of their wine. Links to visit: http://www.1worldglobalgifts.com http://www.travelandleisure.com/slideshows/worlds-worst-cultural-mistakes/6


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ACTIVITY 6: GETTING THE GIST OF THE TEXT Strategy name: summarising (cognitive) Assisting strategies: highlighting, getting the idea quickly, taking notes (cognitive), paying attention, organising (metacognitive) Language level: B1 Skills practised: reading, writing Time of activity: 30 min

Description of the activity Summarising involves analysing information critically, distinguishing significant information from less important information, and organising the selected bits of information into a shorter, rephrased, cohesive text. Summarising is a useful strategy for understanding and memorising lessons from different school subjects such as History. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher explains to learners that they will be given a text to summarise in three stages: first, they will highlight important information; secondly, they will assign functions to each paragraph; and lastly, they will summarise the text in no more than 30 words. Modelling The teacher can model the process by providing a verbal summary of a recent episode of a popular TV series, or film. No opinion is included. For nonfiction texts, the following steps are useful: 

Skim the text to get a general idea of the topic

Identify less significant details

Find the main ideas


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Find the topic sentences/assign titles to paragraphs

Replace more specific words with the broader category they belong to, e.g. Cows, dogs, cats with ‘mammals’, rain, snow, wind, with weather phenomena.

Expansion/Transfer For further practice of the strategy of condensing longer texts into shorter, cohesive ones of their own, with only the salient information, learners can summarise biographies of celebrities or local news stories to put in the school newspaper. They can even summarise a chapter from another lesson, a chapter from their History book, a literary text, or write a book or film review. Source consulted: https://www.teachervision.com/skill-builder/readingcomprehension/48785.html?page=2 Teaching objective The aim of this strategy is to develop learners’ ability to condense informative texts, to distinguish important information from details and to rephrase it in their own words. Potential situations in which this strategy will prove useful are reporting the gist of a movie or a book to a friend, writing a book report in which they will recount the plot in a few words. Teaching material Aardvarks live throughout Africa, south of the Sahara. Their name comes from South Africa's Afrikaans language and means "earth pig." A glimpse of the aardvark's body and long snout brings the pig to mind. On closer inspection, the aardvark appears to include other animal features as well. It boasts rabbitlike ears and a kangaroo tail—yet the aardvark is related to none of these animals. Aardvarks are nocturnal. They spend the hot African afternoon holed up in cool underground burrows dug with their powerful feet and claws that resemble small spades. After sunset, aardvarks put those claws to good use in acquiring their favorite food—termites.


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While foraging in grasslands and forests aardvarks, also called "antbears," may travel several miles a night in search of large, earthen termite mounds. A hungry aardvark digs through the hard shell of a promising mound with its front claws and uses its long, sticky, wormlike tongue to feast on the insects within. It can close its nostrils to keep dust and insects from invading its snout, and its thick skin protects it from bites. It uses a similar technique to raid underground ant nests. Female aardvarks typically give birth to one newborn each year. The young remain with their mother for about six months before moving out and digging their own burrows, which can be extensive dwellings with many different openings. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/aardvark/?source=Ato-Z Summarise in about 30 words. 1. Topic sentences Aardvarks live throughout Africa, ... Their name means ‘earth pig’. Other animal features Aardvarks are nocturnal. … in cool underground burrows … their favorite food−termites. While foraging in grasslands and forests aardvarks, also called "antbears," may travel several miles a night in search of large, earthen termite mounds. Female aardvarks typically give birth to one newborn each year. 2. Keywords live throughout Africa, / Their name means "earth pig." / other animal features Aardvarks are nocturnal. / underground burrows / their favorite food−termites. foraging in grasslands and forests aardvarks / digs through mound / feast on the insects within. Female aardvarks typically give birth to one newborn each year. 3. Structure of information Where they live - habitat What they look like - appearance


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What they eat How they hunt

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- diet - hunting techniques

How they reproduce – reproduction 4. Paraphrased paragraph Aardvarks live in Africa, and their name means’ earth pig’. They are nocturnal and live in underground burrows. They eat termites which they dig from the ground. They bear one newborn a year. Alternative Teaching material An alternative text is an encyclopedic text on cyberbullying. Cyberbullying Bullying among children and teenagers is not something new but thanks to modern methods of communication it has risen extremely.

Cyberbullying happens when a child or teenager is threatened, embarrassed or put in danger by another child or teenager. This is done especially through modern means of communication like the Internet, social media networks or mobile phones. This kind of bullying has become extremely popular because it allows teens and children to stay anonymous. It is easier to become aggressive towards someone on the Internet than it is face

to face. Many think they won’t get caught. Cyberbullies act in many different ways. They harass others by sending photos or text messages to cell phones or by posting them on Facebook. Sometimes they send junk mail with sexual remarks or steal passwords of other children or teenagers and log on to websites with false identities.

Children

play

internet

games

in

which

they tease each

other

in various ways. Many children and adolescents act this way out of different reasons. They might be frustrated or jealous because someone else has better marks. They want to take

revenge on somebody for something that has happened to them. At other times they do it just for fun or become cyberbullies because they are bored and have nothing else to do. Parents face the fact that they don’t know their child is a cyberbully. They realize it when the victim or the victim’s parents contact them. For victims it is important not to respond to bullies and ignore them. They should not play a bully’s game or answer their emails and text messages. It is also important to get help from parents


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and teachers. Many children are afraid to tell anyone that they are being harassedbecause they feel ashamed. Often schools get involved. They bring together the parents of victims and cyberbullies and talk with them. Cyberbullying does not always end at school. Often, parents go to the police and press charges against cyberbullies.

ΚΕΥ Α new type of bullying, definition Bullying among children and teenagers is not something new but thanks to modern methods of communication it has risen extremely.

Cyberbullying happens when a child or teenager is threatened, embarrassed or put in danger by another child or teenager. This is done especially through modern means of communication like the Internet, social media networks or mobile phones. This kind of bullying has become extremely popular because it allows teens and children to stay anonymous. It is easier to become aggressive towards someone on the Internet than it is face

to face. Many think they won’t get caught. Behavior of cyberbullies Cyberbullies act in many different ways. They harass others by sending photos or text messages to cell phones or by posting them on Facebook. Sometimes they send junk mail with sexual remarks or steal passwords of other children or teenagers and log on to websites with false identities.

Children

play

internet

games

in

which

they tease each

other

in various ways.

Reasons behind the behavior of cyberbullies Many children and adolescents act this way out of different reasons. They might be frustrated or jealous because someone else has better marks. They want to take

revenge on somebody for something that has happened to them. At other times they do it just for fun or become cyberbullies because they are bored and have nothing else to do. Parents face the fact that they don’t know their child is a cyberbully. They realize it when the victim or the victim’s parents contact them.


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Protecting the victims For victims it is important not to respond to bullies and ignore them. They should not play a bully’s game or answer their emails and text messages. It is also important to get help from parents and teachers. Many children are afraid to tell anyone that they are being harassedbecause they feel ashamed. Often schools get involved. They bring together the parents of victims and cyberbullies and talk with them. Cyberbullying does not always end at school. Often, parents go to the police and press

charges against cyberbullies. Sample summary (learners attention is drawn to how we rephrase) Cyberbullying occurs when a child or teenager threatens or embarrasses another through modern means of communication like the Internet, social media networks or mobile phones.

Cyberbullying has become popular because it allows teens and children to stay anonymous. Cyberbullies may harass others by sending photos or text messages to cell phones or by posting them on Facebook or by sending junk mail with sexual remarks or stealing passwords. The reason why they act that way is because they are jealous because someone else has better marks, or

because they want to take revenge. Some ways of preventing cyberbullying are teaching children to respect other people’s privacy and teaching victims not to respond to bullies and ignore them. It is also important to get help from parents and teachers. (Often schools or the police get involved).


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ACTIVITY 7: GETTING THE GIST WITH MIND MAPS Strategy name: summarising (cognitive) Assisting strategies: semantic mapping (memory), getting the idea quickly, taking notes (cognitive), paying attention, organising (metacognitive) Language level: B1 Skills practised: reading, writing Time of activity: 30 min Description of the activity Summarising involves analysing information critically, distinguishing significant information from less important information, and organising the selected bits of information into a shorter, rephrased, cohesive text. Summarising is a useful strategy for understanding and memorising lessons from different school subjects such as History. Visual representation of information may help learners better understand the relation between the different aspects of information presented in the text. Moreover, research has found that the majority of people are visual learners who are greatly facilitated by some visual representation (mind-map or graphic organizer) of the information in question. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher explains to learners that they will be given a text to summarise in three stages. First, they will organise the information in the text according to the mind map provided using a note form; secondly, they will decide on the most important pieces of information to include in their summaries; and lastly, they will summarise the text in no more than 30-50 words. Modelling The teacher can model the process by using the text ‘Bike-to-school week’ on page 110 of their text book Think Teen (2nd grade, advanced). S/he can complete the mindmap in class with the learners and then ask them to produce a summary.


