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INDEPENDENCE

pWc:] kCam];nL: 1

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Shan Herald Agency for News

3


L ,5'b ry xwKr voyxo G 0 y ;yhakTdpK'yr z:'ry ',yrooygt dkh vKoyrzK9yjv:djy d.kjs^,hy 0:,ry ,5b'yrpK'yr]C'y? ]wh,dyr9,yr;wtoy.r (Article 182 the Constitution of the Union of Burma)

;kh g9,urxK'yp'yjdK'y0y.d5oyr,5b'yr gl 9Cxry 99yrowgl9kTgdkh vb'o y ;b5 ;y Koyh ,5'b ry p6'hy pK'yh,kr ;wKrd:ory g-kc]h v,yjxGoy 09yrxK'yp'yjdK'y0.y g9kjpK,yr]G;y? ,5b'yrpy.jl69yrxGoydG'yr96'y Z@#jQQQ ]:dyr-w.j]dyrX ,5b'yr]GdyTl69yrxGoyd\3'yr Z#* ]:dyr-w.j]dyrX? d5Pyrdkh,url6oyj]whvkjokj xG'yrdoy? p:oyt]5Pyh]:dyrx5b'y06b'yh,5b'yrs^,yh96,y sG9yrsy>h,5b'yr9wrz:,ytlG'yxG'yrxKdyjdoyc]h ,ur

,Koyh (Governor of Burma) voyxGoy vb'yrd]G9yhd5Pyr? #T g,kj96b'yrlzk; voy,urdkh,ur-oy p5joyr. ,5'b ry 9wrd,yho,ygl9kT 0;yhakT,5'b ry 9wr v,yj,url6oyj]wh09yr-wKl'y/ ]whdboy -:oyjx5b'y]G;y? $T oyr. -:'Hy luH 06'b hy ,5'b ry s^,hy 96,y v,yj ,urz5h9Coyrd5oyr,5b'yr? 0'yj;kh ]wh09yrl5'yjz5h9Coyrd.kj v6xyjv5;yr-6oyvb'yrd]G9yh-;y 9uh;G'yr]5'y ]oyH9oyH (London Round Table Conference, November 1931-January 1932)

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voy]hw 0yd. oy;9 tw 'yr 0:,l y db6 ry v:'jy lKoyr $ g-khpyj. l6ojy ]whz:'ry ',yr95;dy ;yj/ l6ojy ]whd5ory c]h 9uH,:dHy -giHluH/ l6ojy ]whz:'ry ',yr ]:'hy '6o b ry 9:'ry t db6 ry ,Koyh-6o b hy ,krxdyrp69 b ry 06'b hy 9wr @+*# ]wh]6];C dy k. j ;wKr9xyl 9K'yrd9yr06o b hy 'b,ry pGo,y kr/0'yj;khz5hv:oy s^;y,5b'yr9wrgdkh ,ur]:'yhm6dyj0y.,Coyh0y.,kr 0G,y,5b;yhooyt? 0'yj;kh @+_+ z:'yr,krs<9yh zC;y9:'yjd\urooytS oK'yrv:'yjlKoyrl6d\uj ,ur9K'yr,wh0y.;kh d5oyr,5b'yr9wrp5j9y.h,Koyh v,yj]whp;yt g9zK9yjv:djy owc]hvK'yh,kr lxyr]C'yrco z:oyr]u06b'yh,5b'yrs^,yh96,y (Federalism) ? d5oyr]5'y9wr m6oyrgzj 9:xyjcdh-6boyr;kh J]Koyp'b ry / 06'b hy ,5'b ry s^,hy 96,y]u05b;yts6b;yooyt v,yj9Kxyh,kr]K9yhco s;yr? d:xhy s;yrsG9ry ,krv:o9 y K'yr? 05;b ry v,yj p:,yrx:'yj0y.]:'yh06b'yh,5b'yrs^,yh96,yowt xGoy z5ho,yrl6bdyr,Koyhl50;yhd5Pyr? 9kT]Koy pb'yrd.kjlxyr]C'yrco-;y0;yh]kh" owpj5 ? d5Pry dkh ]:dry x5'b 0 y 'b6 hy ,5'b ry s^,hy 96,v y oy vb'yrd]G9yh,krv:oy-6b'yx:'yooty xGoy]:'yh v,yjsKoyt0y.9kjd5oyr,5b'yr9wr]wKx5b'y? @T -:'Hy luH06'b hy ,5'b ry s^,hy 96,y v,yj,ur vkjokjx:'y,wK,uh (legislative power) ? g-kh soym6b'y9'yro,y v,yjxGoyg-kh9Cxyr99yr? g-kh9Cxry 99yrooyt ,ur9uh-6oz y ': ry 06'b hy ,5'b ry 4

