Page 1


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puin];kqp]: lWc]:l}:pQn]mL; !wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; (suic]:t};)@

nC];hBw]pak],pI 19-20 mL;n}. yWn].wL,tKCak]:mUic]; kUn];mUic];wn];tUk];Kw]El: pa};Aup].pUic],nC];mUic];t};ekL: l}:mI;lWc]:lqk]:la}:mL;sWm];" mUiw]: 1815 nn].Ac];kit].Kw] Sim];Aw] mUic];klL; (Ain];tI;yL;)' 1818 nn].Sm].Kw]: Sim];Aw]mUic];AL,Sm], An] t};AL,hBm], yU,Sw];nn]. Kw]:hBm]:pL;kCL,Pa},tC]:Kun]PWc];cm];Ain];tI;yL;" tI:miUc];man]:ekL:pQn]pW};tuik];Sam]pWk]: (1824' 1852' 1885) eSmUic];man]: tUk];Sum];pn]Ac];kit].kCL,mUt];' PWc];mUiw]:nn].Ac];kit].yc];p},Pqw]Tuic]mUic];t};" yWn].mI; lWc]:tuik];etL;kn]him]sic];nL:tI:kn] nC];mUic];t};El: sw]:fL.yWc]hBv]:El: sw]:fL.

3

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

mUic];t};hw]; An]mI;yU,Ek:kac]mUic];T};' mUic];law];' mUic];EK,El: mUic];man]:n}. tuin];pQn] mUic];lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLmL; sQm]muin].Suin];kWn]," sw]:fL.Kw]PWc];cm];mL;mUic];PC] mUic];mn];eStL. pUic]PWc];cm];Aup].pUic],mUin]kn]' kWc].San]Aup],AUw]; cUp].cI.kn]eS Aw] pk];lQw]pUic]lQw]Aup].pUic],mL;El: pQn]pUic]mUic];hBm]:tum]sqt]:sac], (Federated States) mL;sQm] mUiw]:nn].yU,yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

SI,epL. Kw]sc],lUc];kCL,hgc].Ac];kit].Aw]Suik];mL;kqt],EKpn]n}El: mUiw]:nC];pI<1886 hac]pI<nn]. Suik];Ac];kit].sc],Kuin]:mL;nC];mUic];t};yw]." mUiw]:yam];nc],nn] frc],SQt]: Kw]ekL:Kw]:mL; Pa},tc];AWk],Sim];Aw] wqt].nam];' law];El: KmQn]" nc],huiw]Kw]SWc] mUic]; etAm],mI;lWc]:tum].tUiw].nL:lin]kn]nn]. Ac];kit].El: frc],SQt]:sc], tUk];lUc];mk];mn]:kn]eS pQn]mL;lqn]lin]t};' T};' law];' EK,n}nn].yw]." mUic];pI: mUic];nWc].An]Am],mI;hBw].tt]; Kqn]:kac]' An]Kw]:AWk],kCL,mL;kL.Ka}etL,kn]yU,nn]. yQn];pQn]kCL,ekL.wan]:ekL.mUic];pqt]:' yWn].PU:KCak]:mUic];Kw]Am], tWc]:Tam]kac]sC]kUn];kiuk]; mUic];eS hQt];Sac]:kCL,nc],kac]sC]Kw]nn].yw]." mI;lWc]:mk];mn]:lqn]lin]mL;eStL. ekL: Ac];kit]. Kw]Am],Kw]:yuc]:kw];sWm];nL:kan]Aup].pUic],' mac]tI:mac]lWc]:sWm],sim] sWm]; ekL:km].ek,kUv];" mUiw]:PWc];Suik];lum];fL.pWk]:SWc]nn]. Ac];kit].Kw]pn]ktikCam];mn]:wL: PU:lC] mUic];lC]mw],wL: epL;Kw]:pL;sW}:Tqm] nC];kan]tuik];etL;kYpan],n}suic]etlqk]:la}:kan] mUic];eSpUt];pW},pn]n}yw]." yWn].sw];fL.t}; AWn]hBw]Suik];t};Kw]:pL;sW}:Tqm]Pa},Ac]; kit].El: wa};Suik];km],PL,pWk]:SWc]yw].kCL, mUiw]:lUin]eAL;kat].S] 1945 nn].l}:mI;kan] tUc].tuin], hac]:hqn];tL,etpUt];pW},pn]pQn] mUic];lWt]:lqw];mL;" nc],huiw]saw];KUiw];Sn]lW}Kw] etmI;lWc]:KWt],lUit]:PWm].hBm]:kn]nn]. l}:hac]: hqn];mL;sQm]mUiw]: 1945" Tuic]mL; 1946 yUic];Aan];tL,KWt],PWt]:sum];Sn]lW}PWm].hBm]: (SCOUHP) El: l}:Pit]:mWk],PU:tac]tUw] Kac]' KYac];Kw]mL;Kuin]:hgt]: pac]kum]pac]lUc]

4


pWk]:km];nuic]:" nC];lUin]fqp].pCL,rI, 1947 nn].t};' Kac]' KYac];Kw]sc],KWt],PWt]:l}: (SCOUHP) tI:pac]lUc]" Pa},nuic]: tac];nuic]:Sm]. yUic];Aan];tL,lqk]:la}:pUic]Aup].pUic], sw]:fL.pin],pQn] pUic]mUic];tI,mUw],Ker,SI,El: l}:KWt],PWt]: !KWc],SI,suic]:t};@ An] sw]:fL. 7 sw]:El: PU:tac]tUw]kUn];mUic]; 7 ekL.Kw]:hBm]:pL;sWm];kn]" Aic]nUiw] kUn];mUic;] t};km].pL:nm] p},mI;lWc]:pWc],sC]lUc].lqc];kan]pa};mUic];El: yUic];Aan];Aw]sn]. mUic];Aup].pUic],hc];eKL An]yU,pL:tC]: Ac];kit].sW}:pUk];pWc] (Dominian) pUk];pWc]pa};hB.kUn]; mUic];kCL," mUiw]:lC]kUn];mUic];pWc],sC]nL:kan]pa};mUic];yw].sc],Aw]kWn];eKL l}:mI;yUic];Aan]; mL;sUic].n}yw]." Ac];kit].ekL:mI;eKL:mk];mn]:w}.wL: Sc]mUic];t};KC]:l}:kWn;] eKLAm],hBm]:ma n]:nn].ekL: Kw]etpn]yU, n}nn].tqk],tqk],lqc];lqc];"

Tuic]mL; 1950 kWn],mUic];t};ettn];sC].Sun],Pat],AWk], (Right of Secession) nn].man]:Kw]Aw]lWc]:tac];EK,PUik], KMT Kw]:mL;pk];Sw];nC];mUic];t};nn].En

5

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kUv];kL: yWn].wL:man]:AWc],San];Kw]sWm],sim]sI;yUc];tuik];SUn];nL,El: pUic] nuic]:' sw]:fL,tc];PU:AWn]hBw]t};km]:PWc]: l}:lUc];la};muiw];lik]:hBm]:ma}pac]lUc]kCL,pUic] nuic]:" tI:l}:lUc]; la};muiw];lik]:hBm];ma}pac]lUc]ekL: yWn].hn]wL:mn];pQn] cw]:puin.] tuin];lac];pun]:tL,ma}mI:suic]:mUic]; 1947 An]mI;ktikCam];mn]:wL: !t};mI;Sun],Pat],AWk],@ n}nn].yw]." Aic]nUiw] lik]:hBm]:ma}pac]lUc]eS mUic];t};-mUic];man]:l}:hBm]:kn]Aw] lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLmL;mUiw]: 4.1.1948 eStL.sw]:fL. Kw]yc];tuik].Suip],mI;AL,nL,Aup]. pUic],PWc];cm];mUic];yU," kUv];kL:yWn].l}: yum],ym]nUiw]eKL:tUk];lUc];kn]tc];man]:nn]. El: Am],l}:mI; lWc]:hac]:hqn];KWt],PWt]:Suik];mL;eS pW},hG]:Suik];man]:mL;kqt],EKpn] eP;KQn]nWk]:mUic]; mUin]nc],pan]Ac];kit]. yam]:hQt];mL;nn].yU,yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

nL:mn];eS SUc],Suik];Kw]Kw]:mL; Am],Tat],Am],wa}; nc],Kw]mI;yUic];Aan];An]Et. mn]; pQn]kan]tL,et Kw]:yiut];Aw]mUic];t};tc];mUt];El: mL;tQk];tQc]lUla}ep.kin] kUn];mUic];t};hw];mL;sQm]yam];nn]." Kw]hn]Tuic]wL:mUic];t};n}.pQn]KQn]AQn]hqc];yC],Tinuic]: pun]:tL,Kw]' kUn];mUic];tc];la}ekL: PWm].kn]km].Tqm]sw]:fL.n}El: Aan];yL.kw];hG]: mUic];t};epL;lU.lqw]kUn],pc];nn].yw]." tc]:Et,cw]:pI 1956 mL;yWn].lUv]:kan]lUla}tQk];tQc]Suik];man]: haw].hqc]; lUn].lUiw]mL;El: kUn];mUic];sUiw]; hk].lWc]:lWt]:lqw];Tac],hac]:El: lWc]:Tuk],mqn]:PQc],pQc]; JtL;nn]. sc],luk].Kuin]:mL;etL,SU:yWn];Sun],l}:tUw]kw], nc],pUic]tI,mUw],Ker,SI,mL;' mUin]nc], muk].sum];Sc],Ksuic]:t}; (The Sangha Association of Shan State) Kw]l}:AWk,] mL; etL,SU: yWn];Sun],l}:nC];lWc]:kan]fic]:Tuc];El: lWc]:kan]pUk];pWc]nC];Sc]KKw]" etL: nc],nn] mUiw]: 27-28 lUin]tI,Sqm],pL, 1956 muk].sum];suic]:t}; (Shan State Organization) ekL:l}:hQt]; pac]kum]kn]hBm]:lUv]:PU:Aup].pUic],wan]:mUic];El: kUn];mUic]; 150 ekL. tI:mUic];y}' mUic];t};pWt];hgc], Aup],AUw];TQc]kn]lWc]:lUc]pWc]suic]: pL,tI, PSpl (AFPFL) An]Am],JtL;nUiw] suic]:t};nc], kCac]:kCac]:KCac]KCac]eS l}:eKL:tUk];lUc];pac]kum]wL:1. muk].sum];suic]:t}; San]Kt];tqk],lqc];tQm]TUn];nUiw] eKL:tUk];lUc];An]lUc] pWc]suic]: mUic];hBm]:tum]El: AI,SrL,eA< tUk];lUc];kn]wL: pn]hG]:AI,SrL,eA< Kw]:mL; hQt];kan]Puk],SWm]: nUiw]Pqn],lin]mUic];t}; 1 lan]:eA,k" 2. mUic];t};etl}:hp].lWc]:nm].tWn];km]:PWc]:tI:kan]Kut];Eh:cuin];tI:epL,tun]; wQc];nm].tU:' mUic];t};pWt];hgc]." 3. mUic];t};etl}:hp].Sun],mqc],An]kYpan],tWp],tqn];lWc]:lU.Sum];nC];pac]tuik];mUiw]: Suik];km],PL,pWk]:SWc]" 4. tWn]:tL,etSac]:lWc]:kt];yQn]El: lWc]:mn];kuim];nC];suic]:t};nn]. lUc]pWc] suic]:mUic];t};etpQn]ekL. tuit].sn]Pqn]kan]kUv];" 5. etl}:hQt];pac]kum]kUn];mUic];El: PU:nm];KWc]mUic];t};w};w};" 6. lUc]pWc]suic]:mUic];hBm]:tum]etl}:sqk],EPmqc],pn]pat].kYqt].nUic]mUic];t};" 7. lUcp] Wc]suic]:mUic];hBm]:tum]etl}:TWn]pqt]:KWn],An]wL: AmYat].etL,Kun], (Tax on Profit) An]kQp];yU,tI:mUic];t};" 8. kUn];mUic];nC];suic]:t};etl}:mI;Sun],st];tc]:muk].sum];kan]mUic];El: muk].sum]; tUc],wUc];kUn];" 9. mUic];t};etpik].w}.kan]Kw]:hBm]:sum];Sn]lW}PWm].hBm]: (SCOUHP) An]yam]:ekL,

6


10. 11. 12.

tc]:mL;kWn],nL:n}. etL,Tuic]Kaw];yam];An]Sc],Tuk]," PU:Aup].pUic],t}; Am],sm]pQn]eS etAm],pn]yWm];Sum];Sun],l}:KWc]nC];mUic];sw]: kw]," mUic];t};etTWn]tUw]AWk],tI:mUic];hBm]:tum]wa};lc]tQm] 10 pI<sWm];nc],l}:KQn], tqm]:w}. nC];ma}mI:suic]:mUic];" mUic];t};etAm],Kw]:hBm]: (Am],nn]) pQn]luk]:sum];nC]; pL,tI,PSpl(AFPFL)"

wa};eSl}:mI;eKL:tqp];tt];pac]kum]yw]. Tuic]mL; 7.2.1957 kUn];mUic];t};l}:sU. tum]kn]tuk];yWn];Sun],l}:sWm];nc],An]Sun],l}:mUic];t};mL;nc],la};kt];kt];yQn]yQn]"

mUiw]: 20.05.1958 sw]:nW}.AWn]Aw]luk]:nWc].sum];sUiw]; 30 ekL. Kam]:KUc]; tI:tL:PLlqc]' Ek:mUic];pn],tc]; mUic];kzt]:eS kCL,nWn];him];tI:SUp];hBv]:Sman]; Pa},nUiw]tL:yan] 3 lk];" epL;mUic];lqc];mL; (21.05.1958) yam]; 07;00 mUc]; nn]. pun]:tL,ethQt];kan]kWn];eKLnn]. nc]huiw]etmI;tI:mn]:kqn,] yum],ym]kn]n}eS sc],AWn]kn]tc]:PUin]KU; pUiw]:tL,st]; pac]kin]kqn],kn]" tI:pac]kin]kqn],kn]nn]. l}:st];w}. tuc];suic]:t};' tuc];sw]:SUiw]PUik],' tuc];sw]:cUik]:kac];la};' tuc];sw]:SUiw] Kan],fL.' tuc];num],Suik];han]eS hBm]:kn]kin]kqn],kn]yw]. ekL,tc]:tp].Suik];num], Suik];han] (suiw]:yaw];- tp].Suik];num],Suik];han]tuik;] Aw]mUic];t};lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKL)" mUiw]:Et,tc]:num],Suik];han]nn]. mI;kUn]; 31 ekL.' kWc]: 7 lw];" wa};kin]nm].Sqt]. sL,yw].kCL,tc]:cw]:cun];tI: puc],kqc];mn]; him];wan]:mUic];kzt]:"

7

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kan]Aw]Suik];eSSim];AL,nL,nn]. mUin]nc],wL:tUv];mw]lUla}nUiw]saw];KUiw]; An]mI;yU,nC];mUic];hBm];tum]eSAm],kL; np].tc]:Et,Aw]lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLtI:Ac];kit]. mL;nn]. Suik];man]:lUla} KI,nQk];tQk];tQc]nUiw]mUic];t};mL; tik];tik];El: tI:pac]kum]An] hQt];tI:mUic];y} mUiw]: 16-19.5.1957 nn].la}sUiw];la}Pa},hn]wL:tp].Suik];man]:et Am],pW},PL:mUic];t}; ca}:ca}:n}El: sc],mL;tqp];tt];wL: t};ekL:tk];l}:mI; tp].Suik]; hc];eKLn}yw]." mUiw]:nn].AWn]kn]l}:sC]kn]eSlUik]: Aw]eSL;nn],t (wa};mL;hgc]. wL: eSL;yn],t/sw]:yn],t/sw]:nW}./sw]:cUik]:kac];la};) t};sL,timUic];wn]; yC],tI: wan]:emL: (Bhamo) An]mI;tLhn] tUw]TUp];nC];kan]Suik];mL;sQm]pan]Suik];lum]:fL.pWk]: km];SWc]"


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

tp].num],Suik];han] tuik];man]:yw].n}ekL:Kaw],caw];EP:sWt],kCL,Kn]w};tc]; mUic];kU:tI:' kUn];mUic];t};An]l}:kUm]:hBw]yUin].kn]:mL;nC];Kaw];tac]; 10 pI<n}.ekL:PC] Am],SUn];PC]' PC]Am],lUw],hgc].PC] AWn]kn]yip];kWc]:kac],luk].Puin]. tI:PC]tI:mn];eS Kw]:tuik];tp].man]: sum];PC]sum];mn];pQn]la}tI:la}tac];yw]." pun]:tL,etkqt],EK Aw] Kuin];mUic];nn]. pW};tuik];lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLmUic];t};n}. mUin]f};m}:lam];pL,sWt],tUw]:kCL,tc]; mUic];yU,yw]." nC];suic]:t};l}:kUit],Kuin]:AWk],mL;sum];hk].sat]:la}mU,la}sum];' kan]luk].Puin]. kqt],EK Aw]Kuin];mUic];p},Sut];p},wa}; etL,Tuic]pan]yam];lQw]n}eStL. PU:hk].sat]:Kw] l}:AWn]kn]mk];mn]: An]sw]:nW}. (hgc].) eSL;yn],t l}:tqp];tt];mn]:kqn],wL: !tUw]kw],pUn].tac];tuk].Kyw]. sUiw].KUiw];tUw]kw],ekL: hG]:pUn].tac];tuk].KmUin]tUw] kw],nn]. etAw]nL:AUk];hQt];tm],tUic]; eStuik];etL;kCL, Am],Sut];Am],hBn]@ n} eSAWn]ekL,tc]:tp].Suik];tL,et luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; AWn]tac];Sut]; mUiw]:wn];TI. 21.05.1958 nn].mk];mn]:pQn] !wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];@ mL;etL,Tuic]pan]yam];lQw]yU,yw]."