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Sample summary Cycling can be very beneficial not only for the cyclist but the society as a whole. By cycling to school you do not only improve your physical condition but your mental ability and your sense of independence as well. Moreover, you help ease traffic congestion in rush hours and you reduce pollution of the environment. (55 words)


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Expansion/Transfer For further practice of the strategy of condensing longer texts into shorter, cohesive ones of their own, with only the salient information, learners can summarise biographies of celebrities or local news stories to put in the school newspaper. They can even summarise a chapter from another lesson, a chapter from their History book, a literary text, or write a book or film review. Source consulted: https://www.teachervision.com/skill-builder/readingcomprehension/48785.html?page=2 Teaching objective The aim of this strategy is to develop learners’ ability to condense informative texts, to distinguish important information from details and to rephrase it in their own words. Potential situations in which this strategy will prove useful are reporting the gist of a movie or a book to a friend, writing a book report in which they will recount the plot in a few words. Teaching material Aardvarks live throughout Africa, south of the Sahara. Their name comes from South Africa's Afrikaans language and means "earth pig." A glimpse of the aardvark's body and long snout brings the pig to mind. On closer inspection, the aardvark appears to include other animal features as well. It boasts rabbitlike ears and a kangaroo tail—yet the aardvark is related to none of these animals. Aardvarks are nocturnal. They spend the hot African afternoon holed up in cool underground burrows dug with their powerful feet and claws that resemble small spades. After sunset, aardvarks put those claws to good use in acquiring their favorite food—termites. While foraging in grasslands and forests aardvarks, also called "antbears," may travel several miles a night in search of large, earthen termite mounds. A hungry aardvark digs through the hard shell of a promising mound with its front claws and uses its long, sticky, wormlike tongue to feast on the insects within. It can close its nostrils to keep dust and insects from invading its snout, and its thick skin protects it from bites. It uses a similar technique to raid underground ant nests. Female aardvarks typically give birth to one newborn each year. The young remain with their mother for about six months before moving out and digging their own burrows, which can be extensive dwellings with many different openings. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/aardvark/?source=Ato-Z


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Summarise in about 30 words.

Paraphrased paragraph Aardvarks live in Africa and their name means’ earth pig’. They are nocturnal and live in underground burrows. They eat termites which they dig from the ground. They bear one newborn a year. Alternative Teaching material A. Cyberbullying Bullying among children and teenagers is not something new but thanks to modern methods of communication it has risen extremely. Cyberbullying happens when a child or teenager is threatened, embarrassed or put in danger by another child or teenager. This is done especially through modern means of communication like the Internet, social media networks or mobile phones. This kind of bullying has become extremely popular because it allows teens and children to stay anonymous. It is easier to become aggressive towards someone on the Internet than it is face to face. Many think they won’t get caught. Cyberbullies act in many different ways. They harass others by sending photos or text messages to cell phones or by posting them on Facebook. Sometimes they send junk mail with sexual remarks or steal passwords of other children or teenagers and log on to websites with false identities. Children play internet games in which they tease each other in various ways.


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Many children and adolescents act this way out of different reasons. They might

be frustrated or jealous because someone else has better marks. They want to take

revenge on somebody for something that has happened to them. At other times they do it just for fun or become cyberbullies because they are bored and have nothing else to do. Parents face the fact that they don’t know their child is a cyberbully. They realize it when the victim or the victim’s parents contact them. For victims it is important not to respond to bullies and ignore them. They should not play a bully’s game or answer their emails and text messages. It is also important to get help from parents and teachers. Many children are afraid to tell anyone that they are being harassedbecause they feel ashamed.

Often schools get involved. They bring together the parents of victims and cyberbullies

and talk with them. Cyberbullying does not always end at school. Often, parents go to the police and press charges against cyberbullies.

Mind Map

Sample summary (learners attention is drawn to how we rephrase) Cyberbullying occurs when a child or teenager threatens or embarrasses another through modern means of communication like the Internet, social media networks or mobile phones. Cyberbullying has become popular because it allows teens and children to stay anonymous. Cyberbullies may harass others by sending photos or text messages to cell phones or by posting them on Facebook or by sending junk mail with sexual remarks or stealing passwords. The reason why they act that way is because they are jealous because someone else has better marks, or because they want to take revenge.


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Some ways of preventing cyberbullying are teaching children to respect other people’s privacy and teaching victims not to respond to bullies and ignore them. It is also important to get help from parents and teachers.

(Often schools or the police get involved).

B.

Beyoncé Knowles is one of the really multitalented entertainment stars of the present. She is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, dancer and fashion designer. Knowles became famous as the lead singer of the Rhythm and Blues group Destiny’s Child, probably the most successful female groups of all times. At the age of 7 she attended dance school and later on became a solo singer in her church’s choir. Together with a few of her friends she started a quartet and at first performed in their back yards. In 1996 the group signed up with Columbia records and became very successful in the early 2000s. After successful CDs with Destiny’s Child Beyoncé released her first solo Album Dangerously in Love in 2003. With its singles Crazy in Love and Baby Boy it rose to the top of the charts in the UK and America. In 2004 Knowles earned five Grammy Awards. In 2001 Knowles turned to acting. Her most famous role came in 2006 in an adaptation of a Broadway musical. Dreamgirls is based on the success of the Supremes, a black female group of the 1970s. Knowles was nominated for two Golden Globes including Best Actress. Beyoncé Knowles also has worked a lot for the poor and hungry people in our world. She helped form Survivor Foundation, an organization that provides housing for the victims of Hurricane Katrina. She also went to Ethiopia and promised to help poor people there.


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ACTIVITY 8: GUESSING THE RESPONSE Strategy name: guessing intelligently from linguistic and non-linguistic clues (compensation) Assisting strategy: paying attention (metacognitive) Language level: B1 Skills practised: reading, listening Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity The aim of this strategy is to develop learners’ ability to make intelligent guesses as to what comes next in a dialogue or written text. Guesses can be made on the basis of linguistic clues such as suffixes or word order, but also on the basis of extralinguistic clues like body language, tone of voice (in the case of listening exercises), background knowledge (knowledge of the topic, of culture, relations between interlocutors). This is a good strategy because it can enhance learners’ listening and reading success making up for lacking linguistic knowledge (vocabulary), and it can help them maintain their interest in what they are listening to or reading. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher explains to the learners that they will be given a series of statements that should be treated as parts of a conversation. They must select the most relevant contribution out of three options. (The particular exercise is taken from Build up your listening skills for the ECCE, Hellenic American Union, Teacher’s edition 2014:84, and 139, adapted). Things to look out for are keywords that hide the right answer. Temporal reference (does the statement refer to the past or the future?) Function/speech act (does it ask a question, make a request, seek advice?) Persons involved/addressed (if speaker one says ‘you’, we expect a response with ‘I’) References to places (street, office, doctor’s practice, etc) will help learners create


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possible scenarios for the exchange/dialogue. Modelling The teacher can model the process by providing the reasoning/ justification and correct answer for the first item. 1. Woman:

What did the doctor tell you?

Man:

He said there’s nothing to worry about. He recommended some gentle exercise for an hour each day. Oh, and he said I should watch what I eat.

Woman:

That’s good news. Well, you could lose a few pounds. And exercise can never be a bad thing, right?

Question: Which of the following is correct? a- the woman thinks the man would benefit from going on a diet. b- the woman thinks the man should see a doctor. c- the woman thinks that exercise is not a good idea. The teacher highlights the woman’s positive expressions: ‘That’s good news’ and ‘can never be a bad thing’ which translates into ‘is always a good thing’. S/he then asks the learners what words ‘that’ refers to. The correct answer is a. Practice/ scaffolding The teacher presents the dialogues to the learners. As they try to arrive at an answer, s/he encourages them to think aloud and select keywords that guide a response. Expansion/ transfer Drawing inferences is probably a key strategy that separtates successful from unsuccessful performance at the listening part of language tests. So, learners can practice further with such mini dialogues, to improve their listening effectiveness. The ‘drawing inferences’ mentality can be forged in learners through ‘whodunnit’ short stories, whereby they gather clues and try to solve a mystery. There is also interesting potential in the so-called “lateral thinking puzzles”. Lateral thinking puzzles are strange situations which require an explanation. They are


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solved through a dialogue between the person who sets the puzzle (the teacher) and those (in our case, the learners) who try to figure out the answer. The puzzles intentionally do not reveal all the sufficient information for the solution. So, the solver needs to ask questions. Three possible answers may be given – yes, no or irrelevant. (e.g. http://www.braingle.com/Situation.html). Examples of such latent thinking puzzle are: The Man in the Bar A man walks into a bar and asks the barman for a glass of water. The barman pulls out a gun and points it at the man. The man says ‘Thank you’ and walks out. (Answer: The man had hiccups. The barman recognized this from his speech and drew the gun in order to give him a shock. It worked and cured the hiccups – so the man no longer needed the water.) The Coal, Carrot and Scarf Five pieces of coal, a carrot and a scarf are lying on the lawn. Nobody put them on the lawn but there is a perfectly logical reason why they should be there. What is it? (Answer: They were used by children who made a snowman. The snow has now melted). Teaching Material 1. Man:

My goodness! What happened to you?