Vol. 25, No. 249, 2008

0;yhgsk-,yrvb'ry d]G9hy d,yrl6;b hy ? v,yj0yh. p5jawKj9y.h-6oyz:'yr06b'yh,5b'yr,Koyh? d5Pyrdkh d:,ytdkh]whsxytg-khsxyts<'yr Z]xyt]:'yrX ;kh JdG;jy ]5Phy l6ojy ]wh,5'b ry 9wrooyt 05;b ry 0;yh akT,5'b ry 9wr ,url6ojy ]wh9kj]K9yhp5j" ooyt d5Pyrgl ]whx:dyh,kr-6boyr? 0'yj;kh ;wKrl6db ry ]6,hy akTd,yrl:'y p;yt gdkh 0;yhakT,5'b ry 9wr-;y ]wh,krv6xjy d6,dy oy gl gdkj9'yh-:'yHluH0;yhakT06b'yh9wr (Shan States Saohpas Council) ,5 b ; y h $@T@T@+%( ? xGo-y ': Hy luHc-T-C'jy doy9'yr -:'Hy luH06'b hy ,5'b ry s^,hy 96,0 y ;yhakT9wr (Federal Council of Shan Chiefs) voyvb'yr d]G9yh-:9yjz:9yhxoy? ;wKr,kr,urz5h9Coyr d5ory ,5'b ry -;yhxkr0:,ry p;ygt dkh c,rs<';ty kh-:'Hy luH06'b hy 9wr (Shan States Council) ? ;wKrd:oyrg-kp;ytgdkh xGoy,kr-:'yHluH 06'b hy 9wr (Shan State Council) ,urz5h9Cory ,5b'yr9wr9'yrlG'yh voyxkroy.rxkH]uH,oyH 06'b hy ,5'b ry s^,hy 96,,y 'b5 ry ,Koyh (Union of Burma Parliament) ? ,urvkjokjx:'y,wK,uh ]wK05b;yt ]wK]:'yh?

@+(# 0:,l y db6 ry ]5'gy oj;bory p69 b ry vkjokj x9yrx6boytp;ytgdkh ]whx69yr-K9yj0bxyrswKd.kj xC9hy ? m6'b ,y kr;oyr,5;b hy owt d5ory ,5'b ry 9wrd5h05;b ty -5;b ry dpK'yr d5;ry dK'yt x]:'hy xv5;ry 9wr mo6 ]krs^j ;kT vkr-kj v:ody oy-9yr0yg. dkjlK'yh ]:'hy z:,syt ,^ hy 06'b hy 9wrmC'hy p5j? lwK0y;. P b oyj -.oy';yrd6bdyrx6boyr,6boytl6boyr g9x:dyh;wKj,kr ]bxry -ur-6o b ry s6;b /y g9x:dhy ;wKj,kr]wKr]yo . o w oyt 9dyr]whv:oydoy;5oytl:oyj-6b'yx:'y-9yr0y./ ,6'hy ,:'ry xyT. mkhd5h;oyroy?. 0wKr-6boyrly. Z+2@Q2#QQ_X z6boyvb'y

1.

2. 3. 5.

The 1947 Constitution and The Nationalities (Universities Historicial Research Center, 1999) The Shan States and the British Annexation (Sao Saimong Mangrai, 1965) Shan State's Grievances (Tun Myint Taunggyi, 1957) The Moon Princess (Sao Sanda, 2007)


INDEPENDENCE

50

yD Oef;vkufhzdkefh ykdef;ydkefhvif nFyfbqrfj,mrf;vAOf

(6)

yDje.ifUxB;qdlOf;rM;qB.j Omefjrdlif;nefOMjeBU qArfu.efbrdkefU ode k ;f awMb,mrf;vAO?f nrfbauMbwifjOBUef;g ydil f nefOMj qdlOfUcdlOf;vfg{j,lbuMjvfg/ ayM;nrfb rde l uf ef {j,lbxFijf rlid ;f edik jf / oifOMjqdOl Uf cdOl ;f ugmrf;vmwfjrde l uf eftvj ,lbrdil ;f vAOuf efqikd f yDje.iUf wB; xB; vmOf; ody;f o.iyf ef;eM;wif; wB;wfjg cli;f qdOl ;f eBU qmifjyAerf ild ;f vAOuf ef/ ,if;vDwjD nefw;B vli[f Of; (nrfbeef ayM;nOfugmrf;ydlefjOMjauMj wB;qmOf;rmefj nefugmrf;vmwfj vdufjvBm;[Of;clef;rmefjiBm;rmefj-qrfrmefjvdOl q f rfcOld ;f wB;wmifbwDj wmifbvFef) rD;yDje.ifUvmwfjugmrf;rdlefuef ef;g rdil ;f xB;erf/ ugmrf;xB;auMj vmwfjugMbvmwfj cde k ;f nrfbayM;arM,myfb/ wifjtwbvkuUf cde k jf u.ybf uljqdOl Uf qmwfjrM;awMb,mrf;vAOf wB;vlif [Of;eBU cOfjn.ufbwmif;xB; erfvdlOfyDje.ifU [Of;wmif;rdlif;tcb rdlif;vmOf;/ yDje.ifUqdlOf;eBU qB.jxFrfwB;u.yfbulj qmwfj qdlifU[dkOf< q q q q q q

