Issuu on Google+

L 

rBm  vldefodyf;nAwf; yDwB;        

ymifukrfuljqkdifjrldif;vAyfj[Aef;v.ifjwB; ykdef;ZB;OB.;-ckdef;zB;+B;yldif;vFif;

|7| |9|

12

qOfj,.wfjodkuf;OMj odkuf;rmefjnrfbqfgjvlify.ifqkdifj wMbqkrf;rdlif;vM;qkuf;refj q.ifbawndifymifomif;

16

|24| e,fjcm;apmifw h yf rkid ;f vm;wyfz‹JG jiif;r& |27| Armppfom;csif;ypf 5 a,mufao |30| typf&yfw‹kd wcgaobl; ysOfz;kd em;vnf ovm; |39| 0 eJ‹ Arm wyftiftm; pHEe+ ;f jynfrh o DS vm;

22

23


ymifukrfuljqkdifjrldif;vAyfj[Aef;v.ifjwB;

All photo : SHAN

15-17/10/2009


INDEPENDENCE

pWc:] kCam];nL: 1

ymifukrfuljqkdifjrldif;vAyfj[Aef;v.ifjwB; ykdef;ZB;OB.;-ckdef;zB;+B;yldif;vFif; x5oyt,kr,5b;yhdK'y]5boy v:dyHm5;yH[5b;yH #QQ+ ,urxK'yd,6 l y ,yH,okH 0oydt h5 06'b hy ,5'b ry ]Gxhy sGory ]:'hy 9wrSvoy0oy0 t ,: ] y '5 0 y ] 6 kH ]5'Hy d:oHy ;G'ry ]5',y 'b5 ry d:djy -xyrsCory -6'b xy ': ?y 0;yhxwKrs^TxwKr;5oyt0oyt]6,yhakT 05b;yrxGoy-5r l:o] y '5 0 y oy0 t ,: y vbdjy z5h]Gxhy sGory -5o-ty k. T ]:'yh9wr ]6dyT )S_ ,5b'yr d.kj-;yhs^,yhoxyts^;y lbxyr? 9wroy.r,5b'yrmwr Z9wrx69bx6b'yhs^,yhd,yh o,y/ 9wr0k9bd,yhgvjX -;yhs^,hy oxyst ;^ xy Kdyj? xK'yd6,y0oyT]6,yhakT ]:'yh9wrooyT 06b;yh9K'yrdKoy (official) 9C,yh;khSxK'yd6,y -:oHy aiCol ty dy h5 06'b hy ,5'b ry / dKoy,o 5 hy 0yd. khswj 96'b hy s<'z ty 'G ry c]h dKoyco-5'b hy -5;ry xdyraK'y ]GxyhsGoyr]:'yh9wr International Conference, Performing Arts and Exhibition on Shan Studies (ICSS) s^;yx;yh0oyt0:,y]5'y 06]kH]5'Hy d:oHy -5rl:o] y '5 y zb¤,5 Hy d,5oHy i9od6oyH c9jx6b9yjxK'yx:9yroy.;oyrmb @*2@Q2Q+ gl ,urxK'yd6,ylxyr]C'yr 9:'yh mK,yv6xyjv5;yr oy.rs<'yh]6dyrxK'yd6,y $ s<'yh # ;oyr?

9uhs<'hy ]6dry xK'yd,6 l y ,yH,okH $ s<'hy voy0dC jy -K;yrpK,yrv:o;y oyrS;wKr;oyrooyt 0;yhxwKrs^TxwKr;5o-ty ;y v;y9'yrz6o b ] y db hy z6o b y ]wKr,ur]dyrmKoy coxkrsK'yhmwj o5b;yzCoyj -K;y ]5Pyh-:,yHzb;yH95b;yH s<'yt;kh power point presentation ? oy.rdkhz5h]GxyhsGoyr -5o-yt k. T20;yhxwKrs^TxwKr;5oty (academic, intellectual) ,ur *@ gdkTooyo t r.y ,5'b ry mwr #@ gdkT Z-5rl:oy0oyt0:,yd,yho,y/ z5h-5oyt-.kTc]h ]6dyhsGoyr0oyt0:,yd,yhz:'yhX 9wr @@ gdkT ZdG'yr,y.j * oy.r,5b'yr # o:dyh,5b'yr % xkr9'yr l'y- $ 95oXy ai'yj @@j c-j *j d]kr #j ,Koyh @ gdkT Z-5rl:op y 'b ry 0oy0 t ,: 9 y khd6'hy 06b;yh-boyj,5;yr,5;yrd\3jX? ]:'yh9K'yrvoylxyr]C'yrg9kT9wj-wh co Z]K9yhzklkv'yrdb9dty ,yho,y mwrd,yh z:'hy 9wrvb9ry v:9ry X ooyt xkrs^;yg-khpy.j 05;b ry ow?t 9wroyr. ,5'b ry mwr (Shan in Thailand) ,6dyTp:,yj06,yrd5oyr9wr (Shan Community) okh9kxdyraK'yor.y d.K,yrdxyrm6djy 9wr(‘Faces’ in Tai Proverbs) ]:dyrx5b'ydKoyz:'yr',yr

(Administrative System) dKoyd; b5 ry ]ulkl ok c]h ]:'yhp6,yjp,y (Religions and Beliefs) xwKr,:ory vx6,jy '5o b hy x6o b ry c]h lkl okx69ytm (Art, Myth and Buddhism) PKoyj;5oyT]dyr]C,yc]h d.K,yrs^Tx6boyT9uh (Wisdom and Local Knowledge) ]bdhy ]wKr c]h dKoyswj96b'yhs<'tyzG'yr (Literature and Music) ? oyr. 9wrc9t,ru 0;yho5ory v5 ]:dhy 0:djy / oK'yr-5b;yrlCoy/ oK'yrlC'yo:'yt/ oK'yrlufkr/ oK'yrlC',y o 5 ry / 0wKr-5;b ry p6o b ry / 0wKr]kTm6ory swKrxk -;y-;yhs^,hy ]5vKoyj-whx6o b ry lxyr]C'ry ? oyr. dkhs^;gy -kh]:'hy 9K'yrz6o b ] y db hy -5oty -.kT (research paper) voy0;yhxwKrs^TxwKr;5oty -;y]5vKoyjlxyr]C'yr05b;yrooyt ]u-;yh0y. l5oy0y.d,yho,ygl9kT p:oytx5b;yhxGoyzklk ;b-\kr Z;bdTy 0kjX 0oyl t '6 ] y db6 Ty ],yjz:'hy c]h d5Pry ,uroyr. ;5'hy ;K'yh;5'ry dKoy0;yhxwKrs^TxwKr;5oty -;yo'yjdoy 05,ry l5'm y ,: jy 'bory o,y];b5 0 y ;b5 ry d5oyr9wr? ]whsoy;kh o6,yjswKr0wKrpb'yr9wr -;yhm:,yj v,yjgxkr,urdkhs6;b y?

voy0;yhxwKrs^TxwKr;5oyt-;y]5vKoyjlxyr]C'yr05b;yrooyt ]u-;yh0y.l5oy0y.d,yho,ygl9kT p:oxty ;b5 hy xGoz y klk;b-\kr Z;bdTy 0kjX 0oyl t '6 ] y db6 Ty ],yjz:'hy c]h d5Pyr,uroy.r;5'yh;K'yh;5'yrdKoy0;yhxwKrs^TxwKr;5oyt-;yo'yjdoy 05,yrl5'ym:,yj'boyro,y]5b;y05b;yrd5oyr9wr Shan Herald Agency for News

3


voy-xyrsCoyr9,yr;K'yr -xyt-6b;yrczj co-5b'yh-5;yr xdyraK'y9wr Exhibition oyr. # ;oyrooyt ,urs6ojy sK'yhIzkr mK9yhg09ud;yj cdjd6db ry x6o b ry zCojy ]bocy ]h ]bdhy ]wKrd;yjS ,yj. 0G,xy 9 : ry s<'jy 2dK'y20Koyr2v:djy 06'b hy 9wr? sK'yhm:9jy 0;yhakT/ gsk0;yhakT c]h s6ojy sK'yhs^o b ry 9wr? zCo9 y hu 06'b hy 9wrzCojy pyj. co9uhp5jl;yr0K;yr-5;b ry / v:'hy 9uh06;b hy pyj. ]6;b ry ]'yddb6 ry x6o b ry vbdjy x6o b ry s6xhy dCxhy x5'b xy o G y b ry 06'b hy 9wr -K;yr9K'yr #jQQQ xu? -xy9 t K,yrx6o sK'yhmwjdKoydkT9wr,5b;yhd:oyj dKxyh;5;yr9K'yj c9jxKoy-o 6 l y K,yg]kr,kr? -5;ry o6'hy 9wr0wKr pb'ry xKoyd;yj g9kjxKoy,j.y ]wKx:9ry ]wK9:ohy voy]Kdyj]wK? sK'yhmwjxwr: ]K,yr9wr @# ]5o b y oy.rcdhxwKhgzrl6bdyrl5b;y z:'yr]whm6dyjgskh ]6bxyh-wKT;Koyh Z;Koyho:dyhx:9yr0Koyr 0:,yr lKxyjxK'ylKxyj9G'ry X ? sK'yhmwjpkhpk9wr ,:djy ,KdyjsKdyhs^;y Zpk0:,jy d:,jy X / sK'yhmwj-;yhzdyr 9K'yrdboypC,yt9wrS0G,y05b;yrowt? m6'b ,y kr;oyrmb @)2@Q2Q+ v:o;y oyr/ 9K'yhc9j Q+rQQ ,5'yr m6b'y 9G'yh;oyrS ,urdKoy];yj,5ohy 95ohy 0y. dkhswj96'b hy s<'z yt 'G ry d.K,yr oy.rs^'yrgskxK'yd6,y]5'y Zgskxikj-\4,yH py.jX 0oyt0:,y06]kH Zvoydkh-K9yh,oyr ]whlG'hy xGoy *S( ,6o b jy ;K9yj ;khow?X voy 0oyt0:,y06]kHp5b'yrvKoyr;wt g9co05b'yr dkh 0;yhpb'yrlCoy;uooyt l,ytv,yjxGoyco xC9hy c]h ]uglr]wK]5'] y K'y? 0;yh96o b ry lK'y ,5'b ry o:'y dK;yj]K9yhx69 b jy xK'y/ 0;yh-,yr sKoyakT lCoy;u x5'yd.K,yr-:9yjp:9yh]5xyr ]6boyr? gxkr,krm9yrlK'y Z0:,yr]wKrzkj,wT v,yjc;h9kX o5b;ydKoy,5oyh0y. Arts performing 06' b y awKjdkh;Coy Zo5dTy 95;ry X c]h awKj96'b hy x;yj Zxuj]5,yr/ 9:'yh]b9yr/ xuj,Kdyj o,y9 t ;yhX -6db Ty -C,Ty ? awKjzG'ry d.K,yr v,yjgxkr ]usKoy0 t ?.y 0wKrs<'z ty 'G ry xKoy,j.y gdkTo6'b hy gdkh ]5dhy ]Kdyh v,yjm6djy ,Cohy ';yr]wKrv:'hy 9uh?

Photo : Harn (SHAN)

L

0;yh96boyrlK'y ,5b'yro:'y dK;yj]K9yhx6b9yjxK'yxw:r Sao Tern Sarng Mongnawng

ICSS

owT v,yjmKoyj,uhgdkh-uh-'yh xGov y oys9 G ry syh> x5o b hy s^T0dyrs;yr,krz:'hy ? gxkrx5o b hy s^T0dyrs;yr,krS x5boyh0'yj0K'yh;wTodyrxdyr9kl5oy0y. aK'y (exhibition) c]h ]:'hy ];yj,5ohy 95ohy 0y. Performing arts ,5boyxw:r]K,yrd6boyrv6bdyt v6bdyt d5oyroxyts^;ysG'ys^;y,6boyjooytc9t xGoy voydC,yvoys<'yrmbl:'y? -6dyr0y.]whd.K,yr0b o,yr l'y-0;yh95o-y r5 ]5'9 y o 5 o y 'b6 hy pK,yh ;kh -6b'yx:'yxK'y-xyrsCoyr0oytd5h06b'yh,5b'yr inbo ty 'yjsG9ry xwr: xu,j.y 9wr ternationalization Z05' 9uh;G'ry ]oyH foyH ,5'b ry v'yrdb9ty ,5;b hy sK'yxu #QQ)X owt l,yt;kh,urd5oyr-;yhs^,yh oxyts^;y lbxyr s^;yxKdyj d5Pyrgdkh 0K'yh,uro,yt9:oyr z:oyr]uo,y]5b;yxw:r]K,yr]5'yoy.r,5b'yr voy d6boyr-:oyh,urd5oyr oxyts^;ysG'ys^;y,6boyjd:oyj S ;khow?

]:o,ty o : ry o,y9 t o : ry z:ory ]u 9uh,6'hy ,wK xK'yd6,yd5h06b'yh,5b'yr ]GxyhsGoyr]:'yh9wr ICSS owt ;wTodyrxdyr9k awKj]GxyhsGoyr-5oyt -.kT0:,yro'yj s^;yg-khxCdyjx5b'yhdoy? ]:'yh-xyr sCoyr 9,yr;K'yr-xyt-6b;yrczjco-5b'yh-5;yr xdyr 4

Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

v;y,Kdyj9kdKoy'o b5 hy -5;b ry 05;b 0 ty K9yh;kh gdkh]u/ ,Kdyj9kdKoy,5b'yr;khgdkh]u/ ,5b'yrsb,yr s<,yrc]hl'y/ ,5b'yro:dyhS]6,yhakTc]hl'y/

x5boyhdwT]wh'boyrs^T0dyr]:'yh,5b'yr,Koyh/ -5b;yr ,Koyh Zv:'yjlKoyrl6d\uj/ 9Koyrl5Pyj/ ,:'yj gvr -;yX o,y]5b;y]:'yh0K;yr-5b;yr ) ,5b'yr/ o,y]5b;y9wr2,5b'yr9wr2x6boyr9wr? ICSS owT v,yjmKoyj,uhgdkh-uh-'yh xGoyvoysG9yrsy>h x5boyhs^T0dyrs;yr,krz:'yh? gxkrx5boyhs^T0dyr s;yr,krS x5o b hy 0'yj0K'yh;wTodyrxdyr9kl5oy 0y. Zglr]wK/ gvr]5/ d,ytmC,y/ xoysC'yrX?

p5b'yrvKoyr ;oyrmb $Q2+2Q+ ;wKr;oyr ,urxK'y0'C hy -K;yj (press release) 9uh0oyt0:,y06]kH ]5'Hy d:oHy / f:dTy 95;b ty l6o9 G ty l6mo b Hy mikH o5oyH z5hd,ydxyr s<'yhdKoy]GxyhsGoyrx:9yr ,5'b ry gvHlb\3;yH (Institute of Asian Studies = IAS) ,:djy ]K9yh;khS9wrxGo0 y K;yr-5;b ry ,urab'yhc'h2sb9yhsw<r/ zklkd.K,yr]K9yh]bdyh ]wKrs'yrd5Pyr? dG;yjdxyr]:'yh9wrowt ]6,yhakT


INDEPENDENCE dKoyxKw r,:ory (Discovery of Ramanya Desa

: History, Indentity, Culture, Language and Performing Arts) ,5b;yhsK'yxu #QQ)

Photo : Harn (SHAN)

ooyt06b'y ]:'yhxK'yd6,y,:oyr pK,yhxkroy.rl6b;yj Zmedia- z6boy-K;yj/ TV ,5b'yrmwrvbdyj ,5b'yr o:dhy X o,y9o : ry ]5;b ] y ': hy 9wr? z5hsdyT0K9yh,:oyr ZlCoyrdK'yd5oyrX gdkTo6b'yh m9yrlK'y;khS ,5b;yhxK'yd6,y]:'yh ,:oyr xuv:oy #QQ) ooyt xkrdKoy,5b'yro,y Z05;b o ty 'yj s^;gy -khdKoysdyT0K9yh,:ory 9'yh c9j @+_%S dKoy]6dyTz6boyt96bdyrg9kr/ ]:'hy d69 b ry l6db ry c]h ]:'hy 95'9 ty o b6 jy dKoy,'b5 ry Mon Nationalism since 1984 : insurgency, ceasefires and political struggle

0;yh-,yrsKoyakT lCoy;u x5'yd.K,yr-:9yjp:9yh]5xyr]6boyrxK'yxw:r Sao Kham Harn Fa Hsenwi

c]h ,5'b ry sb,ry s<,ry pK,yhs^T0dyrp:oxty K'y9db6 ry l6bdyrl5b;y9'yr ]:'yhd5oyrxwKhgzrd,yho,y? v,yjgxkr,urd5oyrsGoyrs^T]:'yh9wrc]h l6b;yj gdkhv,yjgxkrv:djy czh95djy ]K9yh]:'hy 9wr ]6bdyT],yjd.K'yh-.K'y? d:xyhooy p5b'yrvKoyr 09yrsCoyrxK'yxw:rowt o'yjs6b;y]6,yhakTg9s^T 0dyr-;yh0y.]:'yh9wro,y,kr? v:oy9K'yrowt pK,yh09yr]:'yh0K;yr-5b;yr05b;yr,ur,5b'yr ,5boy o'yj xK'y]GxyhsGoyr]:'yh,Koyh d,yjz5r-\kr ;C9o ty K,yr mwr 05;b ry ow?t ;wKrowt 0'yj09yr]:'hy 0K;yr-5;b ry 05;b ry xwj,ur;Koyh,ur,5'b ry ,5o b o y 'yj xK'y ]Gxhy sGory ]:'hy 0K;yr-5;b ry i-C'jy Z#QQ(X/ ,:ory Z#QQ)X p;y0 t 'yj,kr9wr? 0;yh-,yrsKoyakT 95;y9Coyrgdkab'yh c'h]bdyh]wKrdG'yr,wj ,:dyj]K9yhp5b'yrvKoyr x5'b ] y '5 y % g-kh;kh Z@X x5;b hy 9kjp6dTy p:'hy xdyraK'y,G9yj,wK (National Identity) 05;b ty 0K9yh/ sy>h,C9yjxC'yr;wtab'yhx5b'y05b;yt-5b;yrpkj syh> 05,sy Kw Z#X d59 b jy xGo9 y rw ,krp;yt syh> g,kv;y d6ory ,6o;y kh d;yxo G 9 y rw / syh> s^T;kh9wr v,yj0yh. d5oyr95oyrp5js'yrg-k/ s;yrxGoyx:9yrv:oyj 9:ohy o6'b hy oyr. d5ory -5;b ry 9wrxKdyj]Koyo t r.y gvH l\b3;yH voy,urzklkd.K,yr]K9yh2ab'yhc'h sb9yhsw<r Z$X sy>hd5hawKj2]6,yhakTs^T0dyr;kh 9wrv,yj0y.hd5oyr0K;yr-5b;yrv:oyj 06,yrgvj Z%X syh> 9wr,ur]:'hy 0,y0d.y oy9'yrmwrS]K;yr? p5'b ry vKoyr05;b ry owt x:'xy o G ] y hw dkhs6;b gy 9sG9ry

lK'yhsK'yhx:'yd.kjS;khow?

zys. 9 G ry zy0 . h:w / zyd. ,yst 'C ry / d:xhy l'ys9 G ry 9uh 06]kH s<'yhdKoyawKj]GxyhsGoyr]:'yhd5oyr-5b;yr ,5'b ry gvhl\b3;yH (Institute of Asian Studies = IAS) sK'yhsCory -6' b xy ': ?y ,6dTy ,5jgdk06,ry 9wr oyr. ,5'b ry mwr voyxo G dy ;y't ;yhakTm,yrlC'y Z,5b'yrd:dyjX c]h gdk]bdyh]wKrab'yhc'h9wr ZdG'ry ,yj. X -;yhs^,hy 0wh: mC,?y EBO voy0;yh sKoy p:'ys^Pyh xGoyz5hx:'ydKoy director d,yt 0w:hsC'yr'6boyr? Zd,yhz:'yh;kh p:oyt06b;yhlG'y voyowtc]h 0;yhxwKrs^T xwKr;5oyt oy.r,5b'yr9wr ,5'b ry ,Koyh voy0oy0 t ,: 0 y ] 6 kH ,:djy d.kj )S_ 0;yh v,yjs9yr,kr-;yhs^,hy X ? 0oy0 t ,: 0 y ] 6 kH ]5'yHd:oyHowt p:oytx5b;yhxGoy 0oyt0:,y9C;yr mKoyhd5h06'b hy ,5'b ry oyr. x:9ry 9:ohy gvHl\3b ;yH gl x5o b hy gdkhdwT09yrsCory 05'b o ty oy-;b5 ry -5;b ry pyr. pyr. xGo9 y hu s^T0dyro,yc]h 0'yj]whsG9ry 9uhooyh?

]:'hy p5xhy p:,ry gxkr9Cdyhdoy9'yrxK'yd6,yd5h06b'yh,5b'yr ]Gxhy sGory ]:'hy ,:ory voy9'yh06;b hy 9K'yrdKoy (official) ;khS ]:'hy -5om ty x5 ry '5o b hy -5;b ry ,:ory S x6boyr/ ,G9yj,wK0K9yh/ ab'yhc'h/ zklkc]h

voy Ashley South lxyr]C'ry X xK'yd,6 ] y ': hy 9wrowt ]:'yhdKoy,5b'yrgxtxkrgvjSowp5j? ,5b;yh;oyrsG9yrxK'ylxyr]C'yr0C'yh-K;yj press conference ooyt 'boyr;kh,ur TV -q'yt ) d5Pyrd.kjmwj? d,yhz:'yh;khxw:jv:dyjp5j/ d,yh o,y;khv,yjsoy,o C hy ? voyxo b6 cy zhg-kh,6ory -K;yjlKoy information v,yjgxkrd.K'yh-.K'y s^ohy s^;jy -6;b ry p,yotw p:oxty ;b5 hy ';yr]wKr9K'yjx5'b y s^,yj',yrs6b;y/ p:oytx5b;yhdKoyz5jzK;yjx6boyxK;yj public relations 9K'yr0oy0 t ,: 0 y ] 6 kHp5xhy p:,ry v,yj-69 b ry 9oyrs6;b ?y xkr]5Phy 06,ry 05;b ry 9wrgdkh xwjgxkrg,kl5ory a6o b ry l5ory awr0:,ry s6b;y?SxGoy]whd:xyh]wK05b;yt]wK]:'yh? xGoys6b;ygdkhp;yt xGoyd;ytgdkhpkj/ xGoy s^;y-kjs^;y-b'y/ xGoyxb'yxGoy9CdyTgdkh/ ,5boyxCdyT ,5boyx\kr/ ,urdkh-oyxkroy.r xKdyjsG'y,6boylCoy ]Koy/t v,yjm6djy ]whp:,ry dKoyv t o : sy ,^ hy -9yr 0y./ 06,yr05b;yr]y.zy.zy.gdkh l6bxyjs^,yhxGoy,wT o6'b hy ;kr -kro6'b hy 9Cxry / pkj,Cxry xwKhc;hs^;v y ;y 95;y]:9yh/ 9dyrs<9yhp5b'yr,wKl6'yl69yrs;yr 0G;ry 0G;ry ? xK'yd6,yd5h06b'yh,5b'yr]GxyhsGoyr]:'yh9wr x6boyrawr;w:rS -6boyrzwrsw<rx5b'yr]C'yrS xGoysC'yr96b'yh-6boyhokh/ codkh-oy9wr]wh gll,yjglx5b'y? lG'y-;yjs<dyh Z#%2@Q2#QQ+X

Shan Herald Agency for News

5


L P]pC n Q P ] C] n];C sicu :] t};

qOfjauMbZMU zlj=rfju.ybf uljqmwfjqkOd jf oAiv f D ile d jf clOd ;f oFeOf q D Ofjekid jf x5oyt0oyt @Q / ;wKr,5b'yrs^,yh96,y]whd:oyrg-kp;yt l6bxyjd.kj -;yhs^'yrsGoyr0oyt0:,y 9khd6'yh ?