Woman: It was stupid, really. I fell in the street. I just grazed my face and my arms. It looks a lot worse than it is. Man:

You were lucky you didn’t cut yourself badly or break any bones.

Woman: You can say that again! Question: Which statement is correct? a. The woman is worse than she looks. b. The woman’s injury was not serious. c. The man thinks she broke some bones. Correct answer: b. 2. Woman: Are you sure you should be taking all that medicine?


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Man:

Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Oh, it’s OK. It’s for my allergies. I take one of these pills twice a day and two of the other tablets.

Woman: Does any of this help? Man:

I wonder sometimes.

Question: What does the man think about his medication? a. He isn’t sure it’s helping. b. He believes it isn’t helping. c. He doesn’t want to take it. Correct answer: a. 3. Woman: You look terrible! What’s wrong with you? Man:

What isn’t wrong with me! I have a stomach ache, a fever, aheadache… I’m listless. No energy at all. I think it’s the flu. There’s no point in taking anything for it. I guess I’ll just have to sit it out.

Woman: I think you’re right. A doctor is not going to be very sympathetic. And he’d probably tell you the same thing. Question: What will the man probably do? a. take more medicine. b. visit the doctor c. wait until he gets better Correct answer: c. 4. Man:

I don’t like the look of that cut. I think you should get it looked at, or at least put an adhesive bandage on it. You don’t want it to get infected.

Woman: It’s no big deal. There’s a nurse at the office and she cleaned it up and put some antiseptic on it. She said that it would heal better if I let the air get to it. Man:

It must have been very painful. How did you do it?

Woman: I was careless with the scissors. It was a silly accident. Question: How does the woman feel about the cut?


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a. She thinks it might be infected. b. She’s not worried about it. c. She’s planning to get medical help. Correct answer: b. 5. Man:

So, are you all ready for your trip east?

Woman: Well, I’ve booked everything, if that’s what you mean. But I still have to go to the clinic to get a couple of shots. To be honest, I’m considering giving it a miss. I hate needles. Man:

Don’t even think about doing that! What’s a little discomfort compared to the peace of mind you’ll have knowing you’re not going to catch anything deadly?

Question: What is the woman implying? a. that shots hurt a lot. b. that the pain of shots is worth it. c. that it is not necessary for the man to get any shots. Correct answer: b. 6. Man:

My grandfather is a phenomenon. He’s never had a day in the hospital in his life and he’s as fit as a fiddle at 92.

Woman: Some people are just lucky like that. Does he look after himself? Man:

Not particularly. He’s never been very active… and I’m sure he’s never been on a diet… but he always looks on the bright side of life and in his case, I think tha’s the magic ingredient.

Question: What does the man think is the cause of his grandfather’s good health? a. the fact that he thinks positively b. the fact that he avoids hospitals c. the fact that he takes good care of himself. Correct answer: a. 7. Man:

You said you were at the pizza place when you called me. Did you have a nice meal?


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Woman: No, that wasn’t the reason why I was there. I foolishly left my sunglasses on a chair next to me last night, so I had to go all the way back to get them. Unfortunately, I missed my afternoon appointment as a result. Question: Why did she go back to the restaurant? a. She enjoys the food there. b. She had an appointment there. c. She forgot something there. Correct answer c. 8. Woman: Could you check with the chef that there are no nuts in that dish because I’m allergic to them? Man:

I’m pretty sure there aren’t, buy I can ask him anyway.

Woman: Please do; I need to be 100% sure, or else I will have to change my order. Man:

Of course. I will make absolutely certain for you. Just give me a minute.

Question: Why will he speak with the chef? a. The woman is unhappy with her meal. b. The woman wants to know the ingredients. c. The woman would like to order something else. Correct answer b. 9. Woman: This pasta has a taste I don’t recognize. I’m not sure I like it. Man:

Oh, is there too much basil? I used quite a lot, because I thought you liked it.

Woman: No, it’s not that. I do like basil, but one thing that bothers me is too much mustard. Man:

Yes, that’ll be it. It’s a new recipe I got from my sister, and it contains a little mustard.

Question: What does the woman think of the meal? a. It contains too much basil. b. She doesn’t like it.


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c. She likes it and wants the recipe. Correct answer: b. 10. Man:

I’m a little hungry but I don’t think I could eat a full meal.

Woman: I could make us a sandwich or put out some cheese and crackers. Man:

I don’t think so, thanks, not so close to going to bed…

Woman: How about a fruit smoothie? That’ll satisfy your hunger and it’s nice and light, so you won’t go to bed feeling heavy… Question: What does the man want? a. Something light to eat. b. to go to bed early. c. to go out for dinner. Correct answer: a.


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ACTIVITY 9: AS GOOD AS IT GETS Strategy name: encouraging yourself, taking risks wisely (affective) Assisting strategies: cooperating with peers (social), adjusting or approximating the message/overcoming limitations in speaking (compensation)] Language level: A2-B1 Skills practised: speaking, listening Time of activity: 30 min

Description of the activity Learners need to find ways to seek practice opportunities through which they will test their abilities and also enrich their linguistic repertoire. To do this they need to encourage themselves and take reasonable risks, regardless of the possibility of making a mistake. Role playing will lower anxiety and help learners ‘save face’ in the event of a mistake, because they will be speaking as someone else. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher explains to learners that they can get their meanings across, regardless of their level of Proficiency. The teacher forms three teams of learners and assigns them different roles, according to their level of Proficiency. In this manner, it relieves them of performance stress, because they do not speak as themselves but as a) a Portugese football player who can just about communicate in English (A1) b) a Chinese exchange learner who has had 2 years of English lessons (A2) c) high-society Vivian, who has travelled extensively and is proficient in English (B2) Modelling The teacher provides an example of the range of responses anticipated. S/he shows learners a data card:


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No money → booked cheap hotel Complain about → service heating furniture The topic is ‘complaining about the facilities of a hotel you stayed at’, including the service, the heating and the condition of the furniture. Responses vary in detail provided and level of sophistication of the vocabulary. They all do the job of complaining, however, more proficient users take more chances and use varied vocabulary. Team1- Portuguese football player I got the cheap room because I had no money. The service was bad. The room was cold and the furniture was bad. Team 2- Chinese exchange learner I got the cheap room because I didn’t have enough money. The service was bad. The room was cold and the furniture was in bad condition. Team 3- snobbish Vivian I booked the inexpensive room because I couldn’t afford a more expensive one. The service was poor/ of low quality. There was no heating and the furniture was in poor repair. Practice/ Scaffolding The teacher tells learners that they must describe their favourite star. S/he gives out specific names to the different teams to add an element of surprise to the activity, as well as establish whether the teams manage to get across who they are talking about, regardless of their level of proficiency. Describing our favourite star Points to be mentioned: Nationality Job Physical appearance


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Work he/she is most known for


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Possible responses Portugese Football Player: He is Greek, he is an actor and he also writes the stories for the shows. He is tall and thin. He is most known for the TV show ‘Para Pende’. Chinese exchange learner: He comes from Greece and is a well-known actor. He is well-built and is famous for the TV show ‘Para Pende’. Vivian: He is of Greek origin, more specifically from the region of Northern Greece and, despite his young age, he is an accomplished actor and scriptwriter. He used to be slender but nowadays is more athletic. With quite a few successful series under his belt, his most popular to this date was ‘Para Pende’. His current TV series aired after Christmas and is called ‘Ethniki Ellados’. Evaluation The teacher asks learners if they found the activity helpful. Did it help them understand that they can use whatever linguistic means they have available to get their message across? Is there something the less proficient learners noticed and liked in the ‘Vivian’ style responses that they would like to learn and use in the future? Expansion/Transfer Learners can be encouraged to take risks and speak about other subjects, especially pleasant for them to alleviate possible stress. Teaching objective This is a scaffolding exercise through which learners build vocabulary of similar expressions to cope with some tasks and to boost confidence in communication. The objective of the activity is to make learners realise that they can deal with any situation, regardless of their level of language competence, and feel they can be successful in real life communication. Lower-level learners are exposed to higher levels of linguistic ability and gain second-hand experience of what they could say if they improved their language