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yAefwB;ndlifbr.efjydefb aq@OAif;Zmif aq@w.efjuAif;rBb/ yAefcdlOf;wB; yBmjrM;,lb rdil ;f xB; z.i;f nMbOtvjrlid ;f eBm;wduk ;f awM;uef (1882-85) rD;ulef;qdqrfjOMj yAefauMU teUerf;{jwB;qdOl ;f vkuUf y.w;f edOl rf M; vBj=U quf; qOfja[Mcrf;xB; ea'@olef (15551605) tvj u.i;f rl; (xmwfjckruf w k ;f ) qOfj ea'@olef wDjrdil ;f [mif aq@OAi;f rlid ;f wle/f qOfjea'@olev f jB e.e;f tz;wDjeefj z.i;f wduk Uf [mifj[Fe;f oduk ;f cde k jf ugMbqBj. qOfjcrf;uBmb eB.U rdlif;oFefOD/ ,.efUref;qOfje.ef;tz; ugMbtvj rdlif;oFefODauMj vBjwluf;ugMbwfgjrdkOf; nMbO/ ymefekrfbodkuf;[mefeBUOMjuefOMj ayM; odkuf;wB;ugMbcmrf;ymif wDju.if;rl;qOfjea'@ olef eefUqdkif wyfUodkuf;rmefjqdlOf;cfgjrM; v.rfUwdkuf;umifcdkef; cOfjql;nrfbvBj/ ,.efU [efoukd ;f odOl q f mifUrMUcyfUcdOk ;f oFr;f ,BuMg brlw;f / rdOl jf 1960 wyfUrmefj=UcmOfbao qifb ,MUvFOf nOfuM;xBxn B u. bf rmufbnkwbf u.i;f rl; eefUxkpfwluf;erfU[mif/ rmufbnkwfbqdlOf; udkwf;eefh wmif;wyfhodkuf;z.rfh=rfjvkufhzdkefU (qdkifjwB;) SURA vBjugMbawMUnOfao rM;xMyeMOBU wDju.if;rl;rfgb ndlifbrdlif;iBm; aq@OAi;f uAi;f vmOf aq@w.ejf uAi;f rBb/ u.i;f rl; (wmif;xB;+ifUq.rf;yMvdOMj oxkyfb) eefU uljyDyD ayM;vde l uf sF e@f edO@f O'D@ Oef;xd 18 rM; wyfUodkuf;xB;ugMbOBjOmef; eyfU,rf,lb [mefUawMb,mrf;vAO-f rmifyyD M;qArq f Ofjemif; a[Mcrf;xB;erf;eMj/

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L z.i;f wB;twbvkuUf zde k Uf cOfjrM;vFev f e d x f ;B eefU ayM;nrfbqfgUugmrf;ndif;uvAwfj auMj nrfby.ifbuef/ wmif;qkrf;vBm;vkufUzdkefUcOf yAefeBOBU? orfUcOfj,lbq.rf;vFefvdefZifb wmif;xB;vBjeBU ydil e f ikd jf ,.eUf vlpjf yDje.iUf xB; qdlOf;=Uydkef;wB;-xB; yAefyDje.ifUuef eefU urfUqBj. vmwfjqBj. /

efg;xB;qdlOf;nrfbvDvdkrf;eBh =UawrD;OBUvBmauMU q

ref;qOfjeBU vBjcde k jf yAeq f mif;wDjrdil ;f wlefao cOfjugMb[Aef;efg;rdlif;wB; rdlif;rmefj/ ugMb,lbuAi;f wkif qyf;qdOk jf qOfjuAi;f wki?f OBm; eefUugMbyAeq f OfjeifjuRi;f wDjOwfUcdOl ;f wB; OmefjnBmb-ndil bf cBm;[AO;f OAi;f vMjoAOjf / ayM;OMjqdOl ;f [Of;nef=Uvdujf rmefj cOfj xdlefb,dyf;u.ifjawMbolj wyfUodkuf;rmefjeBU qdik f ,.eUf vBjvlyyfUvdujf xke;f rse d Uf w.ibf us;D (1920-1997) wFrfj? qdlOf;[Of;nef=U vdujf wB;wliUf wde k bf cOfjxde l bf eefUauMj aw vBjqdqrfjteOMj u.yjf yyfUvdujf qOfjcdOl ;f odOl f (qdOk jf uRi;f -qOfjyefbwdw) wFrjf rde l e f ifb ],.ijf a,M;zMoMcdOl ;f wB;} ]cdOl ;f wB;rdil ;f wB;} ]=UwlOw f MUwB;} tvj ]vBm;Zef;rdil ;f }/ xdik f wDjwyfUodkuf;rmefjayM;qfgvrfao[Mwdref; qOfj? ,.efUvlpfj zDwlOfzDcdif;ref;qOfj vDtvj ref;qOfjvBjv.wfjyFwfjauMj zM nkwfb=OfUuRif;ref;qOfj vBjxkufbuM;wFifU rmefj zMbulefbyFwfj/

qOfj,.wjf ZMU ref;qOfjyAef cdlOf;a[Mcrf; rldif;xB;/ qdkOfjtwUyAef      â&#x152;Ť (y'dOwf; uoArfoD)/ nAef;nmef;ref;qOfjeBU w.efjwMb [Aw;f {jqdik jf wB;u.e;f acMao nOfrM;=rfjuef wif;rdil ;f xB;/ 12_10_1976 n.efauMbwifjwyfU od k u f ; u. e f ; acMwB ; (TIA) / 1_1_1980 zFefumefcOfjwdkuf;wyfUrmefj wMjcDjvAuf;/ 6