[Ac]:Aic]eKL:mun];tI: 1.tI:yUic];Aan];kan]luk].Puin].El:epL,lSI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};' 2.puin];mUic];t};El: kan]pa};mUic]; mUiw];t}; 3.pWc]:kCam]; !50 pI< wn];luk].Puin].puin];puin].lc]Aqp],sm]:yam];lQw] (1)@ El:pp].kWn];eKL' 4. รัฐฉาน ประวัติ ศาสตร์ และการปฏิวัติ (อัคนี มูลเมฆ)]

8


kCam];Pak],tWn]: wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; KWp]:KUp], 53 pI< 21.May.2011

Kaw];tac];luk].Puin]. Pan],mL;yw]. 53 pI< An]lIAn]sL. mI;mL;nc],kn] kWp]:n} wn];luk].Puin]. KWp]:KUp], 53 pI<n}. yWn];Aw]kuc],mun] PU:yC],kUn];lUc]El: Suik];han] PU:hk].sUiw].sat]: An]l}:SQc]: kam],Sut];mun]El: l}:lU,nUiw].lUit]:S}asC]' l}:lU,tin] muiw];El: tL l}:pQn]tuk].Kit sL.kCL,tc];SQc]:eAL:"

9

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

Kaw];tac];luk].Puin]. 53 pI<n}. epL;etwUn.] Kuin];P}a,lc]suic] pQn]An]yaw];nan]; kUn];mUic]; pC].muc]:mWc]; wn];AWc],pW};mL;ekL:huic]nan];eS kUn];mUic];t};ekL: kWt];Pan]Kan]sC] ygn].tam], Suki ;] pIyaw];Kaw];huci '] yan],SU,PU:mUki :] mC:] man]:KCak]:mUci ;] hw];ekL: Am],luwi :] Am],Sw];Kam],lip;] Kam],t}aeS Am],yWm];pW},PL:mUic]; t};lL;lL;' PU:AWn]hBw]luk].Puin].ekL: Put];epL,mI;mL; l}alWc]:l}amQw];' km]:PWc]:hk].sUiw].sat]:wan]: mUic];Et.Et.' km]:PWc]:cum];pLsWm];nm].Kun], eS Aw]kan]luk].Puin].hQt];nL:tUiw]: hQt];kan]Sun],tUw]' km]:PWc]:Am],lUiw]eSEl:hQt]; km]:PWc]:hQt];yU,Am],mI;yUic];m}a mUin]P}a;hUiw];Am],mI;tI:sWt], pn],kCL,kCL, Kuin];Kuin];eS yWn].eKL: yum],ym]tUw]kw],El: eKL:yum],ym]sUiw].sat]: Am],w}.mn]:kuim]; Am],mI;St]. sL, etL,kn]El: ham];yUic];m}apqt]:"


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

yWn];tuik];SUn]; PU:hk].sat]:El: kUn];mUic];tc];l}a' kan]luk].Puin]. An]etSuip], hQt];kCL,n}. yWn].pUiw]:kan]TUp];muiw];ekL: mI;mL;nm]El: Tuk],lITt];Sac] hLkUn];An] hQt];kan]Et.' yL,TWm],yL,yum],kUn];An]emLAup],lUm]; Am],mI;PWn];lImL;tL,sUiw]. sat]: Sc]nn].lL;lL;" hw];hL;kuic],lIlUik]:hLl}: PU:AWn]hBw]An]mI;St].sL,JtL;El: hk].sUiw].sat]:hB.pw].m}a yUic];Aan];An]et Am],Aw]hw];Pit]; tac];nn].KL:yw]." kan]luk].Puin].An]wL:nn]. yL,pWc],sC]pQn]tp].Suik]; An]yip];kWc]:kac],kUv];' kUn];mUic]; kUn];Suik]; nC];Pqn],lin]suic]:t};n}. pQn]PU:luk].Puin].tc];mUt]; An]wL:nn]. hC]:pWc], sC]kn]eS AWn]kn]luk].Puin]. tuik];pqt]: man]:PU:KCak]:mUic]; An]mL;mUik]:lUic];etL, kUn];mUic];t};hw]; hC]:AWk,] Pqn], lin]suic]:t};kCL,nn]. hw];KL:lUw],l}:hBm]:yUic];Aan]; AWn]kn]tuik];hC]:Tuic]pw].m}alQw]kn]nn]. w};w};KL: yw].eAL:" kan]PWm].hBm]:hQt];mL;ekL: l}apan]yw]. PWm].yw].tqk],kn]Kuin]; pQn]n}mL;yU,tL,eS, Am], Aw]kan]PWm]. hBm]:pQn]AQn]hqc];eS Aw]Kuin];mUic];l}:nn]. yWn].pUiw]:Sc]n}ekL: kac]sC]kUn]; mUic];KC]:hB.eKL:tWp],yU, An]KL:pWc],sC]El: kan]TUp];muiw];l}:hn]mL; kU:mU,kU:sum];sUiw];nn]. kU:mU,kU:sum];sUiw];nn]. PWm].yw].tqk],Kuin]; yWn].pUiw]:Sc]n}suic] lUw],Kw]:sC]wL: Pgm].hUm]:n} nn]. etPWm].hBm]:kn]hQt];Sc]? PWm].hBm]:kn]hQt];pW};lam];En,? epL;PWm].kn]hQt];p}g; epL;pW};w}a;yw].ekL: kan]PWm].hBm]:kn]nn].ekL: Sut;] w}a;yw]." epL;PWm].hBm]:kn] Aw] mUic]; ekL:lUw],mI; eKL:yUic];Aan];kan]mUic];' yUic];Aan];kan]mUic];hw]; etAan];hQt];huiw]? Aan];Aw]mUic];kWn];eKLEn,? Aan];Aw]mUic];t};hw];Kuin]; hQt];mUic];hBm]:tum]kn]tc];man]: Kuin];En,? n}.pQn]yUic];Aan];yC],lUc]yw].SWc]l}a;n}. hw];lUw],lUik]:l}a;nuic]:kUv];" epL; etlUik]:tc];SWc]l}a;eS hQt];kCL,suic] tL,et Tuic]pw].m}atuin];Am],mI;l}:" Sc]Sm].wL: Aw]km].mn];Sac],etL, l}:l}a;lC]ekL:lI nn]. Kqn];ethac],k} SQn]:tac];AWc],pW};yw]." kWp]:An]PWm].kn]tI:Pan],pUn].mL;n}. yWn].Am],tqk],lqc];Enkn] Am],pWc],kn]tI: AQn];Aan];kan]mUic];El: hQt];kan]yU,ekL:Am],kCL,sU; pw].m}alQw]kn]' huic]mL;ekL: Kt];kn]tc];kan]mUic]; P}a,nC];eS Pit];kn]' TQc]kn]' Am],Ek:lit]:kn]l}:eS l}:tqk],kn]Kuin]; tuik];kn]Tqc]:" P}a,nuic]: tac];nuic]:ekL:yWn]. Aw]Sun],tUw]pQn] yC],' epL;tum].tUiw].Sun],tUw]mL;ekL: Am],yWm];hp].' luim];yUic];Aan];eS PWk]:St]. sL, kCL,pqt]:' w}.mL,nSun],tUw]pQn]yC], Am],mI;mL,nsUiw].sat]:' yWn].pQn]n}mL;El: kan]PWm].hBm]:Am],Aw] pQn]AQn]hqc];eS Aw]mUic];l}:" epL;ethQt];kan]PWm].hBm]:kn] kCL, Kaw];nL:n}. tuin];etl}:Kw]:sC]kan] AWn]tac]; mUiw]:p},PWm].kn]' epL;Kw]:sC]kn] yum],ym]kn] pw].m}alQw]kn]kWn], sc],sac]:hQt];kan]PWm]. hBm]:kn]l}:"

10


Suik];man]:TWt],KUw];Suik];eS Kuin];nuc]:KUw];kUn];mUic]; Pam];tLlWk],lqn]km],PL, lqn] kUn];mUic];Tqc]:nn]. kUn];mUic];hw];mI;tLhn]tUw]TUp];yw].' yum],ym]wL:kUn];mUic];hw]; etAm],cUiw]:n}nn]. kw]KL:yum],ym]yU," man]:etAw]Sun],l}: lWk],sC].sUw]:Kaw]; hC]:pQn] KUic]:muiw];Kw]' epL;kan]An]Kw] KC]:l}:nn]. l}:yw].n} suic] Kw]ekL:etAm],w}.hw];n}nn]. mn];tqk],lqc];lIyU," kUn];mUic];t}; sUiw];hQt];pI,tusit].ekL:lI sUiw];Kw]:kCL,nC];pL,tI, Sac],SI:ekL:lI Kw]mI;p}a;wUn].wL: yU,sm]sm]Aw]mit]:tqc];n}nn]. sC]:yU,' kUv];kL: kL:pUn].mL;hw];Am],tn];tqc];pUin]: pUin]:Aw]KWn].Tup].hBw]hw];AWn]tac];mL; tL,eS,nn]. yWn].pUiw]:Sc]' AQn];Aan];Et. Kuik].luik].lIyU, kUv];kL: hw];Am],ep.nm].kt].pUin]:' Am],ep.l}:l}a;lWk];lic].pUin]: Tac],wL:hQt];yU,nn].suiw]:sC]:yw]. tI:pQn]Et.mn]; hw];kCL,tUk];yU,nC]; emL:Pk];pUin]:" PUiw], hB.tUw]ekL: epL;Suk];nC];emL:Pk];yw]." pQn] n}mL; kU:Suip],kU:pan] sQm]mUiw];pan] mSl pan]pL,tI,KWc],SI,nn].yw]." kUv];kL:Sc]Kw]

11

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kan]PWm].hBm]:Am],Suiw]:yUw]; Am],yum],ym] pQn]lWc]:PWm].hBm]:pWm]Pac];lqn]' KC]:mL;him] muiw];kn]sUw]:kqp]:sUw]:Kaw]; l}a;pU,kzc];hgm]Kw]:hqc]:sUiw];nn]. tuin];etAm],Kaw];yaw];' Am],mn]:kuim];' Am],AWn]kn]kCL,sU;pw].m}al}:' kWp]:n} kan]PWm].hBm]:Suiw]:yUw];nn]. tk];lUw],pWc],sC]nUiw] epL,lSI, An]KC]:hQt];lIlI yum],ym] np].Tuiw]kn]' PWm].kn] hQt];kan] nc],pun]:PWn];PC]mn];mI;' etAm],l}:lqn]kan]mUic];P}a,nC];etL,kn] sL. kCL,sUiw];n}. sc],etmn]:kuim];kCL,sU;pw].m}aeS Aw]AWc],pW};l}:"


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

sw]:lQp]:hQn]; emLAw]tWn]:SWn]eS Am],Aw]Sun],tUw]pQn]yC], emLlp].lp].hBm]:muiw];kU: P}a,Et.ekL: etmI;Sun],lIyU," tWk],tUiw],s}a;mWk],Km];Kw]:yU,nC];pL,tI,Sac],SI:man]:' pQn]KUic]:pUic]kan] pL,tI,Sac],SI:El: lUc]pWc]suic]:man]:Kw] Aw]hQt];hun],hac]:Entac]; hac]:lIekL.nuic]:w}.yU,' nc],huiw]epL;et hac]:lItLkUn];tac];km],PL,nn]. Aw]saw];KUiw]; An]Kw]kum];km]l}:eS AWk],EnPac] hac]:" kUn];sUiw];An]l}:Sun], yU,nC];pL,tI,Sac],SI:nn]. sWc],Kw]Sm].mI;Sun],pUk];pWc] tL,sUiw].KUiw];Kw]sUic].huiw] n}nn]. lIpk];tLtUv];lUsWm];yU,' tWk],tUiw],s}a;mWk],Km]; pQn] kqm] Smt TiSWc]nn]. Sc]wL:mn];yWn]; Sun],l}:pn] kUn];mUic];t}; hC]:lik]:t};mI;sn]. eS mk];mn]:SWn]nC]; hBc];hQn];nc],Kw]:JtL;n}suic] kUn];mUic]; etsUm];SUiw];yU,' Sc] Am],hQt];l}:nc],n}Et. tuik].pQn]KUic]:muiw];lIpUin]:eS pQn]kUn];sC].tac],sat]:kCL,kUv];" kWp]:n}kUn];mUic];hw]; lUw],mI;Stinm]Et.Et." An]Suik];man]:Kw]mL; tc]:tUic];mC],pWt];kac]nn].ekL: EnSn]vL;wL: mUic];t};n}. man]:tuin];Am],pW},PL: yUic];Aan];An]Kw]tk];AUm]Auin]Aw] Pqn],lin]suic]:t}; hC]:pQn] Pqn],lin]man]:Kw]' kUn];mUic];t};n}. KC]:p}a:ekL: p}a: KC]:t}aekL:t}a man]:Kw]etAm],SUn] sC]Sc]nn].yw]." kWp]:n} kUn];mUic];kUn];Suik];hw]; lUw],l}:lk];lqm] PWm].hBm]: kn] hk].kn]eS kqt],EK Pqn],lin]hw];KL: yL,hC]:Sum];lL;lL;n} nC];tuiw].tac];lIn}. KC]:yWn];tuik];SUn];nc],n}eAL:" !mC],Suc]KL:@

12


hBw]pw]:lUc]KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t}; (R.C.S.S) mWk],lat]:eKL:kCam]; wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; KWp]:KUp], 49 pI< 21 May,2007

2. kgp]:n} tL,etl}:Kuin];mUic];t};eS mI;Sun],pUk];pgc]Kuin];mUic];t};hw];Kuin];nn]. Am],mI;l}a;lC]yw]. lUiw]eSkUn];mUic];t};Pgm].kn]yip];kgc]:kac],Kgt],Pgt]:pQn]tp].Suik];eS tuik];Aw]Kuin];n}.kUv];yw]." kgp]:n}tp].Suik];suic]:t};hw];n}. luk].tI:hUw]AUk];epL:Em: kUn];mUic];eSpQn]mL;El: tp].Suik];suic]:t};n}. tuik];Aw]Kuin];Sun],l}:Tac],hac]:Kgc]kUn]; mUic];t};kUv];El: tp].Suik];hw];yU,tI:An]man],mqn]:JtL;yU, Am],l}:kCc]sC]Sc]nn].KL: yw]." 3. KC]:ygn];tuik];SUn];kUn];mUic];t};El: Sc],KL,sw]:suic]:t};hw];Kw]Ait];nuic]: eKL:muc]:mgc];lUc]An]kUn];mUic];t};KC]:l}:nn]. pQn]lgc]:kt];yQn]' tL,lgc]:kt];yQn]et l}:mL;nn].hw];KL:etl}:puic]:Aic] 3 lgc]:" (1)

iu ;] nUwi k] n U ;] mUci ;] t};nc],kn] hG:] hk].kn]' Pgm.] kn]' Kw]:sC] etl}:puci :] AicK] n kn]' yL,ES.kn]' yL,En;kn]" Kaw];yam];mUic];t};tuik].yap],Puit],tUk]; kin];yU, n}.lUw],l}:s}g:kn]' yL,p}a:Pat],kn]eS Aw]tUw]lgt]:hc];PC] mn];" nUk].sgk],ep.KL; ekL:Aw]KL; sac].cL;ep.tum]ekL:Agc];tum] yU,lC] Aw]pun]:Pgn];tI:nn]: hG]:s}g:kn]El: puic]:Aic]kn]l}:"

13

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

1. sUiw].sat]:' wan]:mUic];' PL,SL,' SL,SnL, Kgc]kUn];mUic];t};hw];KL:n}. l}: Kam],tc];man]:PU:KGak]:mUic];Kw]mL;KI,nQk];tQk];tQc] hG]:sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];hw];mgt],h}al}a kCL,nn]. l}:mL;Kaw];tac]; 49 pI< yQp],Kw]: 50 pI< mL;yw]. man]:PU:mUik]:lUic];Kw] Aw]lgk];l}a;Am],JtL; Am],suiw]:sC]:eS mL;pUk];pgc]wan]:mUic];t};hw];KL: mL;lgk],sC].kUn]; mUic];t};' lgk],lqn]km],PL,mL;yU, pan]Sipu ],pan] tL,kUn];mUic];t};hw];etmI;Sun],l}:Tac], hac]:pUk];pgc]Kuin]; sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];t};hw];Kuin];nn]. PU:Agn]hUw]t};hw];pan]Suip],pan] Aw]lgc]:kt];yQn]Ek:K}Aup],AUw];mL;yU,kUv];kL:man]:Kw]Am],SUn]sC]kUn];Am],kL; hac]: hqn];tp].Suik];eSKuin]:mL;mUic];t}; mL;ep.kin]kUn];mUic];t};yU,etL,wn];mUiw]:lQw]yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

(2)

puic]:Aic]SL,SnL,Km];JPL;pQn]sw]: puic]:Aic]Sc],KL,sw]:" Sc],KL,sw]: n}ekL:mI;pUci ] mI;cw]:cun;] Sc],KL,yU,El: Sc],KL,sw]:n}.mI;pun:] Pgn;] hk]. SL,Tic];Sim];SL,SnL,El:lik]:l}a;t};hw]; El:emLpn]kCam];hU.lgc]: sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];" epL;sUiw].sat]:Kuin]:yC],kt];yQn]SL,SnL,ekL: hUiw]:hUic];Sc],KL,ekL:puic]:Aic]sUiw].sat]: sUiw].sat]:ekL:puic]:Aic]Sc],KL,' Sc],KL,Aic]Kun] Kun]Aic]Sc],KL,n}nn].El: Sc],KL,sw]:nn].pQn]tI: kUn;] mUci ;] puci :] Aicw] .} El: Sc],KL,sw]:n}.lUw,] mI;kCam];hk].sUwi .] sat]: lUw,] PL,kac]wac];Kuic]: yL,sgm];P}a, hG]:Tt];hU.hn]tI:An]man],mqn]:eS pn] hqc];sC]kUn];mUic]; hG]:kUn];mUic];pgc],sqc]:lqc];sC]" yL,epkCL,tUk];pQn]KUic]:muiw]; kan]mUic];" hG]:yU,nUiw]kan]mUic];' hG]:pQn]tI:tUic],pac],Puik];SLkUn];mUic];El: PU:hk].sUiw].sat]:Kw]" Sc],KL,sw]:n}.ekL: mI;pun]:Pgn];yC],P}a,nuic]: epL;Sc],KL,sw]:Am],mI;kCam];hU. kan]hk].sUiw].sat]:suic] etAm],Tt]; hn]JtL;An]Tku ],mqn]:eS tI:etpn]kCam];hU.kUn];mUic];El:Ek:K} pYSnL,nn]. etAm],Tuk],mqn]:sgm];JtL;PL,kac]wac];Kuic]:l}:" epL; Am],mI;sC]PL,kac]wac];Kuic]: lgc]:kt];yQn]An]wL:nn].Am],mI;mL;l}:"

(3)

tp].Suik];n}ekL: pQn]tI:kUn];mUic];puic]:Aic]sC]yC],An]nuic]:yw]. epL; tp].Suik];Am],mI;pk];pUic]pQn]tp].Suik];Am],hU.pUic]Suik]; Am],mI;pk];pUic] Sc] nL:tI:tp].Suik];mI;Sc]yc];Am],hU.n}suic] Am],kuic],pQn]tp].Suik]; An]kUn];mUic];puic]:Aic]l}:" yL,hG]:pQn]tp].Suik];An]Aw]kgc]:lgk],kin] kUn];mUic];'ygn];kin]kUn];mUic];'Aw]KUw];Kgc]kUn];mUic];mL;hQt];kan]Sun],tUw] sUiw];nn].tuin];Am],lUw],mI;lL;lL;" An]yU,tI:tp].Suik];eSkQp];Kgn], yw].Aw]sC].pun]:Sun],tUw]nn].nC];mUic];t};nn].tuin];Am],lUw], mI;lL; lL;"An]yU,tI:tp].Suik];eSkQp];Kgn],nC];mUic];t};nn]. hG]:pQn]Kgc]kac] muk].sum];ekL,Sac]:Kiun];tp].Suik];tL,kqt],EKkUn];mUic];hw]; hG]:kqn],Kqc] mI;hqc];"

(4)

km];liun];Sut]; ygn];tuik;] SUn]; kUn];sUiw];An]hQt];kan]mUic];sum]; An]yip];kgc]:kac],etL,SUw]:Suik];man]: SPDC kU:sum];nn].tc];SQc]: sum];An]Aup],lat]:kan]mUic];El:Sc] sum];An]yip];kgc]:kac],tuik]; SPDC nn].El:Sc] yL,epluim];eKL:yUic];Aan];pw].m}alUc]hw];pQn]

14


Sc] PU:KQn]hw];pQn]PC] AUv];lIhw];pQn]PC]sUiw];n}. hw];KL:yL,luim];lL;lL;" kan] mUic];hw];Am],Agc],eS pUn].mL; (49) pI<p}an}. epL;wL:hw];hUp].vL;lgc]:yap],Puit], lgc]:Am],mqn]:sC] lgc]:Am],Tuk], sC] mI;lgc]:Pit];Pqk],emL;kn]Aw]P}a,nC];hw];n}suic] luim];pqt]:eKL:yUic];Aan];hw];eS kan];hLKuin];PU:KQn]' AUv];lIhw];Aw]pQn]PU:KQn] pqt]: hw];etL,hw];KQc]:Kqc]etL,kn] Kuin]; km];lium];mL;An]nL,lUiw]sC]nn]. pQn] kUn];mUic];t};Kuin];kUv];" hQt];hG]:kan]mUic];hw]; Kaw];yaw];mL;n}. ygn].pUiw]:mI;kUn]; sUiw]. sat]:lQw]kn] hk];lc]kn]' sn]KLkn]lUc]; pQn]n}mL;yU,tc];nm]El: An]pQn] mL;P}a,lc]sUiw];n}. KC]:hG]:Aw]pQn]tgn]:Sgn]tL,Kaw]; tac];nL: hG]:Aw]kan]sUiw].sat]: wan]:mUic];hw];w}.pQn]yC],eS Kgt],Pn]:yip];muiw];suc]sn] hk].kn]Aw]Kuin]:yC],eSkm];"

15

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

sw]:yWt]:Suik]; hBw]pw]:lUc] KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};


kCam];Pak],tgn]: hUw]pw]:lUc] (R.C.S.S) Kgc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t}; Kgp]:KUp], 50 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