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competence. The fact that this is done through their (more advanced) peers rather than the teacher helps them realise the feasibility of the task. Teaching material Data card ONE: Describing our favourite star Points to be mentioned: Nationality Job Physical appearance Work he/she is most known for Data card TWO: Describing your ideal holiday destination Points to be mentioned: Location Natural sight Cultural sight Traditional dish to be sampled Data card THREE: Describing the most challenging school subject Points to be mentioned: Comment about the book What skills are required (memorizing, analyzing, solving problems) Their performance Data card FOUR: Describing your favourite pastime Points to be mentioned: What it is What skills it requires What skills it develops Why you enjoy it


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ACTIVITY 10: I TUBE; YOU TUBE? Strategy name: using linguistic clues (guessing intelligently) Assisting strategies: selective attention (metacognitive), cooperating with peers (social), practising naturalistically (cognitive) Language level: A2-B1 Skills practised: listening Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity Guessing is an essential strategy for both listening and reading as it helps learners bridge gaps in comprehension and they not need to rely on knowledge of every single word. By using linguistic clues, learners can understand the overall picture, and then guess the details. Knowledge of the target language can provide linguistic clues as to what is heard. Word endings can provide clues as to the meaning, as can position in the sentence. For instance, in the song, in the phrase “I’ve been losing ___”, the word missing is a noun. So, the learner will be looking for a noun that can be ‘lost’ and is related to ‘dreaming’. Preparation Prior to the activity, the teacher may ask learners if they listen to English songs or watch shows and try to guess what is going on, or if they watch videos on youtube. S/he explains that they will listen to a song, One Republic’s ‘Counting Stars’ and try to understand what words are missing from the lyrics sheet. Modelling The teacher can illustrate what needs to be done with the first blank. The singer has been losing __ by dreaming. What noun is associated with dreaming?


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Practice/ scaffolding The teacher gives learners a photocopy with the lyrics of a popular song. Before s/he plays the video, s/he explains that they can exploit contrast relations, related words and rhyming. We access the video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hT_nvWreIhg Evaluation The teacher asks learners if they found the strategy pleasant and whether they felt that they enhanced their listening skills. Would they like to practise with more of their favourite songs? Perhaps prepare to sing them with the school choir at a school celebration? Expansion/Transfer Learners can use this strategy of practicing their listening skills with other sources providing access to the target culture, such as films, TV shows, youtube videos with information on their favourite hobby. For instance, learners who like artwork could visit

Art

Attack

at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0evlWSY8kTc,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aI52OrLzOCQ . Instead of filling in blanks, learners could make artwork following instructions. Teaching objective The objective of this activity is to enhance low-frequency, out-of-classroom strategies of seeking opportunity of practising and learning the language/ culture, such as reading books and magazines for pleasure (qu-8), seeking out speaking opportunities (I look for people with whom I can speak English- qu-20). Teaching material OneRepublic – Counting Stars Lyrics Lately I've been, I've been losing _____ (1) Dreaming about the things that we could be But baby I've been, I've been prayin' hard Said no more counting _____ (2) We'll be counting stars Yeah, we'll be counting stars


Activities for Mainstream Lower Secondary Schools

I see this life Like a swinging vine Swing my _____ (3) across the line In my faces flashing signs Seek it out and ye shall _____ (4) Old, but I'm not that old Young, but I'm not that bold And I don't think the world is sold I'm just doing what we're _____ (5) I feel something so right But doing the _____ (6)thing I feel something so wrong But doing the _____ (7)thing I could lie, could lie, could lie Everything that kills me makes me feel _____(8) Lately ‌(χ2) I feel the love And I feel it burn Down this river every _____(9) Hope is a four letter word Make that money Watch it burn Old, but I'm not that old Young, but I'm not that _____(10) And I don't think the world is sold I'm just doing what we're told I, feel something so wrong But doing the right thing I could lie, could lie, could lie Everything that drowns me makes me wanna _____(11)‌

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Take that money and watch it burn Sink in the river the lessons I learned Everything that kills me makes me feel alive Songwriters: TEDDER, RYAN Counting Stars lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

KEY OneRepublic – Counting Stars Lyrics Lately I've been, I've been losing sleep-1 Dreaming about the things that we could be But baby I've been, I've been prayin' hard Said no more counting dollars-2 We'll be counting stars Yeah, we'll be counting stars I see this life Like a swinging vine Swing my heart -3 across the line In my faces flashing signs Seek it out and ye shall find-4 Old, but I'm not that old Young, but I'm not that bold And I don't think the world is sold I'm just doing what we're told-5 I feel something so right But doing the wrong -6 thing I feel something so wrong But doing the right -7 thing I could lie, could lie, could lie Everything that kills me makes me feel alive-8


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Lately …(χ2) I feel the love And I feel it burn Down this river every turn-9 Hope is a four letter word Make that money Watch it burn Old, but I'm not that old Young, but I'm not that bold-10 And I don't think the world is sold I'm just doing what we're told I, feel something so wrong But doing the right thing I could lie, could lie, could lie Everything that drowns me makes me wanna fly-11 Lately …(χ2) Take that money and watch it burn Sink in the river the lessons I learned Songwriters: TEDDER, RYAN Counting Stars lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC *contrast relations (right / wrong), related words (dreaming / sleep) and rhymes (sold / told / bold) Popular song 2 (easy) Process The teacher gives learners a photocopy with the lyrics of a popular song. In groups, learners undertake to see the video of the song at home or meet in a home that has a computer and internet access and fill in the gaps. Alternatively, the teacher can play the video and use a projector in the classroom/ computer lab. In this song, we can exploit contrast relations (right / wrong), related words (dreaming / sleep) and


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rhymes (sold / told / bold). There is, namely, singing and practicing phonics. We access Pharrell Williams’ ‘Happy’ video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JRMOMjCoR58 1. PHARRELL WILLIAMS LYRICS "Happy" [Verse 1:] It might seem crazy what I'm about to _____ (1) Sunshine she's here, you can take a break I'm a hot air _____ (2) that could go to space With the air, like I don't care baby by the way [Chorus:] Because I'm happy Clap along if you feel like a room without a _____(3) Because I'm happy Clap along if you feel like happiness is the _____(4) Because I'm happy Clap along if you know what happiness is to you Because I'm happy Clap along if you feel like that's what you wanna do [Verse 2:] Here come bad news talking this and that, yeah, Well, give me all you got, and don't hold it back, yeah, Well, I should probably warn you I'll be just fine, yeah, No offense to you, don't waste your _____(5) Here's why [Chorus] [Bridge:] (Happy) Bring me down


Activities for Mainstream Lower Secondary Schools

Can't nothing Bring me down My level's too _____(6) Bring me down Can't nothing Bring me down I said (let me tell you now) "Happy" [Verse 1:] It might seem crazy what I'm about to say-1 Sunshine she's here, you can take a break I'm a hot air balloon-2 that could go to space With the air, like I don't care baby by the way {Uh} [Chorus:] Because I'm happy Clap along if you feel like a room without a roof-3 Because I'm happy Clap along if you feel like happiness is the truth-4 Because I'm happy Clap along if you know what happiness is to you Because I'm happy Clap along if you feel like that's what you wanna do [Verse 2:] Here come bad news talking this and that, yeah, Well, give me all you got, and don't hold it back, yeah, Well, I should probably warn you I'll be just fine, yeah, No offense to you, don't waste your time-5 Here's why

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[Chorus] [Bridge:] (Happy) Bring me down Can't nothing Bring me down My level's too high-6 Bring me down Can't nothing

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ACTIVITY 11: MINDMAP GAME /TABOO Strategy name: semantic mapping (memory) Assisting strategies: grouping, associating and elaborating, reviewing (memory), getting the idea quickly, using resources for sending/receiving messages (cognitive) Language level: A2-B1 Skills practised: speaking Time of activity: 30 min Description of the activity The strategy involves organising concepts in a semantic map that indicates their relations including cause and effect or superordinate category/hyponym. It helps learners understand new concepts as well as memorise learned ones. In this activity, organizing concepts in a semantic map is called upon to assist vocabulary revision. Preparation The teacher hands out photocopies of a mind map on a thematic area covered in a unit of the school book, for instance, books, Christmas, environment, etc. S/he divides learners into two teams. S/he asks learners in each team to create five cards with definitions of five (or more, it depends on how long the teacher wants the activity to last) randomly selected words. In writing up the definitions, the learners must not mention the word or a member of the same root, or a translation, much like the taboo game. The two teams exchange cards and try to guess the words from the mind map that these definitions correspond to in 2 minutes. The team that finds most of the words wins. Mind maps can be created using Google application http://app.mindmapmaker.org/


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Modelling TOPIC – Christmas

S ample descriptions ‘where we hang the stocking for Santa to fill with presents’ − ‘Rudolf is a’

fireplace reindeer

Practice/ Scaffolding TOPIC – Reading/ books (Think Teen, 1st grade Junior High School, Unit 2, lesson 3).