-K;yr9K'yr05;hy xKoy c]h dKoy0; b5 0 ty K9yh

Sao Gaw Fa

06;b hy 06b;yh,5b;yh]GdyT ;oyr]5boyxud5b9yj 9uhd5b9yj gxkhc,h

xuho:'yts^,yh9:'yt

g,roK'yr ]6dyh]K'yr 9uhp5j lG'yh,6oy

0;yhgdkjakT 0wKrgd\kj0K,yj @$2Q_2@+$# / vkp6 )_ xu ;G'ry lCo;y u ,5'b ry lCo;y u ]6'yrgdkj-,yr Zz5ho,yrdKoy voyd5hx:dyhs<'yt ]6'yr9.K'yr;5oyj oy.rgsklCoy;uX/ xkhp:9yh,:oyr @T oK'yr,\kTvb'yj #T 0wKrgd\kj0K,yj $T oK'yro5oyr-,yr %T oK'yrl5PyjsKoyj *T 0wKrv:'yj] (Nelson) xkhdq'yr,y.j oK'yrlC'ys<,y/ oK'yrlC'y]5boy/ 0wKr,:oyrakT ;Koyh]dyr9C'jy v5'b jy xG'ry ]5'y 06'b hy mwr @%2@Q2#QQ+ pK,yr #Qr#Q ,5'yr?

xwKrxPkjc]hdKoysGoyr @+$+ @+%#

6

p5js^'yrsGoyr-:oyH;Coyt (Convent) 9uho,yt95h xK'yswKr? -;yhs^'ry sGory -:oHy ;Coty (Convent) 9uhxK'yjv5 Zg,j,G;ytX gl l6xb jy d.kj-;yhs^'ry sGory d,ygxkr0 9uh;G'ry 95ohy 9ur g9kj

Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

@+*+S(@ -;yhsKxyjd69 b dty Koy]'5 xy ': 0 y 'b6 hy ,5'b ry s^,hy 96,y xGo0 y ;yh okh9uhs<'hy dKoyaKw jd59jy d5ory -;yh,5'b ry Zg9kHg,kH Immigration X 9uh;G'yrlb'yrd]C'yr x:9yr-,yr9urokjd ? @+($ -;yhsKxyjd6b9ytdKoy]wKr]6dyTz6boyt oy.r9xytl6bdyr]:9yh]C;yr d:oyrg-k (SSIA) 9xtyd:'y,wK Z%X 9uh0;yhv5,'b5 ry Zx5;jy dK'yr p6,ry X? @+(% l6xb jy -;yhs^,hy sKxyjd69 b o ty khdKoy oyr. 9xyl t db6 ry 06'b hy 9wr SSA voy SSIA, SNUF, KRF Zd5;yrdK'ytX s^,yhdoygdkj9'yh voy0;yhc,hoK'yrs^boyr-,yr xGoyz5ho,yrokh ZokpdX? @+)@ gxkr;kh SSA x5dyr9'yh xkj9uj,y.jl6'y06b'yh9wr SSPP gdkh xGody o 5 ry ]5'y z5h-;yh-:,Hy ,9uH';yh'6ory CC/SSPP ? @+)* ]wh-6boyh0oytl6bdyrxGoy 0;yhsKoy ? @+)) -;yhxkroy.rgdk9K'y95;y-:,yH,9uH';yh'6oyr xkj9uj,y.jl6'y 06'b hy 9wr (SSPP) d.kjv6xyjv5;yrxkj9uj-:,yH,b;yHob9yt,5b'yr ,Koyh (CPB) 9uhxK'ylK'yr? @+)_ ]6dyTxK'ylK'yrv:dyj,5b;yr9K'yr95dyr-5'yrgl sKxyjd6b9ytokh dKoyxkj9uj 9uh0;yhl5;b o y ,6 jy ? @+)+ ]5'yrx:9yr0Koyr m6b'y]Coy]boymwr 9uhxK'yl;yrdb;yjs^dyr -krsKoy sKxyjd6b9ytokhdKoyxkj9uj ? @+_% sKxyjd6b9ytokhdKoy]:'yhz:,yts^,yh voy0;yhd:oyr05b'yr 0;yh 0K,y,y.j -;yv:oygdkjlK'yhSx5dyr9'yh-:'yjluj06b'yh9wr]6dyt z6o b /ty 9xyl t db6 ry 06'b hy 9wr]6dTy z6o b ty (TRC/TRA) ooygt l -6o b hy xGo0 y oy0 t ;yhl6db ry ? @+__ d.kjsKxyjd69 b o ty khdKoy-': jy lujc,rx:'0 y 'b6 hy 9wr (SSRC) c]h -:'yjlujz5hsdyT0K9yhz:,tys^,yh06b'yh9wr (SSUPC) 9uh s^;y,5b'yr xKoy9xytl6bdyr,5b'yr9wr (MTA) g9kjm6'b -y o 6 l y kj v:o;y K'yr-5'b hy ,5;b hy s^;xy u @++( x:dhy p5js^o b ry l:ov y 'yrdb9ty xoy]6dyhsGoyr ? #QQQ sxyxt o G 9 y hu d5;b ry d6,y -:'jy lujv;y-o b6 ry 06'b hy 9wr (RCSS) voy 0;yhp:9hy l6db ry xGosy ;^ xy ;yh g9kjgxkrlG'hy ,6o?y


INDEPENDENCE

umefrdlif;

qOfj,.wfjodkuf;vmwfjOMj- ]qkrf; oduk ;f rmefj SPDC nefzi. ;f irf;Omefjrlid ;f ,lb ,mrf;vAOf nrfbqfjg vliyf i. q f ikd jf ? yAeq f rk ;f oduk ;f qkrf;edkifj nefwmef;olpfb n.ef=Ofulpf;? rdlefuefwif;qkrf; qmOf;cdlOf;,dyf;u.ifjumifb qkr;f edik jf eifbuOfb/ wifjtwb qkr;f oduk ;f rmefj aebOde;f [kyjf ,dw k ;f nrf;emwfj 1962 odubf ,MUyFwfjacMjudefuFefb/ vdufj=rfjrBmymifvlif? ydlifiOfjydkif;rldif; 1947 rM;eBU vlify.ifqdkifj rlid ;f =rfjwkrn f rfbrD;,OfU/ ydOl jf wMbulebf vlrUf yFwjf nrf;emwfjcOfeUB iOfjiMbvlin f efeikd jf wuf;nrfbvBj+ifUcOfOMjvliyf i. q f ikd jf vM;vM;/ ayM;+ifah uMj y.ibf OMj[Of;,.r;f [yfUcOfye A v f il f y.iq f ikd jf [Of;-OMjeB/ vuf;umefvil f 3 ydil f qkr;f oduk ;f rmefj 1U qdik jf rlid ;f =rfjwkr, f Mb{jwFubf ,Bmj 2U v.ijf z.rfU=rfjqmOf;cdlOf;,Mb{jvkvFOf 3U nrf; emwfjqdu;f q.rq f ikd jf rdil ;f {jrefjudrk ;f qdOl ;f eefh nrfbrFefj/ u.yfjOMj qdkifjrldif;=rfjwkrfnef

qmOf;cdOl ;f auMbwifjrM; q.r;f eifbydil if Ofjydik ;f rldif; 1947 eefU rdlOfjvAOfnrfbrD;,OfU? ayM;nOfrmB rDjOMjuljqmOf;cdOl ;f 7 tqjrdil ;f auMj yAefrM; rldif;u.ef;acM [if;zfgref;,OfU/ ydlOfj wMbylu;f wifjcde k ;f vliyf i. q f ikd jf -qdik jf rlid ;f =rfj f mif;okw;f wuf;vBj wkrrf bgf xFijf eefU n.ew rD;wlOw f e F ;f uljqmOf;cdOl ;f cde k ;f [Aw;f ymifurk v f il f nkybf nlO;f uef rde l e f ifbymifurk v f il w f jD ymifvil f 1947 OMjeB/ ckefnlufUuMb =OfyOfjqkrf;ylwf;yB.bulef; rldif;ynlOf;auMj vmwfjurfUxFrfacMjugmrf; qOfj,.wjf oduk ;f OMj-qdik jf rlid ;f =rfjwkrv f jB xkubf ,MU vFOyf w F jf ,OfUtvjrdOl jf vAOyf e A q f ikd jf rlid ;f =rfjwkrf[mifUuFuf;ulpf;? nefqkrf;odkuf;rmefj z.i;f irf;Omefjrlid ;f ,lbrdOl jf vAOaf uMj yAev f il yf i. f qdik jf xde l bf nrfbcOfjydil x f rf;_YwM;/ qkr;f oduk ;f rmefj wAu;f cde+f ifUqdik jf rlid ;f =rfjwkraf oodyk bf z.if;irf;[Awf;ckefrM;wduf;wduf;eefUulpf;OMjeB/

Photo : SHAN

qOfj,.wjf okud ;f vmwfjOMj qkr;f oduk ;f rmefjnrfbqfjg vliyf i. q f ikd jf

e.ujf aoeefU cken f ul Uf uMb vmwfjte wmif;[efxdkifxFifjOMj- ydlOfjwMbauMbwifj vliyf i. q f ikd jf xkubf rFejf q.r;f ydil x f rf;_cOfjYwM; ao yluf;wifj qdkifjrldif;=rfjwkrfqdkefjqmifb eefU wuf;vBjcAebf wFrjf ydil if Ofjydik ;f rlid ;f nef uljqmOf;cdOl ;f ,.r;f [yfU nef[yfU+if;okebf vBj qmOf;cdlOf;? v.ifjzAifbyAif;tvjokefbvBjwFyf; wwf;wlOfuOfb[if;acM qdlOf;eBU-OMjeB/ ❑

ZBmb=rfbvlrjf xB;OMj rmefjvlw;f ,.ebf nlejf awMbOMU ,.eUf oduk ;f wB; ZBmb=rfbvlrfjvFefvdefxB;vmwfjOMjnefqkrf;odkuf;rmefj SPDC vlwf;,.efb nlejf n.ebf awMbqkr;f oduk ;f OMUrM;eBh yMjvlpjf v.ijf wmif;ydil v f il n f efeikd jf / qkr;f oduk ;f rmefj vBjcmOfbOMj wyfo h ukd ;f rlid ;f OMUz.r=hf rfj (UWSA) wif; wyfUoduk ;f qdik jf wB; (SSA) y.w;f qmef; iOfjike;f vBw . ;B vFi;f wdw;f awMbuef/ ZBmb=rfbvlrjf xB;odyk bf vmwfjOMj-]qkr;f odkuf;rmefj=UOMj ayM;rmefj[mifjodkuf;avMb

wdkuf;? odkuf;OMUqmifjcOfjql;odkuf;wB; vB.wB; vFi;f / wMbOMUaw,lbv.wjf vBjeBU rde l w f if; vB.wB;vFif;urfh,efqB.j/ u.yfjeef eifb[dkOf odkuf;OMUawnrfbcOfjql;odkuf;wB;eefU ZBmb edkifjodkuf;rmefjqifbyB.bcmOfbvdkOf;OMj qkrf;vB. wB;vFif;ugMbwdwf;awMbrmefj? awOmif;cdlifj u.ifjumifbyefrmefjqdlOf;eBU}-OMjeB/ urfjz.ijf xwf;omifOMj- rmifzOfbnef qkr;f oduk ;f rmefjnlejf n.ebf ,.ebf ,mef;awMb

qk r f ; ud k w f ; od k u f ; rM;eB U yM;vl p f j tcbqB . j vmwfjz.ifj/ rdlOfjOef;xd 19_10_09 zljerf;efg; qkr;f oduk ;f rmefj q.ro f ukd ;f vliw f e d bf n.ibf rse d Uf nl; ugMbnFOfbrldif;tcb? uFrfq.rfz.if;vliftcb vDcOld bf osiF f vmwfjOMj- umefvil [f Of;eBU yAef wMb=rfjuefyfgUyM;v.ifjrefjedrf q.rf;vFef vdef (To safeguard stability along the border)-OMjeB/ ❑

Shan Herald Agency for News

7


L

Oef;xd 28_10_2009 =OfyOfj qOfj qBm;vde k ;f n.e=f Ofqrk ;f qdOl ;f rlid ;f vM; ugMb=yfU nkybf q.ro f ukd ;f t,;rse d Uf wDjuAi;f wkif uAObf uyf; v.ifjwyfUyfgUvFefvdefeefU qkrf;rdlif;vM; nrfbqmifjnMjymufb w.yfbvmwfjoif? vBjugMb x.rfbao ,.rf;[yfUcdkef;ulpf; vFifbcmOfby.wf; vFev f e d x f ;B vmwfjeifbeB// t,;rse d Uf vmwfjOMj - ][Of;nOfqr. ;f vdujf nefoq l Ofjolibf rM; rdOl jf Oef;xd 23_ 09_2009 nefOMj ,.r;f [yfUwlu;f vli;f ,OfU eBeefU ydil v f OA uf p l ;f / olnrfbwmyfjoAwjf uMj oAwjf =Of cfjg [Aw;f wyfUysbD wkqw d Uf vMj? wde k ;f awvBjyAew f yfUyfUg vFev f e d f 1 wyfUu.if yM; zljrD;qefU[Of; 30 auMUeefuh p l ;f / ymifZukd ;f z.eUf umefoukd ;f auMj [Aw;f wDjrlid ;f vM;nrfbvBj? [Of;zFefOBUwDjvfgauMj awvBjugMbZdkuf;wDj eefj/ ovdkOf;auMj cOfjyM;efg;rldif;,mif;/ erfUymef;auMj wde k ;f vBj,lbwfjg tqjOAi;f rlid ;f

l5;b o y r.y -:dhy l5ol y 9yr x5o b hy 99yr]5;b hy oGx'ty kr x5boyh,kr,9yt]C'yj-'y x5o b hy ]G'Ty l'y]hw vC,Ty ,oyrl,yT;kh-6bdyT-C,yT;wTs6b;yM

8

Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

0;yh0wKr]6o b ry Sao Saileun Mongla

Photo : Harn (SHAN)

v.ijf vFujf yAew f yfUyfUg vFev f e d f qkr;f rlid ;f vM; nrfbqmifjw.ybf oAwjf oduk ;f rmefj ,.i;f }-OMjeB/ vdufjnefqkrf;rldif;vM;wFrfjugMbeefU wFrjf OMj [yfUOBUyAev f uf;umefup l ;f / nrfbOMj aw[Awf;wyfUyfgUvFefvdef q.rf;zFefumef odkuf;rmefjwif;ydkuf;urf;vAOf-OMjeB/ ymif=yfUnkyfbuefeefU ZBmbqOfjqBm; vde k ;f cOf nrfbayM;qmifjwuf;oAiw f y. bf vmwfj oif/ eifjx.rbf ndOl jf iBmj acMjoyf;vFi;f q.rf oduk ;f t,;rse d Uf ao udecf Ofj=rfjrlb w.u;f u.u;f erfUwMrlef;uef,OfU y.ufjxdkifrldif;vM;wAifj cdkef;/ yAe=f Od af uMj v.ijf eBUoduk ;f rmefj,lbZBmb ayUykefjaovmwfj/ qkrf;rldif;vM; yAefvkufj qkr;f PDF tvj =UvBjnOfumifqgf wyfUoduk ;f rdlif;OMUz.rfU=rfj UWSA OMjz.ijf / oduk ;f OMU rdlefyDjnBmjwBmj=Oftvj q.ifbaw,.rf;okrf; eMjvdefrldif;vM; yefodkuf;rmefj qdlifUeifb ulOf;umifhxFifjeBeefh yAefugmrf;xmrf,lb/ 他


INDEPENDENCE

rmefjrdybf [Fi;f tvj wMbqkr;f rlid ;f vM;qku;f refj vBjndie f Old q f rk ;f ymifomif; nefzljerf;rldif;vM; NDAA-ESS vBjxkufbvlrOfwAifugmrf;euf; wAuf;qfgU[Awf; wyfUyfgUvFefvdefydlifvAOfulpf;eefU [Awf;{j zlju.e;f oduk ;f urfjerf nrfb[mefUqf/g ulp;f uMj wMbqkr;f rlid ;f vM;qku;f refjugMbvBjeefU rD;wDj qkr;f ymifomif;/ zdkefvdufjnefqkrf;rldif;vM; olifbql; qkrf;odkuf;rmefjrdlOfj 23_09_09 eefU wFrfj OMj- wMbvFujf vBmjyAef wyfyh Ugf vFev f e d e f efh [yfUyAefvuf;umefulpf;? nrfbqfgjaw[Awf; q.rf;zFefumefodkuf;rmefjwif;ydkuf; urf;vAOf eBeefU t,;rsdefUvmwfjugmrf;cFifwwf;t[U ymufjyFwjf xdik w f jD zljerf;rlid ;f vM;nrfbqmifj nMjymufb/ t,;rsdefUOMj- [Of;nOfq.rf;vdufjol nefOMjwluf;vlif;,OfUeefU ydlifvAOfulpf;/ ol,.rf;[yfU,OfU qifbwFrfjvdufjrM;ql;[Of;? olnrfbwmyfjoAwfjuMjoAwfj=Of/ ymifZdkuf;

l5b;yz5bdjy o6,yj d6,jy sK;ys,b^ /ty ,5b;yjx5b,yt0Koyh d.K,yr9Koyh;kh l5;b 9 y Kw l5;b 9 y o C ry ,oyr-Cory -Koy't o b ry s6;b y

o.euf mefoukd ;f auMj ayM;yAez f jl u.e;f wyfUrlb wyfUxFOf Zdkuf;o.efwDjuAif;wkif? ayM;yAef zlju.ef;wyfUtzwyfUu.ifcdkefjedlOf wuf;vBj ugMbZduk ;f wDjyMUxl;-OMjeB/ t,;rsdefU okdyfbvmwfj- wifjtwb qefUwfgjxdkifqefUqduf;q.rfokifokwf; ayM; nMb,k 50 cde k jf edOl f wuf;awvBjudw k ;f vdOk jf ,ifU_n.ubf umefoiA jf ? ayM;udw k ;f vdOk jf ,OfU cfjg [Aw;f oif[w A ;f vBj? [Of;awqBj. ? wlp;f nOfcid ;f k bf ckeo f Mb? [Of;vkr;f vM;wlp;f xdik f (yefoe vBjwdkOfUwmif;[Awf;umefuMUcBm_umefrmufjrD; xmifb[mifj) awMbref;ayM;wBm/ ol,MbayulOf ,Mbaywlu;f qf/g wyfUoleefU[Of;awugMb,dy;f ukrf;tr;yl? olwuf;vBj,lbyMjwfgj[Of;ukrf;urf oAifjoAifj-OMjeB/ zljerf;qefUokirf idl ;f rM;auMUedik jf y.iUf cmif;teOMj- OMj[if;[Of; awMbeMjawMbwM vdOl [f iF ;f eFebf / vlrOfuefye l Uf wDj? nrfbwlp;f

eMj[Of;aondw;f ? nef[Of;ugMbwmifbteeefh ymufjyFwjf oAijf / nefOMjqefUwfjg awMbqefU okifokwf; nMb,k 50 cdkefjedlOf {jayM;umef oAifjoAifjeefU rdlefwif;nOfzFefbylufUeMj [Of; yB.bcOfjxrfjulpf;-OMjeB/ zlju.ef;wyfhqkrf;_wyfhu.if efg;rldif;vM; urfjerfvmwfjOMj- yAef[dkOfauMj nrfb,.rf;? eifb[dOk uf e l ;f vli[f Of;awnrfbwlu;f v.u;f vlrbf vkuf;crf[FOfUrmefjeefU awcwf;qfg-OMjeB/ ef;g 2-3 Oef;eBh zljrD;qefh zlju.e;f okud ;f qkr;f rlid ;f vM; nkybf ukruf efao nOfacMj wFyf;wwf;ymifukrf ugMb[Bm;imef;wmifbte ymifomif;? wmif;ymifomif; awqBj. cyf;cdik yf ef qdlifU[dkOf? awyAefwDjqfg,fgbr.ufjuMj[dkOfeefU ayM;y.ujf ymifomif;,OfU awwFy;f wwf;xFijf eB,OfU/ 他

z5b;yjxGoys^;y p'yrd5;v y ,yj]whxGody o 5 hy

l5b;y,K'y95;yp:,yr,:9yj]wKr/ ,5boy0wKrv,yj,ur06b;yh Z]whm6djy ,bxjy 'Cory x69hy ]wKh06;b hy / 95dry p5j9yh. x5o b hy d6,ry d,yrl6;b hy X Better to be the tail

Shan Herald Agency for News

9


L

umefokduf;

yDbwkqw d Uf ef;g tqjOAi;f wmifU,mef; xkubf oduk ;f rmefjqdoifbZduk ;f umefoukd ;f vFibf cmOfbef;g rlid ;f y.ibf rM;OMj rdOl jf Oef;xd 09_10_09 odkuf;rmefjwyfh cv, 33 wmif, h mef;qdoifbqkr;f yDbwkqw d e hf ;gf tqjOAi;f wmifU,mef;vBmwDjvBmqkrf; cdkefj[Aef;Zdkuf; o.euf mefoukd ;f / oduk ;f rmefjo.eyf efumefoukd ;f v.ifju.ifjumifb v.ifjumefwdkuf; v.ifjnOfcmOfb v. i f j [mif j [F e f ; uA y f ; cOf j erf U wmif ; ud e f v.ijf oduk ;f rkw;f q.r;f xde l bf q.r;f cdOl ;f ? umefoukd ;f wdkuf;,dkOf;umifcdkef;-qdlOf;eBU/ zljrD;qefU oduk ;f rmefjef;g cv, 33 o.eyf ef wifjtwb umifve ld n f u. Uf xlO@f VdOl @f rM;/ o.eyf efqrk ;f vfg qkrf;eefUwDjzfgwDjref;? edkifjqkyfjZdkuf; o.euf mefoukd ;f wDjanbokw;f [dik rf u. jf 1 vde l f awMbxdik f 3 vde l -f OMjeB/ rdlefeifb yDbwkqdwfUvM;=b rdlif;umOf (qAifbqmef;Oef;n.ufbwmifU,mef;) nef

usMbeD; n.ef=Of rD;[Fif; 50 yBm? yDbwkqdwfU vM;=b qkrf;e.ifOlOf [Fif; 50 yBm? yDbwkqdwfU vM;=b ndil bf =Ofrmif; [Fi;f 40 yBm? yDbwkqw d Uf wB; y.ufU 2 nl;,Aefb OAif;wmifU,mef; qkrf; d Uf ndil bf wmef;wdebf [Fi;f r.ujf 30 ? yDbwkqw e.ifzM qkrf;crf;vFif [Fif; 40 ? yDbwkqdwfU qkr;f ylObf rle;f Omefjymifb [Fi;f r.ujf 300 qdOl ;f eBU-eB,OfU/ Oef;xd 19_10_09 twbZdkuf;o.ef umefoukd ;f yefybD wkqw d Uf vM;=b vBmndil bf =rfj uef[Fif;ulef; 120 auMU efg;wyfUrmefj 33 wDjOmefjuOfbr.ufbqmrf (,mefuBqAifbqmef; Oef;n.ufbrdlif;umOf-erfUvOf; 2 vuf;)/ Zdkuf;yDbwkqdwfUwB; qkrf;wmef;wdefb nAef[Fif; 30 orfUzkduf;o.efyefwDjndlifb vlirf il jf (ZBmbn.ubf OAi;f wmifU,mef;)/

x5;yj,5oyr s^;yokhxuj960b9yt ;KoyhxK'yj Bo Mon Manpang

vFibf cmOfbvmwfjOMj- ]yDbwkqw d Uf 56 qkr;f qdOl ;f eBU nrfbrD;u.ijf aq;rdOk ;f uljqkr;f ? nefu.ifjaq;rdkOf;rD;qkrf;Omefjymifbulpf;/ uljy.ufjtwU odkuf;rmefj+ifU=OfeMj_=OfxFOf_ =Ofbrlb_zljrD;qefU yDbwkqdwfU ugMbvMjoAOfj 1-2 Oef; yefoazM;YwM;aoyB.brM;ulpf;} -OMjeB/ 他

oduk ;f rmefjZduk ;f umefoukd ;f yefybD wkqw d Uf tqjOAi;f uke[f id ;f _wmifU,mef; Oef;xd 15_09_09 xdik f 15_10_09 cmOf;wmif;edkifjvdlef odkuf;rmefjukef[dif; o.efumefodkuf;yefqkrf;tcZB; OAif;ukef[dif; 30 auMU/ xd k i f r M;Oef ; xd 16_10_09 Zdkuf;o.efyefvBm;ylwf;u.ifj xluf;,MUu.ifj cdkef;tr;[mifjofgbu.ifj/ u.ifjqdlOf;nOfrM;qfgU efg;umefZdkuf;o.efeBU urfjerfyAefu.ifjuOfb G-3, G-4 uljy.ufj qdlOf;odkuf;rmefjnrfbqfgU wdOk ;f ,OfU? rdOl jf Zduk ;f o.eyf efeefU vBj,dOk ;f u.ijf yM;-eB,OfU/ 10 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

vdOl af oeefU twb=Ofve ld e f Ol @f OFr@f VdlOf@ 2009 ugMb odkuf;rmefjqdoifbuAyf;ulef; ekrbf ef;g OAi;f Omefje.ujf _omyfbOAi;f uljndil bf uljwDj qfgh[Awf;yDbwkqdwfUrfgb efg;tqjOAif;ukef[dif; ywf;yde k Uf {jrD;[Fi;f 400 / ayM;uAy;f aoZduk ;f o.efumefodkuf;,OfU {jcdkef;nOf=rfbvlrfj t[Uuifjy.u, hf r. bf _Omefjndil bf zfrg ef;/ uMjclO;f cAOf (Uniform) yDbwkqdwfU rD;cdlifjrBm[if;ulpf; tvjuMjv.ifjudef,FrfUuljv.ifjv.ifjqdlOf;eBU uAy;f ide k ;f ule;f rdil ;f y.uUf ,.rbf _Omefjndil bf zfrg ef;/

wmifbtqjOAi;f wmifbOmefjndil bf auMj oduk ;f rmefj qdoifb[Aw;f qdil Uf eBeifbuOfb-eB,OfU/ odkuf;rmefjyBmwAifugmrf;euf;_ydkefzmOfb OBUef;g y.uUf ,.rbf _Omefjndil bf OMj- ayM;yde l jf xmrf ayM;qkr;f odOk bf (Media) e.ujf rlid ;f xmrfrM; {j w.yfbOMj- nrfbqfgjqkrf;odkuf;rmefjqdoifb wAuf;cmef;qfgU[Awf;/ ulef;rldif;olef;wkrfuef c.wbf z.wjf ylu;f wifj[Aw;f [if;ulp;f -OMjeB/ 他


INDEPENDENCE

oduk ;f rmefj[kr;f O.e;f qkr;f udw k ;f oduk ;f =pf;ole;f qkr;f vBw . ;B vFi;f rD;cmOfbyBb,de k , f efOMj oduk ;f rmefjy.w;f rldif;omwfbrldif;wlef r.ufbvmwfjqkrf;odkuf;OMU y.wf;wfgj eMjvdefodkuf; 171 -{jodkuf;OMU wdwf;awMb=pf;olef; wyfUodkuf;qdkifjwB; (SSA) y.w;f qmef; iOfjike;f vBw . ;B vFi;f ? ydOl jf wMbnkyfbukrfudkwf;odkuf;nOfv.ifjuwf;,Aef/ ayM;nkyfbuefz.rfUwluf;vlif;vBj awyef eMjvdeyf ul ;f y.iw f Ol uf Ofb y.w;f [dr;f +rf;eM;u.i;f rl; nrfbeef y.w;f rlid ;f ,.e;f -OMjeB/ ylefUrM;nrfb[dkifeBUauMj qOfjeMjwDj qefUokirf mefj wdw;f awMbrM;wmif;oduk ;f xB; {jqBj. =pf;ole;f (SSA) y.w;f qmef; ydOl jf wMb nkyfbnlOf;uefwif;rmefj/

rdlOfj=Ofvdlef n.uf@xlOf@VdlOf@eefU zlju.ef;wdlif;odkuf; Oef;n.ufb (wlefjwD;) q.rf[mef,MbaysU +ifUxlyf;tvj zljerf; qefUokifqOfjedkifj efg;qkrf;wB;udkwf;odkuf; ugMbwDjwlejf wD; 5-6 Oef;/ q.r[f mef,MbaysU w.ifjxmrfzljerf;wB;OMj- uMjylefUrM; q.ifb ,mrfjwdwf;awMbqkrf;vB.wB;vFif;/ zljerf; wB; w.yfbOMj[Of;nrfbw.efUwdwf;awMbao y.ujf / ,MbaysU [kr;f O.e;f OMj-wdw;f awMbole;f =pfjcOf{jvBjnkybf nlO;f uefwif;[Of; nrfbvD [MU/ u.yfjOMj ayM;OBm;vdlufjwifj 2010 ,OfU ayM;cOfnrfbcOfjrM; ulOfcOfvkwfjwdkOfUwmif; yFwfjao ,Aef;yAefqkrf;e.ufjrBmrDj yAefzlj

auMbumef[BmUugMb- OMjeB/ uFrfzljcmefymufb SSA y.wf;qmef; qBm;oFirf ild ;f w.ybf vmwfjOMj ]vdil jf eBU,if;yBb rD;qkrf;vfgwdwf;awMbrM;tvjyBb=U/ oifOMj rD;umefwdwf;awMbrM;/ ZBmbrmefjauMj,OfU SSA wlOjf wef;wMbnkybf nlO;f ,lb? ulp;f uMj ndifedlOfayMbvoDbwyfUodkuf;[Of;}-OMjeB/ ref;qBm; ,if;yefwmif;[efxdkifOMj]vBm;oduk ;f rmefj[Aw;f omifj,mrf;vAOn f rfbqfjg wMbv.ifjuwf;,Aef? yAefv.ifj[Awf;{jqkrf; udw k ;f oduk ;f tvjule;f rdil ;f ugiaf o wifjqfcg jgf ,MU v.ifjz.rfU=rfj[Of;ulpf;}-OMjeB/ 他

xK'yc-T,kT]5db hy 9'yh/ 0'yh95Pry lwK'wK 06,yrlb6dyr,Koyh

9xyt,Koyh

NUP

d\oytz69yt

Z90PS,l] d;yjX

06,yro5dyTp6'yr (NLD)

xkj9ujd6b9yrl6bdyr Zd6b9yr,y.jX

xkj9uj0K;yr-5;b ry

l6oyj95;y

Shan Herald Agency for News

11


L

cmOfboOfjr.if

zljerf;eMj qkr;f wB;ukw d ;f okud ;f y.w;f +ifb oAijf rkef vB.rmOf; 4U qOfjuBmbZMU 5U qOfjymifbZMU/ rdlOfjudkwf;odkuf; 1989 qOfjodlOfxFefj yAef =OfyOfj/ z.i;f qOfjodOl x f e F jf udw k ;f vdOk jf urf; edkifj 1996 qOfjqBm;e.ifUykwfjwef;[Aif; =OfyOfj/ qOfjvBr. mOf; vBjxkubf vdul jf ykwjf ,dy;f yAefzlju.ef;odkuf; tvj=OfyOfj wFef;qOfj

qBm;e.ifU twbyD 2000 rM; awMbrdlOfjvAOf/ qOfjqBm;e.ifU rM;oAifjrkefz.if;odkuf; rmefjrdyfbqkrf;wB;udkw;f odkuf;,lbeBU wDjanb okw;f qmifjwkrUf wdOl Uf Zmif[mifj SSA z.ijf OMjeB/