21 May 2008

wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];suic]:t}; Et,mL;mUiw]: 1958 lUin] em, 21wn]; Tuic]mL;pI< 2008 n}.l}:pUn].Pan],mL; 50 pI<tQm] nC];Kaw];yam]; 50pI<n}. lWc]:Kuin]:yC],' lWc]:yup]:yWm];' lWc]:lI' lWc]:sL. lUm].luk].mL; etL. Et.yU,lWt]:mL;l}:kUv];El: p},AWc],Tuic]tI:yUic];ma}nn]. yWn].pUiw]:Sc]? yWn].pUiw]: PC]n}nn]. kUn];mUic];hw];etmI;eKL:Tam]w}.yU,nC];sC]k:U ekL." kWp]:pUiw]:kUn];mUic];sW}:Tqm] mL;l}:ta} El:l}:mat],sQp];lU.Sum];mL;ekL:mI;w}.tc];nm]" PU:AWn]hBw]El: Suik]; han] An]l}:lU,niUw].lUit]:Sa}sC]nC];pac]tuik];nn].ekL: mI;w}.tc];nm]" kWp]:Sc]El: yc];Am],p},l}:mUic];Kuin];kUv]; Am],kL; Am],hn]] Kuin]:SWk],lUc];wL; mL;Sc]" kUn];mUic];hw]; An]pQn] kWt];Pan]tc];nm] tp].Suik];PWm].kn]yw].tqk],ya}:kn]yU,tik];tik];" mL;yU,sUiw];nn]. kUn];mUic];etpQn]An]sC]lQk].eKL;KUm]nqc]sC]eSsC]tUk];ekL:etmI;yU, tc];nm]" kWp]:n}El:wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; KWp]:KUp], 50 pI<n}.kw]KL:

16


hw];mWk],lat]:Tt];Sac]En pI:nWc].PU;hk].sat]:hw];Kw] An]kw]KL: l}:tUw]TUp]; l}:lQp]:hQn]; l}:tWc]:Tam] sUiw];An]AL,yU.yC], mI;kan]tUw]TUp];mL; An]kw]KL:tWc]; l}:nn]. kw]KL:ethbp]:eSlat]:EnpI:nWc].hw];Kw] hG]:pQn]tI:ma}tWc];wn];luk].Puin]. kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; KWp]:KUp], 50 pI<lWc]:lI' lWc]:sL.An]Pan],mL;yU,"

yWn];Aw]kuc],mun]PU:AWn]hBw]El: Suik];han] An]tuik].hap],pun]:PWn];yU,yam]; lQw]An]etAw]pun]:PWn];Suip],Kw]:pac]tuik];kCL,Kaw];nL: kL:Am],Tuic]yUic];ma}Am],sU;ht]; hQt];ht];lat]: ht];Aw] pun]:PWn];' ht];Kw]:pac]tuik];pun]:tL,sUiw.] sat]:wan]:mUic]; lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLnn]. yWn];Aw]kuc],mun] tc];Kt];sC]El: yUic];Aan];An]mI;w}.Kaw] SC]suin]:SC]nn].et.et.wL:wL:KL:eAL:" PU:AWn]hBw] Aik],Suik];han] hBm]:pL;PU:hk]. sat]:El: epL:Em:kUn];mUic];t};etmuc]:mWc];pC].tUv];wn];mUic];t}; etkt];yQn] et lWt]:KQn]nn].nk];nk];nLnLAm],hac]. An]kUn];mUic];t};Am],muc]:mWc];Am],KC]: hn]Am], KC]:yin]; Am],KC]:TUp];nn].pQn]kUn];mUic];t};Am],PWm].hBm]:kn] tp].Suik];Am],PWm].hBm]:kn] tp].Suik];tqk],ya}:' PU:AWn]hBw]Aw]kan]Sun],tUw]kQw],KWc]:kan]mUic];yw]. epL;tum].tUiw]. Sun],tUw]mL; Am],hp].Kam],tac];Pit];Kuic]hLSUn];tum]luk]:nWc].eS tqk],AWk],muk].sum]; nn]. kUn];mUic];El: PU:hk].sat]:Kw] Am],muc]:mWc;] ' Am],KC]:hn]nn]. pQn]SPL,w mn];yw]." kan]luk].Puin].Kaw];tac]; 50 pI<Kuin]:yC],' yup]:yWm];' lWc]:lI' lWc]:sL. hB.mI; tc]; (2) pUic]' kUv];kL:epL;mL;Tt];Sac]tqk]:nUic]; lWc]:lIlWc]:sL.An]lC]nm]kCL,n} suic] et l}:hn]wL: lWc]:yup]:yWm];lWc]:ha}.sL.mI; 70% An]Kuin]:yC],An]lImI; 30% etl}:hn]nc],n}yU," epL;mL;Tt];Sac]SWk]:tUv];lWc]:yup]:yWm];n}suic] tc]:Et,kan] luk].Puin]. epL,pWk]:pQn]mL;nn].etl}:wL: PU:hk]. sUiw].sat]: PU:mI;pa};wUn].hBw]Suc]muc]:hn] kCac]:hn]k}eS AWn]hBw]SUn];tum]luk].Puin].Kw]:pW};tuik]; mL;nn]. kWp]:Kw]sw]:muc]:hn]

17

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

AWn]tac];Sut]; yWn];Aw]kuc],mun]PU:AWn]hBw]El: Suik];han] Aik],pL;PU:hk]. sat]:El: epL:Em:kUn];mUic]; An]Aw]hqc];tUw]' hqc];sC]' hqc];van],pic],vL,' hqc];Auk]. sL,eSKt];sC]sW}:Tqm] hap],pun]:PWn];El: hBm]:kn]Kw]:pW};tuik];mL; km]:PWc]:l}:lU,nUiw]. lUit]:Sa}sC]' km]:PWc]:l}:pQn]tuk].Kit' km]:PWc]:AL,yU,yC],Ek,Tw]:kCL,ekL: yc];tuik]. mI;hqc];sC]eS pn]hqc];luk]:lan]yU,nn]. yWn];Aw] kuc],mun]nm].sC] An]PUik],suin]:Kaw] SC]hk].sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];Et.Et.yU,KL:yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

w}.Kaw];tac];nL:" Suik];man]:n}.tL,etAup],AUw];tc];kt];yQn]eS Ek:lit]:pn]hL nn].tuin];Am],l}:yw]. pQn]hbiw]ekL:tuin];lUw],Aw]lqw];etL,lqw]; kWc]:etL,kWc]:eS Ek:lit]:pn]hLyw].n}eS sU.hgm]AQn]hqc];Suik];' sU.hgm]AQn]hqc];kWc]:kac],kL:An]wWk]. mL;hLl}:nn].eS luk].tuik];Suik];man]:pun]:tL,l}:mUic];kWn];eKLnn].etl}:wL: pQn]An] pUk];tuin],kUn];mUic];El: PU:hk]. sat]: hG]:luk].hbin],San]Kt]; EnSQn]:tac];pUic];f};nn]. pQn]An]mI;PWn];lIEt.Et." PU:AWn]hBw]tuik];SUn];w}.wL: !Suik];man]:n}.epL;Kw]AUn]: AWn],mL; emLAWn]:wWn];kWt],KLpUin]:eShgc].h}:tuk];yWn];tac];lUw],An]Kw]KC]:l}:epL; Kw]mI;hqc];kqn],Kqc]mL; w}:Kw]eSyWn];Aw]Kuin];ekL: tuin];tqp];muiw];hw];pqt]:eStin] Tip], hG]:hw];lUm].yw].eS Kam]:hBw]hw];kCL,pqt]:@ n}.pQn]kCam];PU:AWn]hBw]Kw] Sc],SWn] lat]:Enw}." PU:hk].sat]:sup]:Sqn];pan]mC],An]tuik].tWc];eKL:kCam];Sc],lat]:mL;sUiw]; nn].El: An]wUn].l}:Aic]nUiw]kap]:pan]wan]:mUic];lqk]:la}:mL;eS Suip],yip];kWc]:kac], Am],yWm];wac];KUic]:' Am],yWm]; kUm]:nWm];sU;PU:KQn]lL;lL;eS tuik].hk].SLw}.tp].luk]. Puin]. tuik].Suip],Sa}sC]tp].Suik];w}.yU,etL, wn];mUiw]:n}.nn]. pqk].Sm].wL:Am],p},Aw] l}:mUic];eStL.ekL: pQn]lup],Kac]eKL;man]:w}. man]:etkin] ca}:ca}:Am],l}: mn];mUin] wL:sac].tUw]nuic]:mI;yU,nC];TUin],luik]. pC].Kaw];yam];mUiw]:An]hqc];yC], lQc].luk]:lac];hG]: EP:tUin]; wn];nuic]:mL;etKw]:mUic];Kuin];yU,mUin]nc],n}yw]." kWp]:n}El:PWn];lIAn] PU:AWn]hBw] pn]pa};wUn].sUiw];nn]. pQn]An]lIyWc]:eyL;Aw]kuc],mun]Et.Et." lWc]:yUp]:yWm];El: PWn];sL.kan]luk].Puin]. mUiw]:Et,ekL,tc]:kan]luk].Puin]. nn].mI;sC]hk].sUiw].sat]:' hk].wan]:mUic];haw].hqc];kUv]; Am],mI;Pqn]kan]w}.Kaw];yaw];' Kaw];pWt]; Am],muc]:hn] pn]hLAn]ethBp].TUp];" kan]mUic];Am],mI;kan]TUp];muiw]; kan] mUic];tuik.] num],' kan]Suik];Am],mI; nm].kt]. Aw]sC]ht];han]tuik];Suik]; Am],mI;pUic]eS tuik];Suik]; epL,lSI,kan]mUic];' mhL,piw],hL, kan]mUic];Am],hB.lIlI pk];pUic]ma}mI:Suik];Am], tm];wac];w}. Aw]sC]ht];han]hk].sUiw].KUiw];eShQt];ekL.kn]" Tuic]wL:AQn]hqc]; yC],mL; la};AWn]hBw]kn]Am],mI;pk];pUic] epL;Pit];Pqk],kn]mL; Am],mUn].Em;kn]l}: Aw]mL,nL. etL;SeS tqk],Pat],EPkn]" sum];luk].Puin].yip];kWc]:kac], luk].mUic];PC]mUic];mn];' mac] tI:mac]mUic];sUn]yQn];pQn]tp].Suik];ekL:mI;w}.tc];nm]" kWp]:n}El:sw]:nW}.(Am],nn]) eSL;yn],tekL: muc]:hn]w}.wL: sum];luk].Puin].mI;kCL,kU:yWm],kU:mUic]; epL;Am],emLPWm]. hBm]:kn] etAm],Sac],Tuk],tL,etSUn];tum]' tL,etpUk];pWc]AWn]hBw]kCL,nn]. epL;Am], mI;kUn];mI;pic],vL, Am],mI;kCam];hB. etAm],sac]:AWn]hBw]l}:kUn];tc];nm] etAm],sac]: KCak]:kan]mUic]; hn]nc],n}eS sc],kp];Suip],sw]:fL.El: luk]:AWn],kzc]; (luk]:hQn];

18


19

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

sUiw];l}:hQn];lik]:la};mL;) hG]:Kw]:mL;sW}:sw]:nW}." sw]:fL.Kw]ekL:mL;tuik];SUn];luk]: AWn],kzc]; hG]:Kw]:mL;sW}:sw]:n}W." sum];luk]:AWn],kzc];Kw]AWk], mL;yw]. mL;hBm]:kn]tc]; sw]:nW}.' sum];luk]:AWn],kzc];Kw]Sm]. emLlik]:kUv];Am],hB.kan]mUic];' emLlik]:Am],hB. la};AWn]hBw]Sm].mL;ES.sw]:n}W}.' Sm].mL;Tac],lQk].kUn];sUiw];Am],emLlik]: tp].Suik]; sUiw];Am],emLlik]:nn].Sm].Am],KC]:Kam], hw];n}.Am],mI;tan];lik]:' mI;tan];kWc]:kUv];n} eS Am],Aw] nm].sC]kn]l}:" wa};mL;ekL:luk]:AWn],kzc];tc];sw]:nW}.ekL:tqk],kn]Kuin];" An]n}.ekL:pQn]An] lWc]:lU.Sum];An]nuic]:" mUiw]:Kaw];yam];kan]mUic];mUic];man]:Suk].yuc]:yU,nn]. man]:Kw]Sm].hac]:lWk];kan] mUic];w}. (3) lWk];1. lWk];KWm],miw],nit]. (pL.tQc];tin],El: AU;esL;AWn]hwB ]kp];Suip],mUic];EK,lqc] eS SUn];tum]Aw]saw];KUiw]; !w@ El:saw];KUiw];t};km]:PWc]: Aw]pQn]Suik];Kw]eSpQn] KUic]:muiw];Kw]yU, tac];lqn]lin]EK,)" SUn];tum]saw];KUiw];t};saw];KUiw]; !w@ hBm]:kn]tuik]; en,win];wL:n}eS saw];KUiw]; !w@ pQn]saw];KUiw];An]Suiw]:yUw]; mI;sC]sc];man]:Am],hB. lWk];la};kan]mUic];" t};hw];km]:PWc]: mac],l}: tac];sW}:Tqm]eS hQt];ekL.man]:pL.tQc]; tin],' Am],hB.lWk];kan]mUic]; km];luin];Sut];mL;ekL: man]:pL.tQc];tin],ekL:Am],AWn] hBw]l}: Kuin];yU,pL:tC]:man]:lm]en,win];" lWc]:sUiw];n}.ekL:hw]; l}:lU.Sum];kan]pa};mUic]; nC];mUic];mL;"


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

2. man]:hac]:lWk];w}.la};SUw],ESZ,lit].' man]:en,win];Sim];AL,nL,lUc]pWc]suic]: Aup].pUic], nC];mUic];hBm]:tum]mUic];man]:tc];SQc]: SUn];tum]Aw]kUn];mUic];t};wL: etpUk];pWc] wan]:mUic];hG]:Kuin]:yC], Enw}.nm].Puic]:nm].AW}: AL,nL,yW}:yqm];pa}tin]pa}muiw]; sC].kUn];mUic]; hw];hQt];pL,tI,KWc],SI,' sC].hQt]; pYI,tU.Sit]. lat]:wL: tL,etkqt],EKeP;KWm],miw],nit]. mL;yL.mUic];yL.mUic];n}eS yum],man]:en,win]; kCL,ekL:mI;tc];nm]" 3. lWk];la};tI,mUw],Ker,SI, AU;nU.AWn]hBw]eSmL;yU,mUic];T}; mL;SUn];tum] luk]:AWn],kzc]; hG]:San]Kt];en,win];" man]:Kw]hac]:lWk];w}.kan]pa};mUic];nc],n}eSEl: Aw]pa};wUn].saw];KUiw];kUn];mUic];t}; hw];kCc]pUkCc]pLlU.Sum];yU,mL;nC];Ek:kac]Kw]etL,Tuic] wn];mUiw]:n}." Tuic]mL;mUiw]: 1983 lUin]kYon], 16 wn]; sw]:kWn];sUic];np].Sac]:cw];la};la} Pa},la}tac];eS sum];luk].Puin].kU:sum];n}. epL;Am],mL;PWm].hBm]:kn] Ek:lit]:pn]hL suic] pun]:tL,Ek:pn]hLmUic];t};nn]. etAm],l}:yw]." An]Pit];An]Tuk],An]pUn]. mL;sUiw];nn]. lUw],Kuin];mL;mUn].Em;yw]. wUn].nc],n} eSsc],yuin];muiw];hLkU:mU,kU: sum]; SSA pgt];san]; (Shan State Army -South) An]sw]:sam]m]G,Agnh] Uw] sc],Kw]:mL;Pgm]. hUm]:sgm];sw]:kgn];sUic];" wa};lc]mL;mUiw]: 1985 sw]:Kun]SL, SUA (Shan United- Army) mL;hBm]:hgm];Tqc]:" (3) sum];hBm]:hgm];kn]yw]. sc],mI;eKL:l}:sC]eStc]:suiw]:muk].sum]; SSRC (Shan State Revolution Council) El: suiw]:tp].Suik]; MTA (Mong Tai Army) mUiw]:sw]:kWn];sUic]; yWn];lWc]:PWm].hBm]:nn]. mI;w}.epL,lSI,lk];nm]; (5) eKL:" 1. Aw]kan]PWm].hBm]:pQn]yC]," 2. Aw]mUic;] kWn];eKL" 3. pUk];pWc]la};tI<mUw]<Ker<SI<" 4. pUk];pWc]PwkUn];mUic];" 5. suic]:t};kt];yQn]" - mI;w}.nc],n}eS AWn]hBw]Kp];Kuic]hQt];Sac]:mL; mI;tac];Kuin]:yC],El: mI;tac];yup]:yWm]; nc],kn]yU," kUv];kL:mUiw]:sw]:kWn];sUic]; AWn]hBw]nn]. etl}:wL:Kuin]:yC],mL;yU, 60%" kWp]:pUiw]: sw]:kWn];sUic];n}. mI;sC]Suiw]:yUw];' tac];yUin].