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Words that can be included: Bookworm, bed-time story, comic-strip, author, cover, paperback, plot, publisher, review Sample descriptions ‘doesn’t eat apples, he likes paper’ -

Bookworm,

‘can’t go to sleep without one’/ ‘my dad usually falls asleep before he finishes reading it’ -

bed-time story,

‘Asterix, Snoopy, etc’ -

comic-strip,

‘he writes books’ -

author,

‘A book’s jacket’ -

cover,

‘soft on the outside’ -

paperback,

‘what goes on in the story’ -

plot,

‘Ελληνικά Γράμματα’

publisher,

‘criticism of a movie’ -

review

Evaluation The teacher asks learners if they found the strategy pleasant, whether it helped them review and remember words from the units taught. Would they like to revise vocabulary in this playful way with their friends? Expansion/Transfer Revision to all units can be done in this way. Teaching objective The objective of the activity is to help learners consolidate vocabulary learned by encouraging them to form associations within the semantic field that they belong and by putting them in a sentence (contextualisation). Because it has the structure of a game, vocabulary revision and consolidation involves less stress on the part of the learners. Teaching material Any thematic area of the book


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References Chamot, A. U., Meloni, C. F., & Bartoshesky A. (2006). Sailing the 5Cs with Learning Strategies: A Resource Guide for Secondary Foreign Language Educators. National Capital Language Resource Center. Γιαννακοπούλου, Α., Γιαννακοπούλου, Γ., Καραμπάση, Ε. & Σοφρωνά, Θ. (2011). Think Teen - 2nd Grade of Junior High School-Προχωρημένοι. YΠΕΠΘ, ΟΕΔΒ, Αθήνα: Εκδοσεις Πατακης. Καραγιάννη, E., Κουή, Β., & Νικολάκη, Α. (2011). Think Teen – 1st Grade of Junior High School, YΠΕΠΘ, ΟΕΔΒ, Αθήνα: Εκδοσεις Ελληνικά Γράμματα. Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston: Heile and Heile.


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3. ACTIVITIES FOR MINORITY PRIMARY & LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS Lydia Mitits and Anna Sarafianou Democritus University of Thrace

Supervision/Coordination Angliki Psaltou-Joycey Zoe Gavriilidou Penelope Kambakis-Vougiouklis


A note for the English teacher in Muslim minority primary and lower secondary schools So far we have proposed ways in which language learning strategies can be incorporated into teaching learners in primary and lower secondary state schools. The activities that help develop learner autonomy and awareness of how strategies can enhance the learning process, which are presented in the previous chapters, should also be used with the Muslim minority learners after any necessary adaptations. However, the feedback provided by the practising teachers in Muslim minority schools, coupled with the results of the Thales project, have made it imperative to develop additional activities that would cater for the particular learners and the teaching context which is characterised by additional difficulties and idiosyncrasies. First of all, Muslim minority schools are segregated schools for Turkish L1 speakers (although there are learners with L1 Pomak, and those speaking the language of Roma) who also learn L2 Greek and FL English. Thus, those learners are at least bilingual and this is generally viewed by teachers as a disadvantage which is partly responsible for learners’ underachievement at school. However, there are many positive aspects of bilingualism/multilingualism even in such disadvantaged language learning environments. Multilinguals are known to possess greater metalinguistic abilities which should be used as a resource for learning. Teaching methods that allow contact and cooperation among languages have shown to raise metalinguistic awareness. Instruction in language learning strategies will benefit those multilingual learners to transfer new strategies to learning Greek, as well. Secondly, teachers point out that one of the problems is mixed level and mixed ability classes, which make it difficult to achieve teaching goals. This is yet another reason why language learning strategy instruction must be incorporated into teaching English. It will help learners become more independent and more responsible for their own learning, which, in turn, will enable the teacher to offer differentiated learning instruction and pay individual attention to the learners who need it more.


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Lastly, it appears that a large number of learners do not work at home as much as they are expected, which is particularly noticed in rural areas with underprivileged family backgrounds. As those learners are unlikely to be assisted outside school, they need to be taught how to become more efficient learners, e.g. how to memorise new words, revise, monitor their own learning, etc. Development of language learning strategies will further be beneficial because strategies can be used by learners without waiting for the teacher to assume a direct teaching role and they would help them become more confident and accomplish learning goals better.


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ACTIVITY 1: ORGANISATION OF A BOOK Strategy name: manage your own learning/‘Learning to learn’ (metacognitive) Assisting strategies: paying attention, finding out about language learning (metacognitive), guessing intelligently (compensation) Language level: A1/A2 Skills practised: skimming and scanning Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity Based on the material used in the textbook for the fifth graders (5th Grade of the Primary School, English course book) the teacher organises a quiz in which the learners are asked to locate certain information in their books within a time limit. Preparation Explain that you are introducing a learning strategy which will help them to manage their own learning. Tell the learners that when they get a new textbook they need to understand how the book is organized, where they can find certain information, and how the textbook itself can help them learn more easily. Show them that their books contain certain features whose purpose is to enable them to understand what is being asked, to locate useful information, to guess what the lesson will be about, etc. Such features are: the contents, the symbols, the introductory page to each unit, grammar appendix, irregular verbs appendix, maps, etc. Tell them that you are going to do a quiz and that the first learner to give a correct answer gets a point, thus making it more competitive and motivating. Modelling Model a couple of questions (see below) so that the learners get a better understanding of what they are supposed to do. While looking for an answer, think aloud (tell them what and how you are solving the problem). Use simple language of instruction, ask one of the learners who is more proficient in Greek to model it with you, or even ask your Turkish language colleague to translate the procedure.


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Practice/Scaffolding Use the following questions to do the quiz. The questions can either be written on the board, in the form of handouts, or read aloud depending on the level of your learners and the size of the class. What do the following symbols mean?

Find examples in the book. How many units are there in our book? What color is unit 8? Which unit is about school, stories, summer, etc.? What do we learn about the children in Unit 1 from the introductory page? Where can we find maps? Is there a grammar section in our book? Evaluation After the activity ask the learners whether they found the strategy of managing their own learning helpful and if they intend to use it in the future with other textbooks. Expansion/Transfer You can practice this strategy every time you introduce a new unit. The learners should develop the ability to identify various elements and their purpose, while they also become aware of how that knowledge enables them to learn more autonomously and efficiently. Teaching objective ‘Learning to learn’ activities prepare learners for using the textbook by making them aware of what components are available to them and how they can use that knowledge to their advantage when performing a language learning task. This strategy contributes to learner development as learners are encouraged to develop


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as active, independent learners of English. It is also transferable to any other field of study and a crucial feature of an autonomous learner. Teaching material: This activity should be done with all the course books; the example is with the 5th grade English course book.


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ACTIVITY 2: “FIND SOMEONE…” Strategy name: cooperating with others (social) Assisting strategies: asking for clarification or verification, peer correction, becoming aware of others’ thoughts and feelings (social), note taking (cognitive) Language level: A1 Skills practised: speaking, listening Time of activity: 1 teaching hour

Description of the activity Based on the material used in the textbook (see teaching material below) for the fourth graders (4th Grade of the Primary School, English course book), the teacher organises an activity in which the learners are asked to use the handouts and find the learners who fit the requirements and then report back to the class while the teacher coordinates and manages. The second part of the activity involves each learner writing down a few things about themselves. They give that information to the teacher and he/she will give it to another learner. Then the whole class plays a guessing game where the classmates take turns and talk about each other and the rest of the class guess who the described learner is. Preparation Explain to the learners that asking for and giving ideas and help will make their learning more successful and enjoyable. Working with classmates to complete a task and/or to give and receive feedback is a good way of both helping weaker learners and learning from others. Tell them that in order to collect information from others they should share their knowledge and in that way they will complete the task better. Also, practising with a peer before giving a speech in class will help them overcome language and anxiety problems. Modelling Ask one learner to be your partner and ask him/her some of the questions from the list. Then do the same with some of the personal information. Report to the class about what you learnt showing genuine interest in the partner’s profile. Tell the


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class that sometimes it helps to have somebody explain something to you; other times you need a chance to try to explain to somebody else so you can be sure you really understand it yourself. Practice/Scaffolding Use the following activity (parts 1 and 2) to raise the learners’ awareness of the benefits of cooperation and as a stimulus for a discussion of why and when they should work together.

Part 1: Find someone ……………… who can speak three languages:…………………………. who has got a pet:………………………. who likes the city where he/she lives:………………………. who likes making things:…………………… who collects things:………………………… who hasn't got any brothers or sisters:………………………… who goes to an island every summer:……………………….. who likes pizza and spaghetti and cheese:……………………….. who does a sport every week:………………………….. who doesn't stay in Athens at Easter:…………………………..