0;yh0wKro:'ty Sao Sai Nawng Oef;xd 12_10_09 ,mrf; 06;15 rli;f umifefg q.rf[mefqBm;e.ifU nMb,k 64 yD? zljerf;eMjwyfUoduk ;f qdik jf wB; SSA y.w;f +ifb vkoAifjokwf;rkef wDj=def;ref;qOfj y.ufU qmifjcrf;+ifb OAi;f oDbayMU/ iOfjike;f wyfUoduk ;f qdkifjwB; tvjvkufjvmif;emif;ar; ndufb qdlOfUcdlOf;yDje.ifU =rfjuefqwf;ymifqMye ylefUcmyfjwlOf-+yfb=OfcOfj[AOfj Oef;xd 14_ 10_09 OBm;Oef; q.rf;eifbZdifjoMoeM c'dwfU/ rldOfjtwbref; rD;cmOfbOMj-ref;qOfj cde k ;f ,dOk ;f wlOw f mB z.i;f vkujf ar;nrfb,lb=de;f / emif;,di;f qBj. umef=e d ;f vmwfjOMj- cde k jf =de;f rdlOf;umifefgqOfUauMj [efref;qOfj nmyfb vldwfje.ef;wBm,lb ulef;[drf;+rf; orfUOMj nrfbvBjide;f oAiuf i. jf / zljrD;qefUqOfjedik jf OMj- nrfbqfgjcMjwlOfwBm (yAefydlefj,dkOf;)? u.ijf y.w;f rD;wmif;eMjref;qOfj? ,krbf ,rfOMj wde k ;f yAev f i. jf vufUv.rcf MjwBm vlpjf u.ijf uAy;f oAif-OMjeB/ SSA y.wf;+ifb rD;q.rf[mef 5 qOfj1U qOfjodOl x f e F jf 2U qOfjqBm;e.iUf 3U qOfj 12 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

q.rf[mefqBm;e.ifUeBU qdkOfjrdlOfjvAufU qBm;azbwAif;? udlwfb 22_03_1945 ? ayMj qdkOfj wlbOMbqOfbwdif; trjqdkOfjyMjrB=dif; (ayMjcmif-trjwB;) ? qMwdwDjudlwfb Omefj zMwrf; tqjOAif;ulwfUcBm/ yAefyDjnBmjvlif efg; 4 auMUyDje.ifU ? eMj=def; 1U emif; cdefban; 2U emif;tr@'D@ (e.ifU,dif; qOfj,M;yDb) rD;vkujf vmif; 3 auMU/ yBm;ypMb 1961 =if;[Aef;qefUokif OAif;oFefOD w.yfb qefU 10 aocOfjxdlefb/ umefqdlOfUqmwfj 1963 xdik f 2009 / uljy.ujf yAez f jl u.e;f wyfU u.if 21 ao ,mrfjn.e=f Of,Okd ;f oduk ;f rM;erf? rdlOfjugMbymifomif;qkyfjn.efwmif;okwf; ulef; 10 yBmauMjyM;ref;qOfj/ 他


INDEPENDENCE

Photo : website

wB;oDbauMUayMjtrjvkujf wBmqMU ,.eUf vlwUf zMbz.i;f n.ubf OMb

vBjxkufbvlwfU 4 avMUulef;xB; (qBm;ekrfb nMb,k 20 yD) vrf;edik jf zmwfjzMbavMbpM;? qBm;vdleftvjvkufj,dif;n.efbwBmxifwDj? emif;z.e;f wif;vkujf qBm; rmwfbqAy;f vdOl [f iF ;f ugMbwBmwDj=if;,MyMbtiU uAif;rBb/ yDje.io hf i. Z f mB b nOfuMg bqwf;ymifqMye wif; 4 auMU wDjOwfU\.iUf oufb tqjOAi;f

Photo : Arntai (SHAN)

Oef;xd 04_10_09 [Fif;umefcmrfjrldif; qmOf;wB; 4 auMU ayMjtrjvkufj qBm;vdlef nMb,k 30 yD (auMUa[MjvlwUf cdil jf ) wif;ar; emif;z.ef; 29 yD? n.efbqBm;rlef; 11 yD? n.ebf ,di;f rBm; 1 clybf ? cDbvlwUf cdil jf o.eUf uef vkufUvrf;ykef;ugMbuAif;rBb ydlOfjwMbcOfjymifyB.; n.ufbOMb nFOfbyDje.ifU/ z.if;rM;q.rf;wmif;

oefoBm;? ylefUcmyfjwlOfOef;xd 08_10_09 OBm;Oef; [Fif;umefcmrfjrldif;qmOf;wB; cOfj=rfj wif;erf? ule;f xB;cOfj=rfjurfjz.ijf -eB,OfU/ emif;zdwjf yDjemif;qBm;vde l f (auMUwBm) vmwfjOMj- e.iUf qBm;yAeuf e l ;f Omefjymifbzle;f tqjOAif;au;oD;/ emif;z.ef; yAefulef;y.wf; vMjoAOfj/ cMtwbeMj=def; rdlif;xB;rdlOfj 4 yD yleUf rM;-nrfbrkijf r.i;f OMjcOfobD auMU ayMjtrj vkufj awurf[BmUqdlifUeB/ qdil Uf [dOk af uMj,OfU uAObf uyf;v.ijf uMjoBmj wFef; nefvBj[Awf;OBU umef[yfU+if;az; (yuef@zB@)eefh yDje.iUf ZBmbule;f a[Mjvlwhf 4 avMU vmwfjOMj- awcyf;cdkifq.rf;cufU w.ejf wmif;rBmrDjyef? ulp;f uMjawvBjnrfbvBj twUyBb=U-OMjeB/ Oef;yleUf cmyfjwlOf +yfb=Of cOfj[AOfj (08_10_09)eefU emif;zdwfj auMjvmwfjOMj- ,if;yBbvBj uMjoBmjwFef; cdkef;oif wDjyDjyDje.ifUe.ifUulef;a[MjvlwfU/ nefqwf;ymifqMUeefU vBjugMbulj,dkrfidkef; yDjyDje.iUf e.iUf aoqwf;yef-OMjeB/ ❑

Shan Herald Agency for News

13


L

cmOfbuljv.ifjv.ifj ymifukrfvlifuljqdkifjrdlif; OMjvlpfjumef vAyfj[Aef;v.ifjwB; (International Conference on Shan Studies = ICSS) cmOf;wmif; 3 Oef;? wDj qefUq.rfqkvM@vlif@u.ef@ wDjrlid ;f u.ubf (uki;f xAyjf ) Oef;xd 15-17_10_ 2009 eefU nkybf nlO;f oyf;vFi;f v.ijf yke d ;f Zdifjtij Zdifjulef; vdufjvBm;yBmurf ,Mj,M oMoeM clOf;ekifjtvjwmif;udefqmOf;wB; qdOl ;f eBU/ Oef;xd 15_10_09 zljclechf Mg Uv.ijf wB; qmOf;usdLOfbrefb Oliver Raendchen vmwfj OMj OMbwwOfj (Taoism) eefU ,dkef,ef OMj yAefyBm;OlefhuOfbwB; (Ancient Tai Philosophy) rM;n.efwmif;-OMjeB/ nefvD oleq f gf xFijf v.ijf edik jf orfU qOfjyBm;=UxB; y'M@xdyUf csM@vdOk @f oyf;vFi;f v.ijf cdOl ;f qOfj ZMU uAi;f wki?f (n.ee f Mjtvjz.i;f oduk ;f vkrjf ZMUy.ufj 2) ymefvkufjqBm; qOfjZMUvlif qOfju.ejf uFOjf nde;f xvFif qOfjz\lr;f vdOk ;f twbeMj=de;f uduk ;f cdOl ;f qOfjZMUxB; qOfjemif; wdyUf zOef@ evrf@ymif@/ cdOl ;f wB;tvjxB; uljy.ufj twbeMj=def;udkuf;uef qrfqfguef/ cdOl ;f qOfjcdOl ;f ckew f ;B rlid ;f eBm; oFeOf D uAi;f wkif qdOl ;f eBah uMj cOfjn.ubf uefv?D v.ijf eBh vmwfj

Photo : SHAN

ymifurk v f il v f yA jf [Ae;f v.ijf wB; rlid ;f u.ubf qefUcduk Uf vD

qOfjyBm;ydkef; emif;cdlOf;oFef oyf;vFif;v.ifj qOfjea'@olef r[M'MqM uAOfbc.ifjwif;wB; Pornpimon Trichote, Nang Khurhsen and Hsailernkham

yM;=Of,j.B ,Fr;f wif;erf/ Oef;xd 16_10_2009 qOfjyBm;ydkef; emif;cdOl ;f oFef oyf;vFi;f v.ijf qOfjea'@ olef r[M'MqM uAOfbc.ifjwif;wB; (1) efg; iOf;wliUf xB; nefqOfjea'@olef ugMbwduk ;f rlid ;f cif;eefU yAew f jD vf?g qdOk jf twUOMjoif/ (2) yDc'dwfU 1605 qOfjea'@olef Omif; zFerf Odl ;f qBj. qOfjcrf;uBmbeBU. oFeOf D vBjxkubf

ckerf mefjyleUf yFee f efU ref;qOfjnmef;ugMb vfg? ugMbnMbOteb rldif;oFefOD rdlif;eBm; (ydkef; xB;OMj awugMbnMbOwduf;wduf;) (3) qOfj ea'@olef e.e;f tz; rlid ;f [mif (ef;g qdik jf wB; y.w;f n.ubf cli;f ) [dOk f rlid ;f [Fif (tqjOAi;f OAi;f [Fi)f qdOl ;f eBU/

oduk ;f rmefjqle[f rd n f Ofie kd ;f qmOf;ynlO;f a[MjxlOjf Oef;xd 25_09_09 (vdlefodyf;nAwf; rfgb 7 crfj) qBm;r.i;f qOfjxlOjf qmOf;ynlO;f ? ,lby.ufU 4 OAif;ymifvlif udefqmifjwmifbukefb odeuf MUuljv.ijf yM;qArcf Ofjomef vkuUf umwfb erfUqmif y.ujf rdOl ;f ymifvil ?f zlOd bf xdik Z f mB bedOl f OAif;vB.vFrfeefU rdlOf;zMbpM; odkuf;rmefj vBv . rF f qkr;f edik jf n.ubf iM;oduk ;f o.ujf wOftvj

14 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

vBjxkubf oduk ;f rmefj wAu;f ulwbf xlOjf ao qlef [drfnOfidkef; 300b000 ysM;/ vFibf cmOfbvmwfjOMj- oduk ;f rmefjvBv . rF f [kyjf ,dw k ;f qle[f rd n f Of ide k ;f qBm;r.i;f ao wAif ugmrf;euf;OMj- wuf;nrfbvBjugMbwmifbvmwfj wDjvfg? ayM;wmifbvmwfjaowDjwDj ayM;rM; xFijf y.ujf edik jf [Of;aw,dOk ;f xlOjf rf;g uB-. OMjeB/

odkuf;rmefjvB.vFrfrD; cv, 9 wif; cv, 12 ? oduk ;f rmefjvBmvBmwyfUu.if qdOl ;f yleUf yFef okebf vBjule;f zOfOmefjy.w;f qmef;_y.w;f umif z.if;[mifvdlefusL@vBm@_ =OfvdlefanM@uwfU (2009) qdlOf;eBUauMjyM; odkuf;rmefjvB.vFrf eifbuOfb/ 他


INDEPENDENCE

oduk ;f rmefjzdw;f arM;,dOk ;f uefwmB Oef;xd 01_10_09 ,mrf;r.ujf 23;00 rlif;umifcdkef; iM;odkuf;rmefjefg;wyfU cv, 248 rlid ;f eBm; yuf;wDjOmefjrlid ;f ,Bm; tqjOAi;f au;oD;? nefqOfj[mefaqMbxkef; n.ef=Of iM;odkuf; 2 (ulef;r.ufj 10 yBm) =rfjuefudef ausMb wDj[mefUvOfj ef;g OmefjwDjedik jf / z.i;f wduk Uf wifjOli;f vOfjrlejf ausMbeefU nkybf nlO;f

uefv.ifj[Awf;=def;yefulef;Omefj qdlOf;vBj xkubf zOf=e d ;f z.i;f [mifve ld uf sL@vBm@ 2009 ao xAifarM;zdwf;=Ofuef? zljrBmqOfj[mef aqMbxke;f wdw k Uf rmufby.r;f Odw k Uf ofbg ymifvOfj? [Awf;{jodkuf;rmefjwBm 4-5 auMU? rmwfbr.ufj 10 auMU? vBjnOf qOfj[mefaqMbxkef; ugMb=if;,MwDjwlejf wD;-OMjeB/

OBm;eefU oduk ;f rmefjqdOl ;f udw k ;f vdOl w f if; oAijf yM;uefuMg bc.ejf wDjwyfUymifbzle;f nef wyfU cv, 9 yuf;oOf;OBU/ v.ijf oduk ;f rmefj ,dOk ;f uefwmB eBU orfUyBb. cmOfbef;g ule;f OmefjOMj oduk ;f wB;ugMb,dOk ;f cOf-eB,Of/h

zlju.e;f oduk ;f rmefj ,dOk ;f vkujf e.iUf wdOl Uf rmwfbqAy;f [Fi;f rdOl jf Oef;xd 23_10_09 ,mrf; 22;00 rli;f umifce kd ;f uFrz f jl u.e;f wyfUu.if cr, 517 qOfj[mefni. bf eBmbxl; ,dOk ;f vkujf e.iUf ref; 2 auMU =Ofoukd ;f vlirf se d Uf aqMb wif; oduk ;f [mef n.ibf olO;f wdOl Uf rmwfbvdOl [f iF ;f / ,.eUf w.ybf xAif arM;uef v.ifjukrf;[Awf;=def;yefulef;Omefj y.w;f =OfcmB ;? u.yjf vBj[Aw;f umefeuf;umef,myfb

rFubf rBU[mrfwrk af o qefUyMjwfjg y.iUf cmif;OMjqfgUqkwfbauMjyAefol? qfgU[Awf;auMjyAefol? nefvBj=dOfUvBj ,myfborfUyAef[Of;/ ef;g Olijf vAOuf ef oduk ;f rmefjqdOl ;f ugMbukr;f [Awf;=def;yefulef;OmefjqdlOf;pM;zOfOmefj_ =de;f a,; y.w;f Omefj=Ofvrl ;f wmwfbr.ubf auMj y.rjf rBUudijf vli;f uki;f vBw . iA o f bgf pM;uefwmB auMU

edkifj? auMUwBmyAef qefU=Ofodkuf;vlif/ y.wf; eefUyAefwyfUndef@usdef@eD@,dlOf@ (wyfU cdlifjqmufj) tvj wyfUcv, 247 eB,Ofh/ ulef;rldif;nkyfbuefOMj- zDqOfjOmefj qOfjrdlif; oifbo.efcOf? cBmacM;cOf/ u.yfjyldOfj cOfrM;wAuf;wAifayUudef ulef;rldif;[Of;tvj zDqOfjrdlif; q.rf;ukrfUqB.j[Of;-OMjeB/ 他

qefUq.r'f mwfch szwf@ uAi;f rBb yde k tf zjyyfUnzdxmefbwB;-xB; qefUq.rf 'mwfUcszwf@ uAi;f rBb ndwbf n.ufbydkeftzjyyfUnzdxmefbwB;-xB; / vBjqfUg cmOf;,mrf;uAy;f +rfwr. yf iF ;f [mifj [Fef;rM;cmOf;wmif;[dkif 17 yDyBm? nM;qmef qBm;qde k jf crf;vFi, f w . jf wB; (qke d jf u.e;f vBm;? qBm;Omefje.ufj) n.ef=Of[Awf;rM;/ oifcwB; rldif;xB; rdlefeifb qOfjcl;ndef;wM; auMj n.e=f OfoifcqOfjody;f wleyf mB aoqBj. umef rM;/ yM;qArf nM;qmef cedw@f OeM@urle@f ? qa'; oFifrdef; 'ufUoMokcqdwfb tvj qa';oFifzkef; qmifjvAuf; qdlOf;eBU/ W.uUf wdOl @f \dil @f WAwbf Oli@f vMj vmwfj OMj- ]yyfUnzdxmefw;B -xB; 421 eMjeBU nM;qmef,z k e d @f cArrf uk Uf cwf;qfcg e d [f w A ;f rM;twUtwUOMjOMjtvj qifbndwbf n.ubf yde k f tzjvBj} -OMjeB/

efg;cmOf;wmif; 100 yDyBm wifbtwbyD 1881 awMbxdkif 2009 eBU yyfUzdxmefb wB; ydkeftzjn.ufbrM; 6 yyfU 1881 nzdxmefbwB;-ndif;uvAwfj J.N Cushing

1920 nzdxmefbndif;uvAwfj-wB; H.W.Mix

1995 nzdxmefbwB;-ndif;uvAwfj qOfjwdkef;rldif; rldif;,B (nOfvdufjwB;uOfb 1881 tr;ydefbvdufjwB;rfgb) 2001 nzdxmefbwB;-wB; vki;f umefj crf; omifbomrf 2002 nzdxmefb yyfUoyf;vFi;f uduk ;f [mifj c.ie f mif;cdOl ;f oFef 2009 nzdxmefb ndi;f uvAwjf -wB; oifcqOfjypMboD'd oBmy.ef

Shan-Thai dictionary

yyfUnzdxmefehB edik jf yyfh 500 Omwfb? uMjolibf 100 Omwfb? wdw;f awMbw.ijf xmrfvjB wDj email:yupin15@gmail.com nM;qmef ,kze d @f cArrf uk Uf rBmZle@f 081-8821434 wdlufjxAyfU'weM@ qefUq.rf'mwfUcszwf@ uAif;rBb rBmZlef@ 053-885880b 053885887 / 他

Shan Herald Agency for News

15


L

Photo : Harn (SHAN)

qmOf;wB;ef;g rlid ;f xB; OBjoM,.e;f y.e;f ylOd jf qOfja[Mcrf;

z5h9K'y95;9 y rw 9C,hy 06;b hy p:ory x:ory x5;b hy 9kjsyh> 0;yhgsk-,yr 0G;ry 06o b hy -Cory

16 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

vbdjy 9'yrd5ory mwrd5hx:9ry 9:ohy gdkh ]6dTy 9uh ;Koyhv5b'yjg0H;G'yrzy.,oyr doytd5dytd.kjm6b'y ,5b'yrd:dyjgl ;whlkp:oyrx:oyr9C,yh06b;yhgdkh ,uroxyt,6boyjoxytlCoy? ,5;b hy xwr: xK'yd,6 ] y '5 dy h5 06'b hy ,5'b ry ]Gxhy sGory ]:'yh9wr $ ;oyrooyt gxkr;khdKoy];yj,5oyh

Photo : Harn (SHAN)

,5b;yh;oyrmb @)T@QTQ+ o6,yjswKr0wKr pb'yr vbydyj9'yr 0K;yr9wr,5b'yrmwr ,:dyhsb,yr #QQ s^,yhdoyd.kjs<9yhm6b'ys^'yrpkluiuiK9yt ,5b'yrd:dyjgl v:oydoyoxytp,y;whlk p:oyr x:oyr sy>h0;yhgsk-,yr 0G;yr06boyh-Coyrooyt awKjl6b;yjmuH;uHmwrd,yhz:'yh mwjsK'yh9:'yh mK,y xw:jv:dyjs^;y-,yhooyt0:,yr? 9'yhc9jdK'y]5boygvkHd9yt,kr ;wKr gl 0;yh,6oypy.j-6oygsk-,yr z5H,bz5oyH vf6oHy ]pfG9jy voyvkp60;yh]wh _@ -5xyj ,ur9K'yr-wh9K'yrxGoy ]wh-;yhs^'yrpk]5'y luiuiK9yt p59yrpk95;y,kr-K;yr9K'yr]5boyxwK/ d5ory ,5'b ry mwrd5h0:ddty h5 ':ohy x9yrx6o b 9 ty 'yr,5'b ry ,whv5dyr,wh0y. v:oydoy;whlk95b'yjdK;yjp:oyr x:ory syh> 0;yho5;b sy ;^ 0 y ;G ry 06o b hy swK-Cory ? d5h;G'ry py.j9'yr,5b'yr vbdyj9'yrs^'yrpkluiuiK9ytgdkh x69 b jy sxyst h>y d5ory ,5'b ry ]wh9C,hy 06;b hy ]5'ry ]wKr,6;b ry p:oyrx:oyr,krc]h p5j9uhxGoy,5jxGoy06,yr c]hl'y/ l6ojy 95;o y khs^o b ry ]y. xGogy dkTgdkT ]yc. ]hl'y Zg9kjm6'b ] y o b5 v y d: hy m5;Hy [5;b Hy lG'yhX ,urd5oyr9C,yh06b;yh]KoytxwK? 05b;yrxGoy0K;yr,5'yt/ pK'yr/ c-j/ v-kj/ ]krs^j/ vuHl]K,yr ZzKdyh9y.hX 05b;yrowT

yt 'G ry p;y9 t ;5 hy ;oyrmb 95ohy 0y. dkhswj96'b hy s<'z @) 9G'yh;oyrgdkh ]GdyTpy.jo6,yjm;yh0wKr pb'ry oyr. d;y't ;yhakTm,yrlC'y ,5'b ry d:djy 9'yr gdk]bdyh]wKrdG'yr,y.j vbdyj ]6dyhsGoyrxG'ry ]5'y ,:dyhsb,yr #QQ / 0'yjv;y96b;yt9K'yrz:'yr]wh -:ohy 96,dy oyooygt l s^,hy doydk. jp:ory x:ory x5;b hy 9kj0;yhgsk-,yr? xu #QQ( ,5b;yh-5xyrs<xyh 0;yho5b;ys^;y x69yho'yhsK'yhgsk xGoygsk-,yrpK;yroKoyr l69ry -:xhy 9G,y (Q xuooyct ]hl'y/ xu #QQ) ,5b;yhvkp60;yh9G,y _Q 0G'yx5xyj-5xyjxuooyt c]hl'y/ 0K;yr9wroyr. ,5'b ry mwr]wK9uh]wK06,ry Z0G,yoy.r;G'yr 0G,yo5b;y]w:]Coy]boyX gdkh 09yrsCoyrxK'y-6dyrm5xyroxytp,yp:'yhgpkr v;y,6oy,kr 05b'yto'yjd5oyrmwr9'yr,5b'yr o'yj d;yj? p:oxty ;b5 hy ;khS -K;yr9K'yr *S( lbxry / #S$ lbxyrxu,krowt 0;yh-6oygsk-,yr vbdyj 0;yhoK'yrgsk-,yr xGosy ,^ hy s6'ry s^,hy swr 9uhx6'b hy vb'z y P 5 ry x5;b hy 9kjd5ory ,5'b ry 9wr 05;b ry ]6d9 ty hu ,wh xwKh,kr9uhd9yroxyst ;^ l y o C sy ;^ ] y Koyt g9kj ;oyr,5b;yhowt?

o6,yjswKr0wKrpb'yr 0K;yr9wroy.r,5b'yrmwr okhs<'yhp:oyrx:oyrs^'yrpk]5'y luiuiK9yt Shans at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok


INDEPENDENCE

Olif;qmwfjoFif;wB;-y.wf;+ifb ;5'yrlujgxkT Z@X ,:dyjd:oy9wr ;Koyh0K9yho,ytgxkT/ 0wKr]K;y,:oyr Zvkp6 %( xuX o,yrs^;y9'yh @++(/ ,ur-5b'yh swj96b'yh-5xyr/ dkh]whd5hxu? sC'yrd5oyr $QS%Q? Z#X vGoysC'yr,y.j ;G'ry d;yj/ 0wKrlC'] y u Zvkp6 $) xuX o:'yt0wKrdkj]b'yj o,yr9'yh #QQ* / ,ur-5b'yh vb9yrv:9yr/ sC'yrd5oyr #*S$Q gdkT?