20


Tuic]mL; 1992 sw]:Kun]SL,Suip],Aw]pun]:PWn];AWn]hBw]" sw]:Kun]SL,mI;Pqn] kan] Pit]:mWk], hgc].Aw]luk]:sw]:fL.Kw] mUin]nc],sw]:fL.sa};lUc]' sw]:sac].Kw] hG]:mL;AWn]hBw] kUv];kL:Kw]sw]: Am],ht];mL; yWn].Kw]hn]la};AWn]hBw]sw]:Kun]SL, Am],sC]:la};kan]mUic];' hn]wL:pQn]la};kUn];kL.kUv]; n}eS Am],mI;PC]yWm];hp].' Am],mI;PC] Kw]:mL;" sw]:Kun]SL,AWn]hBw]hbic] (3) pI<Pan],mL;ekL: Et,mI;pn]hLf};nC];kUit],Kuin]:mL;" la};mUn].Em;Am],mqn]:la};' Am],mI;pac]kum]Tt];Sac]mUn].Em;' Aw]etL;SmL,npQn] yC],eS PC]Am],Tuk],mqn]:sC]ekL: hgc].lL,epL.Tup].' la};n}.PU:mI;sn].AWn]hBw] km]. PWc]:hn]wL: Am],sC]:la};AWn]hBw]kan]mUic]; pQn]la};AWn]hBw]sn].mU,' sn].Tqw]kUv]; hn] nc],n}eStL. PU:mI;sn].AWn]hBw]Kw]Am],ht];tWp],ht];TQc]' Am],ht];pn]tc];hn] Tuic]' hbic]mL;ekL:pn]hLyC], Kuin]:mL;" mI;pn]hLKuin]:mL;Sm].Am],sac]:tac],sac]:lat]: kUv];mI;tac];lQw] ekL:lk].pa}:" 1994

sw]:cUw].han],AWn]hBw]kUn];pqt],Sip];pa}tqk],AWk],"

21

1995

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kn]:Suc]' mI;nm].kt].lWk];la};AWn]hBw]' emLmUn].Em;' emLyWn],yan];Kw]:hLkn]El: sc],l}:AWn]hBw]kan]PWm].hBm]:eS sU.AQn]hqc];Suik];mI;mL; SWc]muin],pa}" hqc];Suik]; MTA sm]sWt],tUw]:mUic];t};tc];mUt];" Tuic]mL; 1991 sw]:kWn];sUic];sp];eyL;kL,tac];pQn] eS l}:lU.KW}:ta}pqt]:El: etl}:wL:kam],mUic];t};ha}.Ait];nuic]:"


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

sw]:kn];yWt]: AWn]hBw]kUn]; hQc]pa}tqk],AWk],Tqc]:" wa};eSSWc]sw]:n}.tqk],AWk],yw]. ekL: kUn];kuit];nC];tp].AWn]kn]tUk];sC] Am],mI;tc];mn]:sC]nUiw]PU:AWn]hBw]eS pa}:AWk], km];Ait];km];AWt];kU:wn];" km];luin];Sut];mL;ekL: sw]:Kun]SL,Aup],AUw];man]:eS wac];KUic]:pn]Suik];man]:mUiw]: 1995 nC];lUin] December nn].pqt]:" PU:AWnh] Bw] tqp];tt];Pit];n}.mUin]lW}kUn].yw]. Aw]Sc]mL;eh.Am],l}:" AQn]hqc];SWc]muin],pa} n}. Kaw];tac];SWc]lUin]ha}kCL,mUt];" tL,etmI;AQn]hqc];SWc]muin],pa}n}. l}:Kp];Kuic]sC]. Kaw];yam]; Sip];pI<pa}' cuin];mUt];kCL,np].hBw]hQc]lan]." kWc]:kac],tL,hLSuiw].yc];yap]," kWp]:pUiw]:pL,rmI,PU:AWn]hBw] Am],hBm], muc];Tuic]l}:El: lU.lqw]kCL,nn]. lIeS;la}mWc]sC] Et.Et." tWn]: MTA lU.lqw]n}.hw];etl}:Tt];hn]wL:1. AWn]hBw]Am],mI;pUic] Am],puit],pn]PU:AWn]hBw]sn].tC]:Kw]pn]tac];hn]Tuic]" 2. Am],mI;pk];pUic]tqt]:etL; Kuk];sC]l}:sUic].hbiw] hQt];sUic].nn]" 3. hQt];hG]:kUn];Pa},tC]:kUw] yL,hG]:ht];lat]:' yL,hG]:ht];pn]tac];hn]Tuic] km];lc]mL;ekL: luk]:nWc].kUw]' kUw]yw].lqn]Sac].nUiw] epL;PU:AWn]hBw]lqn]Sac].nUiw] ekL: lk];ma}AWn],EA;' epL;lk];ma} AWn],EA;ekL: pn]eKL:sI.Sc],Am],l}:' epL;sC]. Am],l}:ekL: pQn]tp].kUn],' tp].pc];kCL,pqt]:" sw]:kn];yWt]:' sw]:cUw].han],Pat],AWk],kCL,nn]. Kw]ekL:hB.yU,wL:epL;Am],PWm]. kn]Am],Ek: lit]:pn]hLl}:" kUv];kL:Aic]nUiw]cw];la};f};nC];pQn]mL;eS kL:l}:Aw] tUw]lWt]:AWk],yU,tc];nWk]: hQt];kan]" tI:sw]:kn];yWt]:tqk],AWk],nn]. kWp]:pUiw]:wL:

22


Pit];tac];kan]mUic];w}.El: tqk],kCL,Am],hbic] mUiw]:wn];TI. 26.09.1996 nn]. sw]:kn],nL. (mUic];yWn];) Kuin];tqk],AWk],tI:sw]:kn];yWt]:" km];lc]Sut];mL;ekL: sw]:kn];yWt]:ekL:l}:lU.SQc]:kam],pqt]:' wa};sw]:kn];yWt]:lU.SQc]:kam],yw]. yw]. man]:sC]. SSNA wac];KUic]:" tp]. SSNA ekL:l}:Pat],AWk],Kuin];tI:An]kuit];Suik];w}. nn].eStL.' km]:PWc]:ekL:l}:wac];KUic]:pqt]:tc];nm]"

mUiw]:wn];TI. 24.04.1996 Kuin];SUn];tum]kUn];mUic];' kUn];Suik];tL,sU.AQn]hqc]; Kuin];El: sU.Kuin];kWc]:kac]," Tuic]mL;wn];Ti. 13.09.1996 l}:hQt];pac]kmu ]kn]tI:Sqc] kqw].Tqc]:km];nuic]: tL,etPWm].hBm]:kn] suiw]:muk].sum];sC].pQn] SSNO (Shan State National Organization) suiw]:tp].Suik]; SSA (Shan State Army) tqm]:lik]:pn]Suik];man]:eS Suik];man]:pak]:pqt]: Am],hG]:l}:hBm]:kn]" mUiw]: 01.01.1998 l}:tqp];tt];eSpuin]Paw],sC].suiw]: SSA(Shan State Army) tI:mUic];Kun]" Tuic]mL; 29.09.1998 l}:Pqw]mL;tI:lqn]lin]T};tL,etmL;kp];Suip], nWk]:mUic];El: hLtI:tc]:Sw]; cw]:suic]:' tL,etPuik];SWn]' tL,etsU.AQn]hqc];" Aic] nUiw]caw];la};kU:Pa},Pa},eS l}:tc]:suiw]: muk].sum];Kuin]:mL;pQn] muk].sum];KWc],SI,Aw] Kuin];suic]:t}; RCSS (Restoration Council of the Shan- State) El:puin]Paw],lk];nm];kan] mUic]; (6) eKL:" 1. lWc]:PWm].hBm]:sUiw].sat]:" 2. lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKL" 3. tI,mUw],Ker,SI," 4. pUk];pWc]PwkUn];mUic];" 5. San]Kt];yL:mw];km]"

23

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

wa};eS MTA wac];KUic]:yw]. kw]KL:Am],yWm];wac];KUic]:sWm];Kun]SL," kw]KL: hn]wL:sum]; SSA pWt];hgc],El: sum];sw]:kn];yWt]:Kw]kCL,KWn]:tum]kn]yw].' kw]:KL: ekL:nc],hbiw]etpQn]AQn] hqc];sW}:Kw]l}:Tqc]:nn]. kw]KL:AWn]Suik]; eSKuin]:kCL, hLKw] sw]: mUiw]:wn];TI. 22/23.02.1996 l}:kCL,hQt];pac]kum]kn]tI:Sqc]kqw]. tL,etPWm]. hBm]:kn]" kUv];kL:Am],mqn:] nc],yUic];Aan];w}. kWp]:Kw]sw]: Sm].kuit];Suik];sWm];man]: ethQt];Sc]ekL:l}:lat]:man]:" tL,hw];KL:hBm]:kn]nn]. man]:Sm].sWm]; ham]:pqt]: kw]KL:ekL:kL:l}:lUc];mL;Kuin];pWt];san]; mL;puin]Paw],sC].tuiw]; suiw]: SURA Kuin];"


7. lWc]:kt];yQn]" - l}:Em;pUic]kan]kU:sUw].kU:pUic]eS l}:Suip],Kuin];Sa}sC]luk].Puin].kCL,Tqc]:km];

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

nuic]:" eKL:Tt];Sac]kan]luk].Puin].Kaw];yam]; (50) pI<n}.1. wa};eSsw]:kWn];sUic];SQc]:kam],Sut];mun]kCL,yw]. Kat],PU:AWn]hBw]kan]mUic]; An]mI;sC]Suiw]:yUw];nUiw]sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];El:Kat],nm].kt].PU:AWn]hBw]kan]mUic];" mUin] kUn];KI,hBiw];eS Am],mI;kUn];Kt];hac]hBiw];tL,etpUn].Pc],l}:" 2. kUn];mI;pa};hB.' pa};hn]nC];mUic];t}; AWk],hqc];pa};wUn].El: hqc];tUw]eA,kCL,' AWk],hqc];tUc]. nuic]kan]mUic]; Am],mUin]mUic];pUin]:An]luk].Puin].eSAWc],mL;" Aw]tUw]lWt]: nm] Am],Kam],yap],Puit], tac]sUiw].sat]:" 3. PU:AWn]hBw]Suik];sn].Suc]' sn].kac]km]:PWc]: Am],mI;pa};wUn].kan]mUic];sWm];' Am],hB.pUic]Suik];' pUic]mUic];lIlI mI;nm].sC]ht];han]kUv];" epL;sC].kCL,hQt];kan] Aw]Sun], tUw]mL;kQw],KWc]:sWm]; nL:kan]' epL;pL:nUiw]mUn].Em;Am],yWm];hp]. lic].El.Ek:tUw]Ew: hBw] Tac],yC],tUw]eSPat],AWk], muk].sum];" sUiw];n}.pQn]tac];yUp]:yWm]; kan]luk].Puin].' sn]Kaw];yam];kan]luk].Puin].hbic]kLC ,pqt]: n}.KL:yw]." tL,hw];KL:etSuip],hQt];kan]kCL,Kaw];tac];nL: An]hw];KL:mUn].Em;An]yUp]: yWm];mL;Pa}, lc]tc];mUt];nn]. kuic],lIAw]mL;pQn]tWn]:SWn]kan]An]TUp];mL; tI:An] mI;PWn];lInn]. lUw],mL;Aw] sC].tuiw];hG]:pQn]PWn];lIkCL,Kaw];tac];nL:" 1. kUn];mI;puin].hB.pic],vL,Kw] lUw],l}:AWk],hqc];tUw]' hqc];van],nm]mL;lUiw] kw]," kUn];mI;van], hG]:emLsC].kUn];mI;pic],vL," kUn];mI;pic],vL,hG]:emLsC].kUn];ht];han]" kUn];ht];han]hG]:emLsC].tuiw];kUn]; tuiw]tn]" la};tL,etsC].lUw],l}:mI;pUic] lIAw]pk];pUic] kum];Tic];kn]" 2. PU:AWn]hBw]kU:sn].sn]. kU:sum];sum];hG]:mI;lWc]:Kw]:Aup],kn] Sac]:kCam]; yum],ym]kn] nm]nm]" PU:AWn]hBw]kan]mUic]; lUw],AWn]kn]Kt];sC]ekL,Sac]:Kuin]:mL; hG]:mI;kUn];hk].sUiw].sat]: wan]:mUic];' hG]:Suiw]:yUw];etL,kUn];mUic];' hG]:tqk],lqc];nUiw]PU:KQn]' hG]:hQt];Sac]:Ennm].EntUw]El: hG]:kUn];mUic];yum],ym]puic]:Aic]l}:" 3. pUk];pWc]kUn];sup]:Sqn];mC],hG]:mI;puin].hB.kan]mUic]; Puik];pn]hG]:hB.la};AWn]hBw] hG]:emLpWc]kan]mUic];' hG]:mI;pa};wUn].hn]kCac]:hn]k} yL,hG]:pQn]kUn];emLlik]:la}la} emLlik]:yw]. lUw],emLla};hQt];la};Sac]:nm]nm]"

24


sw]:yWt]:Suik]; hBw]pw]:lUc] KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};

25

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

4. tp].Suik];etl}:mI;pk];pUic] hB.pun]:PWn];tp].Suik];lIlI etl}:kqn],Kqc] mI;nm].kt]. tQm]TUn]:" tp].Suik];lUw],l}:mI;kan]mUic];AWn]hBw]" 5. wac];Pqn]kan]' hQt];Sac]:kan]Sc]ekL: hG]:hQt];sWm];eKL:tqp];tt];nC];pac]kum] hG]:np].Tuiw] kac]sC] An]hw];tUk];lUc];kn]w}.' epL;hw];KL:Kuin];mUn].Em;nc],An]lat]: mL;n}. kan]luk].Puin].hw]; etkqn,] Kqc]' etmI;hqc];' ethgt]:Tuic]tI:yUic];ma}Am],hac]." kan]luk].Puin].hbic]yaw];mL; (50) pI< n}eStL. hw];KL:Am],lUw],sC]tUk];" epL;hw];KL: hk].wan]:mUic];yU,Et.suic] kaw];yam];hw];tuik].kuit];yU," etL:mUic];Aem,rikn]< luk]. Puin].mL;hbic] (100) pI<pa}Kw]sc],kW}:l}:Kuin];mUic];" kap]:pan]yam];mUiw]: lQw]tuiw].tac]; hw];KL:tuik].lIyU,' kUv];kL:hw];KL:lUw],Kt];sC]' yU,pC].Kaw];yam];la}la}Am],l}: lUw],l}: hQt];kCL,sU;Kaw];yam]; kCL,sU;tI:yUic];ma}sc],kw}:Tuic]tI: yUic];ma}Aan];mUic];kt];yQn]An] hw];KC]:l}:nn].KL:yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

eKL:Tt];Sac]kuic],lIwUn].

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[m}atgc]; kCam];Pak],tgn]:hUw]pw]:lUc]Kgc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t}; wn];sUiw].sat]:suic]:t}; 07,February 2008{

26


kCam];Pak],tgn]: hUw]pw]:lUc] Kgc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t}; Kgp]:KUp], 51 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; 21 May 2009

kan]luk].Puin].Aw]Kuin];mUic];Kaw];yam]; 51 pI<n}. etl}:wL:huic]nan];pun]:

27

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

mC],Suc]KL:> pI:nWc].kUn];mUic];t}; nC];mUic];' nWk]:mUic];El: AUv];ekL.hBm]:kan] nC];KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};tc];SQc]: wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; KWp]:KUp], l}:mL; 51 pI< yw].' Kaw];yam];luk].Puin].Aw]Kuin];mUic]; 51 pI<Pan],pUn].mL;n}. An]lI' An]sL. l}:hBp].TUp];mL;tc];nm]' kUn];mUic];t};hw];ekL: TUp];tac];yap], Puit],ekL:mI;tac];nm] tp].Suik];ekL:l}:Kam],yap],Puit], Kw]:pW};tuik];mL; wat],sQp]; lUm].ta}nUiw]Pqn],lin]suic]:t};ekL: nm]yw].El: wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic]; KWp]:KUp], 51 pI<n}. kw]KL:yWn];Aw]kuc],mun] kUn];mUic];' PU:hk].sUiw].sat]:El: Siuk];han] An]Kw]:pW};tiuk]; pQn]tuKitEl: lU,nUiw].lUit]:mL; sUiw];nn]. tc];SQc]: yC],yC],nm]nm] KL:eAL:"


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

tL,kUn];mUic]; muc]:mWc];pC].w}.lWc]:lWt]:lqw];Tac],hac]:nn].Et.Et." epL;ettUv];luik]. luik].suic] kUn];hQt];kan] Aw]pun]:PWn];eS Kam],yap],yU,kU:wn];nn].n}suic] Kaw];yam]; mn];pWt];pWt];AWn],kUv]; epL;Tuic] mL;Kaw];yam];KWp]:KUp], 51 pI<yw].n}suic] etpQn]An] tUk];sC]m}:sC]yU,' kUv];kL:kan]luk].Puin]. An]wL:nn]. mn];pQn]kan]yC],lUc]nk];nLEt. Et.El: kU:Sm],Sqn]pUic]Am],mI;w}.Sc] l}:luk]. ekL,Sac]:Aw]hc];kUv];tc];mUt];El: pQn]lWc]:yap],yQn];Kan]sC]Et.Et.' Tqc]:Pa},nuic]: PU:KQn] Kt];KCac]tac];An]ekL, Sac]:AQn]hqc];' kUn];mUic];Am],pWc],sC]nUiw]eKL:yUic];Aan]; pun]:tL,Aw]Kuin];mUic]; El: kUn]; mUic];km]:PWc]:pa}:Aw]tUw]lWt]:pqt]:' tp].Suik];tL,etekL,Sac]:AQn]hqc];ekL: mI;tac]; yap],Puit],la}pUic]" mUiw]:mI;hqc];mL;lUw],mI;Kw]:kin] lUw],mI;KUw];nuc]: lUw],mI;kWc]:kac], mak],kWc]: KUic]:km].kqm]Suik];An]lUw],tac];mUt]; lUw],mI;cuin];pun]:tL,sC].nC];nL:kan]El: pQn]lWc]:yap], kU:pUic]eS sc],wL:Kaw];yaw];huic]kCL,nn]. KC]:hG]:pI:nWc].kUn];mUic];hw];pWc],sC] Ait];nuic]: tac];yup]:yWm]; lUc]kan]luk].Puin.] Aw]Kuin];mUic];Sm].mI; (3) pUic] 1. 2.

3.

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Tuic]mL; 1996 Kun]SL,pL;Aw]pan];kum];yL:mw];km] kCL,sU;man]: SPDC yw]. El: kw]KL: sc],mL;wUn].Em;epL,lSI,eStm];wac];tL,etkqt],EK eP;yL:mw];km] sc],l}:Pit]:mWk],nk].Kaw], tc];lum]:fL.mL;puin]Paw],eS kan]mUic];hw];sc],puit],pac], suin]:SC]Kuin]:mL;' tc]:Et, 1999 etL,yam];lQw]kUv];' kUv];kL:tL,etekL,Sac]:pUk];pWc] kan]mUic]; hG]:Kuin]:nL:kCL,etL,Tuic] yUic];Aan];nn]. lUw],kUn];mI;nm].kt].mL;hp]. pun]:PWn];Tqc]:tac];nm]El: KC]:hG];kUn];mUic];t}; hw];hG]:hB.Tuic]eSkm];"

28


mUiw]:pI< 2000 nn].KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t}; sc],mI;epL,lSI,tL,etekL,Sac]: AQnh] cq ;] Suki ;] eS sc],mI;pUci k] an]wac];tm];lUc;] tI:tp].Suki ;] suci :] t};wL: kUn;] mUci ;] t};kU:ekL. Am],wL:yic];sa}; epL;AL,yU.Tuic] 18 KUp],Kuin]: 45 n}.lUw],l}:mI;pun:] PWn];mL; hap],kuit]. pun]:PWn]; 5 pI<epL;Tuic] 5 pI<yw].KC]:pWk]:hBin];ekL:hG]:Aw]wC]hap],Tam];kan] yw]. tI:KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t}; yw].pWk]:hBin];l}:' epL;Am],KC]:pWk]:hBin];KC]:Suip],hap], pun]:PWn]; kCL,Tqc]:n}ekL:l}:' kWp]:n}KC]:hG]:kUn];mUic];hw]; pWc],sC]nUiw]pun]:PWn];wan]:mUic];pn] mL;nUiw]tUw]kw],nn].eS mL;hap],pun]:PWn]; yL,Aw]tUw]lWt]:pa}:pqt]:eS yU,kCL,wn];lC] wn];nn].eS pa}:pqt]:Pqn],lin]tI:kUit],mUic];nWn]; hw];eSkm];"

l}:' 2. pn]hLsaw];KUiw];Sn]lW}El: tp].Suik];man]:' 3. pn]hLtI,mUw],Ker,SI, pn]hLsaw];KUiw];Sn]lW}nn].cw]:Et,pn]hLyU,tI: eKL:tUk];lUc];pac]lUc]mUiw]: 1947 nn].yw].' yWn].man]:Am],hQt];sWm];eKL:l}:sC] An]tUk];lUc];kn]w}.nn]. kUv];Am],kL; man]:Aw]AQn]hqc];Suik];Kuin]:mL;Sim];Aw]Pqn],lin]mUic];t};mL; KL:hqm]ta}kUn];

29

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kan]mUic];nC];mUic];hBm]:tum]mUic];man]:n}. mI;yU,pn]hLyC],lUc] (3) pUic] 1. pn]hLkUn];mUic];man]:El: tp].Suik];man]:Am],Tuk],kn] Am],wUn].Em;lIkn]


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30


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AWn]SI 21 May 2009

31

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!kCam];Pak],tWn]:pI<mC],t}; pI< 2103 nI:@ pI<mC],t};pI< 2103 pI<n}. pI<mC],t};hQt];hbiw]El: pQn]mL;n}nn].ekL: lat]:EnmL;yw]." hQt;] Sc]El:l}:st];wn];pI<mC,] t};n}nn].KC:] lat]:EnpL;Ait;] nuci :] " kUn];nC];lum]:fL.n}. mUic];lC]ekL:hk].wan]:mUic];sUiw].KUiw];El: kan]can]; kU:mUic];kU:ekL.' pI<mC], mUic];PC]mUic];mn];nn].ekL: AWn]kn]yum],ym] eShQt];pQn]tI:ma}tWc];kuim]; pan]luk]:lan] sup]:luin];hG]:hB.sk];puin];tUw]kw],El: wan]:mUic];tUw]kw],nn].yU,kU:mUic];" sUiw].KUiw];t}; hw];ekL: mI;puin];kuik];lum]:fL.mL;yaw];nan];El: hw];ekL:lUw],l}: st];wn];pI<mC],t}; kCL,kU:Suip],kU:pan] hG]:sac]:Suip],SWn]pn]luk]:lan]hw];hG]:hB.sk];puin]; emLAw]kuc],mun] puin]; emLkqt],EKeh.kc]:puin];t};hw];kCL, yL,hG]:puin];t};hw];El: sUiw].KUiw];t};sUm]ha}kCL," sUiw].KUiw];t}; mI;Pqn],lin] yU,Sw];mL;pan]Suip],pan] mI;PL,SL, fic]:Ec:' fic]:Tuc];El: SL,SnL,tI:puic]:Aic] yU,Sw];mL; kuik];sUiw].KUiw];t};mL; pI<yaw];Kaw];hbic] El: suiw]:SQc]saw];KUiw];t};ekL: hG]:luiw];lc]nC];lum]:fL.nn]. mn];yU,tI:nm].kt]. sUiw].KUiw];t};El: sC]hk].sUiw].KUiw];kUn];mUic];t};nn].yw]." epL;mL;Tam]tUv];sUiw].KUiw];t}; hw];sWc],hk].sUiw].KUiw];tUw]kw],hL.n}suic] etl}:eKL:tWp],An]wL:hk].AUiw]:n}nn].