Part 2: Andrew, Nick, Sophia and Betty are telling us a few things about themselves. Tell the class a few things about yourself, too. Then you can play a guessing game. Fill in the box, give your book to your teacher and he/she will give it to another learner. Your classmate will talk about you in class. Can the rest of the class guess who it is?


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Personal Information Name:

who is it?

Brothers/Sisters: Favourite sport: Hobby: Favourite food: Pet: I can: I like:

Evaluation Upon the completion of the activity ask the learners why they worked together and when they can use cooperation as a strategy for learning English. Ask them how they should choose a partner (e.g. somebody who keeps you on task, gives you new ideas or helps you clarify your thinking, but also somebody who needs your help). Expansion/Transfer The learners can cooperate every time the task requires or allows cooperation. In the case of mixed-ability or mixed-level classes, working together is crucial in that the stronger learners (who usually finish an activity first and generally have a better knowledge of Greek) can help the weaker ones. An example of cooperative work is learning/testing new words and phrases as it allows them to share ideas for learning, translate in both Turkish and Greek, and make the process less stressful because they can work together and encourage each other. Teaching objective Cooperating with others is a valuable learning strategy. Peer cooperation applies absence of competition and helps to develop positive creative atmosphere, which, in


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turn, enhances motivation, self-esteem, confidence and language learners’ performance. In the particular educational situation where the English teacher is generally a Greek L1 speaker while the learners are mostly Turkish L1 speakers it becomes even more necessary to develop this interpersonal reliance in order to improve mutual understanding. Teaching material: The exercises are taken from the 4th grade English course book (unit 10, lesson 1)


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ACTIVITY 3: GROUPING WORDS Strategy name: grouping/Classifying (memory) Assisting strategies: Associating, using imagery, semantic mapping, creating mental linkages (memory) Language level: A1 Skills practised: vocabulary learning and expansion Time of activity: 20 min

Description of the activity Based on the material (see teaching material below) used in the textbook for the fifth graders (5th Grade of the Primary School, English course book) the teacher organises an activity in which the learners are asked to relate or classify words according to the place where they are generally found. The starting point is the introductory page to Unit 3 with a number of categories (school, home, work, mountains, beach, and gym). The learners should be able to list some words for the ‘school’ and ‘home’ group already and this can be done in a form of a game. The learners are asked to write down as many words as they can remember in 5 minutes. Next, the winners can write them on the board for the rest of the learners to copy the words in their notebooks in a form of a list, a table, a grid or a web. The rest of the categories can be assigned for homework following a discussion on how they are going to group the new words. Preparation Explain that ‘grouping and classifying’ is a useful learning strategy, especially when learners are trying to master new vocabulary. Instead of learning disconnected lists of new vocabulary items it is usually easier to learn the information when it is organized in a logical way, such as associating words for furniture with ‘home’ or things found in a classroom with ‘school’. By making associations they can remember the information more easily.


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Modelling Give them an example. The most unfamiliar vocabulary category is probably the ‘gym’. So bring a picture of a gym and list some of the things you can see there. Explain that by creating mental linkages, by visualising and then grouping words that you can find in a place you can remember those words more easily.

Practice/Scaffolding Set the time limit and ask the learners to write down as many words as they can remember for the two groups: ‘school’ and ‘home’. When the time is up have them count the words. The one with the most correct words is the winner. Then have them write the words on the board and ask the class to copy them in the notebooks. As there are many words related to ‘home’ for example, it is useful to label them further into smaller groups (e.g. kitchen, bathroom, living room, bedroom, children’s room, and balcony). Ask them to suggest ways in which the words could be classified. For example, you may introduce the following example of semantic mapping.


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Evaluation During this phase remind the learners that grouping vocabulary can help them recall related words whenever they are trying to remember a set of words that are somehow related or that can be categorized into meaningful groups. Ask them whether they found this type of classification useful and worth trying it again on their own in the future. Discuss the ways in which grouping and classifying can best be done and which way suits them best individually. Expansion/Transfer Every time the learners are asked to learn new vocabulary, remind them that they can use the grouping/classifying strategy to help them memorise those words. Also if they keep a notebook for FL vocabulary, ask them to divide units according to meaning, parts of speech, etc. Teaching objective A common complaint made by the English teachers is that their learners tend to forget the new material that is taught and do not seem to revise at home. Helping learners memorise better by creating mental linkages through grouping and classifying is one way of overcoming this problem. Another way is showing them how to do so by creating visual semantic maps. It is crucial to teach memory strategies since learners are not aware of the various ways in which they can retain new information. Teaching material: 5th grade English course book, Unit 3, introductory page


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ACTIVITY 4: FINDING COGNATES Strategy name: analysing and reasoning (cognitive) Assisting strategies: analysing contrastively, transferring/using cognates (cognitive) Language level: A1 Skills practised: vocabulary learning/building Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity The teacher introduces the new vocabulary (4th grade English course book, Unit 3, Lesson 2), using flashcards and the matching word cards, by asking the learners if they know any of the words. They should recognise some words as they are cognates from either Greek or Turkish, or both. The learners write down the words and add their Greek and Turkish translation for comparison. Recognising words in English that are similar to words in Greek, Turkish or any other languages they know, and thinking about how the meanings are related (cognates) is the purpose of the activity. Preparation Tell the learners that they are fortunate to be speaking and using more than one language on a daily basis. Despite the difficulties, one of the advantages of being multilingual is that they can rely on the languages they use and can transfer, for example, words that are the same or very similar. They need to become aware of the learning strategy ‘transferring and using cognates’, because it can help them recognise that a word in Greek/Turkish is a cognate of an English word. As a result their vocabulary can increase significantly and this will undoubtedly improve all their skills. Modelling Explain that focusing on recognising and learning cognates (words that sound similar and have the same meaning in different languages) is an easy and quick way to increase their vocabulary. Give them an example: the Greek word τηλέφωνο is a


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cognate for telephone (the words sound alike), while the Turkish word is identical with its English counterpart. Warning: Warn learners with some examples so that they should not think that ANY cognate is a TRUE cognate because some words in the source language may have changed their meaning in the target language although they may have retained their phonological similarity (i.e., magazine − μαγαζί). Practice/Scaffolding During this phase the learners match the flashcards with the meanings and then explain which of the words have cognates in Greek and/or Turkish. Evaluation Discuss with the learners the importance of learning words by creating obvious parallels to words in the languages they use (when possible). Point out that they must be aware of ‘false cognates’. If the meanings aren't related, making a wrong connection may just confuse them. Expansion/Transfer The learners may be asked to keep a record of what words they know that are the same or very similar in the languages they speak and bear similar meanings so that they increase their vocabulary in an easy and quick way. Teaching objective By using the knowledge of Greek, Turkish and possible other languages the learners can draw parallels with English cognates and take the advantage of positive transfer. Teaching material: 4th grade English course book, Unit 3, Lesson 2


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1) house, 2) post office, 3) theatre, 4) museum, 5) cafĂŠ, 6) cinema, 7) shopping centre, 8) block of flats, 9) sports centre, 10) church, 11) bank, 12) supermarket, 13) park, 14) school


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ACTIVITY 5: MY BEST FRIEND Strategy name: planning for a language task (metacognitive) Assisting strategies: overviewing and linking with already known material, paying attention (metacognitive), note-taking (cognitive), cooperating (social) Language level: A2 Skills: all Time: 30 min

Description of the activity Based on the material used in the textbook for the fifth graders (see teaching material below) the teacher asks learners to work in groups and organise the plan of the activity. Firstly, learners fill in the WHAT heading (e.g. WHAT? To tell a story) and then under the headings: Picture 1, Picture 2, etc. they make notes of relevant vocabulary items that can be used for the oral presentation (e.g. Picture 1 WHO? a boy, a dog, WHERE? a city, WHEN? Late at night WHAT? Walk, Picture 2: WHAT? stop, look/stars, etc). Learners are asked to pay special attention to the correct use of simple past which has already been practised in the previous lesson (see Grammar Focus p. 104). After comparing notes, so that possible changes take place, groups are given time to prepare their version of the story which is shared in class. The teacher might ask each group to prepare 2 pictures so that the task is made easier and can be completed within the given time limit. Preparation Prior to the activity, explain that planning plays a significant role in the successful completion of any task. Tell learners that in the case of an oral presentation, for instance, note-taking is an important part of this preparation stage since it will give them the opportunity to organise the ideas they are going to use and increase their ability to combine new material with old one. Modelling Give learners an example with a presentation entitled ‘MY BEST FRIEND’. While writing the following plan you think aloud by pointing out the importance of


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following certain steps for the completion of the task. First of all, it is important for learners to understand the purpose of the task at hand and then start noting down the key ideas and key vocabulary. It is a time-saving process which can help them organise their learning in an effective and clear way. TASK: To describe my best friend NAME: Paul AGE: 10 years old APPEARANCE: tall, short dark hair, big brown eyes HOBBIES: football, reading adventure books WHAT IS HE LIKE? Friendly, polite, helpful Practice/Scaffolding The learners carry out the activity in groups by filling in the note-taking handout. The teacher monitors and facilitates when necessary (e.g. suggesting picture-related vocabulary). Each group presents the story using their notes. After the oral presentation, groups may write down the story using their notes.