Vol. 25, No. 249, 2008

,.eUf wyfUoduk ;f rmefjwef;=UwlOtf vj nrfb ,dw k ;f vBj xdik w f jD rdil ;f xB;rlid ;f rmefj vBjyAef olyf;yAefugmrf;qdte;uefwif;[dkif/ wmif; qOfja[Mcrf;auMj vBj+ifUref;qOfj ao yef eMjumefe;gf [mifjef;g a[M,lbugMb awMbayM;okw;f rkef/

y'Odw;f ok'Od il ;f     

rdOl jf 1959 qOfju.e;f qdil ;f vBjrmwfb qAyf;wDjymifwdkuf;=pfjanMjao zFOfrM;wDj rdlif;Zmif/ rdlOfjeefU auMUnefolifbyefyAef ref;qBm;,OfU/ uAObf vlpjf ref;qOfjeBU vDvjB odyk bf w.ijf xmrfxiF jf /

xuho:'9 ty rw d.kjp:ory l5r ;oyrd59 b jy 0;yhp:9hy akT 9uh,5'b ry d:djy

qdOl ;f ,lbe.ujf aoqBj. wB; nrfbeefwB;vlif[Of;eBU vmwfj awMbuefwif;xB; nrfbayM;=Uugmrf;uef/ u.yjf OMjugmrf;wB;vlifylef; (clef;) ugmrf;rmefjerf/ ugmrf;xB;orfUyle;f ugmrf;yMvderf/ ayM;[efw;B cdkef wB;vdkOfUcOftwU xB;nrfbolj+ifUOMj rmefj/ ayM;wB;vli[f Of;twU ,MbOMjxB;u.ebf ? wB;vdkOfU wB;cdkef ,if;cfgj+ifUOMjyAefrmefj/

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\lid @f edref@a[rde@f (1919-1992) u'B@oD@ edref@a[rde@f (1912-1992)

o.ifyDje.ifUeBU yAefcdlOf;wB;vdkOfU/ urfU qBj. ide k ;f w.i;f tvjuyf;odyk bf yef zlj,fbg ule;f vlicf Of/ wFrjf vdujf cmOfbimOf;v.ijf wB;/ cke@f \ldif@ yAefzljydkefn.ufbzdkefcmOfb clef@rdlif@


INDEPENDENCE ef;g ,mrf;eef/ rdOl jf qOfjtrj=de;f crf; rM;xdik rf ild ;f xB; auMj o.iyf jD e.iUf vBjqwf; Odusw d bf cs@B Oef@ ugMbyfgU[yfUw.efj rM;uAif;rfgb [MyefwDj,lb wDjoOf;/ rdOl jf qOfjqmifU,.i=f pfj vBjxkubf ylwf;ayM;umefefg; SSA ao pM;wmif;,myfb zdw k bf ,lb wDjuAi;f rfbg eefUauMj auMU[Mumefyef yAefckef@u'B@oD / vkujf ref;qOfjauMUedik jf xM@'def@ ,mrfjyAefz.if;vlifZBmbumefidkef; ef;g vliyf i. q f ikd jf xB;/ q

cduk ;f c'dwbf y'M@rlwUf (1911-1995)

yAefcdlOf;qOfjcdlOf;ckeftvj ,mrfjyAef q.rfz.if;vlifefg;rdlif;xB;/ rdlOfj 1959 ref;

qOfj,mrfjqBj. {jzljwFe;f wB; qOfjckeaf wMb wMb qOfjxkef;an; tvj qBm;yef (qOfj ydkef;wB;) cOfjugMb=yfUxlyf; zlwf; oM'odef nefyAefzljerf;efg; rkufUqkrf;vdufj=rfjrBm an@osLOd @f qAibf qmef;Oef;n.ubf oD@wlO@f (SEATO) nefvBmrdlif;cOfj=rfjyM; wMbcAifb wMU ZBmbc.r@f rdO@f edwUf / ulp;f uMj nrfbyAeuf meftvj nOf[iF ;f qfg wluf;ugMbao [mifb,mefyFwfjwif;umefwB;/ (rdlefeifbZBmbrmefjuBUte;OMj qOfjZMUcOf nOf[Fif;oD@wlOf@ awrM;nOfcdkef;rldif;eB eefU yAefvlrf;yAefvFifUao,OfUvBmugMb)/ rdOl jf ymef SURA qOfju.e;f qdil ;f vBj=yfU xlyf;ref;qOfj efg;ymifudefvAifUy.ufjedkifj wDjuki;f xAyjf / rD;zlj,fbg ule;f vlix f ;B auMUedik jf teUerf;yefOMj yAeq f Ofju.e;f qdil ;f =OfeMj u.yfbuljqmwfjxB;,fgbeBauMj ref;qOfj,if; vFyjf yBbvdrk ;f nef,mrfjqAy;f qfOg UB qArrf Old jf qrf qrf 20 yDyBmeefUaoOMj ]xB;,fgboleBU ([Awf;rM;r.ufjeBUtvjyBbn.ifbeefU) ,if;yBb ql;u.efb[MU} OMjeB/ rdlOfjOef;udlwfbref;qOfj urf;vdkef; okw;f eefU wB;qdOl ;f ,lbuki;f xAyjf ugMbyefye . ;f xuho:'9 ty rw 05;b ry p5j,5'b ry d:djy d.kjxoyx:oyr;oyrdb59yj 0;yh-6bdyr-ib9yj xikH,59ty xu @+_)

ref;qOfj/ rdlOfjeefUtwUOMj ]qlOfjuOfyBb vyf;wMvdkrf;rldif;eBU cfgj[efwB;olxmifb[mifj v.wjf vFO;f rD;eMjrD;wMef;g vkrjf ZMU,lb} OMj eifbeB/