32


An]pUin]:l}:mUic];kWn];eKLmL;yU, nC];lum]:fL.ekL: yWn].kUn];mUic];Kw] PWm].kn] AWn]kn] AWk],hqc];tUw]hqc];sC]' hqc];van],' hqc];pvL<' hqc];Auk].sL, Kam],lip];Kam],ta}Kw]:hLsU;pw]. ma}AWc],pW};nn].El: sc],l}:mUic];kWn];eKLeS sWm]piw] (tuc];) sUiw].KUiw];Kw]kCL,mI;yU,tI: lum];lum]:fL. (UN) nn].yw]." sUiw].sat]:t};hw];Sm].wL: KC]:l}:mUic]; kum],sU;ca}:kin]lUm] KC]:yU,nC];hgc]:EA; (Air Condition) AWn],eS hQt];kan]Aw]mUic];Et. tuin];l}:tac];muc]:mWc];kUv];" kUn];mUic];hw];Sm]. kum],pa}:AWk],mUic]; Aw]tUw]lWt]:pUn].wn];nuic]:yw].wn];nuic]:n}suic] eKL:tWp],An]wL:hk].mUic];hk].sUiw].KUiw];yU,AUiw]:n}nn]. etmI;SQc]lUm];TUv]:sC]AWn],nn]. kUv];yw]." kUn];sUiw];An]mI;pvL<Kw]ekL: epL;Am],AWk],hqc];tUw] hqc];sC]eShQt]; kan] suic] mUin]tac];Am],mI;pvL<Sc]nn].kUv];" kWp]:n}KC]:tuik];SUn];hG]:sUiw].KUiw]; hw];hG]:emLhk]. sUiw].sat]:' wan]:mUic];' PL,SL,' SL,SnL, hw];kCL,Kaw];tac];nL: eSkm];"

33

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

yU," epL;wL:sw]:kw],hk].KUiw];t};yU,n}suic] sw]:kw],hQt];pun]:tL,sUiw].KUiw];t};AI:Sc] yw].lL,? yam];mUiw]:lQw]Sm].hQt];pn]Sc]yU,lL,? n}suic]yum],ym]wL: sUiw].KUiw];t}; hw];km]:PWc]: etSWp].Sqp].eStWp],wL: kw]lk].SWn]lik]:t};pn]luk]:AWn],yU,nL,' km]:PWc]:ettWp],wL: kw]sW}:Tqm]pn]hqc];pa};wUn].yU,nL,' km]:PWc]:etwL:kw]lat]:etL, km],PL, hG]:hB.sk];t};yU,nL,n} AWm];Aqm]; etAm],ht]; lat]:tQm]pak],l}:" ekL. An]wL:Am],l}:hQt];sW}: kan]sUiw].sat]:nn].ekL:etAm],Kam],yWm]; Sel,eSyWm]; hp].lat]:AWk],wL:Am],l}:sW}:kan]Sc]n}lL;lL;" epL;Suip],Tam]wL:PC]ekL:wL: sW}:sat]: yU, hQt];Sc]PU:KQn]Suik];man]:lUc]n}. ep.kin]kUn];mUic];mL;pI<yaw];Kaw];hbic] kUn];miUc];kWt]; Pan] pa}:AWk],mUic];yU,tik];tik];' wan]:nL;hw]; man]:Kw]mL;hbp]:Sim];Aw]kCL,pqt]:' lik]: t};hw];ekL:SWn]yU,sWm];sWk].sWm];sQc], SWn]nC];lp];Sic],yU,nn].El: Am],hn]Kuin]: SWk], lUc];wL;mL;' SWn]lik]:t}; pac]lC]ekL:Et, k>K>c> mL;yU, tL,eS, Am], hn]lqk]:la}:Sc]mL;n}suic] etl}:eKL:tWp],wL: kWp]:hw];p},mI;AL,nL,wan]:mUic]; mUin] pUin]: etl}:tWp],nc],n}hbiw]Am],hB. kWp]:n}El: kan]hk].sUiw].KUiw];wan]: mUic];An]wL: nn]. Am],sC]:kan]ca}: Am],sC]:kan]mw]mac]lUm]lam] epL;Am],AWk], hqc];tUw] hqc];sC] Kam],yap],Puit], sun].l}: Et.Et.wL:wL:nn]. tuin];etAm],hn]tac]; AWc],ep.l}: kUv];Am],kL; etsac]:sUm]ha} pqt]:lU;kWn],yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kan]hk].sUiw].KUiw]; kUit],mL;pQn]kUn];hBm]:wan]:' hBm]:mUic];' hBm]:lum]:fL.n}. lUw],Kt];sC]kan]wan]: kan]mUic]; kan]yU,sWm];KWp],wUic];kUn];lIlI sc],sac]:Kuin]:yC],mC],Suc] mak]:mI; kt];yQn]l}:" sUiw].KUiw];t};hw];kUit],mL;pQn]sUiw].sat]:t};yw]. lUw],Tam]Kuin];tUw]kw], (5) eKL:(1) sw]:kw],kUit],mL;pQn]kUn];yw]. sw]:kw],yU,hBm]:PC]' puic]:Aic]PC] Sm].hQt]; Sc]pn]tWn]:tL,epL:Em:pI:nWc]. sw]:kw],yw].? (2) sw]:kw],yU,sWm];KWp],wUic];kUn]; pun]:tL,KWp],wUic];kUn];Kuin]:yC], mC],Suc] kt];yQn]nn]. sw]:kw],Sm].hQt];AI:Sc]sW}:yU,? (3) sw]:kw],kUit],mL;pQn]sUiw].sat]:t};' yU,sWm];KWp],wUic];saw];KUiw];t};pun]: sUiw].sat]: hG]:Kuin]:yC],mC],Suc]nn]. sw]:kw],sW}:AI:Sc]yw].?epL;sUiw]. sat]:Am], Kuin]:yC], tUw]sw]:kw],ekL:Am],Kuin]:yC],' epL;sUiw].sat]: hBm]:wan]; hBm]:mUic]; Am],Kiun]:yC], sw]:kw],ekL:Am],Kuin]:yC],kt];yQn] l}:n}nn]. sWc]sw]:kw],Sm].pL: hB.tUw]huiw]? (4) sw]:kw],hQn];lik]:hQn];la}; sw]:kw],emLTWm],mL;la}la} sw]:kw],sWc], pL:emLTam]' sWc],pL:emLwUn].' sw]:kw],sWc],pL:emLAw]lik]:la};An] sw]:kw],hQn];mL;nn].eS hQt];hG]:pQn]PWn];lIpun]:tL,sUiw].sat]:sw]: kw],hbiw]? epL;wL:p},n}suic] sw]:kw],hQn];sn].sWm]yw].mL;l}asn].ekL: pWc],wL:sw]:kw],yc];p},hB.kuc],mun]epL:Em:' kuc],mun]KU;emLSWn]Kw]El: kuc],lik]:la};lIlI" sw]:kw],ekL:etL.Et.wL:emLAan], lik]:An] pUin]:epL.AWk],mL;nn].kUv];" sw]:kw],emLlik]:emLla};yw]. sWc],sw]: kw],pL:emLtqm]:puin];tUw]kw],hG]:lIhbiw]? epL;p},emLtqm]:puin];tUw]kw],hG]:lI kuik];puin];n}suic] sw]:kw],kUit],mL;ekL:etp},mI;kuc],mun]Sc]" sw]:kw], emLlik]:yw]. sWc],sw]:kw], pL:emLtqm]:lik]:' tqm];la};' tqm]:sUic];' tqm]:wWk]; hG]:lik]:la};sw]:kw], Kuin]:yC],mC],Suc] Kuit];sn].pQc];pUin]:El: hG]:pQn]PWn];lIpun]:tL,sUiw]:sat]:sw]:kw], tL,mUiw];nL:huiw]? hQn];lik]: hQn];l}a; yw].sn].sWmm] L;la}sn].la}Sqn];ekL:lI epL;wL:p},emLAw] lik]:la};sw]:kw],hQn];mL;nn]. hG]:pQn]nm].kt].eS hQt];hG]:mI;PWn]; lIpun]:tL, sUiw].sat]:sw]:kw],nn].ekL: p},mI;kuc],mun]Sc]' tL,et kqt],EKsUiw].sat]:hw]; yL,hG]:sUm]ha}nn].ekL: etpQn]kCam];Tam]tL, tUw]sw]:kw],wL: sw]:kw],sW}:kqt],EK pn]AI:Sc]yw].n}yU,"

34


(5)

tWn]:tL,sUiw].sat]:Kuin]:yC], mak]:mI; kt];yQn]n}. sw]:kw],ekL:pQn] sUiw].sat]:t};ekL.nuic]:El: mI;pun]:PWn];tL,ethap],hQt];Sac]:yU, n}nn]. yL,epluim];tUw]El: yL,epluim];Tam]tUw]kw],wL:sw]:kw], sWc],pL:l}:hQt];Sc] pn]sUiw].sat]:sw]:kw],huiw]?

Pqn],lin]wan]:mUic];An]wL:nn]. pQn]pun]:tL,sUiw].sat]:' sUiw].KUiw];yU,Sw]; kin]Sac]: Puk],Pc]hBin];ey;' Puk],Pk];yUiw]:nac];KQw] mWk],mak],tL,lQc].lU sUiw].KUiw]; kUn];mUic];PC]mn];nn].yw]." kWp]:pQn]tI:tL,yU,Sw];El: KWp,] lqn]lin] mUic];nuic]:El: mUic];nuic]:nn]. lum];lum]:fL.lUc]sqk],EPKqn]:lqn]lin]mUic];w}.pn] tqk],lqc];w}.yw]." kWp]:nn]Pqn],lin]suic]:t};lUc]sUiw].sat]:saw];KUiw];t};ekL: mI;Pqn],lin]yU,Sw];kuik];

35

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kCam]; 5 eKL:n}.Tam]Kuin];tUw]kw],eS eKL:tWp],mn];Et. pQn]nm].tin]nm]. muiw];An]sw]:kw],hQt];Sac]:AWk],mL;nn].yw]." kWp]:hw];yU,sWm];KWp],wUic];sUiw].sat]: hw];El: etl}:emLhk].sUiw].sat]:hw];' etl}:emLkqt],EKsUiw].sat]:hw];' etl}: emLsW}:Tqm]sUiw].sat]:' etl}:emLpUk];pWc]sUiw].sat]:" epL;sUiw].sat]:hw];Am],hk]. kn]' Am],sW}:Tqm]kn]suic] sUiw].sat]:hw];etsUm]ha} tUk];tqm], etAm],emLpUn]. l}:sat]: KL:Suik];man]:l}:eSpWk]:" sUiw].mUc]:ekL:mUc]:pqc]; sUiw].mqc];ekL:mqc];hk]. KUiw];kLlm]ekL: lUw,] yU,sWm];kLlm]' KUiw];nUk].yac];ekL: yU,sWm];nUk].yac]; sc],kin]wan]nWn];lp];yw]." hk].Pqn],lin]wan]:mUic];


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

puin];lum]:fL.mL;pI<yaw];Kaw];huic]" tac];kCac]:Pqn],lin]t};hw];yU,Sw];mI;yU, 62,500 lk];pn],hgp]:' Pqn],lin]An]n}. pQn]Pqn],lin]saw];KUiw];kUn];mUic];t}; yU,Sw];kin] Sac]:mL;pI<yaw];Kaw];huic]Et.Et." epL;wL:sUiw].sat]:KUiw];t};n}ekL:saw];KUiw]; An] hw];yU,hBm]:kn]mL; np].hBw]pak], hBw]hQc]pI<nn].pL;mUt];yw]." mUin]nc], pI:nWc]. !w@' t};plWc]:' t};lL;hB,' t};pAUw];' t};Kac]' t};yac];' t};AL;KL,' t};lI.eSL;' t};sUiw]; n}.pQn]sUiw].sat]:saw];KUiw];mUic];t}; An]yU,Sw];nUiw]Pqn],lin] suic]:t}; mL;sWm];kn] sUiw];n}. pQn]pI:nWc].kn]tc];mUt];yw]." nc],huiw]Pqn],lin]suic]:t};hw]; etAm],tUk];hgt]:kCL, nC];muiw];PU:KQn]KCak]: mUic]; Suik];man]:kCLTqc]:nn]. sUiw].sat]:suic]:t};hw];etl}:PWm].kn]eShk].SL kqt],EKeh. kc]:w}. epL;wL:sUiw].sat]:hw];kUw]eS Ew:hBw]Aw]tUw]lWt]:pa}:AWk],mUic]; pqt]:epL;n} suic] Tuk],sC]Suik];man]:PU:KCak]:mUic];Kw]kUv];" Suik];man]:mL;KCak]:mUic]; Kuin]:mL;Sim];Aw] wan]:mUic];hw]; tc]:Et, 1962 etL,yam];lQw]n}. l}:mL; (47) pI<yw].' Kaw];tac]; (47) pI<n}.man]:Kuin]:mL;Sim];Aw] tUik],h}<lWk];nL;' tI:SUn]' tI:hBin];hw];kUv];Am],kL;' mL;SUn];tum]yL.kw];kan]PWm].hBm]:saw];KUiw];mUic];t};hw]; hG]:tqk],kn] Pit];kn] tuik];kn] eS wan]:AUic],mUic]; lU.lqw]ham];pw],' Suik];man]:Kw] etL.Aw]sUiw].KUiw];luk]:em;man]:Kw] mL;Puit].him]yL.kw]; hG]:hw];epL;l}:pa}:AWk],mUic]; Sum];pn]Kw]yU,nn]. hw];lIhB.tUw] eS luk].tuin],PWm].kn]tuik]; Aw]Kuin];mUic];hw];yU," epL;etkum],pC].tUv];kn]yU,suic] Pa},nuic]:ekL:epL;Am],PWm].kn]n}suic] An]et Sum];nn]. pQn]sUiw].sat]:saw];KUiw];hw] ;tac];SQc]:nn].yw]." man]:pn]hqc];saw];KUiw]; t};lL;hB,' t};AL;KL,' !w@' t};pAUw]; hG]:tuik];t};mL;pI<yaw];Kaw];hbic]yw].' saw];KUiw];AWn],hw];lIwUn].wL: epL;t};ha}yw].ekL: saw];KUiw];AWn],hw];ekL: mUt];kCL, sWm];nC];Ek: PU:KCak]:mUic];nn].kUv];" An]n}.Am],lIlUc] luim];lL;lL; Pqn],lin] lUc]hac]:lIsuic]:t};n}. sUiw].sat]:kUn];miUc];t};hw];yL,puin]. pW},PL:AWk],pqt]:eSkm];" hk].SLw}.nk];nLeSkm]; KC]:tuik];SUn];nc],n}" PL,SL,lik]:la}; PL,SL,kCam];lat]:lik]:la};lUw],AWn]kn] pUk];pWc]kuik];sUiw].sat]:suic]:t};kCL, pan]Suip],pan]" kQw],lWc]:lik]:la};t};n}. yWn];Aw]kuc],mun]Sc],KL,sw]:El: KU;emL An]Kt];sC]ekL,Sac]:w}.nn].yC],yC],nm]nm]yU," PL,SL, An]wL:nn]. pQn]kCam];lat]: lik]:la}; fic]:Ec:' fic]:Tuc]; kuik];sUiw].

36


sat]:An]nuic]:yw]." sUiw].sat]:saw];KUiw];t};hw];KL:n}.ekL: Enw}.tqk],lqc]; wL:hw]; mI;wan]:mUic];' sUiw].KUiw];mL;hc];eKL mI;Kun]Aup].pUic],mUic];mL; pan]Suip],pan] hc];eKLnn]. El: PL,SL, kCam];lat]: lik]:la}; fic]:Ec: fic]:Tuc];hw];KL:ekL: mI;hc];eKLmL;Am], l}:hLTut],tqm]:him]Aw]KWc]PC]mL;n}nn]. tqk],lqc];lIyU," kWp]:n}El: sUiw].sat]:saw]; KUiw];An]yU,nC];Pqn],lin]sicu ]:t};n}. kuic],lIPWm].hBm]:kn]eS tuik];Aw] hG]:l}:mUic]; kWn]; eKL" epL;l}:mUic];kWn];eKLyw].kWn], sUiw].sat]:hw];sc],Kuin]:yC], kt];yQn]' lik]:la}; kCam];lat]: fic]:Ec: fic]:Tuc];hw];sc],ethBiw]:hBic];kuik]; lum]:fL.n}nn]. hw];KL:yL, eplUc]luim];lL;lL;"

hw];KL:Kuin];Tt];tUv];An]man]:KCak]:mUic];mL; Aup].pUic],mUic];t};Kaw];tac]; (47) pI<n}. man]:Am],pUk];pWc]pn]Sc] Am],pn]hqc]; Am],pn]lik]:t};hw];SWn] nC];hBc];hQn];hG]:pQn] pUic]tac];kan]" fic]:Ec: fic]:Tuc];hw];ekL:Am],pn]hqc]; sat]:Sqc];t};hw];ekL:mWt],ha} kCL,lW};lW};yw]." sUiw].sat]:nuic]:sUiw].sat]:n}.epL;lik]:la};ha} fic]:Ec: fic]:Tuc];ha}ekL: sUiw]. sat]:An]wL:n}. ekL:ha}yw]." kWp]:n}wn];pI<mC],t};pI<n}. yWn];tuik];SUn];pI:nWc]. kUn]; mUic];t};' KUiw];t};kU:tI: hG]:AWn]kn]hk].SL lik]:la};t}; sUiw].sat]:t}; hw];kCL," mI;tI:lC]ekL: lUw],Aw]fic]:Ec: fic]:Tuc];hw];KL:hLmL;SWn]pn] mUin]nc], pI:nWc]. EK,Kw] hgt]:Pqw]wan]:mUic];lC]ekL: Kt];sC]pUk];pWc]SWn]pn]luk]:lan]Kw]yU,nn].eSkm];" tL,lat]:kCam];t}; SWn]lik]:t}; kL:fic]:Ec: fic]:Tuc];t}; hgc].kCam];t}; nn].yL,kUw]