0K9yhlC'ry 9wr voy]'6 ry gvkrg0jp lujgxkT gdkj';yhx5dry 9'yhv:osy ;^ y x5dry x:',y kr -K;yr9K'yr *QS(Q xuowt/ ';yr]wKrdKxyhxKoy pK,yr]G;y xGoys6b;y,urs6b;yp5j/ -6boyhpy.j/ p5xyh p:,yr/ 96bdyT,5boy xdyrd;yjx5b'yd;yj 05b'yts6b;yM? 96bdytl5'ydoyp6dyTp:'yh xoysC'yrczh95boyr 9:oyh]y.,:dyhs6b;yM? d5oyro6,yj06xyhlCoyr,y.j vkp6 $Q ]5'ry 9yh. Z05;b ry p5j oyr. -5royr. ;G'ry ]whsGory g,kxPkj ,ur0oy] t db hy ]wKrX d,yho,y ]Cxhy v,yjgxkrs^T0dyr;wTodyrl5o0 y .y dkhs6;b ?y vb'o y ;b5 'y ;yr]wKr]:'hy pKxyjz69 b jy d5h05;b dty h5 x5'b y gl 0K9yhlC'ry 9wrxwjm6'b 9 y hu ;:9hy ;wKr05,sy Kw gdkh g9]wh;kh xwj-6boyhpy.j-6b9yrxG'yrx5boyhow 0:'jy ;kh]whM? voy0;b6 hy 0yh. cotoo : ry c9t z5hsdya t 'b hy c'hlC'yr9wrd,yho,yowt p:oyt9K'yrl5'ypy.j/ sdyTs<,y,C9yjxC'yrc]h -9yr0y.-;yhs^,yhsG9yr 0:,ry d5Pry ? gdkTvoy]hw x6'b hy vb'0 y K9yhlC'ry gl v;yxGoydKoy]G'yt9:'ytd6,yj]5,yh9kj]6dyh g,rokhs^boyrooyt g9v,yj,urzy.? v,yjgxkr x5'b hy doy9'yrz5hs<'z ty 'G ry d.K,yrxKoy,j.y d,yho,y o'yjd;yj? 0:,ry o'yjpK,yh9:'hy mK,y]xG hy sGory 9uh oK'yr0G'-y ,yr Z;G'ry m,yhoK'yrlbxry l:'Xy ;oyr mb ##2%2#QQ) ,5b;yhxw:rlK'yj]:'yrxG'yr]5'y

gl]wh,wK9:'ry ;wt 06;b hy ;5'ry 0K9yhlC'ry ,5'b ry 9wr x:9yrs<'yj #* ;5'yr Zdkhp6boyr-6b9yrs^T]whX? 0G,;y '5 ry ]Gd;ty '5 ry pyj. 05;b ry 96db xty o G ;y '5 ry 0K9yh lC'yrd6b9yr05b;ytd6b9yrzoyr,oyrd,yhz:'yh? ;wT ,5boyo'yjd,ytmC,yxoysC'yr p6dyTp:'yhv;y,6oy z5hsdyT0K9yhlC'ry 9'yr]wKd6db ry x6o b ry gl,dyr,wK ;wTs^;ys6xyh9uhdCxyh,oyr 0:,yro'yjxkh9y.howt?

Z$X 0wKr-,yrl:dTy d\kj ;KoyhsK9yj]C'y/ 0wKr-,yr Zvkp6 $( xuX ]6dyhl:dyTd\kjo,yrokh/ v,yj,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ d5oyr,:dyh $Q? Z%X s<,y0:,yrx6boyr x:dyT]w:0K'yh-,yr/ dkj]b'yj Zvkp6 $) xuX o,yr? v,yj,ur-5'b hy -5xry / d5ory ,:dhy $* gdkT? Z*X l6xb jy -5;b ry oy.r;G'yrlujgxkT/ 0wKrm6oyr,:'yj Zvkp6 $( xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ@ v,yj,ur-5b'yh/ ,urd5oyr ,:dyh $* ? Z(X ,:dyj0K,y-,yr ;Koyh0K,yz5bdyj/ dkj;b Zvkp6 *@ xuX o,yr/ 9'yh ,5;b hy #QQ# ? v,yj,ur-5'b hy ,urd5ory ,:dyh $* gdkT? Z9K'yrg,k95;ym5xyr gxkr sG9yr0K9yh]5'yX? Z)X l6lCoyxwKr ;KoyhlCoyxwKr/ 0wKrl6 Zvkp6 %# xuX o,yr? v,yj,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $Q ? Z_X d,yjgxkr0 ;Koyhl5xyr]K'yr Zsb,yr9K'yrdkrawKj v:djy lujgxkT * ]dyrX/ ]6'ry d\ur,:'jy d,yjgxkr 0 Zvkp6 *( xuX o,yr? 9'yh @++) v,yj ,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh #* ?

Shan Herald Agency for News

17


L Z#QX 0wKrxkTsKoyj ;Koyh9:'yo;yh/ 0wKrxkTsKoyj Zvkp6 %* xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5b;yh @+_)/ ,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ gxt95;y/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $* gdkT?

;5'ry 0K9yhlC'ry 9wr oyr. ,5'b ry mwr

Z#@X x6'jy ;5;ry swKrd6Py 9'yh,5;b hy #QQ% v,yj,ur-5'b hy -5xry / ,ur d5oyr,:dyh #Q xwK?

;5'ry ]khlG;hy Photo : website

Z##X -5;b ry ob,ry ;Koyh-5b;yrob,yr/ 0wKrgvkr Zvkp6 *( xuX o,yr/ v,yj,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh #*? Z+X loy]w:9wr ;KoyhsK9yj]C'y / 0wKr-,yr0w:T Z]6dyh 0wKrdKoyjP6oyt voy]6,5b;yh #QQ(X Zvkp6 %% xuX o,yr? 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ$ v,yj,ur-5b'yh/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $* ? Z@QX ,:dyjmC;y,5b'yr ;KoyhsK9yj]C'y/ oK'yrs<,y-5b;yr Zvkp6 %$ xuX o,yr? 9'yh #QQ* v,yj,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $Q ? Z@@X ,:dyjd:oyswK x:dyT;Koyh0K9yh/ 0wKr05;yr9G'yr Zvk p6 %( xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ*/ v,yj,ur -5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $Q xwK ?

Z@*X ,:oyrlCoyx6boyr9wr o:'ygdkh-wKrlb,yj ZlujgxkTX ,5b;yhc9j ]6'yr]K;ys^b'yr Zvkp6 (@ xuX o,yr/ pK,yr ]G;yoK'yr0K,y-,yr Zvkp6 %+ xuX o,yr? 9'yh,5b;yh @++( ,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ]whdkh]5b'yj/ ,urd5oy,:dyh $* ? sG9yrxdyrpG,yh;oyr 9'yh c9j @+++ g9kj #QQ) d5hxu? Z@(X vGoysC'yr,y.j x:dTy ;Koyh0K9yh lujgxkT? ]6'ry ,:'jy d5;jy Zvkp6 (# xuX d]kr9wrvb9yrl]K,yro,yr Zg,kd.K,yr2zG'yr9wr]C;y]C9yrX? 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ% ? ,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $Q xwK?

;5'yrdqdytc,r

Z@#X 0wKrd,y-t ;b5 ry ;Koyhl5xyr]K'yr/ 0wKrd,yt-5b;yr Zvkp6 %@ xuX o,yr? 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ) ?v,yj,ur-5b'yh -5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $Q xwK?

Z@)X ,:dyjs<,yl6'y ;KoyhxK'y9'b6 /y oK'yrgoj Zvkp6 %+ xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5;b hy @++) ,ur-5'b hy -5xry / gxt9;5 /y ,urd5oyr,:dyh $* gdkT?

Z@$X s<,-y ;b5 ry ;Koyhl5xyr]K'yr/ oK'yrs<,y-5b;yr Zvkp6 %@ xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ) ? v,yj,ur-5b'yh -5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $Q gdkT?

Z@_X o,ytsK'yh-5b'yh ;Koyho,yst K'yh-5'b hy Zsb,ry xK'y9'b6 Xy 9'yh ,5b;yh #QQ% / v,yj,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh #Q xwK?

Z@%X s^,yhx:'yr lujgxkT/ oK'yr,\kT0b'yj Zvkp6 (@ xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5;b hy @++( / v,yj,ur-5'b hy -5xry / d5ory ,:dyh $Q xwKS v,yjgxkrl5h]whdkh?

Z@+X o,ytg0kT ;Koyho,ygt 0kT/ ]6'ry gvkr Zvkp6 (@ xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5b;yh @+++ v,yj,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh $Q gdkT?

18 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

Z#$X o,yt-wT ;Koyho,y-t Tw Zsb,ry ]khlG;hy X/ 0wKrglkr Zvkp6 %# xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ@/ v,yj ,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh #* gdkT? Z#%X -5;b ry -,yr ;Koyh-5;b ry ob,ry / oK'yrduh Zvkp6 $# xuX o,yr/ 9'yh,5b;yh #QQ# v,yj,ur-5b'yh/ ,urd5oyr ,:dyh #* gdkT? Z#*X d:'ry -kr ]khlG;hy ]5'/y 9'yh,5;b hy #QQ#/ v,yj ,ur-5b'yh-5xyr/ ,urd5oyr,:dyh #Q xwK ? lCoy06b;yh S dGxyrs<,y Z@+T$TQ+X


INDEPENDENCE

d.K,yr9C9hy ]K9yh,5o b Sy 9C,hy zy,. oyr/ 9K'yrp5j]:9hy 9wr Speak universally, Write locally: The Shan path to survival xK'yxw:rd5h06b'yh,5b'yr;kh]5Pyh 9wr]5'ys;yr voy09yrsCoyr9uh 0oyt0:,y06]kH]5'yHd:oyH ,5b'yrd:dyj $ ;oyr p;yt95;yhd.kj]u'K,yr,5b;yh @)T@QTQ+ ? vb'yo5b;yd.K,yrm6'yr9wr,ur;wt -y.hl6dytsG9yxw:r owc]h 0:,yro'yj]whl6dyt,kr9'yrxuowtgdkh v,yj,urxoyskp6'yhpKdyhgl l69yrd.kjooyt ]us^,y05,yrc9tc9t? z:oyr]uvoy]wh,kr9'yrlG'yhgdkh 9dyr]wh95dyrm6b'y05b;yrxGoy9wrd5hgdkTd5h0:dyTd5h':oyh 9'yr]6,yhakT? 0G,,y ;b5 hy ]5o b l y ,C Hy mC,Hy [5;b Hy #QQ_ xudKw ]whd.kjv6xjy v5;ry 95dry ]5'ry doy;kh g9sG9ry xwr: 9wr? ]wh-;yhskz5hpyj. d5ory ]5'gy l9:'hy mK,y ;kh xK'yxw:rowt ;wTvGoyrvKoyr05b;yts6b;y? vb'yo5b;y9'yr]wKcoto,yrooyt ]wh,dyr,wK;kh,ur $ g-khS â&#x2014;&#x2020; x5b;yhg9v:,yxC'yrsdyTlk;wt-5b'yhx5b'y,G9yj,wK (Identity) 9wr â&#x2014;&#x2020; x5b;yhd,ty0w:h05b;yrxGoy9wr sy>h,ur]:'yhv;yd6'yj,6oy;kh 95;yd;yjxGoy9wr? â&#x2014;&#x2020; x5;b hy d,y0 t h:w xoy9rw d5h-5;b ry -5;b ry oyr. ]6,hy akT 9'yhv;y0,G y 9wrd\3'y/t 9wro5;b /y 9wr9yh. / 9wr],y/ 9wr-K;y/ 9wr]C'/y 9wrvs^,/y 9wr]5'/y 9wr-6o b /y 9wrp5ory / 9wr]6;b /ty 9wrmwr/ 9wr]K;yr -;y ,ur]:'hy 0,y0d.y oy? â?&#x2018; o:dhy ooyt 9K'yr0oy0 t ,: 0 y ] 6 kHgdkh 9'yhvGory vKoyr;kh x5;b hy 9kjd,y0 t h:w xoy z5h05;b ry ,ur9K'yrs^Tpyj. 9K'yrsoydK. 'yh]:'hy 9wr s^,yhgdkj9'yh-5b;yr-wKjoC'yhdKoy (Network) syh> 0K'yhl6xb jy ]Gxhy sGory ]:'hy 9wr ,5;b ry okhmC'hy ? 05b;yrowt 9'yro,y9'yrgvj -6b'yx:'y,kr]wh? ]ugl]wK 05b;yr,ur9K'yrs^Tpy.j9K'yrsoyd.K'yhd,yhz:'yh v,yjzC;ys<9yh,kr]wh/ p6,yjp,y;kh : 'ty o b ry ]wh]5]hw 95Pry 0y0 . o b6 hy 0y0 . ,5 ry 0:,ry p5j? v,yjs6'b v y ,yjoKoyr g9,ur;uHfuHv5;Hy (video) v:djy ,kr syh> d5ory 9'yr]wK 05;b ry xwj9:osty oy9o ,5boyo'yjS â&#x2014;&#x2020; oK'yr-5;b ry lCo9 y K'yjco;kh 0;yhakT9wr 9'yrgsk-,yrogiHl5oy ,5'b ry vp69m ty pkr s<,ry ,6;b ry doyvKoyrgdkj9'yhgsklC'-y ;b5 ry 9wr ooytc]hl'y? â&#x2014;&#x2020; x6boyr9K'yrsdyT oy.rcdhd5oyr-5b;yr9wro'yjdoy ,5boy 0;yhz5,yr]6b;yr dG'yr96'y 9'yr 0;yhpb'yrmbxytz;oyr ],yrxK'yrooytc]hl'y? â&#x2014;&#x2020; z5h-5o-ty hw ]:'hy 9wr Oliver Raendchen 9K'yjco;kh ;kj99;y Zgxkrv;y,oyr0;yh;kh v:djy lG'] y hw 9;yh x:'jy ;kh l5j9;yh s<9hy zC;Xy voy];b6 ry ]'yor.y ,5'b ry c-j xG'ry doy9'yr;kj9 -5'jy a^r06;b jy Z-:oHy ab;ry l\9l ty y ConfucianismX xGo-y ': -y ;b5 ry 9wrooy] t ?.y ]uzb9yr0y.-K;yrpK,yr]GdyTgdjgvj,K'y/ ,urvoy]5vKoyj9K'yjcodoyd5Pyr/ v,yjgxkr,urvoy9:'yhmK,yv6xyjv5;yrdoyo,y? 0'yj;kh gdk]bdyh]wKrab'yhc'h9wr ,5b'yrmwrgdkh sG9yrxK'yd6,yv6xyjdoy Z#*T@QTQ+X ;kh xK'yxw:rvoy]whd.kj09yrco9uh,5b'yrd:dyjowt 05b;yrv,yj]whsoy]wh'boyr,uro,y? ]u]whsk96b;yt9K'yr09yrsCoyrcomC'yhowp5j? ,6'hy ,:'ry ;kh syh> xGoo y 'yjooygld,yr? gxkrooySg9,urz:ory ]upj.y ]5'y x5;b hy 9kj9wrs;yr9'yrpyj. 9'yro,y? vb'yrd]G9yh Circle Circuit

Circulation Circumference Circumstance Cirrhosis Cite Class Classmate Classroom

mwr       â&#x152;Ť

     

lG'yv:dyj ;5'yHd]5,yH ;5'yHdqoyH ;5'Hy f5o b Hy ¤:xty dKoyH,6oy;GoyH lGo¤ty x: ;ty '5 Hy lzKxy;t 9 C ] ty ,: rty

9wr;kh]wh ;5'yrd5,y ;5'ry ]Gxhy s<xhy ;5'ry s<xhy dKoyxoyj;Goyr lGohy s<xhy ;5'ry ';yr]wKr;C9] ty ,: ty

      !    â&#x152;Ť

9xyj-C'y vK'yv t 'b Hy -\oytr z5b;ytFvoyt ¤.3,yt-\oytr s<'yt¤G\oyH

9xyr-C'y vK'yhvb'y 0oyt gdkTs^,yh0oyt s<'yhsGoyr

mw:h9wr2,Koyhvoy0y.Tp5j 95'yj,5oyr20C9yt;wKr

ywf0ef;usiftajctae lwK'wKsb,yrs<,yr vc9r,kj2vc9rp:'yj d5;ry dkr 0oyt d5oyr0oyt]G;ydoy -Koyrl:oy]bdyh

Shan Herald Agency for News

19


L ulpfwM[mifb wuf;erhfnrfbvBj A basket with big insterstices cannot draw water

 

 

jcif;-um;eJâ&#x20AC;š a&cyfvâ&#x20AC;šdk r&

d.K,yrl:oy,5b'yrx5boyh Humilitly is the root from which greatners springs And the high must be built upon the foundation of the law Tao Te Ching, Chapter 39 Lao Tzu, 6 th century BC philosopher

lb'jy 9,yjowT: xGo'y ;yhsKdyh-:'l y 'b jy l6'p y j.y lb'jy l6'p y j.y 9dyr]whgdkjlK'yho5;b xy o b6 'ty ;yh9,yjowT: ];yj06;b jy 0;yhxwKr;5odty o : jy -ib9Ty s^;xy Kdyjxu ( xxty 9;t9 y ;b5 dy \b'ry doy $+

g-kh,wK9:'ry @*2@Q2Q+ z5h-5o-ty hw ]:'hy 9wr0;yho6'b hy voyxo G 0 y K;yrdb\3;yH,oyH Oliver Raendchen ;kh ,K'yz;yj ];yj06;b jy v,yj0yh. 06;b hy d5ory / xGo0 y ;b6 hy 0K;yr-5;b ry 9wr]K;yr? xwKr;5ogty dkh0K'yhxGoxy Kw r;5o9 ty rw voy9rw vs^,sy '< ;ty kh 9;yhc9t0'b ry ZlGohy 9K'yrvoyc9tX? 20 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009


INDEPENDENCE

i

a7;vmwJhay;pm

od@k o#r;f oHawmfqifo h wif;Xme usaemfAef;armf®r@om;wpfOD;yg? o#rf;jynfajrmufydkif; erfhcrf;udka&mufwkef; w±kwfbufjcrf; aemifawmif;bufoGm;wJh tcg o#r;f oHawmfqifo h wif;Xmeu xkww f hJ uGr;f ac:pmapmifukd zwfzl;wJh y&dwfowfwpfOD;yg ? tJ'ga=umifh jynfolawGcHpm;ae&wmawGxJu tcGefawG ay;&wJhudpP &ifzGifhwifjyvdkufygw,f? Aef;armf®r@rSm rD;vif;cGefqdk+yD; rDwmabmufpf ±dSwJhtdrf wdkif;wpfvudkusyf 500 vpOfyHkrSefay;&ygw,f? tcktkyfcsKyfwJh “rif;qdk;rif;npf” e0w wufvmuwnf;uyJ // rD;vif;cGeyf rkH eS af y;ae&ayrJh rD;uawmhyrkH eS v f mw,f&,f vd@k r±dSygbl;? tckqdk&if ydkawmifqdk;ao;/ &yfuGuftvdkuf tvSnfh uspepfeJ@ 2 &ufjcm;wpfcgvmw,f? vmwJhtcsdefrSmawmifrD; urrSefbl;? n 6 em&Duae reuf 6 em&Dtxd rD;vmw,fqdk&if yHkrSefvmw,fvdk@ajymEdkifygw,f? tJvykd rkH eS f 12 em&Dvmw,fqw kd m awmfawmf±mS ;ygw,f? rsm;aomtm;jzifh n 7 em&DausmfavmufrS vmwwf+yD; nydkif;qdk jyefysuo f mG ;yg+yD? b,favmuftxd uoduatmifhEdkifovJqdkwm wGuf wm =unfhygawmhAsm? a&bHkbdkif±dSwJhtdrfqdk rD;vmrSwif&w,f?

i&Jrif;}uD;u usKyftay: rw&m;ojzifh bmjypfr_eJ@ pD&ifcsufcsovJAs

Adkvfoef;a±$

qdik af &mif;wJo h q l &kd ifvJ za&mif;wdik /f bufx&D / rD;puf ud, k [ hf meJ@ ud, k }f uHzef+yD;vky=f u&wmyg// wpf®r@vHk;qdk&if rDwmabmufpf 3 aomif;ausmfavmuf ±dSr,fvdk@cef@rSef;ygw,f? wpfv 500 qdk&if odef;aygif; 150 ausmf avmufawmif&aew,f/ eJeJaemaemrSr[kwfwm? wpfESpfqdk&if b,favmufvJwGuf=unfh&ifodygw,f? 'Dvkd tcGet f cawG&aewmawmif rD;urvif;bl;? 'DaiGawG b,fa&mufoGm;vJ´ jynfolvlxkac|;eJpmawG,l+yD; jynfol@ aumif;usdK;raqmif±GufyJ b,fae&mrSm oHk;ovJodcsifygw,f? 'Dacwfu b,fae&mrSmyJ=unfh=unfh 'DvlawGpm;w,fæ pm;w,fq+kd yD; ðzwfvu kd jf yef+yD? aemufwufwahJ umifuvnf; pm; wmygyJ? b,fvdkvl ajymif;oGm;ajymif;oGm; pm;=uwmygyJæ xdyfqHk;u EGm;}uD;u ajzmifhajzmifhroGm;awmh aemufu EGm;awGvnf; b,fajzmifhajzmifhvdkuf=urSmvJ? ±Sif;±Sif;av;ygæ acgifurdk;rvHkawmh usefwJhae&mawG vdkufzgax;aevJ tzg 100 jzpfaeayrJh rdk;uawmhrvHkbl;ayghAsm? tdk;±Gm (ref@rdk@) u zdk;jym 1§10§2009

usKyfwdk@&J@ em;*pfzGJ@pnf;yHkudk jynfol 92μ ausmf axmufcHwJhtaxmuftxm;u tmrcHw,f? usKyfudkw&m;pGJvdk@ bm&rvJ ´

cifAsm;r[kww f mvkyw f hJ 0ÉfaºuG;twGuf ay;quf &rSmbJ

,rrif;

Adkvfoef;a±$

Shan Herald Agency for News

21


L Edik if aH &; 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567

SSA vufeufcsrnf[k

Photo : YPM

rdik ;f wHt k ajcpdu k f etzppfAsL[mrª;u awmifyikd ;f 0 wyfz@JG wyfr[m 772 wyfr[mrª;ESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;pOf - “o#rf; jynfwyfrawmf vufeufcsawmhrnf” [kajyma=umif; e,fpyf owif;&yfuGufuajymonf?

pufwifbm 29 &uf oSsrf;jynfta±S@ydkif; rdkif;wHk etz ppfAsL[mrª;ESifh awmifydkif; 0 wyfr[m 772 wyfr[mrª; wmhZkef; wdk@ rdkif;u|wfaus;&Gmwdkufol}uD;tdrfY awG@qHkpOf ArmhppfAsL[m rª;u 0 wyfr;ª tm; - “cifAsm;wd@k udk xd;k ppfqifwu kd cf u kd zf @kd r±Syd gb;l / bmvdk@vJqdkawmh 'DtcsdefrSm usaemfwdk@tvkyft&rf;rsm;w,f/

ArmppfAsL[mrSL;0g'jzef@

,Gufppfwdk@tzGJ@ vufeufeJ@+idrf;csrf;a&;vJzdk@udpPtwGuf jyifqif p&mawG±Sdw,f” - [k ajymcJha=umif; - awmifydkif; 0 wyfrª;wOD; u ajymygonf? “tJ'Dowif;=um;=um;csif;awmh wrsKd;jzpfwmaygh/ 'gay r,fh rjzpfEkdifbl;vdk@pOf;pm;rdw,f? 'gppftpdk;&&J@ pdwf"gwfppfqif a&;enf;ok;H wmbJv@dk em;vnfvu dk w f ,f”- [k trnfraz:vdk onfh awmifydkif; 0 wyfrª; wOD;u ajymyg onf? xd k @ twl Ad k v f r ª ; }uD ; ,G u f p pf u vnf ; -ppf t pd k ; &ES i f h aqG;aEG;&ef SSA bufrS udk,fpm;vS,fvGwfurf;vSrf;xm;onf qdkonfhowif;/ SSA vufeufcsrnfqdkonfh owif;rsm;vHk;0 r[kwfrSefa=umif; o#rf;oHawmfqifhtm;“'gppf t pd k ; &&J @ vS n f h u G u f b J ? bmwck r S r[k w f b l ; ? ppftpdk;&eJ@ aqG;aEG;zdk@ xdkif;tpdk;&u=um;0ifay;wmukdawmh usaemfwdk@ c|if;csufeJ@vufcHw,f? bmvdk@vJqdkawmh EdkifiHa&; jy\emudk EdkifiHa&;enf;vrf;eJ@ usaemfwdk@ajz±Sif;csifvdk@ygbJ” [k ajym.? ajrmufydkif; 0 XmecsKyfESifh ul;vl;qufqHa&;cufcJonfh awmifyidk f; 0 wyfzGJ@tm;awGa0ap&eftwGufaomfvnf;aumif;/ vG,fvG,fululzJhxkwfEkdif&eftwGufaomfvnf;aumif; xdkuJhodk@ 0g'jzef@jcif;jzpfEdkifa=umif; xdkif;vHkðcHa&; t&m±SdwOD;uvnf; aumufcsufcsoHk;oyfygonf? Ô

yifvpkH mcsKyfyg wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;ESifh ArmvlrsK;d rsm;t=um; wef;wltcGit fh a&;udk ppftpd;k &taejzihf todtrSwðf yoihf a=umif; KIO u ajymqdo k nf? pufwifbmvtwGi;f u KIO tzG@J taejzihf etz ppfAv kd f AdkvfcsKyfrª;=uD;oef;a±$xH ay;ydk@onhfpmwGif 1947 yifvHkpmcsKyfyg wef;wltcGihfta&;rsKd;udk vufcHygu KIO onf e,fjcm;apmihf wyftjzpf toGifajymif;&ef rvdktyfbJ ppftpdk;&xH vufeufcs rnf[k a&;om;cJhonf? 22 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

Photo : website

yifvHkpmcsKyfygwef;wltcGihfta&;udk todtrSwfðyoifha=umif; KIO ajym


INDEPENDENCE “yifvHkpmcsKyfudk jyefajym&wmu jrefrmEdkifiHawmf jynf axmifpu k pd u P kd jyef+yD;pOf;pm;Edik af tmifv@kd yg? jynfaxmifpk jzpfvm w,fqw kd muyifvakH =umihjf zpfvmwmud;k ” [k KIO XmecsKyftajc pdkuf&mucsifjynf vkdifZm®r@Y KIO twGif;a&;rª;a'gufwmv*sm u ajymonf? “pmyd@k wmu aqG;aEG;zd@k qdw k hJ oabmawmh r[kwyf gb;l ? em;vnf/ pOf;pm;ay;Ekid zf @kd qdw k hJ oabmyg? olw@kd bufu wk@H jyefr_ b,fvdkvmr,f/ rvmbl;qdkwm usaemfwdk@rajymEkdifao;bl;? olw@kd eJ@yJqikd w f ,f”- [k oluqdo k nf? 1947 azazmf0g&Dv 12 &ufwGif ±Srf;jynf yifvkHY jrefrmh vGwfvyfa&;Adokum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESihf ucsif/ csif; &Srf;

wdik ;f &if;om; acgi;f aqmifrsm;onf wdik ;f &if;om;aygi;f pHk aoG;pnf; nDnGwfa&;udk tajccH+yD; wef;wla&; tmrcHonhf yifvHkpmcsKyfudk csKyfqckd =hJ uonf? KIO u wef;wla&;udpPajymaecsdefwGif &Srf;jynfajrmuf ykid ;f tajcpdu k f ucsiv f w G af jrmufa&;wyfrawmf - KIA . wyfr[m 4 udk etzppfwyfvufatmuf wyfz@JG i,f 3 ckz@JG pnf; xm;&S&d efEiS fh tu,fIvufrcHygu wyfzGJ@udk e,fajrtwGif;rS qkwfcGm&ef zd t m;ay;aea=umif ; xd k i f ; tajcpd k u f ucsif o wif ; Xme u xkwfjyefa&;om;xm;onf? eef;a'0D rZdPsr 22/10/2009

2008 em;*pfzGJ@pnf;yHkt& typf&yftzGJ@rsm; e,fjcm; apmifhwyftoGifajymif;&efzdtm;ay;r_tay:vufrcHonfh 0 jynf aoG;pnf;a&;wyfrawmftm; rl;,pfaq;0g;tr_qifI ,r,f±Sm tjypfyHkcsjyefa=umif; rl;,pfavhvma&;todkif;t0dkif;u ajymyg onf? “t&ifwkef;u 0 wyfzGJ@zufu w±kwfukefonfawG rl;,pfa&mif;0,fwmudk etzzufu rodusK;d u|jH yKcJw h ,f? tcku 0 wyfzGJ@udk tjypf±Smcsifvmawmh rl;,pfaq;0g;r_ rjzpfjzpfatmif zefwD;aew,f? 0 url;,pfaq;ul;oef;a&mif;0,fr_rSm ywfouf w,fq+dk yD; w&m;0ifowif; xkwjf yefvmwm±Sw d ,f? cGeq f macwf wkef;ub,fol§b,ftzGJ@ubJ rl;,pfaq;0g;b,favmufbJ a&mif;0,fazmufum;aeygap cGefqmtzGJ@udkcsnf;vufn‡Kd;xdk; ovkdaygh”-o#rf;jynfrl;,pfapmifh=unfhavhvma&;tzGJ@'g±kdufwm OD;cGefpdkif;u ajymygonf? 26/9/09 &uf wmcsDvdwf®r@e,f rdkif;zkef;aus;±GmtkyfpkY zrf;rdaom ode;f cso D nf, h mbrsm;rSm 0 wyfz@JG .ypPn;f jzpfa=umif;/ 18/9/09 &ufae@ awmifydkif; 0 wyfzGJ@um;rsm; 0rfh[ek f@rSrdkif;u|wf bufodk@ nbuf 5-6 pif; xGufcGgoGm;onfudkvnf; tdkufpf ac: acgi;f cgaq;jym;rsm;ESihf bde;f jzLbavmufw;kH rsm; o,f,o l mG ;jcif; jzpfa=umif;- pojzifh ppftpdk;& todkif;t0dkif;uajymqkdcJhygonf? “rl;,pfaq;0g;udpPeJ@ywfoufvm&if etzxdyfydkif; acgif;aqmifawG xdyfydkif;t&m±SdawG yg0ifywfoufcJhw,fqdkwm usaemfw@kd rSmvJ oufaotaxmuftxm;±Sw d ,f? usaemfw@kd udk csnf; tjypfyHkcsvdk@r&ygbl;” - [ktrnfraz:vdkonfh 0 t&m±Sd wOD;u ajymygonf?