Evaluation After the activity the teacher asks the learners whether they found the planning strategy helpful. Would it be easier for them to complete the task straight away without including the note-taking stage? Would it take them longer to complete it?


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Expansion/Transfer The teacher suggests that planning one’s learning is necessary regardless of the foreign language skill(s) or subject matter involved. Include note-taking formats (e.g. semantic maps, tree diagrams) in your teaching and integrate note-taking techniques with regular language material. Encourage learners to take notes mostly or solely in the target language if possible and choose the format that they like the most. Teaching objective The aim of the activity is to familiarise learners with strategies that can make their learning more effective. Planning for a language task is an important metacognitive strategy which involves recognising the purpose of a task, brainstorming appropriate vocabulary and integrating prior knowledge with newly taught material. Taking notes also allows learners to sort and organise the target language information in a clear an effective way. Teaching material: 5th grade English course book, unit 8, lesson 2


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ACTIVITY 6: USING A DICTIONARY Strategy name: using resources for receiving and sending messages, e.g. dictionary (cognitive) Assisting strategies: grouping, using mechanical techniques (memory) Language level: A1 Skills practised: skimming, scanning Time of activity: 1 teaching hour

Description of the activity The teacher hands out the material for the activity (the learners should have scissors and glue) and explains that the first handout contains three columns and that the learners should group the nouns from the second handout according to which of the three categories they belong to. The learners cut out the word cards and gather them into ‘animals’, ‘colours’ and ‘numbers’ piles. Next, the teacher revises the alphabet with the learners and tells them to glue the words in the alphabetical order in the right columns. Preparation Tell the learners that they are going to play a simple game in which they should order words alphabetically. Explain that this is going to be very useful when they try to locate a word in a dictionary and that you are going to help them learn how to use a dictionary (print or web). Modelling You assume a role − you are one of your learners. Start thinking aloud about how and where you are going to find the meaning of the words that you were assigned for homework. Write a few words on the board, take a dictionary, and explain how and where the words can be located quickly by ordering them alphabetically. Another example should be to use a web dictionary (if available) and to model reading a text from the course book in which you notice an unfamiliar noun phrase. You could look it up in your web dictionary. However, you should stress the fact that learners must first of all familiarise themselves with compensation and


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problem-solving strategies when facing the challenge of unfamiliar language (e.g. guessing intelligently using clues, inferencing). If their use has no results, then they can resort to the dictionary. Practice/Scaffolding The learners perform the activity in which they arrange the words both according to the three categories given and alphabetically. The teacher monitors and facilitates when necessary. Next, the learners use their dictionaries to find the words from the handouts bearing in mind what they have just learned about the alphabetical order. Evaluation Ask the learners what they think about this approach to looking up words in a dictionary. Do they find it easy? Does it make locating a word more quickly? What similarities and differences are there among print and web dictionaries? Expansion/Transfer The learners should be asked to bring to class the dictionaries they have at home. The expected ones are Turkish-Greek, Turkish-English, and English-Greek. The teacher explains what kind of information we can find in each of those dictionaries (spelling, pronunciation, meaning, examples of use, etc.) Teaching objective Using reference materials such as dictionaries, textbooks, and computer programmes is the aim of this activity. Familiarizing your learners with the use of different vocabulary resources can increase their vocabulary knowledge and gradually facilitate and encourage learner autonomy. However, it should be pointed out that learners need to be trained in how to read and interpret the information provided in a dictionary. Teaching material: the handouts, learner’s dictionary (Greek-English, TurkishEnglish, Greek-Turkish), the Internet, web dictionaries. Cut out the words and glue them in the alphabetical (ABC) order in the correct places.


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Animals in ABC Order

Colours in ABC Order

Numbers in ABC Order

fish

red

purple

1

1

1

one

duck

nine

2

2

2

pig

five

green

3

3

3

blue

cat

six

4

4

4

5

5

5

ten

yellow

rat

6

6

6

tiger

eleven

orange


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ACTIVITY 7: GREETINGS FROM AUSTRALIA Strategy name: making inferences and predictions (compensation) Assisting strategies: using titles and pictures to guess content, guessing unknown words

from

context

(compensation)

activating

background

knowledge

(metacognitive) Language level: A2 Skills practised: reading (skimming, scanning) Time of activity: 1 teaching hour

Description of the activity The present strategy awareness raising activity is designed around a set of tasks from the course book which aim at 1) activating background knowledge, 2) skimming or reading for gist, 3) reading for general understanding, and 4) reading for detail. The contribution of the strategies approach is that the teacher explains what strategies should be used for each task and how they can help the learners be more effective readers. This is done through direct instruction before each of the four tasks from the book. Preparation Tell the learners that it will be easier for them to read a magazine or a story in English (and Greek) if they prepare in advance. They should learn to look for different clues, both verbal and nonverbal, which accompany texts and can often give them useful information about the texts' content. If they recognise elements in a photo or a sub-heading, they can infer what the text will be about. Also tell the learners that making predictions means making some educated guesses about what will happen and that it helps them focus their attention when reading a text. Lastly, explain to the learners that they need not panic if they don’t understand something in a text. They should ask themselves the following: Can I guess what this might mean... ? Is there another word that might fit... ? In order to guess the meaning of unfamiliar language, fill in missing information, and substitute known words for the unknown, they should use what they know about the subject, the content of the text itself, the context (words they know, pictures, illustrations, layout, etc.).


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Modelling Use a similar text with both verbal and nonverbal clues and talk yourself through as you activate background knowledge, make inferences and predictions and use various reading strategies to decode the text. Ask yourself why you should guess. The answer is that the information you need to solve problems is already available if you know where to look. It is often contained in other parts of the task and at your own resources. Tell the learners that you regularly use both guessing and the context every time something doesn't make sense to you or when you don't know/understand words or expressions in a text. Practice/Scaffolding The learners perform the four tasks from the course book after being guided by the teacher how to use the various strategies for each task (see teaching material below): 1) tell the learners that the task is about Australia and that it would help them understand the text if they can remember anything they have read or seen about this country; 2) explain that before they read the text they should look at the title, subheadings, pictures and read the first few lines in order to see what kind of text it is (e.g. a magazine article, a fairy tale, a love story); 3) show them how the topic sentence (skimming) in each paragraph as well as the picture-related key words are helpful in determining what the paragraph is about; and 4) for this task demonstrate how scanning (moving your eyes quickly over a text) as a reading strategy is used to locate specific pieces of information without spending too much time on the text. Evaluation After the activity, ask learners whether the specific strategies worked for them and if they intend to use them in the future for reading both English and Greek texts. Expansion/Transfer The particular strategies should be practised with various reading tasks. Apart from reading, though, they should also be applied to listening tasks because we use the same strategies to decode an aural message. We guess the unknown words, employ selective listening, focus on getting the gist of a talk, or listen for particular information.


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Teaching objective The aim of the activity presented here is manifold as it includes a cluster of strategies, both cognitive ones (skimming, scanning and using clues) and compensation ones (guessing intelligently by using linguistic and other clues). Developing these strategies is crucial for learning languages (in our case for both English and Greek) as they help learners become more effective readers. Teaching material: English course book, A class, Lower secondary (Beginners), unit 3, lesson 2


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ACTIVITY 8: SPORTS Strategy name: associating (memory) Assisting strategies: transferring (cognitive), representing sounds in memory, acting out (memory), co-operating (social) Language level: A2 Skills practised: speaking, listening Time of activity: 30 min

Description of the activity The teacher reads the names of the sports appearing at the bottom of the coursebook page and asks learners to listen carefully to the pronunciation of the words and pay attention to their spelling. After that, he asks them to take a look and work in pairs in order to say how many sports they recognise. Learners should be familiar with most of them as they are associated with similar words in Turkish and Greek (e.g. basketball, volleyball, judo, rhythmic gymnastics, athletics, windsurfing). The teacher then asks learners to associate the visual and the verbal material by writing the name of each sport they know next to the right picture. After that, learners listen to the related script in order to check their answers and with the teacher’s help add the names of the two sports they might not know (i.e., swimming, weightlifting). Preparation Tell learners that you are going to introduce a learning strategy which will help them memorise new words. You can give this strategy a simple name instead of associating e.g. ‘building bridges’. Explain that this strategy involves making connections between L1/L2 and FL vocabulary items by recognising spelling or pronunciation similarities. As a result, this strategy can help them both to memorise and retrieve FL vocabulary items quickly. Modelling Give an example of what you actually mean. Write the word ‘SPORTS’ on the board and ask learners if they know what it means. Learners should have no problem