37

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

lik]:la}:n}nn]. pQn]An]lm],lWc]:Et.Et. epL;lik]:la};hBiw]:hBic]; mUic];sc], Kuin]:yC], kWp]:n}PU:mI;puin].hB. (kwi) t};hw];Kw] kuic],lIAWn]kn]tUc].tuin], SWk]:hLKUn].hL puin];lik]:la};t};hw];eSAm],kL; kuic],lIPWm].kn]pin],tqm]:Aw]pQn] pp].SWn]eS lik]: t};hw];ekL:kuic],lImI;sn]. mUin]pUin]:nC];lum]:fL.yU," epL;lik]:la}; t};hw];mI;sn].ekL: kUn];sUiw].sat]:saw];KUiw];t};hw]; etmI;sn].eS Tac],yC], lik]:t}; Tac],yC],Kuin];sUiw]. sat]:t}; luk]: lan] lin] lQn] lWn] hw];KL: etemLlik]:t};' epL;emLlik]:t};ekL:hB. puin]; fic]:Ec:fic]:Tuc];t}; hB.puin];t};' sC]hk].sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];t};sc],et kqn],Kqc] tL,lik]:t};hw];mI;sn].Kuin]:mL;nn]. Am],lUw],pC].hG]:lUc]pWc]suic]:t};mI;yw].sc],pUk];pWc] epL;nn]hw];KL:ettUk];luin]; lum]:fL.kCL," tac];tuik];' tac];pUk];pWc] PL,SL, kCam]; lat]: lik]:la}; fic]:Ec: fic]:Tuc];hw];KL:kCL,nn]. etSc],Tuk],lUiw]pUin]:KL:yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

yL,Aa}eSkm]; tL,nL:kan]lik]:la};t};fic]:Tuc];t};Kuin]:yC],nn]. pQn]nL:kan]yC], lUc] hw];KL:kU:ekL.yw].El: yL,yU,ekL.tI:ekL.tac];eS hQt];PC]hQt];mn]; tqm]:PC] tqm]:mn];" hG]:Aup],tUk];lUc];l}:sC]kn] hG]:lik]:t};hw];pQn]mL; hBm]:pp].lQw]' SQc]lQw] epL;lik]:t};hw];hBm]:pp].lQw] SQc]lQw]SWn]luk]:lan]hw];ekL: luk]:lan]hw]; etemLhk]. kn]' PWm].kn]kCL,Kaw];nL:n}nn]. hw];KL:Am],kuic],lI lUc]luim];" eKL:luin];Sut]; yWn];hG]:kUn];mUic];suic]:t}; kU:saw];KUiw]; PWm].hBm]:kn] kqt],EKAw]Pqn],lin]suic]:t};n}. hG]:l}:w}.pn]KUw];puv]: (AmUv],) luk]:lan]hw];yU, Sw];kCL, Kaw];tac];nL:eSkm]; epL;hw];Am],PWm].kn]Aw]l}:Pqn],lin]mUiw]:n}. luk]: lan]hw];KL:Kaw];tac];nL:nn]. etnL:lQk].tUk];tqm],kCL,eSAm],kL; lik:] la};fic]:Tuc]; hw];ekL: etmWt],ha}n}nn].hw];KL:yL,epluim];eSkm];" t};hG]:pUk];tuin], hB.tUw]tL. !t};@ yWn];SU;Pak],tWn]:pn]kCam];pI<mC],t}; pI< 2103 nI:n}.nc],n}eS(yWt]:Suik];) hBw]pw]:lUc] KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};

38


mUic];hBm]:tum]An]pWm]mUic];man]:l}:lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLmL;mUiw]: 1948 eSmUiw]:lQw] pUn].mL; 61 pI<yw].' epL;mL;Tt];Sac]tUv];Kaw];yam]; 61 pI<n} kUn];mUic];t};Pan],pUn]. Suik];km],PL,pWk]: 2 yw].Kuin];mL; Suip],Kam],tam],Suik];man]:Tqc]:' yWn].Sc]El:hw]; l}:Kam],tam],Suik];man]:n} suic] yWn].pUiw]:PU:AWn]hBw]t};hw];mI;sC]Suiw]:yUw];KC]:l}:lWt:] lqw];kWn];eKL pUn].tI:' kWp]:pUiw]:hQt];ekL.AWc],San];El: yum],ym]AWc],San];pUn].tI:' kWp]:pUiw]:luk]:hQn];sum]; (ypl) Am],mqn]:kn]tc];sw]:fL.' sC]w};tL, KC]:l}:mUic]; pUn]. tI:El: hw];sc],l}:Kam],tam],Suik];man]: yU,yam];lQw] n}.yw]." lUc]pWc]suic]:mUic];hBm]:tum]An]sw]:SUv],tqk]:pQn]sWm]suic]: (President) mI;Kaw]; yam];pWt;] pWt];AWn],kUv];eS Am],tn];hac]:hqn];kan]Sc] Suik];man]:Kuin]:Sim];AL,nL,yL. lU.lqw] eKL:l}:sC]tUk];lUc];pac]lUc]kUv]; Am],kL;pa}yL.lU.lqw]pqt]:mUic];hBm]:tum]mUic]; man]:mUiw]: 2.3.1962 nn].pqt]:yw]." wn];mUiw]:lQw]n}. mUic];hBm]:tum]mUic];man]:An]wL: nn]. pQn]mUic];hBm]:tum] An]pWm]' An]kqk];' An]Pac];nn].kUv]; kWp]:n}El: kUn];mUic]; t}; kuic],lIhB.tUw]yw]." hw];Tuk],lWk],lqn]kUv];Am],kL; hw];Tuk],Suik];man]:AUm]Auin] sUiw]. KUiw];El: Pqn],lin]hw];nn].yw]." kWp]:n}Tuic]Kaw];yap];mn];hbic]yw]. kUn];mUic];t};hw]; Tuk],KWn]:tum]kn]kqt],EK Aw]Kuin];mUic];hw];hG]:l}:AL,nL, lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLmL;Kuin];" saw];KUiw];AWn],nC];mUic];t}; An]kLC ,yWn];Sun],l}:yU,tI:Suik];man]:nn].kuic],lIhB. tUw]w}.wL:man]:Kw]Aw]pQn]mak],lQn]:luk]:nuic]:eS Aw]Sun],l}:Ait];AWt];yuin]:mqc],yw].

39

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

eKL:kCam];Pak],tWn]: wn];sUiw].sat]:suic]:t}; KWp]:KUp], 62 pI<


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

hQt];hG]:hw];hn]Pit];kn] tqk],kn]' tI:Et.mn];An]l}:mL;nn]. pQn]Sun],l}:Kaw];pWt]; kUv];El: km];lc]mL;ekL:man]: Kw]Aw]Kuin];pqt]:n}nn]. Am],kuic],lIlUc]luim];" saw];KUiw]; hw];Kw]kuic],lIwUn].hn]Tuic]wL:Pqn],lin]mUic];t};n}. pQn]KWc]kUn];mUic];t}; kU:saw];KUiw];yw]. El: Sun],An]hw];lUw],l}:Kuin];nn]. epL;wL:kUn];mUic];t};hw];Am],PWm]. PQc],kn]Am],mI; AL,nL,kWn];eKLsuic] Sun],An]hw];lUw],l}:nn].mn]; Am],l}:' l}:mL;yw].ekL:Am],mn]: kuim];' Sun],l}:n}.hw];nc],kn]pn]kn]Kuin]; sc],mn]:kuim];An]wL:nn]. hw];KL:Am],lIluim];' epL;hw];KL:PWm].PQc],kn]n}suic] AL,nL,kWn];eKL nn].tuin];tUk];nC];muiw];kUn];mUic];t};Am], hac]." mUic];hBm]:tum]An]pUn].mL;nn]. kUn];mUic];t};hw];l}:hQt];mL;' l}:mI; tUw]TUp];mL;' l}:Tuk],lWk],lqn]mL;" tL,ekL,tc]:mUic];hBm]:tum]mC],mUiw];nL:nn]. hw];kuic],lImI;Stiwiriy' hw];Sum];pWk]:nuic]:nn].pQn]tWn]:SWn]hw];' epL;Sum]; Tqc]:pWk]:SWc]ekL: hw];KL:cUiw]:yw]." KC]:puin]Paw],EnkUn];mUic];t};hw];wL: Suik];man]:pQn]PU:KCak]:mUic];t};' Suik];man]:pQn] An]yL.mUic];hBm]:tum]l.U lqw]' mUic];hBm]:tum]mUic];man]:An]wL:nn]. Am],mI;yw]." tc]:Et,wn];sUiw].sat]: suic]:t}; KWp]:KUp], 62 pI< nC];pI< 2009 n}.kCL,nL:kUn];mUic];t}; kuic],lItUc].tuin],tUw]:tn];PWm].kn] hG]:ln];kn];wn];nuic]:mL; hw];tuin]; etkt];yQn] Kuin];Am],hac]." mC],Suc]KL: > yWt]:Suik]; hBw]pw]:lUc] KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};

40


!eKL:kCam];Pak],tWn]: pI<mC],t}; 2104 nI:@ pI<mC],t}; pI< 2104 pI<n}. yWn];SU;hG]:pI:nWc].kUn];mUic];t}; sUiw];yU,nC];mUic]; nWk]:mUic]; yU,tI:lC]mUic];lC]Am],wL: yWn];SU;hG]:tUw]sC]kt];yQn]eS hG]:Kuin]:yC], eSkm];n}eAL:"

41

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

pI<kw],pUn].kCL, pI<mC],Tuic]mL; mUiw]:pI<kw],pUn].mL;n}. kUn];mUic];t};hw];KL:l}: lUit],m}:tUk];nm].tL l}:K}a.p}a: l}:Sum];cuin];tWc];KUw];KWc] yWn.] pUiw]:t};luim];sat]:kCL,hQt]; KWn].tw].Suik];man]:El: tp].Suik];man]:l}:mL; Aw]f};Pw]wan]:hBin];kUn];mUic];l}: lU. yC],Sum];nm]nn]. lIcin];mWc]sC] eKL;KUm]sWm];Et.Et." yWn].Suik];man]:mL; Ep.kin] tQk];tQc]mUic];t}; pI<yaw];Kaw];huic]El: kUn];mUic];t};Am],l}:yU,kt];yQn] Am],l}:yU,lI' kin]lI Am],mI;Kaw];yam];hQt];kan]lIlI Am],sac]:hLpuic]:Aic] PC]mL;kqt],EKeh.kc]: pn] El: km]:PWc]:mL;hL kin]sac]:pUin]:nC];mUic];T};n}.tac];nm] sUw]:kL:mUic];t};hw];p},kt]; yQn]p},l}:Kuin];nn]. kUn];mUic];t};hw]; etl}:yU,yap], kin]yap],mUin]yU,nC];lp];Sic], muit];tn]yU,nn]. kUn];mUic];t};hw];etmI;kCam];Tam]w}. nC];sC]PC]mn];yU,wL: mUic];t};et l}:Kuin];mUiw]:lC] kUn];mUic];sUiw];p}a:eP;man]:eS mL;hLkin]sac]:kin]cLnC];mUic];T};n}.ekL:km]: PWc]:l}:Tuk],epL:lQc].lWk],sC]. sC].kin] hqc];l}aAm],l}:kL:sac]:Kw]:mL; Am],Tuk],pk];pUic]


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

mUic];T}; El: l}:Tuk],tm],nUt],ti vgp];SC],KWk]:luip]:ehL:AWk],mUic];n}.ekL: l}:hBp].l}:TUp]; p}a:mIkCL,vL;SUiw]Tqc]:nn].yU," km]:PWc]:mL;piuc]:Aic]pI:nWc].t}; sUiw];yU,mUic];T}; pQn]kUn];T};Tuk],kUt];m}aTac], wL:t}; etL,t};tuk].KmL; etsW}:Tqm]kn] t};Am],hk].t};eS Tuk],lWk],lqn] K}akin] t};Kuin];ekL:mI; Tuk,] sup],kin]lUit]:t};nc],kn]ekL:mI;' t};hw];nc],kn] hQt];l}:nUiw] kn]sUiw];nn]. nL,eSman]:PU:KQn]hQt];l}:nUiw]t};hw];Kuin];nn].El: mQw];n}.Am],kuic], lIpQn]Am],kuic],lImI;lL;lL;' pQn]mL;yw].ekL: hG]:mI;sC]hk].kn] sW}:kn]nn].Tuk],lImI; sC]sUiw].mUc]:ekL:mUc]:pqc]; sUiw].mqc];ekL:mqc];hk].n}nn]. Tuk],lImUn].Em;kn]kCL," An]pQn] mL;sUiw];nn]. lIeKL;KUm]sWm];Et.Et.' An]pQn]mL;tac];yap],Puit], tc];mUt];sUiw]; lat]:mL;nn]. yWn].hw];mI;mUic];Am],mI;AL, nL,pUk];pWc]wan]:mUic];hw];' yWn].Suik];man]: mUik]:lUic];mL; Aup].pUic],mUic];hw]; man]:Am],sC]: nUiw].lUit]:sUiw].sat]:hw];' Kw]ethQt]; huiw]kCL,hk].sUiw].KUiw];hw];lL, mn];tqk],lqc]; lIyU,yw].' mUin]Kqk],mL;Ep.kin]sw]:hBin];nn]. yw]." nc],huiw]etl}: mUic];hw];Kuin];Sm]. etl}:hQt];huiw]lL, mUiw]:lQw]Suik];man]:nm]epL; tQm]mUic];w}.yw].n} etmI;kCam];Tam]Tqc]:yU,' sC]:yw].man]:tQm]mUic];w}.ekL:yw]. l}a;etEp. man]:mI;yU, etlat]:EnAn]pWc], sC]l}:lIsL. wUn].Aw]eSTt];Sac]tUv];KL:El:"

42


epL;hw];KL:mL;AWn]kn]hB.sk];PU:KQn]hw];yw]. lUw],PWm].kn]suc]sn]tuit]. sn]SUn];tum]sUiw]; An]yU,sWm];Suik];man]: Aw]PUw]man]: sUiw];hn]kan]mak]:mI;Sun],tUw] eSl}:kin]sWm];pQn]pWt];pQn]tWn]: hn]Sn u ],tUw] Am],hn]Tuic]sUiw].sat]: sUiw];nn]. lUw],SUn];tum]hG]:Kw]Pat],yan]Suik];man]: yL,hG]:mI;kUn];mUic];t}; hQt];nWn]nC];nUiw]. PUiw]. yL.KUiw]; cum];pLsWm];nm].Kun],sUiw];nn]. yL,hC]:mI;lL;lL;' kL:pUn].mL; yWn].mI;t};sUiw];n}. El: PWc];yam];luk].Puin].Aw]Kuin];mUic];t};hw];nn]. l}:huic]nan];Kaw];yaw];mL;nn].yw].' epL;hw];tqk],lqc]; PU:KQnh] B.sk];PU:KQn]lIyw]. n}suic]lUw],PWm].kn]Apun]: PWn];nUk]. sWk],Ep.KL;ekL:Aw]KL; sac].cL;Ep.tum]ekL:AWc];tum] yU,lC]Aw]pun]:PWn];tI:nn]: Aw] hBw]sC]hw];mL;KWn]:tum]kn] tUw]yU,hac],kn] ekL:hBw]sC]sm]kn]PWm].kn]n}suic] Suik];man]:nm] ekL: mL;yU,nC];wUc];lWm].hw];kUv]; epL;hqc];sC]hw];Kqc]yU, tuin];etEp.l}:yU,Am],hac]." 2. kUn];mUic];t};hw];Sm]. KC]:Tam]Tqc]:wL: luk].Puin].mL;pIyaw];Kaw];huic]yw]. hQt];Sc] El: Am],p},mI; hqc];luip]:man]:lL, yC],yw].tqk],kn]Kuin]; kUn];mUic];sW}:Tqm] mL;ekL:nm]yw]. n}.etpQn]kCam];Tam]An]kUn];mUic];KC]:hB.kCam];tWp],nn].yU," kCam];tWp],ekL: km]:PWc]:hB.w}.nC];sC]yU,yw].' kWp]:t};hw];Am],PWm].kn] Am],w}.

43

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

1. tL,etl}:mUic];t};Kuin];nn]. mI;yU,tI:hBw]sC] kUn];mUic];t};hw];kUv]; etL:wqt].nam];yc];tuik];mUic]; AQn]hqc];yC],mUin]flc],SQt]:El: Aem,rikn],yc];l}:yU, kWp]:hBw]sC]kqn],Kqc]El: PWm].kn]nn].yw].' t};hw];ekL: epL;PWm].kn]Aw]pun]:PWn]; kU:tI:' kU:tac];n}suic] tuin];etEp.Suik];man]:l}:yU," An]Suik]; man]:Ep.kin] kUn]; mUic];t};' Aw]t};t}a Aw]f};Pw]wan];AUic],hw];nn]. mn];pQn]kan]man]:yw]. kWp]:Kw]w}. kUn];mUic];t}; pQn]PU:KQn]Kw]yw]. mn];huiw]lak],l}a;Sc]lL, kUn];mUic];t}; Am],hB.sk]; PU:KQn] Am],PWm].kn] kqt],EK yUin].Kam],eSp}a:Aw]tUw]lWt]: hc];PC]mn];nn].yw]. An]lak],l}a;pqk],pUic]:pUin]:' etwL:t};Am],hk].KUiw];' Am],hk]. Pqn],lin]tI:yU,' An] PU:KQn]Ep.kin]y,U tI:nuic]: yuiw];kn]yU,tI:nuic]:eS Am],emLtUiw].sC] sW}:kn]suk];pC]. tUv]; Am],wUn].Tuic]wL:epL;hQt];tI:pUin]:ekL: wn];nuic]: etTuic]wan]:hw];yU,n}nn]. Am],wUn]. mac]wan]:mac]ekL. yc];p}ahn]Pit];eS hn]man]: pQn]kUn];lIyU,nn]. mn];EnwL:kUn];mUic];t}; yc];p},hB.sk];PU:KQn]sUiw].sat]:kWp]:n} AWn]tac];Sut];n}. hw];etl}:hB.sk];PU:KQn]tqk],lqc]; nUiw]PU:KQn]eS PWm].kn]kWn],hw];sc], sac]:mL; wac];pUic]kan]l}a;tuik];l}: kqt],EKPqn],lin]hw];l}:nn].KL:yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

PU:KQn]pQn]yC],' Aw]kan]Sun],tUw]pQn]yC],' epL;Am],mqn]:sC]Am],Tuk],sC]ekL: SUn];tum] Aw]luk]:nWc].eS tqk],AWk],pqt]: epL; tqk],yw].Sm]. Kuin];kan];kCL,yU, tC]:cam]:KLPU:KQn] eS Kuin];mL;tuik];Kuin];sUiw].sat]:t};Kuin]; pQn]t};Am],hk].t}; pQn]t};hk].Sun],tUw]ekL. lQw]eS hLAw]tUw]lWt]:' tac];lIpUin]:Aw]SC],tI:tUw] kw],' tI:cUiw]:tUw]kw],Sm].Aw] SC],pn]pUin]: kw]En;mC];' mC];En;kw] pQn]n}mL;El: AQn]hqc];yC],yw].lU.Kuin]; pQn]m}.Aw] hQt];kn];tLmat],eS pWm]m}.Kuin];nn].yw].' sUiw];An]SUn];tum]AWn]hBw]tqk],mL;yU, kU:pan]kU:mU,sum];n}.Sm]. km]:nm] pQn]kUn];mI; pic],vL, mI;nm].kt].km]:nm]yw].' tqk],kCL,yw]. hG]:epL;kCL,sU.AQn]hqc];eS yC],Kuin]:mL;eStuik]; Kuin];PU:KQn]Et.Et. wL:wL: Am],hn]PC]' tqk],yw].puic]:Aic] PU:KQn]eS sup],kin]lUit]:t};Kuin];yU,nn]. yc];p},hB.tUw]Tqc]:lU;kWn],' luk]:epL:h}:Em:nL; luk]:wan]:nWk]:nL;pac],AWn],nn]. p}a: ekL:Am],lUiw] 2-3 ekL. Am],mL;pQn]KQn]muk].sum];Kuin]; kWp]:Am],hB.Sc]nn].yw].' kan] luk].Puin].kUit],AWk], mI;mL;n}. km]:nm]kUn];wan]:nWk]:nL;pac],n}.yw]. l}:Kam],tam],lUiw] pUin]: Suik];man]: Suik];t};tuik];kn]ekL: wan]:nWk]:nL;pac], l}:Kam],tam],mn];' t};etL,t};tqk],kn]ekL: kUn];mUic];wan]:nWk]:nn].yw]. Kam],tam],mn]; kWp]:kw] KL:pQn]PwkUn];wan]:nWk]:' pQn]kUn];yUw];yUw];mL;El: kw]KL:hB.PwkUn];mUic];lIlI' hB.kac]sC]kUn];mUic];hw];KL: lIyU, hn]sC]kUn];mUic];yU,KL:' kUn];mI;pic],vL,Kw]' kUn];lUc] luk]:sw]:fL. sw]:Kun]Kw] sUiw];nn].ekL: KC]:tuik];SUn];wL: kan]mUic];t}; wan]:mUic];t}; lU.Sum];mL;ekL: pQn]Ser,nL:tL SUsw]:yw].' wan]:mUic];lIKuin]:yC],kt];yQn]Ep.KQn] mL;ekL: pQn]kuc],mun]SUsw]:yU,' kWp]:n}PU:mI;pic],vL,puin];hB.Kw] lIPWm].hBm]:kn]Aw] pun]:PWn]; Et.Et.yU,' kUn];mUic];tUk];nm].tLyU,kU:wn];wn];nn]. mUiw]:lQw]mUin] luk]:Am],mI; epL:Em:nn].KL:yw]. kUn;] mI;pic],vL,sup]:Sqn];mC],Kw] lIwUn].Kuin];pUic] pQn]puin]; tI:An]Pan],pUn].mL; kUn];lUc]t};' PU:mI;pic],vL,t};hw]; mI;nm]l}ayU,Sm]. hQt];Sc]yU, tI:lItI:Pit];hG]:AWn]kn]Tt];Sac]wUn].Em; tI:lIhG]:Aw]tI:Pit]; hG]:cUic]. Ew: mI;pic],vL,yw]. Am],mI;van],ekL: emLlik]:l}al}a' Am],emLl}a;hQt];Sc]nn].kUv]; kWp]:n} mUiw];nL:n}. epL;Am],mI;pic],vL, Am],mI;van],suic] etAm],sac]:tuik];PU:KQn] hw];l}:El: luk]:AWn],num], sup]:Sqn];mC],Kw]ekL: hG]:Kt];sC] luk]:AWn],pQn]hqc];mUic]; mUiw];nL:El: yL,pQn]luk]:AWn],lut]:tuiw].tac]; lIpqt]:eSkm]; KC]:tuik];SUn];nc],n}" 3. kUn];mUic];t};hw];KL: An]mI;Kaw],luiw];AWk],mL;wL: Suik];man]:etsC].hG]: sum];kuit];Suik];kU:sum]; hQt];tp].pC].lqn]lin] nuic]:tp].kWc] Suik];man]:etmL;yU,sWm]; 30 ekL.nn]. pQn]Kaw],caw];Am],lI pun]:tL,sUiw].sat]:hw];KL: An]nuic]:Et.et.'