Photo : website

e,fjcm;apmifhwyfvufrcHonfh 0 wyfzGJ@tm; rl;,pftr_qif

ppftpkd;&.em;*pfzGJ@pnf;yHkt& typf&yftzGJ@rsm; e,f jcm;apmifhwyftoGifajymif;&ef zdtm;ay;cJhr_tay: 0 wyfzGJ@u xdyfydkif;rSaeI trsKd;rsKd;ta=umif;jy acgif;cgjiif;qefaeonfh 0 wyfzGJ@tay: rl;,pfaq;0g;udpP ,r,f±Smjcif;jzifh ppftpkd;&u vufn‡Kd;xdk;vmjcif;jzpfonf? +yD;cJhonfh =o*wfpfvuvnf; wyftoGifajymif;a&; tay: jiif;qefonfh zkef=um;±Sif;acgif;aqmifaomudk;uef@wyfzGJ@ tm; rl;,pfaq;0g;xkwfvkyfr_/ vufeufpuf±kHxlaxmifr_pGJcsuf wk@d jzifh tiftm;oH;k xd;k ppfqifwu kd cf u kd I f ud;k uef@a'otm; odr;f ydkufcJhonf? Ô

Shan Herald Agency for News

23


L ppfa&;

o#rf;jynfta±S@ydkif; pGrf;tm;±Sifwdk@ ppfa&;avhusifhae o#rf;jynfta±S@ykdif; pGrf;tm;±SiftzGJ@rsm;tm;ppfa&; avhusihf ay;aeonft h jyif rkid ;f qwf/ rkid ;f wk®H r@rS vm; [ljynfo@l ppf t&m±Sd 30 cef@vnf; ysOf;rem;aejynfawmfokd@ ykd@aqmifoifwef; ay;aea=umif; e,fpyfowif;&yfuGufu qkdygonf? rkdif;cwftajcpkdufAsL[mrª; Akdvfrª;}uD; aevif;.!$ef =um;csujf zifh ,ckv 23 &ufrpS I rkid ;f ,ef;®r@ pGr;f tm;±Sirf sm;tm; aoewf ð zwf e nf ; / wyf q if e nf ; rS t p ypf e nf ; cwf e nf ; rsm; avhusifhay;aeonf[k wmcsDvdwfa&muf rkdif;,ef;a'ocHwpfOD; uajymjy.? “rkdif;,ef;rSm pGrf;tm;±SifawGukdppfa&;avhusifhay; aewm tckwpfacgufqkd 2 }udrfajrmuf? vGefcJhwJh 10 &ufavmuf u avhusifhay;wm pGrf;tm;±Siftiftm; 50 ausmf±Sdw,f? tck wacguf 40 ausmf±Sdw,f/ 2 okwfaygif; 90 ausmf±Sd+yD? olwkd@ acgif;aqmifu &JxGuf/ 'k&JtkyfpHodef;wJh touf 50 ausmf+yD? rkdif;,ef; aps;wef;&yfuGufrSmaew,f” - [kqkd.? ppfa&;avhusifhay;onfhumvrSmwpfokwf 10 &uf/ qifhac:cH&+yD; roGm;vdkygu vlpm;iSg;ay;&a=umif;/ w&ufv#if w±kwaf iG,rG f 25- 35 txd ay;&a=umif; - ‚if;uqufajymjy.?

“ppfa&;oGm;avhusi&hf wJph rG ;f tm;±Siaf wG Armppfwyfu wyfxGufawGtrsm;qkH;bJ? aemuf yavmif/ vm;[l/ o#rf;vJyg w,f? trsm;tm;jzifh aq;pGJolawG/ aq;jzwfaewJhydefanmif±kd; ajcmufawGvyJ gw,f” [k um;orm;wpfOD;uvJajymjy.? xkd@tjyif rkdif;wkH rkdif;qwfrS vm;[ljynfol@ppf t&m±Sd ta,muf 20-30 cef@ukdvJ aejynfawmfokd@ ppfoifwef;oGm; wuf&efppftm%mykid rf sm;apv$wcf ahJ o;onf[k rkid ;f qwfrS ppfwyf acsmum; pwJef;ykdifoGm;apmifhay;&onfh um;q&mwpfOD;u ajymjy.? “=uyfajy;rSm 2 v 3 vavmuf=umr,fwJh? jynfol@ ppf u teJ q k H ; 10 wef ; atmif a wG c snf ; bJ ? Armppf w yf u vufeufuidk w f idk ;f &if;om;tzG@J awGuw dk u kd &f if 'Djynfo@l ppfawGudk xkwo f ;Hk rSmaocsmw,fv@dk a'ocHawGajymae=uw,f”-[k qk. d ? o#rf;jynftv,fykdif; rkdif;aemif/ aus;oD;/ rkdif;ukdif/ vJcsm;/ rk;d eJ/ vif;ac;wk@d wGiv f nf; rD;owftzG@J tm; tpk;d &ppfwyf u ppfa&;avhusifhay;aea=umif;/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh o#rf;jynf wyfrawmfxdef;csKyfe,fajrYjzpfa=umif; o#rf;jynftv,fydkif; owif;&yfuGufuvnf; qdkygonf? Ô

ppftpdk;&. e,fjcm;apmifhwyf rdkif;vm;wyfzGJ@ jiif;qefIr&awmh ppftpd;k &. e,fjcm;apmifw h yftoGiaf jymif;a&; tpDtpOf qufvufjiif;qef&ef trsKd;om;'Drdk&ufwpfwyfaygif;pk-o#rf; jynfta±S@ydkif; NDAA-ESS ac: rdkif;vm; txl;a'o 4 wyfzGJ@ tajctaer&awmha=umif; ckid v f o kH nfh xdik ;f e,fpyfowif;&yfuu G f ajymygonf? atmufwdkbm28 &uf OuUX}uD; OD;pdkif;vif;acgif;aqmif onfh rdkif;vm;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@u usKdif;wHk a&muf AdkvfcsKyf&Jjrifh ESifhoGm;a&mufawG@qHkpOf e,fjcm;apmifhwyftoGifajymif;a&;udpP wcGef;wyg'r# aps;qpfIr&a=umif;/ rdkif;vm;tzGJ@. pufwifbm 23 &ufyg ppftpdk;&xHay;ydk@onfhpmtwdkif; rlt&e,fjcm;apmifh wyfvkyfwefv#if vkyfrnf[laomtcsufudkom AdkvfcsKyf&Jjrifh udkif pGJ zdajymvdkufa=umif; tqdkygowif;&yfuGufu qdkonf? “wyfr[m 369 xde;f csKyfe,fajr qDv;l a'o eJ@ wyfr[m 911 xde;f csKyfe,fajr erfyh ef;a'oudk rdik ;f vm;®r@e,fxx J m;cGihf ray; awmhbl;/ qDvl;qdk&if rdkif;,ef;®r@e,f/ erfhyef; qdk&ifvJ rdkif;a,mif; 24 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

®r@e,fbjJ zpf&r,fw?hJ Xmaejynfo@l ppfvJ vkycf iG v hf rJ &bl;/ wyf&if; wdik ;f etz ppft&m±Sd 30 yg0ifwhJ e,fjcm; apmifw h yfbv J yk &f r,f? ppftpd;k &owfrw S x f m;wJh oifwef;ae&m udb k o J mG ;wuf&r,f”[k AdkvfcsKyf&Jjrifhu ajymao;a=umif; qdk.? e,fjcm;apmifw h yfv;kH 0 toGiaf jymif;vJa&;udo k m Adv k cf sKyf &Jjrifh tay:pD;zdajymcJhaomfvnf; rdkif;vm;tzGJ@taejzifh rnfodk@ vufc+H yD; rnfr#vu kd ef mrnfukd rqH;k jzwf&ao;a=umif;/ ,cktajc taerSm 0 wyfz@JG yefqef;XmecsKyfEiS v hf nf; qufpyfaea=umif;/ PDF tzG@J 0ifu;kd uef@a'ovufvw G q f ;kH ±k;H +yD;aemuf rkid ;f vm;wyfz@JG e,f ajrt±_H;cHrnf rcHrnf[laom tcsuftay:rlwnfaea=umif;/ rdkif;vm;acgif;aqmifrsm; xyfrHtpnf;ta0;xdkif+yD; yefqef;ESifh oGm;aqG;aEG;&OD;rnfjzpfa=umif;/ 0 wyfzGJ@.&yfwnfr_ESifh qHk;jzwf csufvnf;ta&;yga=umif; - tqdkygqdkpfhuo#rf;oHawmfqifhodk@ ajymjyonf? Ô


INDEPENDENCE

,Ofaus;rSK

Photo : SHAN

oSsrf;ta=umif;okawoe nDvmcH ESifh jyyGJ txajrmuf+yDpD;

xdik ;f Edik if H befaumuf®r@ Maha Chulalongkorn building, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University Y atmufwdkbm 15 rS 17 txdusif;ycJhonfh o#rf;ta=umif;okawoenDvmcH ESifh jyyGJtm; jynfwGif;jynfyorkdif;ynm±Sif/ y&dwfowf&mcsDwuf a&mufcJh=u.? okH;&ufusif;yonfh o#rf;ta=umif;okawoenDvmcH yGJawmf International Conference on Shan Studies (ICSS) ok@d xdkif; tajcpdkufo#rf;rsm;tjyif jynfwGif;jynfyrSynm±Sifrsm;. pmwrf;zwfyGJESifhpmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ ±dk;&m"avh/ tpm;t aomuf/ b,aq; t0wftpm;wkd@ukdvnf;cif;usif; jyoonf?

“pmwrf;zwfyGJtpnf;a0;cef; 3 ck jyifqifxm;w,f? a[majymwJhta=umif;t&m acgif;pOf}uD; 5 ck±Sdw,f? Oyrm xdkif;EdkifiHo#rf;ta=umif;/ o#rf;vlrsKd;rsm;&J@ vlr_todkif;t0dkif;/ ±kd; &maq;ynm/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ udk;uG,f,Hk=unfr_qdk+yD; tcef;u¾ awGcx JG m;w,f”- [kyaJG wmfwufa&mufonfh csi;f rdik o f #r;f tokid ;f t0kdif;rSvli,fwOD;uajym.? +Adwdo# ESifh *syefacwfu usKdif;wHkapmfbGm; ESifh vef@em; (csif;rdkif) qufqHa&;ta=umif; rpPwmy&mxdyf csmvDu wifjy oGm;onfh “usKid ;f wHk tdraf ±S@rif;om;p0fz±kr;f vl;eJ@ csi;f rdik v f rf;yef; u rif;orD; p0fxyd zf 0rf; Zgwv f rf;” udk tcspZf mwfvrf;aESmaom pmwrf;rSm y&dowfwkd@ txl;pdwf0ifpm;=uonf [kqkd.? 16 &ufae@wGiv f nf; o#r;f ordik ;f ynm±Sif a':eef;ac;qdik f a[majymonfhpmwrf;rSm xdkif;bk&if jAe&Zfordkif;rS ya[Vd 3 ck ajz±Si;f cef;/ rpPwmpepf'af 0g'h zf wf=um;onfh o#r;f bk&ifo[ kd efbmG ; ESifhrusD;aphtuQ&mpmwrf;wkd@ukdvnf; pdwf0ifwpm;±Sd=ua=umif; od&.? atmufwb kd m 17 &uf yGaJ wmfaemufq;kH ae@Y rGe;f wnfch sed f txd ,Ofaus;r_azsmfajzjcif;tcrf;tem;t+yD; rGef;vGJydkif;wGif qD&&D wfaq;±ko H @kd wuf a&muf aq;ukor_c, H al eaom xdik ;f bk&if rif; jrwftm; aeaumif; use;f rmawmfral p&ef xkid ;f Ekid if ±H o dS #r;f rsm; oGm;a&muf qkawmif;ay;=ua=umif;od&ygonf? Ô

rlrJhvl etz . em;*pfzŒJG pnf;yHk

2010

r'y

}uHhzGwf

m a±G;au

u fyGJ

b,fESacgif;eJ@ touf±SL&ygh ig@rSmESacgif;vJr±Sd/ tcufawG@vScsnfh

wpn Shan Herald Agency for News

25


L vlŒtcGifhta&;

wdkif;rSL;udk,fwdkiftrdef@ay;±GmrD;±d_@ cdkif;onfhudpP pucrSL;ppfcHk±kH;wifcH& *sLvdik af emufq;kH tywfu o#r;f jynftv,fyidk ;f aus;vuf tdrfajc&mcsDrD;±_d@cH&r_Y awmif}uD;tajcpdkuf &yc wdkif;r–; AdkvfcsKyf &mjynfh ud, k w f ikd f trde@f ay;!¸e=f um;cJjh cif;jzpf+yD; aus;±Gmtkypf w k ck wnf;usyfoef;aygif; 700 eD;yg;qHk;±_H;cJhonf? “Armppfom;awG ±GmrD;±_d@awmh usaemfwdk@[dkcdkif;aus;±Gm tkypf w k ckxJ t}u;D tus,q f ;kH ±ª;H cJw h ,f”- [k rdik ;f udik ®f r@acwfynm wwf vli,fwOD;uajymonf? tqdkygyk*~dKvf. pm&if;t&rdkif;udkif®r@e,f [dkcdkif;aus;±Gm tkyfpktwGif; vlaetdrfajc 125 tdrf/ pyg;}udwfcGJpuf 3 ±kH/ pyg; wif;aygif; 11˜812 wif;/ EGm;vSnf; 32 pif;/ qdkifu,f 6 pD;/ axmf vm*sDt}uD;wpD;qkH;±ªH;a=umif;/ Armppfom;rsm; t"rR"g;jywkduf vk,lcJhonfh a±$aiGrsm;rygao;a=umif; ‚if;uajymygonf? “rD;avmifaewke;f uk, d v f w $ ±f ek ;f xGuaf jy;wJh ±Gmom;wOD; qDu ppfom;awG vk,loGm;wm a±$xnf 2 usyfom; aiGom; 7 ode;f ? wjcm;vlawGqu D "g;jywku d , f w l m tdraf y:wuf,w l mawG rygao;bl;”- [k tqdkygvli,fu ajymjy.? rdkif;udkif®r@e,f [dkcdkif;aus;±Gmtkyfpk tm;pHjyaus;±Gm tjzpf 2 xyfysOfaxmiftdrf 125 vkH;jyefvnfaqmyfvkyfay;&ef wdik ;f rª;u rdik ;f aemif tajcpdu k f trSwf 2 puc rª; Adv k rf ;ª }uD; ausmf ZHjrifhtm; !$ef=um;cJhaomfvnf; tx rajrmufcJha=umif; a'ocH 0efxrf;wOD;u TuJhodk@ajymjy.? “jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; wm0ef,l&wJh cr& 517 wyf&if; 'k-Adkvfrª;}uD;ausmfolu pnfyift&m±SdeJ@pum;rsm;+yD;xdk;}udwfwJh tqifhawmifa&mufw,f? teJqHk;0efxrf;ESpfa,mufawmh ol@ vufoD;pmrd+yD/ 0efxrf;tcsif;csif;vJrwnfh=ubl;? a0pkrwnfh wmaerSmaygh”- [kajym.? rD;±_@d cH&onfh [dck ikd ;f aus;±Gmtkypf w k iG f wdik ;f ppfAsL[mwck/ Xmeqdkif&m 15 ck taqmuftOD;aqmufvkyfa&;twGuf awmif }uD; bufrS vuform; 500 ac:vmrnf[ak jymaomfvnf; vuf±dS tvkyo f rm; 40-50 a,mufuydk ifxu kd w f efonfh vkyt f m;c ray;

26 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

aoma=umifh tm;vHk;eD;yg; jyefoGm;=u+yD [kqdkonf? “tdrfajc 125 tdrf topf jyefaqmufay;r,fajymayrJh 11 tdraf vmufbJ w0ufwysujf zpfaew,f? aevk@d &wJh tqifu h 1 tdrfbJ? usefwJhtdrfawGukdawmh a'ocHwtdrfwa,mufqifh ac:+yD; qufaqmufcdkif;w,f/ opfygrpf&wJhvlawGvJ ppfwyfu olwdk@ukdydkufqHwjym;rSray;awmh b,folrSopfray;csifbl;”-[k ajymjy.? xkd@jyif awmif}uD;ppfwkdif;±kH;u pucrª; Adkvfrª;}uD; ausmf ZHjrifhtm; vlxkpnf;±kH;a&;nHhzsif;jcif;/ o#rf;olykefESifhwkdufyGJ jzpfpOf vlolvufeuftrsm;tjym;qHk;±_H;jcif;wdk@a=umifh ppfcHk±kH;wuf&ef qifhac:cH&onf[k vuform;wpfOD;uvnf; ajymygonf? &yf±mG rD;±_@d r_wiG v f nf; vufeufcsrikd ;f Zift h zG@J vufcsujf zpf onf[k tuGuq f ifvrd cf ikd ;f aomfvnf; Armhppfwyfemrnfjzifo h m tjzpfrSefxGufqkdjcif;ESifh rD;±_d@cH&onfh±Gmrsm;tm; ysOfaxmiftdrf wpf&mausmf jyefaqmufay;a&;ukd pufwifbmvtwGif; +yD;pD; atmif rvkyfEkdifjcif;wdk@a=umifh jzpfonf[kqkdygonf? “trSefawmhrD;±_d@r_u wdkif;rª;udk,fwdkiftrdef@ay;cJhwm bJ/ olu Adkvfoef;a±$&J@vl/ tjypftm;vHk;ukd pucrª; ausmfZHjrifhacgif; ay: yHkcs+yD;acgif;a±SmifvdkufwmbJ”-[k qufajymjy.? ppfcHk±kH;wuf&efoGm;&onfh Adkvfrª;}uD;ausmfZHjrifhonf uHraumif;v#ifaxmifusEdkifa=umif;/ wm0ef&mxl;ðywfrnfrSm aocsm a=umif; rkdif;aemif 0efxrf;owif;&yfuGufu od&onf? *sLvdkif 27 &ufrS =o*wfpf 1 &ufae@txd rdkif;udkif®r@e,f ESiv hf cJ sm;®r@e,fw@dk rS aus;±Gm 10 ±Gmausm/f tdraf jcaygi;f 500 ausmf ukd etzppfwyf vJcsm; cv& 64 ESifh cr& 515 / vGdKifvif cv& 9 ESifh 12 / rdkif;udkif cr& 513 / 515 / rdkif;yGef cr& 517 / rdk;eJ cr& 518 wdk@u rD;±_d@zsufqD;cJh+yD;/ aus;±Gmaygif; 39 ±Gmtm;vnf; ae &yf&if;rS t"rRarmif;xkwf cJo h nf? aus;±GmrD;±_@d r_a=umifh rdik ;f aemif ajcpdu k f trSwf 2 pucrª; Adv k rf ;ª }uD;ausmZf jH rifv h nf; ppfc±kH ;Hk wifcH vdu k &f onf? Ô


INDEPENDENCE

rSKcif;

Armppfom;tcsif;csif;ypfowf 5 a,mufaoqHk; rdk;eJtajcpdkuf cv& 248 wyfcGJ 2 rSppfom;rsm; aus;oD; ®r@e,fodk@ ppfa=umif;xGufpOf tcsif;csif;tacstwif pum;rsm; &efjzpf&mrS vufypfAHk;cGJ/ ypfcwf=uojzifh 5 a,mufxufreJao qHk;a=umif; o#rf;jynftv,fydkif; owif;&yfuGufu ajymygonf? “atmufwdkbm 1 &ufae@ n 11 em&Dausmfavmufaygh t&uf0dkif;rSmolwdk@tcsif;csif;pum;rsm; &efjzpf+yD;ypfowf=uwm/ ppfa=umif;rª;&J@pma&;u vufypfA;kH ESpv f ;kH cJw G ,f/ wcsK@d uaoewf eJ@jyefypfw,f/ 15 a,mufxufrenf; aoa=u'%f&m&w,f? tJxu J 5 a,mufawmhaowmbJ?”- [k ukefonfwOD;uajym ygonf? xkd&efyGJrSppfa=umif;rª; Adkvfrª;aZmfxGef;vnf; tjyif;t xef'%f&m&ojzifhaozdk@rsm;a=umif;/ axmfv*sDjzifh vJcsm;aq;±kH odk@ nwGif;csif;ydk@vdkufaomfvnf; '%f&mjyif;xefaoma=umifh 2 &ufae@awmif}uD;od@k yd@k aqmifuo k &a=umif; qufajymygonf?