wB;q.ifbvBj wmif;qB.jxFrfwDjxB;< eBUyAefugmrf;xmrf nefuljZBmbcfgj=U ugmrf;w.yfb/ wlOfzljwFrfjauMj,mrfjxmrfrM;? nrfbw.efUvBjugmrf;w.yfbnefxkufbqfg/ u.yfj eef ugmrf;w.yfb[Of;auMj q.ifbawxkufbqfg nrfbxkufbqfgzljnmefb[Of;eBeefU rD;wDj zljnmefbcOfwyF ;f wwf;/ wifjnOf 1958 xdkif 1982 eBU wyfUoduk ;f wB;vBmrlbvBmqkr;f rM;wifjiOfjike;f q.r;f ef;g vFev f e d e f ;gf ZifbxB;/ ekrbf oduk ;f [mef wDj=if;OlO;f uAi;f vmOf? SSA wDjOmefjrfgbr.ufb qmrf_udOfb=uf;_cM;[mef? SURA wDjyAi;f vlif OAi;f [Fi?f SNA wDjerfUckebf trjoBm? SUA wDj [defwFufb (trjqef;) trjZMUvlif/ e.ufjvldOfaoeefU q q

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rD;wmif;wdw;f awMbcOfj[Muef/ rD;wmif;qBj. xFruf ef (ydil v f il uf OA bf vlpjf umefcmOfbimOf; v.ifjc.rf@rdOf@edwfU? v.ifj,MjrOf;urf) rD;yef[MauMjvmwfjuef/

ulpf;uMj v.ifjwB;-xB; cOfj[MuefeBU nrfbw.efUxdkifwDj q q q

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qrfqfguef qB.jxFrfuef u.ifjumifb rmufb,mrf; ide k ;f w.i;f clO;f c.if qB.jxFrfuefawMbxdkifcOfj[MvBj uljrdlif;rdlif;ao nOfwmif;urfUqB.jydlefj cOfjrM; Zdkuf;o.rfUumef uAOfbvlpfj vBm;wdkuf;ymefrfgb

oifOMjvBjqdlifUeeftwU- yAufUOMj yBbvBjrdlif;auMj awu.ef;vBjydkefUwDjerfvdlOf ,mrf;vAO/f ,.eUf oifye A e f e B efU=UiBmj,lb/ l6bxyjokhS@# Shan Herald Agency for News

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zljerf;qdik jf wB; qdOl ;f crfcu. jf rmefjcmOf;,mOf; qyf;wmif;yAev f Old [f iF ;f

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cl;rsdefhwmef; (oAifjrkefrldOfjumifyD 2006)

qBm;rAOf;Odef;xkef; vkufjqkrf;oFef; [kefjrfgbqdkifjwB; auMUcrfc.ufjodkuf;rmefj 79 yD OAif;rdef;csmefb wdlif;wMjvdlOfb qyf;wmif; yAefvBm,mifbvdlOf[Fif; nrfbcfgjw.if;ulef; vBj cOfj=if;,M 2 vde l yf mB -zljcmefymufbiOfjike;f WD@r.u@f ca'@oD@qdOl chf Old ;f wB;vmwfj/ wifjtwbvde l af nM@uwfo h rf M; awMb ,mrf;vAOf qBm;rAO;f Ode;f xke;f vBjcOfj=if;,M ,lwf;,Mwmif;yAefvBm,mifb- ref;qBm;yAef wmif;yAerf mufb=Ofq?gf ovdul jf ? wmif;yAeyf mB ;qfg (=Ofqfg=OfacM; cfgjrdlefulef;,.ifb)? nrfbudef cOfj udeferfhulpf;? xmwfjqfgwluf;? [Fif;urfh wlOaf nb? wMvBm;=Ofyefb? zfyg e A z f n gf rfbcfjg =U quf;,Ofth vj vBjcOfj=if;,M/ qBm;vAufh zljcmefbymufbiOfjikef; WD@ r.uf@ca'@oD@qdlOfhcdlOf;wB;vmwfjOMj ]Olifj ylee hf hB ule;f =de;f cOfuMg bolbqg;gf vBj=UOMj cFe;f rM;z.ijf / c.ujf uljwDj (ywf;yde k )hf wDj,lbe.e;f ? wmif;udef,rfhckpfjwFrfb okefbvBjulef;wluf; c.ufjnrfbrD;? nrfbyAif;ayM;aoydlif/ yDuBmauMj ref;qBm;vBjcOfj=if;,Murf;edik jf / yDeyhB e A [f iF ;f vdlOfuOfb ayM;vBjugMb,lwf;,MauMj cFef;rM; vDqrgf M;? ayM;xdik e f ;gf c.ujf orfh rde l uf Ofbcde k ;f } -eB,Of/h