44


(yWt]:Suik];) hBw]pw]:lUc] KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};

45

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

sum];kuit];Suik];Kw]nn]. AWn]tac];Et.wL: etkuit];Suik];eS Aan];Aup],kn]tac]; kan]mUic]; epL;tuik];kn] mn];etnL,kUn];mUic]; yUic];Aan];mI;nc],n}' kUv];kL:Am],pQn] nc],sum];kuit];Suik];muc]:mWc];w}.' kuit];Suik];mL; 20 pI<p}ayw]. Am],Aup],kan]mUic]; Am],Ek:lit]:pn]hLl}:Sc] Suik];man]:Kw] sn]Kaw];yam];mL;huic] Tuic]yam];lQw] Sm]. hG]:sum];kuit];Suik];kU:sum]; yU,tC]:tp].Suik];man]:Kw] lum];lum];nn]. Sc] wL:sum];kuit];Suik];Kw] yWm];hp].ekL: mn];nL,lUiw]wac];KUic]:nn].yw].' epL;hp].tp]. pC]. lqn]lin]n}. l}:yU,tC]:pk];pUic]Suik];man]:El: wac];KUic]:kUv];Am],kL; wac];pL;tUw] sC]lum];lum];yw]. Suik]; n}.sC].kCL,lC]lUw],l}:kCL, epL;Am],kCL, Tuk],tam],nk];' nC];pInuic]:Et.sac]:pQn]tp].pC].lqn]lin]tI:hw];kYiok]:yU,' huic] mL; sC].K}akL:l}:K}a Am], K}aekL:Tuk],vL;tam], lWk];l}a;man]:hQt];n}. epL;Am],KC]:wac];KUic]:ekL: hG]:yU,nC]; tp]. Suik];Kw]n}nn].kUv];' Sc]wL:sum];kuit];Suik];Kw]hp].ekL: eKL:suk];mn]:kan]mUic]; ekL:h}a l}apqt]:yw]." pI< 2010 n}.man]:etst];kan]lUik]:tc]:n}.ekL: man]:etlWk],lqn] kUn];nC];lum]:fL.El: kUn];mUic];Tqc]: km];nuic]:yU, kUn];mUic];El: sum];kuit];Suik];Kw] epL;Am],hp].l}: pk];pUic]m}amI:suic]:mUic];yw]. El: Sm].etkCL,Kw]:lUik]:tc]:sWm];nn]. ekL: lWk];suk];kan]mUic]; Am],man],mqn]:yw]. Sc]wL:lUik]:tc]:mL; kCL,yU,nC]; lut]. etL,ekL: SQc]Am],Ep.pUin]:El: mUin]nUk].kCL,Kn]yU,nC];SWc];nn].kUv]; etAm],sac]: hQt];Sc]l}: kWp]:n}kUn];mUic];t}; Tuk],lWk],Tuk],lqn]mL;yU, pan]Suip],pan]eS l}:Sum];mL;etL,wn];mUiw:] lQw]n}. yc];p}, luk].Kuin]:l}:nn]. kWp]:hw];Tuk],lWk],Tuk],lqn] eS Sum];mL;yU, kU:pan]pan]n}nn]. KC]:hG]:kUn];mUic];t};hw]; wUn].Kuin];puin];lc]yw]. sc],yac]:kCL,tac];nL: KC]:Pak],tWn]: pImC],t};w}.pn]kUn];mUic];hw];KL:mI;nc],n}mC],Suc]KL:"


eKL:kCam];Pak],tWn]:wn];sUiw].sat]:suic]:t}; KWp]:KUp], 63 pI<

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kUn];mUic];t};hw];KL:n}. mUiw]:pan]Kun]ehLKm];man]:Kw]hqc];nn].ekL: l}:pQn]KI:KL:Kw] mL;pWk]:nuic]:yw].' Tuic]pan] Aic];klQt]:n}ekL: l}:kUm]:hBw]yU,tC]: Aic];klQt]:Kw] mL;yw].' pan]kYpan],n}.ekL: l}:Kam],tac];Pqt]. Sit].kYpan],Kw] ep.kin]lUl}amL;yw].' Pwsat]:pan]KI:KL:lip];pUin]:n}. kUn];mUic];t};hw]; Aim],san]:mUiw], nL,yw].El: AWn] kn]San]Kt]; Kuin];tuik];etL;mL;yU, kU:Suip],Suip], Kw]:pW};tuik];mL; pun]:tL,lWt]:lqw]; kWn];eKLn}. Am],sC]:El:yU,tC]:Aic];klQt]:yw]. K}a.yU,tC]:man]:Am],suiw]:' Kw]:pW};tuik]; mL;pun]:tL,lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKL An]mI;Sun],l}:tqp];tt]; hac];eKLnn].kUv];yw]."

tI:pac]lUc]nn]. mI;eKL:kCam];mn]:kqn],kn]mL;kL:huiw]ekL:w}a; lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKLn}. mUic];suic]:t};l}:Kam],tum].tUiw].lU.Sum];mL; tac];nm]eS l}:Kuin]:hgt]:Pqw]PwKL:lip];yU, tC]:Suik];man]:Kuin];yw].' n}.yWn].PU:AWn]hBw]man]:Kw] Am],mI;kti Am],Suiw]:yUw]; mI; AkYam],mUik]: tL,ettQk];tQc]yL.lqw]pqt]:Sun],l}:Sun],pQn]kUn];mUic];t};hw];nn].yw]." epL;mL;Tt];Sac]tUv]; Kaw];tac]; 63pI< tI:Pan],mL;n}.suic]k. tWn]:kan]p}a;mUic]; 1. sWm];nc],m}amI:suic]:mUic];hBm]:tum]An]pWm]n}.eS mUic];man]:n}. Am],KWt],PWt]:pQn]

46


2.

K. lUc]pWc]suic]:man]: Aw]tp].Suik];man]:Kuin]:mL; tQk];tQc] kUn];mUic];t}; 1. 1949 n}. nC;] mUci ;] t}; saw];KUwi ;] pAUw;] Kw] luk.] yip;] kWc:] eS luk.] Pun i .] lgk;] pUci ] pet,Srit].' nC];Ek:n}. man]:Kw] P}a,nuic]:lk].lWm] sW}:pn]pAUw];Kw]Tqc]: P}a,nuic]:Sm].pn]hqc];sw]: fL.Kw]tuik];pAUw]; hQt];n}eS Kw]:ES,tm]yL. kw];hG]:kUn];mUic];t};nc],kn] tqk],kn]tuik];kn]" Tuic]mL; 1950 n}. lUc]pWc]suic]:man]:n}. lk].lWm]hp].Aw]Suik]; EK,PUik],Kw] Kw]:mL;yU,mUic];t};' w}a;mL;Aw]EK,PUik],hQt];tI:EnnL:eS tL,ettuik];pqt]: EK,PUik],Kw]n}eSyw]. Aw]tp].Suik];man]:Kw]Kuin:] mL; mUic];t};nC];pI<1952

47

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

3.

En,mUic];nuic]:An] Aw]hBm]:hgm];sWm];w}.tc]; lUc]pWc]suic]: mUic];hBm]:tum]' lUc]pWc] suic]:mUic];man]:El: tc];lUc]pWc]suic]:mUic];hBm]:tum]n}. w}.pQn]An]lQw]kn] kWp]:n} mUic];t};n}ekL: l}:pQn]En,mUic];AWn], An]l}:yU,tC]:mUic];man]:kCL,nn].yw]." nC;] pL,lI,man],mUci ;] hBm:] tumn ] .} pac]tmu ] (lut.] etL,) 2 An]pac]tmu k] n U ;] mUci ;] El: pac]tum]saw];KUiw];' pac]tum]kUn];mUic];n}. Aw]hBw]kUn];nm]eA,eSlUik]:tac],PU: tac]tUw]eSKuin]:El: nC];n}. PU:tac] tUw]man]:Kw] pQn]km]:pL:nm]' pac]tum] saw];KUiw];n}. w}.tL,kqt],EKSun],l}: saw];KUiw];Kw]n}ekL: Am],Aw]kUn];mUic]; lUik]:PU:tac]tUw]eS sC].sw]:fL.Kw] lUik]:Aw]nC];sw]:fL. 25ekL.' kWp]:n} kUn];mUic]; Am],mI;Sun],l}: tI,mUw],Ker,SI,' sw]:fL.Kw]n}. mI;Sun],l}:Kuin]:pL; nC];pac]tum]saw];KUiw]; An]lQw]kUv]; tI:pac]tum]kUn];mUic];Sm]. Am],mI;Sun],l}: Kuin]:pL;El: pun]:tL,sw]:fL.Kw]ekL: Sun],l}:tI,mUw],Ker,SI, lU.Sum];w}. yU,yw]." tI:An]lUik]:tac],lUc]pcW ]suic]: mUic];hBm]:tum]nn].ekL: pac]tum] kUn];mUic]; An]mI;PU:tac]tUw]man]:nm]nn].kUv]; mI;AL,nL,Et.Et.' lUc]pWc] suic]:mUic];hBm]:tum] n}ekL: pQn]lUc]pWc]suic]:An]man]: mI;AL,nL,nn].kUv];yw]." tI:lUik]:tac],hBw]pw]: En,mUic];Kw]nn].n}ekL: epL;sWm]pWc]suic]: (PU:AWn]hBw] lUc]pWc]suic]:mUic];hBm]:tum]) l}:sC]sc],pQn]l}:El: kUn];mUic];nC]; En,mUic];Kw]n}. Am],mI;Sun],l}: tI,mUw],Ker,SI, tL,etlUik]:tac], hBw]pw]:En,mUic];sw]:kw],' hBw]pw]:En,mUic];nn]. epL;sWm]pWc]suic]: An]pQn]man]:Kw]Tuk],sC]sc],pQn]l}: El: pQn]KWn].tw]. kan]p}a;mUic];man]:Kw] kUv];yw].' hQt];n}eS nC];kan]p}a;mUic]; En,mUic]; Kw]nn]. muk].sum];kan]p}a;mUic]; KWc]man]:Kw] Kw]:yL.kw];km]sikU ]:w}. yU,yw]."


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

2.

mL;pk];tp].man]:Kw] kU:tI:nC];mUic];t}; mL;tm];wac]; kan]Aup].pUic], Suik];eS yL.lqw]kan]Aup].pUic],nC];mUic];t}; tI:An]EK,PUik], Am],mI;eSAit]; mUin]nc], yWc]hBv]:' kelL;' tWc],kYI;' mUic];nWc]' l}a;KL:El: mUic];kuic]sUiw];n}.ekL: mk];m}apQn]nL:tI:Suik]; Aup].pUic],eS Aw]AL,nL,Suik]; ep.kin]tQk];tQc]kUn]; mUci ;] ' Aw]Sa} lp].P}a,Suki ;] eS timt].Aw]ta} PU:AWnh] wB ] mUci ;] t};Kw]' kUn;] mUci ;] t};Kw] kU:tI:kU:lqn] kUn];mUic];t};ekL: Kqn];Aim],mUiw], san]:mL;nUiw] tp]. Suik];man]:Kw]yw].' kWp]:n}tc]:Et,Kw] Kuin]:mL;mUiw]:pI< 1952 etL,yam]; lQwn ] .} tp].Suki ;] man]:Kw] Am],TWK} n iu ;] Suki ;] Kw]eS Supi ,] ep.kinl ] l U a} Aw]ta} kUn];mUic];yU, etL,yam];lQw]n}.yw]." nC];pI< 2010 n}. man]:Kw] Aan];st];kan]lUik]:tac], hG]:pQn]mL;l}a; tI,mUw],ker,SI, n}nn]. pQn]l}a;tUm];tLkUn];mUic];El: km],PL,Tqc]:yw]. epL;etmL;Tt];Sac]Kuin]; pac]lUik]:tac],tI: pUn].mL;ekL: pQn]l}a;lgk],lqn] ATm],meSl}:mL;' tL,etlUik]:tac],An]wL:nn]. kUn];mUic];lUw],mI; (mat]:puc],tin],) wC]kp];tUw]' kUn];mUic];man]: hBw]kUn];mI; 45lan]. An]mI; wC]kp];tUw]Am],lUiw] 20lan]. hBw]kUn]; 45lan].n}. 25lan]. pQn] saw];KUiw];Kw] Sc]wL:lUik]:tac], Suiw]:Suiw]:yUw];yUw];Et. tuin];lUw], wUn]. Em;Aupet,m}amI:suic]:mUic];An]man]:Kw] hQt];mL;nn].yw]. sc],sac]:lUik]:' kUn];An]p}a:yU,nWk]: mUic];ekL:nm]El: tL,etlUik]:tac],eS pQn]mL; tI,mUw],ker,SI,nn]. pQn]lWc]:fn]hn]kUv];' kUv];kL:kUn];nWk]:mUic];Kw]Am], hB.pn]hL P};nC];Et.Et.El: epL;lUik]:tac],yw].ekL: Tac],wL:pQn] tI,mUw],Ker,SI,yw].El: kUn];luk]. Puin].P}a,San]Kt];Kw] sac]:etTUp]; tac];yap],Puit],kCL,Tqc]: Ait];nuic]:yU,"

kan]luk.] Puin].yuit]:yaw];mL;n}. Am],wL:sum];pL,tI,kan]mUic]; Am],wL:sum];yip];kWc]: kac], yWn].pUiw]:mI;tac];yUp]:yWm]; nc],P}a,tC]:n}.> 1. Am],hB.sk];pw].m}a An]K:]C l}:tqt:] etL; kum,] kCcs ] mW ;] lWk;] kan]pa} ;mUci ;] An]man]: hac]:w}.' 2. Tac],yC,] pUn i :] ' sCy ] ,]C pUn i :] nm]lwiU y ] mu ,] ym]swiU .] sat]: P};nC;] sUwi .] sat]:hw];Kun i ;] 3. p}SQn]:tac];kan]p}a;mUic];Pit];' 4. mI;muk].sum];yw]. Am],hQt];sWm];lk];pUic]' pk];pUic] Am],mn]: kqn],eSlUm]lam]' tp].Suik];ekL: cw]:cun];yip];km]sUik]: Am],nqn]:nL'

48


5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

AUv];lIEl: PU:KQn] Am],emLsqk],EP' Am],PWm].hBm]:pn]:kqn],nqn]:nLkn]' lWc]:SUn];tum]kUn];mUic]; Am],Kuit];sn].' tac];hn]Tuic] pWt];' kqp]:' tuin]:' Am],kCac]:KCac]' Am],hn]k}' lWc]:Sun],tUw]sw]:kw], muk].sum];sw]:kw],w}.pQn]pUic]lUc] Am],hn]sWt],pn]hL tac];mUic];' 10.kum],hn]Pit];kn]eS yL.muk].sum];tqk],Kuin]; Aw]AQn]hqc]; AUn]:Kuin];' 11.kUn];mI;pic],vL,Kw] Am],Aw]pun]:PWn];tQm]TUn]: Am],Kam], yap],Puit],"

sw]:yWt]:Suik]; hBw]pw]:lUc] KWc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};

49

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

eKL:muc]:mWc];lWc]:Kuin]:yC],kt];yQn] lWt]:KQn]An]kUn];mUic];hw]; yWn];SU;yU,nn]. epL;kU:ekL. hp].Aw]pun]:PWn]; hQt];Sac]:hc];PC] hc];mn];kWn], kan]Kuin]:yC],kt];yQn] sc],kUit],Kuin]:mL;l}:' epL;kUn]; mUic];t}; hw];hk].tUwk] Uw]t}a p}a:Aw]tUw]lWt]:yU, hc];PC] hc];mn];n}suic] Pqn],lin] hBin];ey;hw];nn]. Am],mI;eKL:hp].hgc];El: yan],SU,KC]:luip]:p} a:hup]:Sim];Aw] mUiw]:lC]ekL:l}: epL;sUiw].sat]:hw];Am],lWt]:lqw];ekL: sUiw].sat]:t};hw]; kCL,hLyU,lC] mUic];lC]ekL: etAm],mUn]:SUiw]; mI;nm].kt].kL:huiw]ekL: KC]:yuk].yWc]: kuc],mun] pn]sUiw].sat]:hw];yU,ekL: etAm],sac]:hQt];l}:El: kWp]:n}t};kU:ekL. t};kU:tI: lUw],l}:Aw] tUw]TUp];tI:pUn].mL; pQn]tWn]:SWn]eS mL;wUn].Em; tUw]sC]eS hp].pun]: PWn];hQt];kCL,Tqc]:' P}a,nL:n}.kCL, yL,wL:kw]kYL. mC];kYL. t};etL,t};PWm].kn]n}suic] hG]:pQn]mUic];t};hw];mI;AUPuc];yw].kWn], kUn];mUic];t}; hw]; sc],mI;kuc],mun]tac];mUic];nn]. KL:yw].' lik]:hBm]:m}apac]lUc] An]PU:AWn] hBw]t};hw]; AWn]hQt];w}.nn].ekL: lUw],AWn] kn]pUk];luk]. hG]:mI;AUPuc];Kuin]: mL;kWn], pn]hLlUc]kan]p}a;mUic];man]: sc],ek:K}al}:' epL;PU:AWn]hBw] mUic];man]:mI;sC]JtL;ekL: etyU,hBm]:hgm];kn]kCL,l}:Tqc]:' epL;PU:AWn]hBw] man]:Kw] tuik].mI;sC]mUik]:lUic];yU,n}suic] kUn];mUic];t};etl}:yU,kt];yQn]' mI;AUPuc];JtL; Kuin];wn];nuic:] Am],hac]. yWn];SU;hG]:kUn];mUic];t}; hk].SLw}. Pqn],lin]El: Sqt].sL, JtL;eSkm];"