“tcktcsi;f csi;f ypfowf=uwJh ppfa=umif;ukd vJcsm;®r@e,f yefzeG ;f tajcpdu k f cv& 9 wyfpcef;rSm acwW oGm;aecdik ;f xm;w,f? olw@dk tcsi;f csi;f owf=uwmvk@d rajymbl;? o#r;f jynfwyfrawmfu olw@kd udv k mwdu k w f ,fv@kd vlxt k =um;owif;vGix hf m;w,fajym w,f? a'ocHawGuv dk t J v J ydk aJ jymw,f” - [k trnfraz:vdo k nfh a'ocHwOD;uajymygonf? *sLvkdifvaESmif;ydkif;u ppftpkd;&wyf rD;±_d@zsufqD;vdkuf aom o#r;f jynftv,fyidk ;f aus;±Gm 39 ±Gmtm; jyefvnf xlaxmif a&;twGuf wm0efus e,fvSnfhonfh rdk;eJtajcpdkuf cv& 248 rS Adkvfrª;aZmfrdk;OD;aqmifaomtzGJ@ tiftm; 50 cef@±Sd wyfcGJ 2 ppf a=umif;u aus;oD;®r@e,f rdkif;,dkif;aus;±Gmtkyfpkodk@a&muf±SdpOf tcif;jzpfyGm;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf? Ô

xlaxmifa&;wm0efus etz 'kwyf&if;rSL; ‚if;.wynfhESpfa,muftm;ypfcwf o#rf;jynftv,fykdif; rD;±_d@cH&onfhaus;±Gmrsm;Y jyefvnf xlaxmifa&;wm0efusonfh wyf&if;rS 'kwyf&if;r–;ESifh ‚if;. vuf atmufi,fom; tacstwifpum;rsm;=u&mrS wynfEh pS af ,muf tm; aoewfjzifhypfcwfcJha=umif;o#rf;jynf tv,fykdif;owif;&yf uGuu f qkyd gonf? rdik ;f udik ®f r@e,f [kcd idk ;f aus;±Gmtkypf t k wGuf jynfvnfwnf aqmufa&;wm0efusonfh cr& 517 rS 'kwyf&if;r–; Akdvfr–; atmifEkdifxl;u ‚if;.wynfh 2 a,mufjzpfol wyf=uyf}uD;jrifh aZmfESifh wyfom;atmifpkd; tm; atmufwkdbm 23 &uf n 10 em&Dtcsed u f aoewfjzifyh pfcjhJ cif;jzpfonf[k vJcsm;rS 0efxrf;wOD; uajymjy.? “wyf=uyf}uD;jrifhaZmfeJ@wyfom;atmifpkd;ukd 'kwyf&if;r–; u tvkyu f pd eP @J ygwo f ufv@dk ac:qJawmh [kEd pS af ,mufu ‘rD;±_@d cidk ;f wkef;uvJ txuftrdef@bJ? tcktdrfjyefaqmufay;ckdif; awmhvJ txuf trdef@bJ/ arm&wm§ac:qJcH&wmusawmh usaemfwdk@ vufatmufi,fom;awG’ vk@d cHajymawmh 'kwyf&if;r–;u pdwq f ;dk +yD;ypfvkdufwm? aoawmhraobl;? '%f&mjyif;w,f” [kajym.?

xdktygwftwGif;rSmyif rD;±_d@cH&onfh vJcsm;®r@e,f wwf armuf/ [kdvkH;(rf)tkyfpkzuf wm0efusonfh ppfom;rsm; awmxJ opfcw k =f u&m atmufo@dk vdrq hf if;onfo h pfw;kH ydrI d wyf=uyf}uD; tqifh ppfom;wa,muf aoqkH;cJha=umif; ±Gmom;rsm;uqkd.? “wwfarmuf/ [kdvkH;bufu wm0efuswm t*FsifeD,m wyf eJ@ cv& 247 ” - [k vJcsm;aps;onf wOD;u ajym.? atmufwdkbm 1 &ufae@nYvnf; rdk;eJtajcpdkufcv& 248 wyfcJG 2 rSppfom;rsm;aus;oD; +rdK@e,fo@kd ppfa=umif;xGupf Of rD;±_@d cH&onf±h mG ;rsm;tm; jyefaqmufay;a&;ESihf ygwo f ufI t&uf 0dkif;Y tcsif;csif; tacstwif pum;rsm;&efjzpf&mrS vufypfAHk;cGJ/ ypfcwf=uojzifh 5 a,mufxufreJaoqH;k cJ. h ? xk&d efyrJG S ppfa=umif; rª; Adkvfrª;aZmfxGef;vnf; tjyif;txef'%f&m&ojzifh awmif}uD; odk@ydk@aqmif ukocJh&.? o#rf;jynftv,fykdif; erfhZef/ rdkif;aemif/ aus;oD;/ vJcsm;/ rdkif;udkif®r@e,fw0dkuf aexdkifonfh aus;vufvlxktm; ppftpkd;& wyfu o#r;f olyek q f ufo, G f axmufyo Hh wif;ay;onf[k pGypf u JG m tdrfajc 500 ausmf rD;±_d@zsufqD;+yD; aus;±Gm 39 ±Gmtm; *sLvkdifv aESmif;ydkif;u t"rRajymif;a±G@cdkif;cJhonf? Ô Shan Herald Agency for News

27


L e ma&;

typf&yf SSA em,u vkyf}uHcH&[k t&m±dStodkif;t0dkif;ajym

Photo : SHAN

atmufwkdbm 14 &ufrGef;vGJydkif;u o#rf;jynfajrmufykdif; oDayg®r@ok\efY c&pf,mefxkH;wrf;pOfvmjzifh ±kyftavmif; oò*õv+f yD;pD;oGm;aom Adv k cf sKyfpikd ;f aemif. h aoqH;k r_onf rdru d , kd f ukdtqHk;pD&ifjcif;xuf vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&jcif;jzpfonf[k t&m±Sd wynfhwOD;u ajymjyygonf? “reuftapmydkif; 05;30 em&D ol@trsKd;orD; c&pf,mef bk&m;ausmif;oGm;w,f? 12 &ufae@ reuf 06;15 avmufrSmrS aoewf&meJ@aoqHk;aewmtdrfaz:vmawG@wm? tajctae tm;vHk;avhvm=unfh&if ol@udk,foltqHk;pD&ifwmrjzpfEdkifbl;/ vkyf}uHr_bJjzpfEkdifw,f”- [k AdkvfcsKyfpdkif;aemifh. wynfha[mif; t&m±SdwOD;uajymygonf?

typf&yf SSA em,u AdkvfcsKyfpdkif;aemifh aoqHk;oGm;& jcif; ta=umif;&if; 3 &yfawG@&a=umif; -

(1) ‚if;.ZeD; (wevFmae@) c&pf,mefausmif;oGm;csdefukd a±G;cs,fjcif;/ (2) rdrdudk,frdrd tqHk;pD&ifv#if udk;,dk@um;,m;tae txm;±S&d rnfjzpfaomfvnf; ,ckaoqk;H ykrH mS aooyfpmG yufvufvJae+yD; eHab;Y ypPwkdcsxm;jcif;/ (3) wdkif;&if;om;wef;wltcGifhta&;r&rcsif; vufeufcs tnHhcHjcif;rvkyf&ef t+rJwapwdkufwGef; avh±Sdoljzpfjcif;-wkd@jzpf onf[q k . kd ? “Adv k cf sKyf pdik ;f aemifu h wdik ;f &if;om;wef;wltcGit hf a&; &zd@k cdkifrmjywfom;wJh qHk;jzwfcsuf±Sd+yD;om;? wdkif;&if;om; tcGifh ta&;r&rcsi;f vufeufrpGe@f zd@k t+rJajymw,f? wjcm;acgi;f aqmif awGvdk etzt&m±SdawGeJ@vJ a&ma&maESmaESmraebl;? ppftpdk;& &J@ toGiaf jymif;a&;tpDtpOfvJ vufrcHb;l ? tJupd eP @J trsm;}uD; ywfoufEdkifw,f” - [k o#rf;oHawmfqifhodk@ajymjy.? “olaoqHk;oGm;wm tzGJ@tpnf;twGuf }uD;}uD;rm;rm; rxdcdkufygbl;? 'gayr,fh bmjzpfjzpf olu trsKd;om;a&; a±S@wef; wif+yD; OD;aqmifOD;±GufðyvmwJholqdkawmh ESajrmwmayghAsm”- [k vkyfaz:udkifzufwOD;uvnf; ajym.? AdkvfcsKyfpdkif;aemifhtm; 1945 rwfv 22 &uf o#rf;jynf ajrmufydkif; uGwfcdkif®r@e,f 0rfhzSghwrf;±Gm trdeef;rdkif[def;/ tz 'l0g aZm0fwif;ef wdk@rSarG;zGm;cJh+yD; i,femrnfpdkif;azodef;jzpf.? ar®r@ St. Albert School ausmif;Yynmoif,l+yD; txufwef;pmar;yGJ rajzbJ 1961 YawmcdkcJhonf? uG,fvGefcsdefwGif typf&yfo#rf; jynfwyfrawmf SSA 'kwd,em,u (yxr em,urSm 106 ESpf axmifuscHae&ol AdkvfcsKyfaqxJefif ) tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif qJjzpfonf? ZeD;a':eef;ar&DEiS hf om;orD; 3 a,mufuse&f pfa=umif; od&ygonf? Ô

o#rf;awmfvSefa&;orm;a[mif; p0faumfzSmh uG,fvGef touf 78 t±G,f o#rf;awmfvSefa&;orm;a[mif; p0faumfzmS h ouf}uD;a&m*gjzifh xkid ;f Ekid if H csi;f rkid cf ±kid f 0de;f [kid ®f r@e,f yde;f vHt k yk pf k vwfwikd ±f mG aetdrYf atmufwb kd m 14 &uf n 8;20 em&Du uG,fvGeftedpPa&mufa=umif; od&ygonf? “aetdrrf mS uG,v f eG o f mG ;wmyg? ±kyt f avmif;udak wmh 19 &uf ae@ rGef;vGJydkif; ydef;vHktkyfpk cufokomef rSmoò*õ[w f ,f” [k rdom;pk0ifwOD;u ajymygonf? 28 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

p0faumfzSmhukd1943 =o*wfpf13 &ufu trdygh,GufrGef;/ tz vkef;aumfcrf; (odEDN®r@ twGif;0efa[mif;) wkd@u arG;zGm;cJh+yD; i,femrnf pdkif;ausmfZH jzpfonf? i,fpOfu erRwl®r@ uGefAJef@ ausmif;Y ynmoif=um;um awmif}uD;®r@ uarBmZaumvdyfrS txufwef;ynmatmifjrif+yD; &efukefwuUodkvfodk@ qufvuf ynmqnf;yl;cJhonf? 1959 - 1961 txd jynfaxmifpktpdk;& vl0ifr}_ uD;=uyfa&;XmeY 0ifa&muftr_xrf;cJ+h yD; 1963wGif awmcdk


INDEPENDENCE

IawmfvSefa&;c&D;pwifcJhonf? “ol[memrnf& t"dutcef;u¾rSm OD;aqmifOD;±Guf ðycJw h modyrf ±Sad yrJh trsK;d om;a&;twGuf rem;raevkyv f mcJw h ,f? v_yf±Sm;r_wdkif; tpnf;ta0;wdkif;yg0ifcJholqdkawmh awmfvSefa&; ordkif;rSmtkyfwcsyfoJwyGifhbJ”- [k ydef;vHkrS o#rf;awmfvSefa&; a[mif;tokdif;t0kdif; u vnf;ajymjyygonf? p0faumfzmS h awmpcdpk Of o#r;f jynfvw G v f yfa&;wyfr awmf SSIA wyf&if; 4 p0ftr l ed ;f vufatmufwm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf? 1964 SSA pwifxal xmifpOfYvnf;aumif;/ 1971 o#r;f jynfw;dk wufa&;ygwD SSPP wnfaxmifpOfYvnf;aumif; A[kdaumfrwD 0if jzpfcJhonf? SURA OuUX p0fuGrf;Zd%f;ESifh SSA awmifykdif; ppfa'o wyfr–;p0fZrfrkdifwkd@ yl;aygif;+yD; o#rf;jynfawmfvSefa&;aumifpD§ wyfrawmf ( TRC/TRA) xlaxmifpOfuvnf; xdyyf idk ;f acgi;f aqmif tjzpfyg0ifcJh.? SUA cGeq f mwyfz@JG yl;aygi;f cJo h nfh 1985 rSpI 1996 txd MTA rk e f w d k i f ; wyf r awmf [ d k r d e f ; XmcsKyf Y quf v uf w m0ef xrf;aqmifcJhonf? cGefqmvufeufcs&mwGifryg0ifbJ xdkif;EdkifiH odk@cdkv_Hum uG,fvGefcsdeftxd ydef;vHktkyfpkvwfwdkif aus;±GmwGif tajccsaexdkifcJhonf? uG,fvGefcsdefwGifZeD;a':eef;ausmif;rdkif/ om;orD; 3 a,mufESifh ajr;rsm;usef&pfa=umif;od&ygonf?Ô pmrsuEf mS 35 rS rqv tkyfcsKyfa&;ukd wdkif;&if;om;jynfolvlxktkHºuGr_ 8 av;vkH;ta&awmfykHjzifh ed*Hk;csKyfapcJhonf? Akv d cf sKyfapmarmiftm;z,f±mS ;cJ+h yD;aemuf1992 rSpI Adv k f oef;a±$uvnf; Adkvfae0if;uJhodk@yif ppfbk&ifpepfyHkaz: usifhoHk; aeolwpfOD;jzpfa=umif; aejynfawmfppfwyft&m±dS todkif;t0dkif; u ajymqdv k m=uonf? ppfbk&ifpepf yHkaz:usifhoHk;&mwGif rdrdESifhykcHk;csif;,SOfvm Ekdifolrsm;tm; Akdvfoef;a±$z,f±Sm;±Sif;vif;avh±Sda=umif; aejynf

awmf ppft&m±SdwpfOD;u ajymonf? “Adkvfoef;a±$u ppfbk&ifpepfudk wnfaxmifaewmyJAs? todomqHk;u tckwyfxJrSm touf 40 txuf wyfr–;awGqdk &if wyfxrJ mS rxm;awmhb;l ? t&yfbuftukev f ;kH yd@k vdu k w f mawG vkyfw,f? wyf&if;r–;qdk&if 'kAdkvfr–;}uD;u touf 35 eJ@ 37 ESpf =um;xJrSmyJ±dSw,f? tckqdk&if t&m±dSawGudk,fwdkifu ppfwyfudk r,Hk=unfbl;av? ol@udkudk,fr,Hk udk,fhudkolr,Hk 'DvdkyHkpHrsdK; pcef;oGm;aewm? trsm;rdk;cg;a&aomufvdk@ udk,furaomuf&if vnf; ud, k t hf cGit hf a&;qH;k ±_;H w,f” [k xkpd pft&m±Sd u nnf;wGm; onf? “wu,fwef; oef;a±$ acgi;f wpfv;kH xJe@J pcef;oGm;aewm? b,forl S rvSe&f aJ o;bl;? wpfqw kd pfy/J ESpu f ;l vd@k r&bl; armifat; vJ bmrSrwwfEdkifbl;As? tJvdktajctae±Sdw,f? ol(oef;a±$)u ol@orD;awGajr;awGukd orD;awmfajr;awmfvdk@ac:w,f” [k oluqufajymonf? Adkvfoef;a±$u rsdK;qufopfvlawmfvlaumif;rsm;udk z,f±Sm;aeonfomru ordkif;a=umif;ukdyg azsmufzsufvsuf±Sd onf[q k o dk nf? vGyfvyfa&;twGufóud;yrf;cJhzl;olrsm;. ordkif;a=umif; udkazsmufzsufjcif;rSm tqkd;qkH;jzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unf.zcif vGyfvyfa&;Adokum AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;. ordik ;f a=umif;udk zk;H uG,af zsmufzsux f m;jcif;u txif±mS ; qH;k jzpfonf? topfwnfaqmufxm;onfh aejynfawmf®r@opfwGif a±S;acwfya'o&mZfppfbk&ifrsm;. &kyfxkrsm;udkpdkufxl udk;uG,f xm;aomfvnf; AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh Akdvfae0if;wkd@.±kyfykHrsm; rl;I±–p&mr±Sdatmifjzpfaejcif;u Adkvfoef;a±$.pdwfxm;udk ay: vGix f if[wfjyaea=umif; jynfya&muf NLD vGwaf wmfu, kd pf m; vS,fwpfOD;u oHk;oyfonf? “aejynfawmfrSm taemf&xm/ bk&ifhaemif/ tavmif;bk &m; a=u;±kyf}uD; 3 ±kyf±Sdw,f? pwkxWEdkifiHawmfwnfaxmifol tjzpf ol@&J@±kyx f u k ykd gwnfO;D r,fv@kd =um;&w,f? Adv k af e0if;xuf wyef;omoGm;+yDaygh” [k xkdyk*~Kdvfu ajymonf? wdik ;f &if;om;jynforl sm;ESihf twdu k t f cHEikd if aH &; tkypf rk sm; tzkd@ ppfAdkvfwrwfom; em;*pfzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ukd ,Hk=unf axmufcHr_r±dSonfhtcsufu wu,fhvufawG@jy\emjzpfae avonf? 2008 em;*pfz@JG pnf;yHo k nf ppfb&k ifpepftoGio f pftouf oGif;rnfh t"du OD;wnfcsufjzpfonf? jynfolrsm; av#mufvSrf;vdkonfh 'Drdkua&pDvrf;a=umif; ESijhf y'g;wvrf;oHwvrf;jzpfvmrnfrmS ajr}uD;vufcwfrv$w J nf;? a±$vDrS aejcnf 6/10/2009 Shan Herald Agency for News

29


L aqmif;yg;

MNDAA udk;uef@wyfzGJ@

ppftpkd;&wyftiftm; tvHk;t&if;oHk;I udk;uef@a'o tm;0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufvdkufonfhaemuf 2 ywf - 3 ywf tvGef UWSA ajrmufydkif; 0 wyfzGJ@ 318 wyfr[mr–; ayg0ftdkuf±kef;u udk;uef@ta&;tcif;rS tawG@tñuHrsm;udk yefqef;XmecsKyfodk@ oGm;a&muf tpD&ifcH wifjycJhonf[k od&ygonf? “ayg0ftdkuf±kef;wifjycsufawGu tcsuftvuf pHkpHkvif vifbJ/ t"du ta=umif;t&muawmh 2 csuf” - [k XmecsKyfESifh eD;pyfonfh todkif;t0dkif;u ajymygonf? etz uEdik if aH &; jy\emukd Edik if aH &;enf;vrf;jzifh rajz±Si;f bJ ppfa&;jzifh ajz&Sif;vmv#if ppfqifr_pDrHuGyfuJa&; A[dkwckxm; ±SdI tjyeftvSef ulnDyHhydk;=u&ef PDF u oabmwlcahJ omfvnf; vufawG@wGif - 1? ppfqifr_ A[du k yG u f aJ &;jzifh vufawG@taumif txnfraz:Edkifjcif;/ 2? tcsdefESifhtr# wajy;nDqufoG,f+yD; owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;zvS,rf r_ ±Sjd cif;- pojzifw h ifjycJo h nf[k qdk.? “etzppfwyfawG ud;k uef@e,fajrxJusL;ausmf 0ifa&muf wJhtcsdefrSm zkef=um;±Sif;wyfzGJ@u ol@[molckcHae+yD; 0 bufuvJ ol@[moljyifqifaew,f? 0 wyfzufu ulwdkufzdk@ =o*wfpf29 &ufae@rS a&mufoGm;awmh ta&;ygwJhwyfpcef;}uD;oHk;ckudk zke=f um;±Si;f wyfz@JG vufvw G +f yD; w±kwjf ynfxJ wyfqw k o f mG ;+yD” [k ajyma=umif; xdkyk*~dKvfuqdkonf? 30 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

tqdkygtcsufrsm;ðcH=unfhygu PDF r[mrdwfwyfaygif;pk zGJ@pnf;xm;aomfvnf; - tzGJ@0ifwckESifh wckt=um; owif;t csut f vufzvS,rf /_ acwfrpDS ufu&d , d mrsm;jzifh tcsed rf o DS wif;ay; ydk@r_/ rSefuefonfh qHk;jzwfcsufcsEdkifr_ rsm;c|wf,Gif;aoma=umifh zkef=um;±Sif;tkyfpkusqHk;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf[kvnf; oHk;oyfwifjycJh onf? o#rf;jynfajrmufydkif;rS EkdifiHa&;/ ppfa&;rsufajcrjywfol wOD;u - udk;uef@a'oudk etzvG,fvifhwul odrf;ydkufEdkifrnf rxifcahJ =umif;/ PDF wyfz@JG 0ifrsm;. rnfonfx h ed ;f csKyfe,fajra'o rqdk usL;ausmfwdkufcdkufcH&v#if tm;vHk;®yifwlwefjyefppfqif wdu k cf u kd rf nf/ ppftpd;k & acgi;f udu k af p&efae&mtES@H wke@f jyefrnf[k ar#mfvifhcJha=umif;/ odk@aomf=o*wfpfv udk;uef@ta&;tcif;rSm ar#mv f ifx h m;onfh twdik ;f jzpfrvmbJ “rd;k eJ@ajr qDe@J a&yrm” jzpf oGm;a=umif; - ajymygonf? “uGefjrLepftoHk;tE_ef;eJ@ ajym&&if PDF u 'puULusm; bJ'/ tjyifAef;o¾mef=unfh&if tifrwefa=umufp&maumif;wJh usm;}uD;aygh”- [koHk;oyf=u.? udk;uef@udkwkduf+yD; usefonfh rdik ;f vm;wd@k / typf&yfajrmufyikd ;f SSA wd@k wzG@J +yD;wzG@J qufwu kd f wdu k cf u kd cf &H v#if aemufq;kH 0 vnf; cHEikd rf nfr[kwaf =umif; ajymqdk oH;k oyf=uonf?

KNPP

Photo : website

Photo : website

typf&yfwyfzGJ@ wcgaobl; ysOfzdk;em;vnf ovm; ?

wyfzGJ@

etz tqdk typf&yf 17 zGJ@teuf e,fjcm;apmifh wyft oGifajymif;a&;tpDtpOf vufrcHao;onfhwyfzGJ@ 4-5 zGJ@±Sdonf? ppftpd;k &tiftm;oH;k +yD; t"rRvufeufcscikd ;f onfw h yfz@JG 5 zG@J wGif KNPP u awmjyefckdcJh.? jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;rsm; 'Drdkua&pDwyf pmrsuEf mS 38 ok‹d


INDEPENDENCE 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

2010 a¶G ;aumufyGJ eJ@ vlrsKd;pkawG&J@ tcGifhta&;

Ô

“2010 a±G;aumufyGJu 2008 zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ukd tajccH+yD;vkyfrSmjzpfw,f? tJ'DzGJ@pnf;yHkjzpfvmzkd@usif;y cJw h hJ trsK;d om;nDvmcHrmS typf&yftzJ@G (13) zG@J uae tcsuf (19) csuf wifoGif;cJhwm±Sdw,f? wkdif;&if;om;awG&J@pmay,Ofaus;r_/ zG@H ®z;wk;d wufa&;pwJu h pd aP wG xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;ay;zk@d tqkðd yw,f? 'gayrJhtajccHOya'xJrSm tcsufwcsufukdawmif xnfhoGif;a&; f ;dk wuf qGcJ w hJ mr±Sb d ;l ? 'Dz@JG pnf;yHu k olw@dk &J@tem*wf aumif;rGew atmifjzpfvmaprvm;/ ykd+yD;qkwf,kwfap rvm;? 'Da±G;aumufyGJ ukd wkid ;f &if;om;awG0ifoifh r0ifoifq h w dk m tav;teuf pOf;pm; =u&r,f?” Ô

“ta&;}uD;qkH;tcsufu wkdif;&if;om;awG&J@ pmay/ ,Of aus;r_/ bmompum;ukdtajccHwJh ynma&;pwmawG b,fvkdvkyfaqmifcGifh±SdrvJ? tJ'DtcsufawGukdtmrcHwJh[m etzzGJ@pnf;ykHrSm vkH;0rygbl;?” Ô

“wu,fwrf; zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'u wkdif;&if;om;rsm; &J@ukd,fykdiftcGifhta&; wef;wl&nfwl&zkd@twGuf wckck tm rcHay;Ekdifw,fqkd&if wkdif;jynfwckrSm ppfwyfwckwnf;±Sd &r,fqw dk mukd oabmwlz@dk 0efrav;bl;xifygw,f? tckbm awG@ &ovJqkd&if rif;wkd@ +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfw,fqkd&if igwkd@atmuf rSmbJae&r,f/ igwkd@ajympum;em;axmif&r,f qkdwJhykHpHrsKd;jzpfae awmh b,fwkdif;&if; om;tzGJ@urS vkdvm;rSmr[kwfygbl;?” Ô

“ENC aemufqkH;nDvmcH&J@xkwfjyefcsufukd=unfh&if tar&dueftxufvw $ af wmftrwfqaD &;wJph mxJrmS vm r,fh a±G;aumufyu JG dk qef@usirf r_ vkyb f ;l qkw d t hJ wGuf ENC xJrmS jyef +yD; n‡dE_dif;aqG;aEG;&r,fhtaetxm;awG@&ygw,f? 'DudpPu tjyeftvSef ta=utvnfaqG;aEG;&r,fhtcsufjzpfygw,f? usaemft h jrifajym&&if wkid ;f &if;om;trsm;pkuawmh wef;wl&nfwl tcGit hf a&;&w,fq&dk if/ 'Dz@JG pnf;yku H wkid ;f &if;om;tcGit hf a&;ukd tmrcHEkdifw,fqkd&if/ bma±G;aumufyGJrqkd w&m;r#wwJh tajccH Oya' wckudk tajccHw,fq&dk if/ yg0if,OS ®f yifta±G;cH=urSmbJ? a±G; aumufyGJxuf zGJ@pnf;ykHuykd+yD;ta&;}uD;w,fvdk@jrifygw,f?” Ô

“trsKd;om;nDvmcHusif;ywkef;u wkdif;&if;om;tzGJ@ tpnf;awG tzkd@wifjyaqG;aEG;vkdwJh tcsufawG yGifhyGifh vif;vif;wifjy aqG;aEG;ykid cf iG rhf ±Scd b hJ ;l / wifjyaqG;aEG;awmhvJ tJ'D tcsufawGukd vufcHpOf;pm;twnfðywmrsKd;r±Sdbl;? tcka±G; aumufyrJG mS vnf; tJ'v D dk taetxm;±SEd idk yf gw,f? wcsK@d uvnf; txJ0if+yD;vkyf =unf&h ifaumif;rvm;/ a±G;aumufy0JG if&if aumif; rvm;/ &o avmuf,=l unf&h if aumif;rvm;ayg?h trsm;pkuawmh

tem*wfwkdif;&if;om;awG&EkdifwJhwef;wl&nfwl tcGifhta&; t wGufb,fvkd jzpfatmifvkyf=urvJqkdwmukd tav;ay;pOf;pm; =ur,fv@dk jrifygw,f? wcsK@d uvJ&wJh field xJ uaeb,fvv dk yk f =urvJqkdwJh taetxm;rsKd;ay:rSmpOf;pm;aewm±SdEkdifygw,f? txl;ojzifh typf&yftzG@J awGtay:wjznf;jznf; tiftm;csnehf @J vmatmif vkyv f mwJu h pd rP sK;d awG±w dS ,f? tJ'aD wmh &wJah bmifxJ rSm b,fvkdvkyf=urvJqkdwJh[mu tav;teufpOf;pm;ae&r,f vkd@ jrifygw,f?” 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212

OD;pkd;atmif Ô

“vl@tcGifhta&; tajctaeawGuawmh wkdif;&if;om; a'oawGrSm b,fwkef;urS wkd;wufwmr±Sdbl;? qkwf ,kwfaewmbJ&Sdw,f? rw&m;t"rRay:wmqGJr_/ owfjzwfr_/ rk'def;usifhr_/ ±GmrD;±_d@r_awG t+rJwrf;jzpfysufaew,f? +yD;cJhwJh =o*wfpfvwkef;u typf&yfwkdif;&if;om;tzGJ@awGukd 0ifa&muf wkdufckdufwmawG/ wkdif;&if;om;e,fajrawGrSm xdk;ppfqifaewm awG/ txl;ojzifh o#rf;jynfrSm xkd;ppfqifr_a=umifh vlxkaomif; eJ@csD+yD;twif;a±$@ajymif;ckdif;wmawG/ tdrfajcig;&mavmufrD;&_d@+yD; ajrvSepf epf usio hf ;Hk wku d cf u dk w f mawG b,fvadk jz±Si;f =urvJqw dk m wkdif;&if;om;awG tav;teufpOf;pm;=u&rSmjzpfygw,f?” pmrsuEf mS 36 ok‹d Shan Herald Agency for News

31


L

wdkif;jynfta&;- p0f,GufppfESifh eef;crf;axG;awG@qkHar;jref; o#rf;jynfwyfrawmfukd ppftpkd;&u xkd;ppfqifwkdufckduf aewm/pD;yGg;a&;ydwfqkd@r_xda&mufr_taetxm;/a':atmifqef; pk=unf&J@aetdrftus,fcsKyfudpP/ 2010 a±G;aumufyGJ pwmawG eJ@ygwfouf+yD; SSA t}uD;tuJ Akdvfr–;}uD;,Gufppf&J@tjrif oabmxm;ukd RFA a':eef;crf;axG;u awG@qkHar;jref;xm;yg w,f?

a':eef;crf;axG;

tar&dueftpkd;&tkdbm;rm;u jrefrmEkdifiH tay:pD;yGg;a&; ydwfqkd@r_ukdxyfwkd; vkduf w,f? wcsed x f rJ mS bJArmtpk;d &eJ@aqG;aEG;zk@d pum;ajymzk@d zdwaf c: wJh tcgusawmh tJ'Dtay:rSm SSA taeeJ@ b,fvx dk ifygovJ? tajctae t& wkd;wufvmEkdifzG,f±Sdygovm;?