qBm;vMUn.ifb vkufjqkrf;iOfjikef;WD@ r.uf@ca'@oD@qdlOfhcdlOf;wB; (SNLD) nef oduk ;f rmefjcifOe hB ;gf c.ujf uRuz hf Od bf 79 yD (aq@ rldif;'cFifb) auMjyAefudef;vdlOf[Fif; wmif;yAef vdw l jf oki?f ,AOjf Omef? erfe h uf;wlOcf id ;f vlw;f vli;f ? uden f rfbOmef? e.e;f nrfbvBj? +ifjwDj ,lbuFyfj? vBj,lb=rfjueferf/ ekrfb,dif;wB; [Aef;vdufjwMjukifj auMU edik jf vmwfjOMj- ]ayM;yDje.ifhugMbolbqfg; vBj nOfie dk ;f ,Awjf r.ez f jl ukr;f c.ujf =Ofoe F ?f ayM; vAin hf bB. y.ejf [mrfah nbnrfb[yf/h uljy.ujf arM,M uBUugMbulwfbyBm;,lbvDyef/ wifbtwbcmOf;=Of [dkOfhrM;awMb,mrf;vAOf arM,MnrfbcOfjwlpf; tvj yDen hB rfbwmefbyDumB auMj vBjOMjyAe[f iF ;f ,lb} / nl;ausMbax; nM,k 45 zljukrf;c.ufj uRuhz f dOfb (aq@rldif;'cFifb) eefh efg;zljukrf; c.ujf uljwDj ref;qBm;nM,kvuA e hf rk bf vdOl yf e ld jf / orfhcMbtubzFefokif udefidkef;,Awfjr.eferf tvjrD;ide k ;f ? wFibf wlO[f mifjcdil jf rde l Of e d ;f nl; (qBm;nAufbiOf;wlifhuljy.ufj)? arMolifb,kdefj ,Awjf r.eyf MjedOl /f nrfboljvAin hf bB. ule;f yMjwfjg tvj nrfbrFefjvkufje.ifh-OMjeB/ zljerf;wB; 7-8 qOfj nefvjB xkubf

oduk ;f rmefjukr;f cify[D ikd cf mOf;,mOf; 75-106 yD eBh vBj=yfyh ef[Mzljukr;f c.ujf [ku;f [Bm?h okebf vBj ule;f wlu;f c.ujf nrfbrD; wmif;ude, f rfh nrfbyAi;f ayM;tvj yBm;,lbvDvlwf;,.efb ,lyfj,.rf; uljqOfj/ zljerf; SSA (qkrf;udkwf;okduf;) y.wf;+ifb qOfjodlOfxFefj auMUcrfc.ufj 106 yD OAi;f crf;wDj wdil ;f aq@uAi;f y.w;f elOd e f efh wlpf;oDnrfbqFufbvBj yAefwMrlefbwMawMj rM;[dr;f yD wmifbvdujf vOfj,.e;f qkr;f oduk ;f rmefj {jvBj,lwf;,MauMjyBbvBjugMb,lwf;,M ao y.ufjawMbrdlOfjvAOf/ ,.efhv.ifj,myfbzdkwfb qdlOf;eBhao zljerf;oFef;[kefbrfgb qdkifjwB; cl ; rsd e f h w mef ; vB j ok w f ; rk e f u g M bef g ; c. u f j wmefbw.B; rldif;'cFifb rdlOfjumifyD 2006 /

Vol. 25, No. 249, 2008


INDEPENDENCE

vki;f ckeuf sMbnl; oAijf rkecf y. jf 11 yD (1997-2008) rldOfjOef;xd 29_10_2008 yAefOef; nefvkif;ckefusMbnl; zljauMbwifj uOfhiOfj okebf vBjule;f qkid jf wB; (Shan Human Right Foundation-SHRF) oAifjurf@okwf;rkef z.i;f wkud [hf myfbykejf z.e;f ,lbwDjvFev f e d x f ;B y.wf;wmif;uAif;[Bm; c.yfj+yfjxkdif 11 yD egf;yD eBh/ uOfih Ofjokebf vBjule;f (SHRF) eBh vki;f ckeuf sMbnl; n.e=f OfauMbwifjrM;rlOd jf yD 1991 n.ef=Oft[Uuifj q.BjxFrfulef;yBmjaz;egf; rlid ;f wB;tvje.ujf rlid ;f q.r;f vFev f e d x f ;B wif; rldOfjyAefokduf;wkduf;awM;uef/ vki;f ckeuf sMbnl; vBjoAijf urf@okw;f rkef ugMbrldOfj 29_10_1997/ cmOf;wmif; 7 yDwArf vBj[Awf;umefq.Bj xFrfulef;wluf;udef; nrfbeef ulefyBmjaz; rldif;wB;vBmvBmwDj qArfy.wf;trj+ifjo.ef rldif;Zmif? uAif;rBb? wif; trjoBm trjZMUvlif tvj uAif;oFef egf;aq@w.efjuAif;[Bm; (rldif; xB;) qlid e hf ifb[M,.e;f cOfjomef? erfrh ef;udef wmif;udef[Fifjtvj ,Mj,M qArfqldOf;eBh q.BjxFrfzljyBmjaz;/ wmif;e.ufjrldif;auMj vBjnOfv.ifjnefqOfj nMbeMbokduf;rmefj rldufjcdefqgfwAuf;wAif ayhudefulef;rldif;wB; wmifbteuljrldif;rldif;ulpf;yBbayM; ,if;vBj n.ufbugMbwmifbxkdifwDjymifukrf okefbvBjulef; wmif;,l;\.yx hf iF jf / vkif;ckefusMbnl; yAefyDjnBmjvkif;ckef usMbek (qOfjoFifokduf; =OfjyOfjyMbwDbrgfbokif qkid jf wB; SSPP? =OfyOfjwkrf WD@r.u@f ca'@ oD@qkid jf wB; SDU tvj =OfyOfjauMcAebf wFrjf ylid if Ofjykid ;f rlid ;f qkid jf wB; SSCDC ) yAev f uk jf qBm;vkif;ckefusMbyk zljn.ef=Ofrldif;wB; nef =rfjvli;f vBm;rkOd ;f eg;f vdujf =rfjrBmymifvil f wif; qOfjZMUcOfqOfj rldOfjyD 1947 tvj yAef z.i;f vliZ f mB bzkubf o.rjf eg;f vliyf i. q f idk jf aq@ rlid ;f wB;/