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recognising it, since it is associated with similar words in the languages they use (Turkish: spor, Greek: σπορ). Ask learners which clues helped them to get the meaning of the word. They should mention spelling and pronunciation similarities between the FL and the L1/L2. Explain that this is an example of a ‘bridge’ which will help them remember the particular word more easily, but also warn them about differences in pronunciation. Practice/Scaffolding Learners are asked in pairs to think of more sports (in Turkish or Greek) which have a similar sound and meaning to a sport in English. The teacher writes the new sport words

on

the

board

by

focusing

on

spelling

or

pronunciation

similarities/differences (possible answers: tennis, karate, hockey, golf, boxing, volleyball, handball). Learners copy the new sports in their notebooks and the lesson finishes with a memory game in two parts. In the first part, the teacher writes a sport on the board and asks learners to physically act it out and read it aloud. After that, learners are asked in pairs/groups to write down as many sports as they can remember. Evaluation After the activity ask learners whether the specific strategy worked for them and stress the fact that a strategy is not ‘one size fits all’. This means that some learners might opt for other memory strategies which suit their needs such as reading the words aloud or in silence several times, writing the words down, making the words rhyme etc. Expansion/Transfer Every time the learners come up with new vocabulary they can use the ‘bridge’ technique (association strategy) to memorize or recall it. However, remind learners to beware of ‘false friends’ that sound or look like words in the learners’ native language but whose meaning is different. State that this does not work with every new word. Teaching objective By creating associations which are based on pronunciation or spelling similarities between the L1/L2 and the FL vocabulary items, learners can build mental ‘bridges’


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that can help them remember those items more easily and also increase their vocabulary knowledge considerably. Teaching material: English course book for A class of lower secondary school (Beginners), unit 2, lesson 1: sports and activities


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ACTIVITY 9: LET’S DO GRAMMAR Strategy name: revising (memory) Assisting strategies: recombining (cognitive), placing new words in a context (memory) Language level: A2 Skills practised: all Time of activity: 45 min

Description of the activity Based on the listening task (see teaching material below) the teacher organises activities aimed at revising the use of Simple Present and Present Continuous that has been already introduced in the Grammar section of the unit. The activities involve recombining known grammar forms and placing tenses in a context. First, the teacher explains to learners the content of the dialogue, what the dialogue is about. After making sure they are familiar with the vocabulary, s/he plays the dialogue so that learners fill in the gaps by working in pairs. After providing the answers, the teacher asks learners to work in pairs and transform the dialogue in a monologue where they present the key information about the boy. For example, “There’s a boy who likes you. He’s got black hair and blue eyes. He isn’t Greek. He comes from Latin America. He sometimes plays basketball with John. He isn’t going out with anyone at the moment. He likes Olympiakos and sits behind you in the Geography lesson. He likes you a lot’. Really! I’m not pulling your leg!” Preparation Tell learners you are going to introduce strategies which will help them revise what they have already learnt. You should stress the fact that these strategies will give them the opportunity to use what they already know in a different way so that they can write their own piece. Modelling Give an example of what you actually mean. Make a brief oral presentation of yourself using simple present and present continuous. For example you can say “I


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come from… I work in the… secondary school. I speak… I like (a sport). Right now I am …ing.” While making the presentation you can write some notes on the board such as the verbs come from, work, speak, like, now… Then you can ask a learner to use these notes and repeat the presentation with the pronoun ‘she/he’, referring to the teacher. What the learner does is to recombine given words and known forms with different pronouns. This strategy gives the opportunity to revise the ending -s in the 3rd person of the simple present as well as the 3rd person of the Present Continuous. Practice/Scaffolding The teacher tells learners they are going to play the ‘Guess who?’ game. S/he writes on board the following words: come from, have, speak (language), play, like, sit behind/in front of, now, sometimes. Learners are divided in two groups. A volunteer from each group describes one of its members using all the given words. Members of the other group try to guess who is being described. Learners can ask questions, if the person making the description forgets to provide the information, e.g. “Which languages does he speak?”, “What is he doing now?” etc. Evaluation After the activity, ask learners whether the specific strategies worked for them and if they intend to use them in the future for revising other tense forms. You can also ask them whether they prefer to revise grammar forms orally or in a written form. Expansion/Transfer Every time the learners come up with already taught items (verb forms, vocabulary) they can use the recombining strategy. Teaching objective By integrating the above strategies in the lesson, teachers give learners the opportunity to revise previously taught elements in new, creative ways in a written and/or an oral context. Teaching material: English course book, B class lower secondary school (Beginners), unit 1, listening 2: present simple vs. present continuous


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

ACTIVITY 10: REFLECTING ON MY LEARNING Strategy name: evaluating your own learning (metacognitive) Assisting strategies: self-evaluation (metacognitive) Language level: A2 Skills practised: reading, speaking Time of activity: 15 min

Description of the activity: The teacher uses the material from the portfolio section of the textbook (see teaching material below) and initiates a discussion about the learner profile of his/her learners. The questionnaire is completed in lockstep, with the teacher explaining/translating the individual strategies from the list and the learners ticking the corresponding boxes. This activity should be done with learners after they have received strategy training so that they are able to reflect upon their learning and provide examples during the class discussion. In the end they can report back to the class about their learner profile and say what it is that they need to improve in the future. Preparation Tell the learners that it is useful for them to evaluate their own work. It is worth taking the time to stop and reflect on their progress in learning a language. Selfevaluating helps them identify their strengths and weaknesses so that they can do better next time. Modelling Think aloud about how you evaluate your progress both in general and when performing a particular task. Ask yourself − How well did I do? You can evaluate how well you understood or used the language in the task. For example, if you are reading a story, you could mentally give yourself a grade that represents how well you understood it. Also, at the end of a unit, you can ask yourself (there are strategy checklists in all the learners’ books) what worked for you, what helped you learn


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words or grammar, what kind of activities you prefer and are good at, where there are problems, etc. Practice/Scaffolding The learners complete the questionnaire with the teacher’s help and then report back to the class about what kind of learners they are. Evaluation After the activity, ask the learners if they ever think about how they learn and what they like and dislike about learning a language. Discuss with them what it is they do when leaning Greek as well, and if they intend to use checklists like the one you have just completed to help them improve both their English and Greek. Expansion/Transfer Evaluating your own learning should not only be done at the end of a unit or a course. It is an ongoing process that also applies to individual tasks, such as testing yourself to see if you have learned words or phrases. For example, your learners can use a blank calendar to see if they can correctly spell the names of the months, days of the week and numbers for the dates; or more advanced learners can write descriptions of the activities they will be doing on different dates (e.g. On July 3rd I will be lying on the beach in Kavala). Teaching objective Self-evaluating is an important metacognitive strategy which tells learners if they need to review again and it also reinforces what they have learned. It strengthens learners’ autonomy which entails active, independent learning. As a result, learners can take responsibility for their own learning and develop the capacity for reflection and control of the learning process. Teaching material 6th grade primary school English course book, My portfolio


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References Aγγλικά Δ Δημοτικού: Βιβλίο Μαθητή, ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩΝ, Αθήνα. Aγγλικά Ε Δημοτικού: Βιβλίο μαθητή, ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩΝ Αθήνα. Aγγλικά ΣT Δημοτικού: Βιβλίο μαθητή, ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩΝ Αθήνα.. Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York: Newbury House/Harper & Row. Now Boston: Heinle & Heine. Think Teen 1st Grade of Junior High School: Learner’s book, Αρχάριοι, ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩΝ Αθήνα Think Teen 2nd Grade of Junior High School: Learner’s book, Αρχάριοι, ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩΝ Αθήνα ©1996 National Capital Language Resource Center GU/CAL/GWU www.superteacherworksheets.com


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Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide

Foreign language learning strategy research has stimulated more than 40 years of constant academic interest during which scholars have acknowledged the contribution of strategies toward enhancing language competence, motivation, and language learning awareness. Language learning strategy instruction, however, has neither been extensively promoted by educationalists nor explicitly implemented by language teachers. Issues referring to how learners can know more about what strategies can do and how they can apply them in order to make their learning more effective remain relatively unexplored. The present guide aspires to fill this lack of information and application. It is intended for practising EFL teachers in Greece in both mainstream and minority primary and secondary schools. More specifically, the guide provides a short introduction to the field of language learning strategies and informs teachers about the benefits of implementing strategy instruction in their classes. Further to this, it offers step-by-step instruction with actual activities that teachers of different educational levels may use as part of their classroom teaching practices in order to promote explicit EFL strategy instruction.

ISBN: 978-618-5147-41-9

Foreign Language Learning Strategy Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide  

The present guide aspires to fill this lack of information and application. It is intended for practising EFL teachers in Greece in both mai...

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