AkdvfrSL;}uD;,Gufppff pD;yGg;a&;t&ydwfqkd@r_

ta&;,l'%fcwf w,fqkdwm xda&mufr,frxifygbl;? tck vuf±Sdjrefrm EkdifiHxJrSm&if;ESD;ðr‡yfESHaewmuvJ 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHawG ygbJ? 'ga=umifhrkd@tajymeJ@tvkyf rnDovkdjzpfaeygw,f?

jynfol awG twGufawmhtusKd;±Sdr,frxifygbl;? 'Denf;[m ppftpkd;&ukd tm;ay;ovkdjzpfoGm;rSmusaemfwkd@pkd;&drfygw,f?

a':eef;crf;axG;

tar&dum;uaetck pD;yGg;a&;ydwfqkd@xm; wmu wu,fwrf;usawmh atmifjrifro _ yd f r±Sdbl;? bma=umifhvJqkdawmh EkdifiHa&;t&ajymif;vJr_r±Sdbl;? tJ awmh pD;yGg;a&;ydwfqkd@wmu ratmifjrifbl;qkd&if wjcm;b,fvkd enf;rsm;vkyfvkd@&OD;rvJ?

AkdvfrSL;}uD;,Gufppff ukvor*~taeeJ@uruxðy+yD; jynfwGif; rSm &if=um;apha&;twGuaf qmif±u G +f yD; 'gudk ppftpkd;&uvufrcH&if tquf toG,ftm;vkH;jzwfawmufwJh enf;/ ,ltJefukvor*~+idrf;csrf;a&;wyfawG apvGwfwJhenf;eJ@ aqmif±Gufoifhygw,f?

a':eef;crf;axG;

vuf±Sd typftcwf&yfpJa&;a&mr&yfpJa&; a&m - wkdif;&if;om;vufeufukdiftzGJ@ awG qufqH a&;u b,fvkd±SdygovJ±Sifh?

a':eef;crf;axG;

ppftpkd;&&J@ taetxm;ajymif;vmatmif tar&duefubJjzpfjzpf/ EkdifiHwumubJ jzpfjzpf/ b,fvdk ykpH rH sK;d eJ@ csO;f uyfoifyh govJ? b,fvydk pHk rH sK;d eJ@ zdtm; ay;oifhyg ovJ?

AkdvfrSL;}uD;,Gufppfff ppftm%m±SifawG ajymif;vJvmatmifu awmh EkdifiHwumoHwrefenf;eJ@ta&;,l wmubJ jzpfEkdifygvdrfhr,f? tar&dueftpkd;&taeeJ@ ppftpkd;&ukd csOf;uyf&mrSm pD;yGg;a&; ukefoG,fa&;enf;eJ@ppftm%m±Sifukd k t dk vm;tvm±Sad p +yD; ajymif;vJatmifcsO;f uyfr,fq&dk if ppftyk pf u

AkdvfrSL;}uD;,Gufppff 2005 uppftkyfpk&J@jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmif r_a=umifh UWSAeJ@ SSA wkd@wkdufyGJawGjzpf yGg; cJh&w,f? jrefrmppftkyfpkwyfu 0 wyfawGukdOD;aqmif+yD; SSA XmecsKyfukdxkd;ppfqifcJhwmyg? tJ'Daemufykdif;rSmawmh usaemfwdk@ wkdif;&if;om;tzGJ@ESpfzGJ@=um; jyefvnfnd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;EkdifcJhygw,f? d cf u dk w f m tcko#r;f jynfwiG ;f rSm wkid ;f &if;om;wyfz@JG tcsi;f csi;f wku r±Sdawmhygbl;? ppftkyfpk&J@aoG;aqmifr_ukd oabm aygufem;vnf oGm;=uyg+yD?

a':eef;crf;axG;

tckaemufqkH; jynfwGif;rSmjzpfaewJhjzpf&yf ukd=unfhr,fqkd&if a':atmifqef;pk=unf v$wfay;&r,fh[mukd wpfESpfcGJtus,fcsKyfxyfcsvkdufw,f? 'Dt ay:rSm SSA taeeJ@ b,fvkdjrifygovJ±Sif?

AkdvfrSL;}uD;,Gufppff a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m v$wf&ufeD;cgrS

Photo : SHAN

tar&duefom; *|ef,ufaxmu a&ul;0if vmwm[m olrtwGuf uHqkd;oGm;w,fvkd@qkdEkdifygw,f? a': atmifqef;pk=unfu oem;=uifemarwWmpdwfeJ@ tm%mykdifawG ukt d a=umif;r=um;bJ xm;vku d w f t hJ csuyf g? 'gayr,fh a':atmif a':eef;crf;axG;

32 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

pmrsuEf mS 36 ok‹d


INDEPENDENCE

typf&yfawGudk,fydkifwyfzGJ@ ydkjzpfcsif wkdif;&if;om; vufeufukdifwyfzGJ@awGukd e,fjcm;apmifh wyfz@JG tjzpf toGiaf jymif;zk@d ppftpk;d &u wku d w f eG ;f ayr,fh wkid ;f &if; om;awGuawmh uk, d yf idk w f yfz@JG tjzpfxm;±Scd si=f uygw,f? wkid ;f &if; om;typf&yftzGJ@awGtaeeeJ@ bma=umifhe,fjcm;apmifhwyf rzGJ@ csi=f uwmygv?J uk, d yf idk w f yfz@JG tjzpfxm; ±S&d if wkid ;f &if;om;awG&@J vkòH caH &;/ pD;yGg;a&;/ Ekid if aH &;tusK;d pD;yGg;awGudk olw@dk ub,fvt dk um tuG,fay;EkdifrSmvJ 'Dta=umif; awGukd aqG;aEG;rSmjzpfygw,f? “e,fjcm;apmifw h yfqw dk m Ekid if aH &;r[kwyf gb;l ? ppfa&;yg? etztaeeJ@wkid ;f &if;om;tzG@J awGudk wjznf;jznf;eJ@0g;®roGm;r,fh f mvJqadk wmh jrefrm tpDtpOfbjJ zpfygw,f? bmjzpfv@dk vufrcHEidk w jynf&J@ t"dujy\em[m wkdif;&if;om;awG wef;wlnDwl tcGifh ta&;/ ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh/ ukd,fhuH=urRmukd,fzefwD; EkdifwJh Self Determination qkw d mr&vk@d ESpaf ygi;f 50 ausmf jynfwiG ;f ppf jzpfygG ; ae&wJt h a=umif;jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@dk autkid t f dk vufrcHEidk w f m tJ'gt"duygb?J aemufwpfcpk ufwifbm 5 &ufae@u vltiftm; 300 ausmef @J autkid t f Xdk mecsKyf vkid Zf mrSmvkycf w hJ hJ tpnf;ta0; u xkwfjyefa=ujimcsuft&qkd&ifvJ olwkd@ue,fjcm;apmifhwyf xuf jynfe,fumuG,fa&;wyftjzpf ajymif;vJ csifa=umif; Proposal vkyfxm;w,f? jynfolawGtaeeJ@awmh jyefwkdufzkd@qkdwm b,forl rS óuduyf gb;l ? tJ'ga=umifph pftpk;d &u Survival Strategy taeeJ@vkyfwmvkd@ajymcsifygw,f? aemufwpfcu k ppfwyftaeeJ@ b,fvu dk muG,af y;Ekid f rSm vJqkdwJh tcsufu±Sif;±Sif;av;yg? ukd,fhvlrsKd;tcGifhta&;&zkd@ ukd,fh vlrsK;d uk, d yf idk t f yk cf sKyfciG &hf zk@d vufeufuidk &f rSmyg? &ufpufwhJ ppft pkd;&eJ@ pm;yGJay:rSmaqG;aEG;zkd@ vufeufukdifxm;&rSmjzpfw,f?” cef;Axl;

“e,fjcm;apmifw h yftoGiaf jymif;r,fq&dk ifawmh b,fvrdk S rjzpfEkdifbl;? 1- olwkd@( etzawG) &J@trdef@ ukdemcH&r,f?2olwkd@nGef=um;wmukd emcHae&r,f? ukd,fykdifwyftaeeJ@bJ vkyo f mG ;oifw h ,f? uk, d yf idk w f yfq&dk if uk, d v hf rl sK;d vkòH cHa&;/ vlra_ &; pD;yGg;a&;bmoma&;twGuf tumtuG,af y;Ekid w f ,f? rGejf ynf ol tm;vkH;uvJ rGefjynfopfygwD&J@ vkyfaqmifcsuftm;vkH;ukd axmufcHw,f?” Eki d r f if;xGe;f

bDbpD D 14 atmufwb dk m 09

“'DaubDatu ppftpkd;&atmufrSm±Sdaeawmh e,fjcm; apmifhwyfvkyfzkd@ etzukduwdðyxm;+yD;om; jzpfaeygw,f? 'Dt csdefrSm u&ifwkdif;&if;om;awG&J@ tusKd;pD;yGg;twGufbmrStjynfh t0 vkyfray;Ekdifygbl;? e,fjcm;apmifhwyfzGJ@pnf;r,fqkdvkd@ 'DaubDatxJu oabmrwlEkdif olwpfcsKd@autJef,lxJxGufajy;=uw,fqkdwJh owif;awGvx J u G af y:vmwm=um;&ygw,f? u&ifah wmfveS af &; acgi;f aqmif apmbOD;}uD; csrw S x f m;wJrh 0l g' 4 csut f & - 1? u&ifh h ufxJ rSmbJ±zdS @dk uH=urRm u&ifzefw;D zk@d / 2? u&ifv h ufeuf u&ifv 3?vufeufcsa&; pum;rajymzkd@ 4? u&ifjynfe,f todtrSwfðy ay; zk@d 'D 4 csuu f dk vufuidk w f v hJ al wGu autJe, f x l J xGuaf jy;=u wmjzpfygw,f? 'Dtcsuf 4 csuf vufukdifrxm;wJh olawGom etzppftpkd;&eJ@ yl;aygif;=uwmjzpfygw,f? ” uka d pmatmifol ('DaubDateJ@eD;pyfo)l “wkdif;&if;om;vufeufukdifwyfzGJ@awG e,fjcm;apmifh wyfzGJ@rajymif;csifwm t"duuawmh olwkd@&J@ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifh &a'oukd olwkd@&J@ukd,fykdifwyfzGJ@eJ@ tumtuG,fay;csifvkd@yg? e,fjcm;apmifhwyfu olwkd@vkdcsifwJhtcsufawGrygbl;vkd@ ,lq w,f? wyf&if;wpf&if;rSmvl 326 qkd&if etzt&m±Sd 30 t"du uswJh tkyfcsKyfa&;ae&mrSmukdifr,f? touf 18 ESpfeJ@ 50 =um; bJciG ðhf yxm;+yD; usew f myifpifay;vku d rf ,fqadk wmh vufcv H u dk &f if olwkd@bmrSvkyfykdifcGifh tm%mr±Sdawmhvkd@ tausmuf tuef jiif;qefae&wmjzpfw,f? aemufwpfcsuu f awmh etz ukd olw@dk r,kw H mvJygw,f? 2008 tajccHOya'uvJ jynfov l x l w k &yfv;Hk ukd vdrv f nftwnfðyxm;wmjzpfw,f? Oya'rSmygwhJ wkid ;f jynf rSm wpfcw k nf;aom wyfrawmfjzpfa&;qkw d hJ etz &J@rl0g'ukv d nf; olwkd@uvufrcHEkdifbl;xifw,f? aemifwufvmr,fh tpdk;&topfeJ@usrS jynfe,fzGJ@a&; udpPaqG;aEG;r,f? etzukd vkH;0t,kHt=unfr±Sdbl;? olwkd@vufcH EkdifwJhtwkdif;twmu trsm;jynfoluvufcHEkdifwJh tpkd;&w&yf ay:vmcJ&h ifawmh tJ't D pk;d &u OD;aqmifr,fh Ekid if aH &;orm;awGe@J tqihq f ift h ajz±SmaqG;aEG;+yD; vufcrH ,fxifw,f? t"duuawmh wkid ;f &if;om;awGtay: ukvm;zefx;dk +y;D trsK;d rsK;d vdrv f nf aumuf uspfcJhwJh ppftkyfpk&J@ t}uHtpnfukd wkdif;&if;om;awGodvkd@ tausmuftuef jiif;qefwmbJvkd@ okH;oyfygw,f?

Shan Herald Agency for News

33


L typf&yftzGJ@ 17 zGJ@ xJrSm t+rJ wrf; jiif;qefavh±Sdwm rGefjynfopf±Sdr,f/ 0 ±Sdr,f/ ucsif±Sdr,f/ ±Srf;±Sdr,f pojzifh 4-5 zGJ@±Sdr,f? olwkd@u EkdifiHa&;tjrifuvJus,fawmh 'Dae@txd jynfolawG eJ@ tjcm;wkdif;&if; om;awGeJ@ yl;wGJ+yD; tiftm;w&yf xlaxmifxm;EkdifwJhtwGufa=umifh etzukd olwkd@tmcHEkdifwm jzpfw,f? olw@dk a'oua'ocHawG&@J axmufct H m;ay;r_udk tjynfh t0&vkd@ tckvkd tiftm;awmifhwif;pGmeJ@ tmcHEkdifwmjzpfw,f vkd@okH;oyfrdygw,f?” a'gufwmvG%f;aqG “typf&yftzGJ@awGxJrSm b,ftzGJ@u e,fjcm;apmifh wyftoGifajymif;zkd@vufcH+yD; b,ftzGJ@awGu vufrcHvJqkdwm jyef=unfh&if 'D 17 zGJ@xJrSm 4 zGJ@u r±Sdawmhbl;/ 3 zGJ@uawmh ppftpkd;& tiftm;okH; +yD; vufeucsckdif;vkd@ ðywfoGm;+yD? aemuf KNPP u&ifeDtzGJ@ u typf&yftzGJ@uae jyefwkdufawmh 13 zG@J usew f ,f? 13 zG@J xJrmS uk;d uef@tzG@J u acsre_ ;f cH&w,fqakd wmh 12 zGJ@bJjyefusefjyefa&m? 'D 12 zGJ@xJrSm 6 zGJ@u e,fjcm; apmifhwyf toGiaf jymif;zk@d vufcv H u dk +f yDqadk wmh usew f m 6 zG@J ayg?h 0/ uk;d uef@/ ±Sr;f / ucsif KIA eJ@ u,ef; jynfopfygwD ayg?h 'D ygwD uao;ao; av;bJ? 'Dao;ao;av;awmifrS e,fjcm;apmifw h yf toGiaf jymif; zk@d jynfo@l ppfvyk zf @dk }uH@}uH@cH wif;cHEidk af o;wmbJ? 'gudk jyef=unfh &if tiftm;okH;w,fqkdwJh[mu 'kwd,ae&mrSmomjzpfw,f? t"duuawmh u,ef;jynfopfygwDom±Sdae&if jynfolvlxk twGuf [pfwkdifwpfckawmh±SdaewmbJvkd@ ,lqEkdifw,f? ukd,fh vlrsK;d twGuf }uH@}uH@cH&yfwnfaeao;w,f? 1993 uae 2007 txd trsK;d om;nDvmcHrmS a&;qGv J m wJh tajccHOya'xJygz@dk olw@dk vkw d m olw@dk awmif;cJ+h yD;+yDb?J olw@dk awmif;xm;wm wpfckrSygrvmwJhtjyif olwkd@wyfawG ukdzsuf+yD; etzvufatmufcH e,fjcm;apmifw h yf§e,fajrapmifw h yfawG vkyf vku d rf ,fq&dk if olw@dk qufawmif;zk@d tcGit hf a&; bmrSruseaf wmh bl;vkd@,lqw,f? e,fjcm;apmifhwyfvkH;0rvkyfbl;vkd@ wif;cHwm r[kwb f ;l ? olw@kd awmif;qkx d m;wJ[ h mawG olw@dk vkcd siw f [ hJ mawG &&ifawmh zsuo f rd ;f zk@d tqifoifb h v J @dk olw@kd uk, d w f idk v f J ajymxm; +yD;om;bJ? 'Dtcsuu f dk etzbufua&m tzufzufuyg em;vnf wefaumif;wJh em;vnfoifhwJhtcsufvkd@ usaemfjrifygw,f?” OD;cGep f i dk ;f “e,fjcm;apmifhwyftjzpfajymif;zkd@ typf&yfawG vufrcH wm[m etzu wkid ;f &if;om;awG&@J ta&;Ekid if aH &;ukd Ekid if aH &;enf; eJ@rajz±Si;f vd@k jzpfw,f? tpOftquf 'Dvrdk vdrw hf ywfvyk cf w hJ ,f? typf&yfawGtaeeJ@ EkdifiHa&;enf;t&ajz±Sif;csifayr,fh ajz±Sif;cGifh r&vd@k tckvedk ,fjcm;apmifw h yftoGiaf jymif;zk@d jiif;qefae&wmjzpf w,f? 34 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

olw@dk vufeufuidk x f m;jcif;tm;jzifh jynfoal wGut dk um tuG,af y;Ekid yf gw,f? vufeufuidk x f m;rSom uk, d t hf usK;d pD;yGg; ukd tumtuG,fay;EkdifrSmjzpfygw,f?” ukdatmif0g “ wkdif;jynfwckrSm wyfrawmfwpfckxJbJ±Sd&r,fqkdwm usaemfvufcyH gw,f? 'gayr,f'h u D ae@usaemfw@kd wkid ;f jynfu 'Drdk ua&pDeJ@vl@tcGifhta&;qdwfokOf;aewJh wkdif;jynfjzpfaew,f? etz&J@ toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;vkyif ef;rSm wkid ;f &if;om;awG vufrcH bl;qkdwm obm0usygw,f? uae@vufeufukdif typf&yfwkdif; &if;om;awG[m etz&J@vufuidk 'f w k cf g;yku d af qmifwyfawGjzpfvm w,f? u&ifjynfov l x l [ k m 'DaubDatwyf&@J tkycf sKyfra_ tmuf eJ@ etz atmufrmS vl@tcGit hf a&;csK;d azmuf cHae&yg w,f? vlxk aoa=uiwfjywfae&w,f? 'gawGudk 'DaubD atacgi;f aqmifawG dk af wG@jzpfaeygw,f? vuf wyfom;awGvo J ad eygw,f? rsujf rifu, ±St d aetxm;t& aemifb,fvq dk ufvyk &f r,fqw dk m 'DaubDat acgi;f aqmifawG pOf;pm;vdrrhf ,fv@dk usaemfxifygw,f? 'Dru dk a&pDe@J vl@tcGit hf a&;r&rcsi;f usaemfw@kd vufeufusaemfw@dk vufxrJ mS bJ±Sdoifhw,f?” ref;aomif;wif “typf&yfwidk ;f &if;om;tzG@J awGvcdk siw f m pD;yGg;a&; tusK;d aus;Zl;yg? aoewfukdif+yD; vGwfvGwf vyfvyfpD;yGg;a&;vkyf&wm b,fol vufvGwfcsifyghrvJ? wkdif;&if;om;awGtwGuf vkHòcHa&; pD;yGg;a&; EkdifiHa&;tumtuG,fray;EkdifwJhtjyif tcsKd@typf&yf tzGJ@awGu wkdif;&if;om;awG&@J tusKd;pD;yGg; qkwf,kwfapygao; w,f?” an;&,f (u&ifejD ynf) “ vufeufuidk t f zG@J awG uk, d u hf sK;d pD;yGg;omru etz ukyd g tusKd;pD;yGg;awG vkyfay;ae&w,f? 'gayr,fh 'Dvufeufukdif tzG J @ awG ± S d a evk d @ usrwk d @ wk d i f ; &if ; om;awG e J @ etz tay; t,l±Sdaewmyg? vufeufukdifwyfzGJ@awGr±Sd&if usrwkd@tay: b,favmufxdawmif pmemn‡mwmr_uif;rvJ rawG;0hHp&m ygbJ?” a':±S,fvDqkdif;


INDEPENDENCE

ppfbk&ifpepf toGifopf ppftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf oufqdk;±Snfvsuf±dSonfh jrefrmEdkifiH wGif 'Dru kd a&pDta&;ESiw hf ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pk tcGit hf a&;rsm; ,ae@ txdrsufuG,fðycHae&qJjzpfa=umif; twdkuftcHEdkifiHa&;acgif; aqmifrsm; r=umc%xkwfaz:ajymqdkavh±dSonf? tkyfcsKyfa&; ,E W&m;}uD;wpfckvHk; jynfolvlxk. &ydkifcGifh rSefor#ukd aESmuf,SufzsufqD;aeonfhtwGuf tcGifhta&;rSefo r# qdwfokOf;vsuf±dSonf? xdktajctaeonf tkyfcsKyfolrsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfcHwdkif;&if; om;jynforl sm;t=um; ocifEiS u hf |eq f ufqaH &; ta=umif;w&m; wpfck jzpfay:aponfomru aemufxyftusdK;quf ajrmufrsm; pGm ay:xGef;apjyefonf? tqd;k qH;k um; vGwv f yfa&;tcsKyftjcmtm%mrSm vuf hf m oufqikd o f nfh oD;oef@ t&mwpfck wpfqyk pf mtkypf ;kd olrsm;ESio vdk jzpfaejcif;jzpfonf? jrefrmxdyfoD;ppfacgif;aqmif}uD; Adkvfoef;a±$u ppftm %m±Sipf epfuv kd ;kH yHzk suzf ;kH uG,u f m jynforl sm;tay:aumif;rGepf mG qufqH&efvrf;nGefcJhzl;onf? atmufwkdbm 3 &ufu usa&mufonfh jrefrmEdkifiH &JwyfzGJ@ 45 ESpfajrmuf tcrf;tem;YAdkvfoef;a±$. 1995 vrf; !¸ecf suu f dk jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;Akv d cf sKyfarmifO;D u jyefvnfxw k af zmf f yfonfh Edik if o H m;rsm;tay: w&m;Oya' ¹rGu=f um;cJo h nf? “vGyv ESit hf nDapmifah ±Smuf xde;f odr;f &mYvGyv f yfonfv h rl sK;d udk qufqH

onfhtoGifjzifhqufqH&ef/ ocifESifhu|efozG,frqufqH=u&ef ” vrf;nGerf mS =um;cJah =umif; etztmabmfowif;pmrsm;u az: jy =uonf? jrefrmjynfonf 1948 Zefe0g&D 4 &ufY +Adwdo#udkvdkeD vufatmufrS vGyfvyfa&;&±SdcJhonf? odk@aomf tqdkygvGyfvyfa&;onf 1962 Akdvfae0if;tm %mod r f ; cJ h c sd e f r S p I wd k i f ; &if ; om;jynf o l r sm;twG u f twk ta,mifr#omjzpfa=umif; trsm;u,lq=uonf? wdkif;&if;om;jynfolrsm;onfvGyfvyfaom vlrsdK;wpfrsdK; . *k%fj'yfESifhavsmfnDpGm &yfwnfaexdkifEdkifjcif;r±dSao;a=umif; vuf±Sd tajctaeu oufaojyaeouJo h @dk Adv k o f ef;a±$uvnf; ocifEiS u hf |eq f ufqaH &;rSmrsK;d ±daS ea=umif; twnfðy0efco H vdjk zpf aeonf? Adkvfoef;a±$±_jrifouJhodk@ &JwyfzGJ@ESifhjynfolt=um;jzpf ay:aeonfh qufqaH &;rSm yH&k yd w f pfcrk #omr[kwyf J ppfb&k ifpepf. qkd;usKd;jy,k*fvnf;jzpfa=umif; azmfjyaeayonf? 1962 rSpI Adkvfae0if;ESifhtaygif;tygrsm;u tm%m odrf;+yD; 1947 zGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'zsufodrf;cJh.? jrefrmhqdk±S,f vpf vrf;pOfygwD trnfcI H wdik ;f jynfukd 26 ESp=f um v$r;f rd;k tkycf sKyf cJhonf? pmrsuEf mS 29 ok‹d

È

a':pk. tcef;u% = hf ckd suf etz az: jycsifwhJ zGiq

ArmjynfEikd if aH &;Zgwcf kH Shan Herald Agency for News

35


L pmrsuEf mS 32 rS qef;pk=unfukdjypf'%fcs+yD; xdef;odrf;xm;wmuawmh olrukd EkdifiHa&;xJrSm ryg0ifEkdifatmif óud;yrf;wJhvkyf&yfygbJ?

a':eef;crf;axG;

Akdvfr–;}uD;,GufppftaeeJ@ a':atmifqef;pk =unfukd pum;ajymvkd@&r,fqkd&if olrukd

bm ajymcsifygovJ?

AkdvfrSL;}uD;,Gufppfff a':atmifqef;pk=unfukdawG@cGifh&&if us aemfhrSm ajymcsif ar;csifwmawG±Sdygw,f? yxr awmh a':atmifqef;pk=unf&J@ pdwf"gwfukd csD;rGrf;*k%fðy vkdygw,f? jrefrmEkdifiHxJrSm ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;awGvkyfzkd@ jrefrm EkdifiH'Drkdua&pDpepf ay:aygufvmatmif óud;yrf;vkyfaqmifaewJh a':atmifqef;pk=unf&@J apwem oabmxm;/ qENawGuu dk saemf av;pm;*k%, f yl gw,f? 'kw, d tcsuu f awmh jynfaxmifp}k uD;ukd ðyjyifajymif;vJwahJ e&mrSmenf;vrf;opfo;Hk zk@d vkw d ,fv@dk ajymcsiyf g w,f? rajyvnfao;wJhEkdifiHa&;jy\emawGukd jyefvnfaqG;aEG; r,fq&dk if yifvpHk mcsKyfudk jyefavhvm=unfzh @dk ajymcsiyf gw,f? wwd , tcsufuawmhjynfaxmifpk}uD;twlwuGjyefvnfxlaxmif =u&mrSm a':atmifqef;pk=unf&@J wkid ;f &if;om;awGtay: xm;±Sd wJh rl0g'oabmxm;ukd usaemfar;jref;aqG;aEG;csifygw,f?

a':eef;crf;axG;

jrefrmEkdifiHukd jyefvnfxlaxmifwJhae&mrSm o#rf;jynfukd zuf'&,fxJrSmygwJh jynfe,f wpfcktaeeJ@vufcHEkdifygovm;? 'grSr[kwf o#rf;jynfukdcGJxGufzkd@ pOf;pm;ygovm;?