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

KWp]:KUp], 52 pI< !wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];@ kCam];Pak],tWn]: sWm]Suik]; sw]:yWt]:Suik]; 21st May, 2010 Kaw];tac];luk].Puin].KWp]:KUp], 52 pI,yw].El: lIsL.yUp]:yWm]; Kuin]:lUc];nn]. l}:Tt];Sac]EnmL;pI:nWc].kUn];mUic];t};El: PU:hk].sat]:hw];Kw]nc],huiw]epL;etsac]: Tt];Sac]hB.wL: hw];Kuin]:yC],mL;sUic].huiw] tUk];tqm],yUp]:yWm];sUic].huiw] hG]:epL;sac]:hB.eS wUn].Em; nUiw]PU:hk].sat]:El: tp].Suik];kCL,mUiw;] nL:nn].yw]." tp].Suik];An]wL:nn]. pQn]tL,hQt];hG]:sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];mI;AUPuc]; hG]:suic]: mUic];mn]:kuim];kCL,pI<yaw];Kaw];huic]El: tp].Suik];An]wL:nn].pQn]lup],Sn]lc]mUic];" luk]: AWn], hun]:mC],pQn]AQn]hqc];mUic];' kUn];mUic];pQn]nm].' tp].Suik];mUin]pL mQw];yU,sWm];kn]El: epL;kUn];mUic]; Am],pn]hqc];ekL: tp].etAm],Kuin]:yC],mI;hqc];l}: epL;tp].Am],mI;hqc];ekL: wan]:mUic];etAUn]:AWn], kUn];tac],sat]:Kw]etmL;ep.kin]lUla}kCL,Kaw];yaw]; etL,sUw]: luk]:pan]lan] hw];etyU,nC]; PwKI:KL:kCL, nc],wL:nn].hw];KL:Am],lIlUc]luim];mn]; lL;lL;KL:"

50


PU:AWn]hBw]man]:Kw]hk];lc]nm].sC]pac]lUc]eSSim];Aw]mUic];t};tqk],lqc];"

PU:AWn]hBw]man]:Kw]n}. l}:Aw]tp].Suik];man]:Kw]mL;Tic];Sim];w}.mUic];t}; Kw] sim]yip]; km]kan]pa};mUic];nC];mUic];t};yw].ekL:p},pQc];epL;sC]Kw]eS nc],huiw]etmI;eKL:hp]. hgc];pun]:tL, Kw]etSim];Aw]l}:w}.mUic];t};Kaw];huic] Kuic]kYam],hLla};mn];yU,kU:pUic]pUic]yw]."

mUiw]: 9. February. 2005 PWc];mUiw]: sw]:Kun]Tun];AU; hBw]pw]: SNLD El: sw]:SUiw] Tqn]: hBw]pw]: SSPC Kw]yUic];Aan];hG]:mUic];hBm]:tum]pQn]An]sqt]:sac],Kuin]:yC], kt];yQn] n}eSyum],ym]nm].sC]kU:Pa},eS l}:hQt];pac],Aup],AUw];kn]tI:tUn]:tI;(tWc],kYI;)n}.ekL: Suik];man]:Kw]En;SC],tac],tac];Pit];wL: kYam],sI,hG]:mUic];hBm]:tum]tqk],ya}:n}eS Aw]tac]; Pit];SC],KWk]:lUv]:Am],Tuk],mqn]:sWm];JtL;" An]yL.mUic];hBm]:tum]tqk],ya}:pQn]man]: Kw] lum];lum];nn]. Am],wUn].Tuic]eStc]:sC]hLtac];Pit];KUiw];kUn];mUic];t};n}nn].tqk],lqc]; lIyU," An]pUn].mL;Pa},lc] Suik];man]:tiAw]sw]:fL. PU:AWn]hBw]mUic];t};Kw]pL;tc]; PU:AWn]hBw] Kac]' KYac];' yac];lqc]' mWn];' rKqc], Kw]tc];nm]n}. l}:Tuk],tivgp];Aw]SC],KWk]: huic]pQn] 7/8 pI<pa}' km]:PWc]:ekL:l}:Kam],Aw]ta}pqt]:mUin]nc],sw]:fL.SI,epL.El:Sc]' luc];PUw];yQn], l}a;KL:Kw]El:Sc]' sUiw;] n}.l}:Tuk],tc];man]:Kw]Aw]ta}" km]:PWc]:ekL: ta}nC];KWk]:' km]:PWc]:ekL:AWk],KWk]:mL;yw].sp];eyL;kL,tac];pQn]ta}' km]:PWc]:Am],l}:yU, wan]:kw],mUic];lc]Kuin]; man]:sC].yU,lC]ekL:l}:yU,tI:nn]: l}:Tuk],man]:Kw]pC].lWm]tUv]; SUn]:tin]tL,eS, mUin]yU,nC];Ek:KWk]:Kc]w}.yU,tL,eS,nn].yw]."

51

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

pun]:tL,suic]:t}; epL;l}:kWn];eKLyw]. 10 pI<tQm] mI;Sun],l}:Sun],pQn]Pat], AWk],mUic];hBm]:tum]An]wL:nn].ekL: tuik].mI;yU,nC];ma}mI:cw]:Kam],puin].El: lWc]:n}.tuik].pQn] An]ka};tLman]:Kw]w}.El: man]:ekL.lC]Kuin]:mL;AWn]hBw]ekL:hB.etKt];sC]luim];eScUic]: Ew:pqt]:yU," kWp]:n}Am],mI;lWc]:tac];eSEn;wL:PU:AWn]hBw]En,mUic];Kw]km]:PWc]:n}. lk].lWm] yip];muiw]; kp];Suip],hBm]:hgm];kUn];nWk]:mUic];yw]. yL.mUic];hBm]:tum]yU,n}eSTuic]mL;mUiw]: 2. March.1962 nn]. Suik];man]:Kw]Sim];AL,nL,suic]:mUic];eSyL.Sim];pqt]:ma}mI:cw]:Kam],puin]. nUiw]nm].sC]pac]lUc] pqt]:nn].yw]."


wa};Sim];l}:AL,nL,yw].Suik];man]:Kw] An]en,win];AWn]hBw]nn]. Tuic]mL; 28.March.1964 nn]. puin]Paw],ma}mI:kqt],EKlWc]:PWm].hBm]:sUiw].sat]:An]wL:nn].eS ham]:tap]:yL.pqt]:Sun],l}:Sun],pQn]tI,mUw],Ker,SI, tc];SQc]:eSyw]. Aw]lWk];pUic] AL,nL, Suik]; pL,tI,An]lQw]Aup].pUic],wan]:mUic];yU,yw]."

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

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52


ekL:tqm];AWk],pp].lik]:SUiw]PUik],cUik]:kac];la};' l}a;Pn];mUic];' hB.tUw]tL.t};' lWc]:mUic];t}; l}:Kam],Sum]; (o#rf;jynfepfemcsuf) mUic];t};etkCL,lC] (o#rf;jynfb,fvJ) El: kap]:pan] kan]mUic];mUiw]:lQw]skCL,sUw];n}.eSSUn];eSL,sC]hk].sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic]; pUin]:Puv],pn] Sa}lqc];kan]pa};mUic];tI:kUn];mUic];t};mL;yU,yw]." luk]:hQn];sn].sWm]El: Sc],KL,Kw]ekL: Kt];sC]puit],pac]SWn]lik]:t}; !m@ hL:tUw]skCL,sUiw];n}.pQn]pun]:tL,hG]:t};hB.tUw]El: emLpUk];pWc]tUw]kw],El: wan]:mUic];tUw]kw],nn].eShG]:lqt];Sqw]; PWm].kn]Aw]sUiw].sat]: wan]:mUic];AWk],lWt]:pUn].l}:sat]:KL:man]: Am],sC]:lqt];hk].tUw]kw],kUw]ta}Aw]tUw] lWt]:pa}:pqt]:lL;lL; t};kU:ekL.lIhB.tUw]yU," pW};tuik];Suik];man]:El: kU:saw];KUiw];"

nC];pI< 1948 lUin]kYO,la},n}. saw];KUiw];yac];Kw] esL;pAU;kYI; AWn]hBw] eSKuin]; luk].Puin].lUc]pWc]sicu ]:Suik];man]:km];lQw]yw]." yac];lqc]' mWn]; Kw]ekL:luk].

53

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

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nC];mUic];t};n}.ekL: 1958 lUin]em, wn];TI. 21 n}.kUn];mUic];t};tc]:Et,yip]; kWc]:eSluk].Puin].Kw]:pW};tuik];pun]:tL,lWt]:lqw];kWn];eKL sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];mL;yU," Tuic]mL;pI< 1961 n}.saw];KUiw];Kac]Kw]ekL:Et,luk].Puin].lUc]pWc]suic]:man]: mL;yU,yw]." nC];mUic];hBm]:tum]mUic];man]:n}. kU:saw];KUiw];AWn]kn]yip];kWc]:eSluk].Puin]. kqt],EKsUiw].sat]: PC]mn];mL;Et.Et.nn].yw]." Suik];man]:Kw]luip]:lm];tuik];PQw]:mUv]. kL:huiw]ekL:Am],ha}la}l}: pW};tuik];sUiw].sat];n}.tuin];etAWc],ep.yU,wn];nuic]:n}nn]. yum],ym]w}.nk];nk];nLnLyU,yw]." eKL:yUp]:yWm];Kaw];tac];kan]luk].Puin]."

kan]luk].Puin].Kaw];tac]; 52 pI<Pan],mL;n}. mI;pL;lWc]:lIlWc]:sL. mI;tac]; Kuin]:yC], yUp]:yWm];nc],kn]El: wn];luk].Puin].KWp]:KUp], 52 pI<n}.etTt];Sac]EnhG]: pQn]tI:ma}tWc];El: tWn]:SWn]kUn];hQt];kan]hk].mUic];kCL,Kaw];nL:hQt];kan]Sc]ekL:lI epL;Am],Tt];Sac]Kuin]; Pa},lc]An]Pit];An]Tuk], An]Kuin]:yC],yUp]:yWm];l}:n}suic] ethUiw].la}eS etAm],mI;PWn];lI Sc]nn].KL:yw].' lWc]:yUp]:yWm];hbp]:eStUv];suic] etl}:hn]nc],n} 1.

2. 3.

4.

mUiw]:ekL,sL.luk].Puin].kWp]:mI;sC]hk].KUiw];eSluk].Puin].tI:PC]tI:mn];El:Am],mI; kan]TUp];muiw];' kan]Suik];' kan]Aup].pUic],El: lWc]:hac]:hqn];Pqnk] an]Am],epL;Kqm]. lqp]:tqt]:etL;" mI;sC]hk].KUiw];luk].Puin].tI:PC]mn];El: Am],mI;lWc]:PWm].hBm]:kn] Am],mI;lWc]: wac];Pqn]pQn]Kk].pQn]tWn]: ethQt];Sc]AWn]tac];nn].Am],mI;Pqn]kan]" kan]luk].Puin].huic]mL;kUn];lUc]km]:PWc]:hB.es;sim],kan]luk].Puin].eSmw];yWc], AL,nL,El: cuin];Km];eSAm],w}.kan]sUiw].sat]:pQn]yC],Aw]Sun],tUw]pQn]yC], eSKqn]nL:tI:kn] Am],KC]:hQt];sWm];pk];pUic] huic]mL;ekL:tqk],kn]tuik];kn]Kuin];" kan]mUic];Am],w}.sn].Suc] epL;man]:yWk],lqn]eKYL;Aw]Sun],l}:pn]ekL:yum], ym]hQt];sWm];man]: tUk];lWk];man]:Kuin];" Am],tm];w}.lk];kan]El: eKL:yum],

54


5.

6.

8.

lWc]:An]lat]:mL;sUiw];n}. mUic];man]:yw]."

pQn]tac];yUp]:yWm];kan]luk].Puin].nC];mUic];hBm]:tum]

sw]:yWt]:Suik]; hBw]pw]:lUc] KWc,] SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};

55

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

7.

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Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

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56


pqt]:w}.nG];pI<kw],' pI<mC],n}.kCL,nL:hG]:Pgm].kn] Em;pa};wUn].mG],' la};hQt];mC],' tUw]sG]mG],' Aw] sG]SG],nUiw]kan]wan]:mUic];hw];KL:" 2. kUn];mUic];t};hw];KL: Kuin];Em;Tt]; tUv]; pk];pUic]ma}mI:suic]:mUic];pI< 2008 An] man]:Kw] hQt];mL;nn]. man]:Kw]lgk],lqn]Aw] PU:Agn]hUw]kU:saw];KUiw]; sum];sUiw];kuit];Suik]; kU:sum];sum]; puit],hQt];pac]kum]lUc] NC Kaw]; tac]; 14 pI< An]lIKuin]:mL;Am],mI;Sc]' Aw]kU:saw];KUiw];pQn]KUic]:muiw]; hG]:Kw]tqm]:ma}mI: suic]:mUic];Kw]eSpuin]Paw],wL: !saw];KUiw];mI; Sun],hUm]:tqm]:ma}mI:suic]:mUic];@ n}nn].kUv];" tI:An]pQn]Et.mn];saw];KUiw];Am],mI;Sun], hUm]:" sum];kuit];Suik];Kw] 13 sum]; ygn];Ek:K}a mac]tgn]:ekL: yc];Am],l}:' ma}mI:pk];pUic]siuc]: mUic];nn]. pQn]tL,pun]:Suik];man]:Kw]Pa},lQw]' nG];nUiw].hLpk];pUic] suic]:mUic];nn].ekL:hQt];hG]: Suik];man]:Kw]mI;AL,nL,yuin];yaw];kGL,Tqc]:

57

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

kGL,Tqc]: sgm];nc], yUic];Aan];Kw]mI;nn].yU," epL;Suik];tuik];kn]n}. hU.etsac]:tum]. tUiw].kUn];mUic];hw];Am],hac].El: kUn];mUic];hw];ekL: Am],lUw],l}:yU,mw]kin]mac] Tuic] Kaw];yam];lUw],tUc].tuin], kan]mUic];kn]El: Tt];Sac] wUn].lat]: An]Tuk],mqn]:sgm];JtL;' hG]:emLhB.sk];kan]km].Tqm]El: kan]kqt],EK' yL,eppQn] !kUn];lIkGL,tUk];pQn]KicU ]:muiw]; kUn];mUik]:@ nn].lL;lL;" Tuic]Kaw];yam];yw]. kUn];mUic];El:tp].Suik]; lUw],hUm]:kn]tuik]; Aw]Sun],l}:mUic];hw]; pun]:tL,AL,nL,kat]:luk]:lan]hw]; hG]:l}:yU,lIkin]lIKuin]:yG], kt];yQn]' epL;hw];KL:Am],Pgm].kn]Et, hQt];wn];mUiw]:n}. wn];Kaw];tac];nL:nn]. luk]: lan]kUn];mUic];t};hw]; etnL:lQk].tUk];tqm]," !Pgm].hUm]:kn]hQt];Sac]:kan]@ An]wL:nn]. nUk].sgk],ep.KL;ekL:Aw]KL: sac].cL;ep.tum]ekL:Agc];tum]' hw];KL:lUw],k}.kum]kn]mUn].Em; kn] hw];KL:yL,epyU,ekL.tI:eSES.en;kn]" kUn];mUic];t};hw];lUw],l}: hk].hgm]kn]eS El:mUn].Em;kn]' kan]An]Am],lItc]; mUt];


Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

nn].kUv];' epL;hw];KL: Am],Tt];lIlIsuic] hw];Sm].km].Tqm]kGL,wn];Kaw];tac];nL:mL; sUiw].sat]:wan]:mUic];sac]:sUm]ha}" 3. wa};Kw]lUik]:tc]:yw]. Kw]Sm].pg},Agc],San];SU.kYI, An]Kw]pg},Agc],San];SU.kYI, n}. pQn]lgk];lQn]: kan]mUic];Kw]An]nuic]:kUv];' Am],sG]:wL:Kw]Am],mI;Pqn]Sc]eS p}g, Agc],San];SU.kYI," Sc]wL:Suik];man]:Suiw]:yUw];eSEl: KG]:Ek:pn]hLkan]mUic]; nG];mUic];hUm]: tum]mUic];man]:n}suic] mUin]nc], !hUw]pw]:Kun]Tun];AU;@ Am],mI;tc];Pit];Sc]eSl}:Tuk], kum];Kc] SG],Kgk]:w}.nn].Kw]Tuk],lIpg},Kuin];" An]Agc],San];SU.kYI,puin]Paw],wL: !kU:Pa}, mn];nac];ethQt];hG]:Pgm].hUm]:kn]@ n}nn]. mn];nac];lat]:l}:yU,' kUv];kL:kan] TUp];muiw]; tL,mn];nac];ethQt];nn].etyap],Et.Et.' kgp]:wL:Suik];man]:Kw]etpk]; tLtUv];sgm]; etAm],pn]Pat],Sa}tL Sc]wL:mn];nac];hQt];Pit]; kCL,Ait];nuic]:kUv]; ekL:sac]:vgp];SG],Kgk]:Tqc]:km];nuic]:yU," Sc]wL: Suik];man]:hLtac];Pit]; Am],l}:Sm]. hQt];hG]:tum].yWn]: !AL,nL,Suik];man]:Kw]Kgn];w}nn].@ Suik];man]:Kw] etlgm]yuiw];pqt]: mn];nac];eSetEn;SG],sum];yip];kgc]:kac], Am],nn] Am],hU.wL:pQn]PG]yuiw]; kgp]:pUiw]: piun];Suik];man]:Kw]yam]:mI;mL; lgc]:yuiw];ta}pqt]:PU:Agn]hUw]la}pgk]:yw]." pUw],KYOk]. Agc],San]; epL:nac];Agc],San];SU.kYI, ekL:l}:Tuk],yuiw];ta}El: pQn]puin];hac]:ha}. tL,Suik];man]:Kw]w}.yU," kgp]:n}El:tL,mn];nac]; ettUc].nuic]hQt];Sac]:kan]mUic]; hG]:epL;lqk]:la}:nn].Et. etAm],mI; tac];muc]:mgc];l}:kL:huiw]" 4. Tuic]Kaw];yam];yw]. Suik];hk].sUiw].KUiw];wan]:mUic];kU:mU,' kU:sum];' kU:saw];KUiw]; lUw],l}: Pgm].hBm]: sp];muiw];kn]eS Kw]:pg};tuik];kGL,tqk],tqk],lqc];lqc]; epL;wL:Am],Pgm].hUm]:kn]

58


eKL:luin];Sut];> mUic];him];hgm];hw]; suic]:mUic];EK,' mUic];Ain];tI;yUiw];' mUic];T}; El:AL<SI<yn]<sUiw];n}. Kw]ekL:pk];tLtUv];lgc]:mUic];man]:yU,' kUv];kL:kUn];hQt];kan]mak]:mI;Kw] An]Am],hn] kUn];mUic]; tuk].yak]: eSKG]:mL;Aw]KUw];Kgc]nG];mUic];man]: Am],hn]Sun],l}:Sun],pQn]kUn]; hn]wL:Suik];man]:n}. mI;AL,nL,eSEl: KG]:hQt];ekL.Suik];man]:yU,nn].tuik].mI;tc];nm]" sum;] sUwi ;] An]hn]Sn u ,] l}: kUn;] mUci ;] An]hn]Skiu ;] man]:pUn.] pqnS ] n u ,] l}:kUn;] An]hn]wL: Suik];man]: pQn]kUn];mUik]:lUic]; sUiw];nn].ekL:mI;tc];nm]" kUv];kL: kUn];mUic];him];hgm];hw]; Kat],eKL:mun]; An]pQn]Et.mn];El: hw];KL:lUw],l}:hLeKL:mun]; sg}:SUc],pWn]:pn] Kw]sw]:' hG]:kUn];wan]:kUn];mUic];Kw]hp].hU.cw];la}; yU,tL,eS,nn]. pQn]pun]:Pgn];kUn]; mUic];hw];KL: sUiw];An]hk].sUiw].hk].KUiw];nn].KL:yw]. ygn];SU;hG]:kUn];mUic];t};hw];KL:kU: tI:tI: yU,lIkt];yQn]eSkm]; mG],Suc]>> sw]:ygt]:Suik]; hUw]pw]:lUc] Kgc],SI,Aw]Kuin];suic]:t};

59

Kgp]:KUp], 53 pI< wn];luk].Puin].kqt],EKAw]Kuin];mUic];

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AWn]SI (03.05.2011)


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