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vkuf;[Awf;qefhq.rf aq@w.efjwlefjwD; hf idk f wifjrkuq hf rk ;f OBv h yfv h yfh TNSO ao wlie olef;wkrfumefqldOfhqmwfjrM; awMbayM;xkdif qBm;umef;,.wfj tvjvkufj[Aef;qefhq.rfcOf cOfjxle d bf [Aw;f umefvuk jf zde k e hf ;fg qkr;f TRC/ TRA rldOfj 1984/ OBm;eefh vkif;ckefusMbnl; auMj vBjn.ubf rM;wlihf ekid uf mefridl ;f q.r;f vFef vdefwB;-xB; rldOfjyD 1990/ ,mrfjteumifqfg nrfbudecf Ofjcwf;wMU rldOfjyvdufjxB; aq@OAif;trjoBm (uAif;[Bm;) awrM;vkdyfjvrf;ulef;Omefjv.ifhZMUqOfj {j cBmUn.ubf yke d w hf jD eefth vj [Aw;f {jule;f Omefj v.iZ hf MUqOfj vBjylev hf w . jf v.ijf wAu;f wAirf M;/ OBm;vkif;ckefusMbnl; oAifjurf@ugMb,Ofheefh qBm;crf;[mefZMU vBjokyd bf ykwjf [Aw;f eMjumef uOfhiOfjokefbvBjulef;qkdifjwB; (SHRF) rM; awMbxkid , f mrf;vAO/f

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INDEPENDENCE eBh oBmiBmref;anbtwhtwh/ u.yjf ydOl jf yBm;rmufjrD; cOf,ifb[mufjtzjwdlef;vdkufh[Fif;eFefb,Ofh/ ZBmbedik jf wmif;edik jf ,lOo f ukd ;f rmefjvkyjf vif wlwf;{jrMqfgvDOBh v.ifjumefrmufjrD;vBmydlif/ rde l e f ifbawyefyMbrdwo hf ifoid bf qdOl ;f eB?h ZBmb edkifjauMj aw=pf;O.ef;wMb nOfnAef[Fif; odkuf;OMUavMbodkuf;wB;? ayM;qrfyAefqrfj qkwfbrM;}-eB,Of/h rdlOfjOef;xd 6_10_08 q.rf[mef ausMb zAO;f vkuw hf mif;rlid ;f omwfb vli;f ugMbrdil ;f wle-f eM;u.if;rl;? e.ef;cdkef;edkifj/ Oef;xd 7_10_ 08 ugMbykibf yMbcFrx f ikd w f yfyh McD; [dr;f vFev f e d f xB;? y.ufjugMbcdkef;wDjwyfhvFefvdef BP-1 orfhcdkef;y.ufjrdlOf;e.ef;cdkef; eM;u.if;rl;/ Oef;xd 8_10_08 ugMbxdkifrdlif;awMUrdlif;xM; aoe.e;f rlid ;f awMUcde k ;f edik jf / zmefbugMbzmefb rM; tOhqOfjeMjwDjOMUwDjrdil ;f uRwjf ? Oef;xd 9_10_08 umifOef;y.ufjudefcOfjOef; wDj eM;u. i f ; rl ; ? wmrf ; crf j y. u f j rd l O f ; cd k e f ; rd l i f ; omwfb- uAi;f wkif eB,Of/h q.rf[mefausMbzAOf; vlif;ydkefhwDjolef; wkrq f rk ;f oduk ;f OMUy.ujf eBh nefvmufbvBm; nrfb rde l uf jl y.ujf twh qOfjeMjwDjoduk ;f OMU eMjvdef okud ;f 171 wlO, f mifb auMbusLif; nefye A z f jl

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12 Vol. 25, No. 249, 2008

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INDEPENDENCE

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Shan Herald Agency for News

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Shan Herald Agency for News

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16 Vol. 25, No. 249, 2008

lG9hy ? i9yTl\b3;yH 9'yr c-jv,yjsxy?t p:oyt ;kh 0;yh,5'b ry d;yj,oyr l5;b Hy [uHp5;b Hy (Serbia) v,yjpboyrp:,yr Zv,yj]wh0y.z:,ty0:,yrX ]kr ]kr? voyd,ym t ,C y vCxHy -kH0uHp5;b Hy (Abkhazia) 9'yr gvkH0C9yHmuHp5b;yH9y.h (South Ossetia) ,uri9yHlb\3;yH,5b'yr]G;y? vg,Hib-5b;yH/ vb'yrd]G9yh/ ai'yjlG9yh 9'yr c-j v,yjsxyt? p:oyt0;yh,5b'yrd;yj,oyr gd\kHd\uHp5;b Hy (Georgia) v,yjpbory p:,ry Zv,yj]wh0y.z:,ty0:,yrX ]kr]kr? oyr. -:'Hy luHs^,jy ]5,hy ]6,hy akTowt ,ur;wt * ,5b'yr voyxGoy]6dyh06,yr,oyhd6b,yr/ vg,Hib -5;b Hy / vb'ry d]G9hy / ai'yjlG9hy / i9yHl\3b ;yH 9'yr c-j ? gxkr9'yr * ,5b'yr]wh0y.doy 0'yj 9Cxry 99yr]wh? 0'yj;kh d:ory g-k lK,y0'b6 hy ,5'b ry voy]K9yh,krowt -:'-ty ,ypj5 g9kj,5;b hy ]G;?y gxkrv;yg-kh]wh0y. ,:oyHmuH;uHfuH p5;Hy @+$$ (1933 Montevideo Convention) -:'y UN ;kh06' b y x5;b hy 9kjxGo0 y 'b6 hy ,5'b ry d:oyrg-kooyt ]wKr,oyrv,yjo,y? x5b'y]5'y ,oyrS u 9dyr,ur]Coy]boyvoy9C9yhoC9yh coto:oyr (Defined borders) u ,ur]5'yx:'yh06b'yhvoysG9yrdKoy xGody Koyc]h d,yd,6 ry ]who5;b dy o 5 ry ,5'b ry 05b;yr,ur9'yro,ygvj voy,oyhd6b,yr