AkdvfrSL;}uD;,Gufppff vuf±Sdo#rf;jynfolvlxk&J@ oabmxm;u jynfaxmifpkpepfxlaxmifzkd@ qEN±SdaeqJyg? jynfaxmifpu k zdk suq f ;D wm o#r;f jynfojl ynfom;awGr[kwyf gb;l ? jynfaxmifpkukd jyefvnfxlaxmifwJhae&mrSm ppfrSefwJh zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpjk zpfEidk zf @dk twGuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfe@J aomfvnf; aumif;/ ppftm%m±Siaf cgi;f aqmifawGe@J aomfvnf;aumif;awG@qkH aqG;aEG;zkd@usaemfwkd@toifh±Sdygw,f? ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpkjzpf zkd@vkdygw,f? jynfe,fawGtay:tajccHwJh jynfaxmifpkjzpf&yg r,f? vlrsKd;pktay:tajccHwJh jynfaxmifpkukd usaemfwkd@rvkd vm;ovkd vufvJrcHEkdifygbl;? tckvuf±Sdtm%m,lxm;wJh ppftpkd;&vufxJrSm wkdif;&if;om;qkdwmrygygbl;? aemuf+yD;ppf tm%m±SiftkyfcsKyfwJh oufwrf;wpfav#mufjyef =unfhr,fqkd&if wkid ;f &if;om; a'ozG@H ®z;a&; at;csr;f om,ma&;ukad qmif±u G w f m r±Scd yhJ gb;l ? 'gt h jyif wkid ;f &if;om;"avhx;Hk pH a±S;a[mif;tarGtESpf ukv d zJ suq f ;D cJw h myg? o#r;f jynfapmfbmG ;awG&@J eef;awmftaqmuf tOD;awGvJ zsufqD;cJhwmu om"utrsm;}uD;yg? 36 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

ppftkyfpkuOD;aqmif+yD; 2010 a±G;aumufyGJusif;yr,f qkdwm[m jrefmrjynf&J@jy\emukd taumif;qkH;enf;vrf;eJ@ ajz ±Sif;Ekdifr,f usaemfrxifygbl;? olwkd@tm%mwnf+rJa&; twGuf omvkyfaewmyg?olwkd@&J@vkyf&yfukdrsufajcrjywfavhvm okH;oyf =u zk@d jynfojl ynfom;awGuu dk saemf rSm=um;vkyd gw,f? olw@dk &J@ a±G;aumufyrJG mS a':atmifqef;pk=unfe@J wuG Ekid if aH &;yk'rf awGe@J zrf;qD;axmifcsxm;wJh yk*~KdvfawGryg0ifEkdifygbl;? o#rf;jynftae eJ@qkd&ifvJ SNLD vJryg0ifEkdif? wkdif;&if;om;vufeufukdifwyf awGvJ yg0ifEkdifwmr[kwfygbl;? 'ga=umifhbmrStusKd;r±SdwJha±G; aumufyGJjzpfvdrfhr,fvkd@ usaemfokH;oyfvkdygw,f? RFA

28 pufwifbm 2009

pmrsuEf mS 31 rS Ô “wkdif;&if;om;a'o +idrf;csrf;a&;qkdwmu etztajym t&vufeufe@J +idr;f csr;f a&;vJw,fayg?h wkid ;f &if;om;awG ukd tcGifhta&;ay;wm bmrSr±Sdbl;/ EkdifiHa&;t&vJ vkyfykdifcGifhr±Sd bl;? wkid ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmifawGudk axmifcswmbJ±w dS ,f/ OD;cGef xGe;f OD;wk@d ayg?h tJ'v D rdk sK;d tjzpfawGu trsm;}uD;ar;cGe;f xkwpf &m ±Sdygw,f? aemuf+yD;wkdif;&if;om;a'oawGrSm vl@tcGifhta&;csKd; azmufrj_ zpfaewmawGb,f[meJ@rS E_id ;f ,SO=f unfv h @dk r&bl;? typf tcwf&yfpJa&; a'ozGH@®z;wkd;wufa&;qkdwmawGu t+rJwrf; ar;cGef;xkwfae&ygw,f?” Ô

“uk;d uef@tzG@J ukd target xm;wkdufw,fqkdwm tiftm; tenf;qk;H jzpfaewm&,f/ olw@dk ajymwmukd em;raxmif bl;qkd&if 'DvkduH=urRmrsKd;eJ@awG@óuH&r,fvkd@jycsifwma=umifh uk;d uef@ukd a±G;+yD;wku d w f ,fv@dk jrifygw,f? 'gayrJh tiftm;}uD;wJh 0wyfz@JG ukw d u dk &f o J vm;? tdref ;D csi;f w±kwEf idk if &H @J uef@uGurf a_ wG &ifqkdifae&w,f? tJ'Dvkd taetxm;rsKd;qkd&if bmvkyf=u rvJ? tjrpf ðywfcs=urvm;/ ighpum;em;raxmif&if igvkyfwmcH&r,f qkdwmrsKd; xyfvkyfrvm;/ apmifh=unfh&rSmjzpfygw,f?” Ô

“wkdif;&if;om;tzGJ@trsm;pku pOf;pOf;pm;pm; csifhcsifhcsdef csdefvkyfEkdifwJh tzGJ@tpnf;awGrsm;w,f? wu,fwrf;a±G; aumufyGJ0if&if olwkd@tajctaewkd;wufr_±Sdrvm;/ jzpfEkdifzkd@t vm;tvmenf;w,fqkdwJhtcsufay:rSm tajccH+yD;pOf;pm;=urSm bJ? tJ'DvkdrsKd;u trsm;pkjzpfw,fvkd@ajymvkd@r&ygbl;?” jrefrmEkdifiH'Drkdu&ufwpftiftm;pk (FDB) EkdifiHjcm;a&;aumfrwDwGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL; OD;pkd;atmifESifh tifwmAsL; (VOA 18.1.09)


INDEPENDENCE

typfcwf&yfpJa&; obm0 wkdif;&if;om; vufeufukdif (17) zGJ@eJ@ typftcwf &yfpJ Ekdifwmukd atmifjrifr_wcktjzpf Armppftpkd;&u owfrSwfxm; ygw,f? 'gayrJh &nf±G,fcsufcsufcsif;rwlwJh jy\emukd rajz±Sif; Ekid f ao;wJt h wGuf tcsed rf a±G; vufeufuidk f yÉdyuQjzpfEidk af =umif; r=umrDujzpfyGm;wJh udk;uef@wkdufyGJu oufaojyaeygw,f? em; vnfr_ yk*d~Kvfa&;cifrifr_/ E_wf*wdpwmawGukd tajccHxm;wJh o abmwlcsujf zpfwma=umifh oufqidk &f m yk*K~d vfawGudk ar;jref;pHpk rf; Ekid rf S typftcwf&yfpaJ &;&J @ obm0ukd odEidk yf gw,f? 'Dupd eP @J ywf ouf+yD; owif;eJ@ owif;aqmif;yg; trsm;tjym;¶SdayrJh tao tcsmokawoe vkyx f m;wJph mwrf; (2) ckom ¶Sad o;wm awG@&yg w,f?

Tom Kramer

0 a'o a&mufpOf

Zlvkdifvu e,fomvefEkdifiH tajcpkduf

Transnational

Institute u xkwa f 0vku d w f hJ Tom Kramer &J@ pmrsuEf mS 40 ausmf

pmwrf;[m aemufqkH;ay:avhvmcsufjzpfygw,f? 2007 ckESpfrSm vnf; 88 rsKd;qufynm&Sif ukdaZmfOD; eJ@ ukd0if;rif; wkd@ ðypkwJh t

ypftcwf &yfpJya&;ta=umif; pmrsufESm 90 pmwrf;ukd 0g&Sif weftajcpkduf East-West Centre u xkwfa0cJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Dpmwrf; 2 apmifukd tajccH+yD; typftcwf &yfpJa&;obm0ukd ok;H oyfwifjyvdyk gw,f? w±ky-f jrefrme,fpyfu wkid ;f &if;om; vufeufuidk af wGudk typftcwf&yfpzJ @dk Armppftpk;d &urf;vSr;f cJ&h wJh t"duta=umif; &if;u ®r@aevlxk&J @ uef@uGufqENjyr_awGukd &ifqkdifaevdk@ygyJ? typftcwf&yfpJvdkuf&if 'Drkdua&pDv_yf±Sm;r_a&m vufeufudkif v_yf&Sm;r_a&mtm;enf;oGm;+yD; touf±_acsmifvdrfhr,fvkd@ ppf tpkd;&u ,lqygw,f? tESpf 20 =umwJhtcg Armppftpkd;&[m b,fou l rdk S vku d af vsmp&mrvkyd J vufeuftiftm;eJ@ b¾ma&; tiftm; awmifw h if;vm+y;D a'oqkid &f mrSm0ifqv hH mwm[m typf tcwf&yfpJwJh tusKd;aus;Zl;wckyJvdk@ ajym&ygvdrfhr,f? 'gayrJhtypftcwf&yfpJa&; oabmwlcsuf[m pmcsKyf pmwrf;r[kwfyJ em;vnfr_omjzpfwJhtwGuf t"dyüg,ftrsKd;rsKd; zGiq hf Edk idk yf gw,f? ppf&yfpaJ yrJh +idr;f csr;f a&; rvkyEf idk af o;wma=umifh c%omat;csrf;+yD; t+rJwrf; pdwfylae&wJh 'c%at;tpOfyl' oabmwlcsuf jzpfygw,f? trsm;odatmifa=unmxm;wJh oabmwlcsuf r[kww f muwa=umif; / avhvmapmif=h unfrh ,fh =um;cHtzGJ@tpnf; 'kdifvl}uD;vkd[mrsKd; r&Sdwmuwa=umif;rkd@ ppftpkd;&eJ@ wkdif;&if;om;vufeufukdifawGt=um;rSm em;vnfr_ trsK;d rsK;d &SEd idk yf gw,f? 'ga=umifh wkdif;&if;om;vufeufudkfiftzGJ@&J @ tiftm;ukd vkduf+yD; Armppftpkd;&[mtrsKd;rsKd; qufqHaeygw,f? wa,muf waygufvkyfxm;=uwJh typftcwf&yfpJa&;jzpfwJhtwGuf Arm ppftpkd;&uvJ wa,mufwrsKd; qufqHaewmjzpfygw,f? vuf eufudkiftzGJ@av;awGukdawmh tusyfukdif+yD; vufeufpGef@ckdif; ygw,f? Oyrm PSLP yavmifjynfe,f vGwfajrmufa&;tzGJ@ [m vufeufcsvkdufyg+yD? tiftm;aumif;wJh vufeufudkiftzGJ@ }uD; awG = uawmh tuG J t +yJ j zpf v matmif Armppf t pk d ; &uoyf vSsKdwJhtwGuf cGJxGufwJhtkyfpkawG ay:aygufvmygw,f? udk;uef@typf&yftzGJ@&J @ t}uD;tuJwOD;jzpfol ykdifqkHcsdef eJ@tzG@J Armppftpk;d &eJ@ yl;aygi;f oGm;wm[m uk;d uef@vufeufuidk f tzGJ@ukd ed*kH;csKyfaprJhudef;jzpfygw,f? wkdufyGJ0ifaewJh KNU u&if tzGJ@rSmvnf; cGJxGuf+yD; Armppftpkd;&eJ@ yl;aygif;oGm;wJhtkyfpkawG ±Sdygw,f? KNPP u&ifeDtrsKd;om; wkd;wufa&;ygwDeJ@ SSA o#rf; jynf a wmif y k d i f ; wyf z G J @ awG r S m vnf ; cG J x G u f + yD ; ppf t pk d ; &eJ @ typftcwf&yfpJwJh tkyfpkawG&Sdygw,f? cGJxGuftkyfpkawG rsm;vm avav wkdif;&if;om; vufeufukdiftzGJ@awGrSm tiftm;enf;yg; avav jzpfaewJhtwGuf vufeufudkiftkyfpkxJrSm tuGJt+yJjzpf Shan Herald Agency for News

37


L atmif trsKd;rsKd;tzkHzkH oyfvSsKdwJhenf;ukd ppftpkd;&u qufokH;zkd@ rsm; ygw,f? yk*~dKvfa&;udktajccH+yD; em;vnfr_,lxm;wm[m typf tcwf&yfpJa&;&J@ t"dutm;enf;csufjzpfygw,f? typf&yf o abmwlcsut f m;vk;H ukd Adv k cf sKyfcif!eG @f &J @ axmufvrS ;f a&;u pDpOf cJhwma=umifh 2004 ckESpftxd typf&yftzGJ@tm;vkH; axmufvSrf; a&;eJ@om qufqHcJhygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfcif!Gef@ tðzwfcHvkduf&wJh aemufyidk ;f rSm ppftpk;d &eJ@ qufqaH &; ,k, d iG ;f vmygw,f? t&ifu oabmwlxm;wJh udpPawGukd trsKd;om;nDvmcHrSm aqG;aEG;vkd@ r&awmhb;l vd@k qkyd gw,f? tajccHOya'ukd jyifqifz@kd ucsit f zG@J u wifjywmukd ppftpkd;&vufrcHygbl;?

ppftpkd;&tajccHOya'ukd 0 ®r@awmfyefqef;u uef@uGuf rJ a y;xm;ygw,f ? 'gayrJ h ppf t pk d ; &[mwk d i f ; &if ; om; vuf eufukdifawG&J@&nfrSef;csufukd vdkufavsmzdk@pdwful;ykHr&ygbl;? vufeufuidk t f zG@J awGtm;vk;H vufeufcswmuko d m ppftpk;d &jrif csifygw,f? vufeufrcscsif&if e,fjcm;apmifhwyfzGJ@tjzpf tpkd;& wyfatmufrmS aezd@k om&Syd gw,f? ppftpk;d &tpDtpOfudk vufeuf udkiftzGJ@}uD;awGu vufrcHwJhtwGuf vuf&SdvdyfcJhwnf;vnf; jzpfaewJhvuf±Sd tajctae[m =umavqkd;avjzpfvmzG,f a=umif;wifjyvkdufygw,f? OD;atmifcif (VOA 19/09/09)

pmrsuEf mS 30 rS

Photo : SSA

aygif;pk (ac: ) udk;uef@wyfzGJ@rSmrl zkef=um;±Sif; acgif;aqmifonfh tzG@J wdr;f a±Smifc&hJ .? ppftpd;k &wifajrm‡ ufxm;onfh ydik q f ckH sed t f yk pf k (udk;uef@) uawmh e,fjcm;apmifhwyftoGifajymif;rajymif; xnfh wGif;ajymqdk&ef rvdkawmhay? “tJ'DwHk;u u,ef;jynfopfygwD xdef;csKyfe,fajru rE aW v;wdik ;f / o#r;f jynf/ u&ifejD ynf (u,m;) eJ@ u&ifjynfajrmuf zsm;ydik ;f a'ojzpfw,f? typf&yftm;vH;k om bH&k nfreS ;f csut f wdik ;f

typf&yf ajrmufydkif; SSA wyfzGJ@

ppftpdk;&udk w®yifwnf; awmfvSefwdkuf cdkufr,fqdk&if Armjynf EdkifiHa&;u wrsKd;wzHkajymif;vJoGm;Edkifw,f? tcktajctae uawmh oabmwlnrD r_ &=ubJ ppftpd;k &udk txif}uD;+yD; rdru d , dk f rdrdtxifao;ae=uw,f? udk,fvGwf±kef;zdk@avmufbJ óud;pm;ae r,fqdk&ifwae@ae@ ppftpdk;& ausmhuGif;xJ rvGJraoG0ifa&muf oGm;rSmbJ” - [k ajrmufydkif;o#rf;jynfrS typf&yftajctaeavh vmolwOD;u ajymygonf? 38 Vol. 26, No. 260, 2009

ppftpdk;&v_yf±Sm;r_udkjyef=unfhrnfqdkv#if typf&yfwyf zGJ@rsm;tm; qufvufxdk;ppfqifr_rðyaomfvnf; pdwf"gwfppfqif a&;qufvuf usifhoHk;vma=umif;/ atmufwdkbmvqef;ydkif; ajrmufydkif; SSA acgif;aqmif AdkvfcsKyfp0fudkifz awmif}uD;oGm;pOf wdkif;r–; AdkvfcsKyf&mjynfh u toGifajymif;a&;tpDtpOf wpfcGef; wyg'rSrajymbJ awmifyikd ;f SSA wyfz@JG tm; ppftpd;k & Oya'abmif twGi;f 0ifvm&efom tusK;d aqmifcikd ;f a=umif;/ awmifyikd ;f 0 wyfz@JG tm;vnf; xdk@enf;wl ajym=um;a=umif;/ a±G;aumufyGJrwdkifcif Adkvfr–;}uD;,Gufppf OD;aqmifonfh awmifydkif; SSA wyfzGJ@' Oya' abmif twGif;0ifa&mufjcif;rðyygu rw&m;oif;tjzpf t=urf; zufpm&if; oGwo f iG ;f cH&rnf[v k nf;ajyma=umif; o#r;f jynftv,f ykdif;owif;&yfuGufuqdk.? awmifydkif;o#rf;jynfwyfrawmf SSA wyfzGJ@ ajymcGifh& yk*Kd~ vf pdik ;f qdik rf % d ;f u - “+yD;cJw h v hJ uvJ o#r;f jynfwyfr awmfe@J aqG;aEG;zdk@twGuf ArmppfAdkvfcsKyfwOD;u xdkif;tpdk;&ukd =um; 0ifay;zd@k vmajymw,f? 'gayrJt h ckxb d ,forl S w&m;0ifvma&muf a=umif;=um;wmr±Sdao;bl;? ppftpdk;& tckvdkrsKd;vkyfwmenf;AsL [mwckb?J usaemfw@kd uawmh vufeufcsz@kd r±Sb d ;l ? awG@qHak qG;aEG; zd@k awmh 24 em&D wHcg;zGix hf m;w,f? 'gayrJu h saemfw@kd owfrw S f xm; wJhay:vpD/ vrf;a=umif; twdkif;aygh” - [k ajym.? rnfo@kd yifqakd po#r;f jynfajrmufyikd ;f ae typf&yfrsm; tajc taeapmifh=unfhavhvmolwOD;u - ppftpdk;&u udk;uef@a'o tm; usL;ausmfouJhodk@ xyfrHe,fu|HvmcJhv#ifudk,fvGwf±ke;f &ef twGufomróud;pm;bJ vufeufudkifwyfzGJ@ rsm;tm;vHk; ae&m a'ora±G; w®yifwnf;wcsed w f nf;awmfveS w f u kd cf u kd f rnfqv kd #if wjcm;awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm; EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;vnf;0ifa&muf yl;vmrnfjzpfa=umif;/ typf&yfwdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkifrsm; t aejzifh udk;uef@ta&;tcif;rS oifcef;pm,l+yD; “wcgaozl; ysOfzdk; em;vnf” oifhvSa=umif; o#rf;oHawmfqifhodk@oHk;oyfjyygonf?


0 ESihf Armwyftiftm; pHEe_ ;f jynfrh oSD vm;

Photo : website

2000 jynfEh pS rf pS I wdik ;f &if;om;vufeuf udik w f yfz@JG rsm; tm;vHk; tðywfwkduf&ef pGef&Jppfavhusifha&;udk ppftkyfpkESpfpOf ðyvkyv f mcJo h nf? vltm;xuf vufeuftm; ydrk t kd m;xm;&efom ±Sdaomfvnf; jrefrmhwyfrawmfwGif ppftiftm; 4 odef;±Sda=umif; *k%f,l0ifhºuGm;avh±Sdonf? Armhwyfrawmf+yD; v#ifwdkif;&if;om; vufeufudkifwyfzGJ@rsm;xJY 0 jynfaoG;pnf;a&; wyfrawmf UWSA rSm tiftm; tawmifhwif;qHk;jzpfonf? ppftpdk;&r=umc% xkwfjyefausjimcsuft& typf&yf wyf z G J @ 17 zG J @ ±S d o nf [ k q d k . ? vuf e uf c s&ef t wG u f zd t m; trsKd;rsKd;ay;cH&ojzifh 2005 wGif yavmifjynfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf PSLA ESifho#rf;jynftrsKd;om;wyfrawmf SSNA tcsKd@vufeufcscJh&onf? 2007 wGif o#rf;jynfvlrsKd;aygif;pHk jynf ol@vGwaf jrmufa&;tzG@J SNPLO xdef;csKyfe,fajrtm; ppftpdk;& tiftm;oH;k 0ifa&muford ;f yku d o f uJo h @dk ,ckEpS f =o*wfpaf emufq;kH ywfuvnf;udk;uef@wyfzGJ@ MNDAA xdef;csKyfe,fajrtm; 0if a&mufodrf;ydkufcJhonf? udk;uef@ta&;tcif;aemufydkif; ppftpkd;&ypfrSwfxm; onft h zJ@G rSm 0 jynfaoG;pnf;a&;wyfrawmf UWSA rSm jzpfEikd af cs trsm;qHk;jzpf.?

0 jynfaoG;pnf;a&;wyfrawmf UWSA . vlov l uf euf tiftm; 25˜000-35˜000 txd±Sd+yD; vufeufudkifjynfol@ ppf tif t m; 40˜000 ±S d o nf [ k tuJ c wf r sm;oH k ; oyf = u.? ArmhwyfrawmfwiG f tiftm; 490˜000 ±Sad =umif;ESihf ta±S@awmif tm±SY'kwd,tiftm;t}uD;qHk;wyfrawmfjzpfa=umif;ppftkyfpk ajym aomfvnf; jynfwGif;rSavhvmolwOD;u o#rf;jynfajrmufydkif;vm;±_d;tajcpdkuf ta±S@ajrmufydkif; wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf vufatmufcw H yf&if;wyfz@JG tiftm; ajcvsi§f ajc jrefwyf&if; 46 &if;/ axmufydk@wyf 8 &if;/ tajrmufwyf 11 &if;/

oHcsyfumwyf 1 &if; ESifh wifhum; wyf&if; 1 &if;±Sdonf[kqdk.? 0 wyfzGJ@. ajrmufydkif;ESifhtv,fydkif; vlolvufeuftif tm; 5˜000 cef@±Sdonf[k etzwyfuqdkonf? ta±S@ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf xde;f csKyfe,fajrESihf rsuf ESmcsi;f qdik f 0 wyf xde;f csKyfe,fajrtwGi;f ±Sd ajrmufyikd ;f tv,fyikd ;f vlov l ufeuftiftm;rSm -yefqef;XmecsKyfEiS yhf ef0ikd w f iG f 500 cef@/ yefqef;±Sd vufeuf}uD;wyf&if;wGif 900 cef@/ ajrmufydkif;rdef;rdkif erfw h pf±w dS yfr[m 318 wGif 1˜500cef@/ taemufbufjcrf; 0 e,f wyfr[m 418 xde;f csKyfe,fajrtv,fyikd ;f wGit f iftm; 1500cef@ ±Sda=umif; &rcpm&if;Z,m;u rSwf,l onf[k qdkonf? oHviG t f a±S@jcrf; usKid ;f wHt k ajcpdu k f }wd*w H idk ;f ppfXme csKyf xde;f csKyfe,fajrESirhf suEf mS jcif;qdik f (usKid ;f wHak jrmufbuf) rdik ;f ayguf tajcpdkufwyfr[m 468 0 wyftiftm;rsm;ukdrl xnfhwGufjcif; r±Sday? rdkif;qwf rdkif;wHk®r@e,ftwGif; xdkif;e,fpyfwav#muf tajcpdkufawmifydkif; 0 wyfzGJ@trSwf 171 ppfa'o. wyfr[m 772 / 775 / 775 / 518 ESifh 248 wdk@vnf;±Sdao;.? wyfr[mwck y#rf;r#tiftm; 1˜500 ±Sdygu 0 wyfzGJ@. pkpkaygif;tiftm;rSm 15˜000 xufydkrnfr[kwf[k etzbufrSrSwf,lyHk&onf? etzppfwyfwGifvnf; wyf&if;w&if;Y±Sd&rnfhtiftm; pHE_ef;ESifh vHk;0jynfhrSDjcif;r±Sd[k avhvmolrsm;uajymonf? 2005 wwd,- av;vywftpnf;ta0;wGif ppfa&; csKyf 'kAv kd cf sKyf}u;D ode;f pdef (,cketz0ef}u;D csKyf) ujrefrmhwyfrawmf wGif wyf&if;aygif; 550 ±Sdonfh teuf 284 &if;rSm wpf&if;v#if vltiftm; 200 yifrjynfha=umif;/ usefonfhwyf&if; 220 &if; wGifvnf; 200 ESifh 300 =um;om±Sda=umif;wifjycJhzl;.? okd@aomf vnf; pifppfwyf&if;wdkif;wGif tiftm; 156 a,mufxufrydk a=umif;/ wyf&if;wpf&if;.wdkufcdkufa&;tiftm; 120 - 150 a±S@ wef;oGm;Edkifonfh tiftm;rSm 60-80 cef@om±Sda=umif;qdkonf? xdkpOfu Adkvfodef;pdef. tpD&ifcHcsuft& vufeufxuf vlopf±mS &ydck ufaoma=umifh wdu k yf w JG iG f vltm;xufacwfrv DS uf euftiftm; ydkrdktoHk;ðyoGm;&rnfjzpfa=umif;xnfhoGif;wifjy cJhonf? xdk@twl awmif}uD;c±kdif &Jrª;wOD;. xkwfaz:csufudk udk;um;zl;onfh vm;±_d;ukefonfwa,mufu-“typf&yfawG eJ@wdkufyGJjzpfvm&if ajrmufudk;&D;,m;u&vmwJh vufeufqef; awGxkwfoHk;r,f? vlawGrsm;rsm;aovdrfhr,f” [k arvv,fyikd ;f u +cdrf;ajcmufajymqdkcJhzl;onf? e,fpyf±Sdtypf&yfwyfzGJ@rsm;tm;vHk; e,fjcm;apmifhwyf tjzpftoGifajymif;&eftwGuf tcsdefay;xm;onfrSm atmufwdk bmvukefaemufqHk;owfrSwf&ufjzpfaoma=umifh ppftpdk;&ESifh 0 qufqHa&;vnf; r=umawmhaomtcsdefwGif xl;jcm;ajymif;vJr_ rsm;yd±k v dS mEdik af =umif; tuJcwfrsm;oH;k oyfajymqdak e=uygonf?Ô UWSA


,.ef;ZmifhyDrfgb â?&#x2018;

s<9yhm6b'y-K;yrxu,y.j ;5oytly.j0y.-6boyrmK,y95;yd;yj xud;yjdkhx5o,ty kr s;yrskr]whsG9ry l'yxo 6 hy -5;b ry M?

â?&#x2018;

,5b;yhzC;yz:'yrxu,y.j zyz . j.y g9l5;b ry ]5ory ,5ohy o5;y ,6b'yts6oyt-5;ys<'ytd.K,yr l5'xy r:w ]K,yrd5Pry s6;b My ? lu-G;ysK,yj

soy,C;yrv:dyjS0'yjs^TxGoy-:dyjzK'yr

a-umifxu G rf S = puULjcaoFrh eS ;f od

,5;b hy c9j d5;b ry xGo9 y ;5 cy 9tlK'yjluhpyj. l5;b ] y '5 y doy0 t ,5 ry l5'xy oys'C ry swr< ;khS xGo,y ;C ry dC'ry -;yh9Gohy

tpu = wu,fhtaumif}uD;xif a-umif0ifpm;av;ay:vmrS cJavor#oJa&us

iFOf@

S.H.A.N. P.O.Box 15, Nong Hoi P.O., Chiangmai 50007, Thailand

           â&#x152;Ť   e-mail: shan@cm.ksc.co.th www.shanland.org, www.mongloi.org, www.khonkhurtai.com, www.mongloi.org/burmese


korn kaw 44