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Illustration by Walingta (SHAN)

';yr]wKrpK,yr]G;ySv;y,5b'yrd:oyrg-k voy;khowSt gxkrz5hv:osy ;^ 0 y 'b6 hy ,5'b ry 9uhvoy s;yrzK9yjv:djy ooyt ]wh0yp . j5 06'b y ,oyrgdkh xGoyvoy'wKh0y.? gxkrv,yj]wh0y.c9t s^TxGoy 9K'yrpKxyj0y] . '5 ] y K'y? ,5;b hy @++@ 06'b hy ,5'b ry 05;b ry pK,yhp5j9yh. i9yl t \b3;yH,kr x6boyzK;yjd:oyrgl]wh,5b'yrd.kj ooytgdkh p:oyt0;yh,5b'yrd;yj i9yHl\b3;yH pboyrp:,yrxoy? m6b'y,kr @+++ 9uHg,kH ;oyrv:djy (East Timor) 09yrxK'yp'yjdK'y 0y.d5oyr,5b'yrgl zK9yjv:dyj]whooytgdkh vboHy 95;Hy ouHl\3b ;yH ]wh0y0 . ,: ry c]h 0'yj xGo?y d5Pyrdkhoy.rxu #QQ_ owt ,5b'yr05b;yrx6boy zK;yjd:oyrg-kd.kj,ur $ ,5b'yr? @T -5;Hy l5;Hy ;5;Hy (Kosovo) x6o b z y K;yj ,5;b hy @)T#TQ_ xGogy -kh9Cxry 99yroyr. xK'yd,6 y ]5'y z5h9Coyrd5oyr,5b'yr? #T vCxyH-kH0uHp5b;yH (Abkhazia) x6boyzK;yj,5b;yh Q)TQ$TQ_? $T gvkH0C9Hy muHp5;b Hy 9yh. (South Ossetia) x6boyzK;yj,5b;yh Q)TQ$TQ_ ? lK,y,'b5 ry owT g9kjpK,yr]G;y p5j9uh -:'yHluHs^,yj]5,yh]6,yhakT (UN Security Council) p'yrxwjp:,yrsxyt? 05;b ry d,ym t ,C -y ;5 Hy l5;Hy ;5;Hy (Kosovo) ,urvg,Hib-;b5 Hy / vb'ry d]G9hy c]h ai'yj


INDEPENDENCE d5oyr,5b'yrs;yr-y.h]whd:oyrg-kowgl x6boyzK;yj d.kjs'yr-;y? sG9yrsy>h,5b'yrfuH,:dyH-giHluH 9'yr]wK p:,yrsxytpKxyj? 0'yj;kh gxkrg9s6xyhv;y]': hy $ ,5'b ry 05b;yrx6boyzK;yjd:oyrg-kd.kjxuxwKooty g9soy ]wh;kh? @T 9kjd5h,5'b ry ,5'b ry p:,ry sxy] t hw 'wKh'wKhooyt ,5b'yr]5'yd;yjd;yj voys;yrzK9yjv:dyjooyt syh> p:,ry sxyv t o : 9 y K'yrd:ojy ? d:xhy ;kh,5'b ry ]yg. dkh v,yj-y.h]kh]uhd,ytmC,y p:oytd5;y]wh,5boyo'yj xoysC'yrsy>h0K;yr-5b;yroy.r,5b'yrzy.,oyrzK9yj v:dyj?

l6bxyj,krokh @*

p:,yrpbxyr96b;yr/ v,yj-y.h0y.T96b;yr0:,yr? 96db Ty -yh. lyj. 0yz . 9 b ry p5j;kh v;y-': xy o b5 hy Z-:'y,KoyhX ,kr0y.Towt ;khxGoy-:'ys;yr? v;y -:'y9wrs;yro'yjdoy,kr0y.Towt l,yt;khxGoy-:'y x5boyh? m6b'y9uh9wrs;yro'yjdoy gxkrcor9wr ]5'ys;yr;kh pGoyrxGoyx5boyhp;yt? gxkrv,yj ]Cdyh]wKh]wKr,oyr;wr;wr06b'y ;oyro6b'yh0:'yj s;yrg9v,yjsK'yhswKT]5b;yxuho:'yt9wr]C'yxC9yh s6b;yS;5oyto'yjow?

;kh s;yrxGoyo5b;yt]5b9yh 0;yhlK,y]5'yakT 0;yhl5;b -y KoyjakT owo'yjd;yj? d:xhy ooy soy-;y,;b5 hy ]y. ,ur0yl . 9b-d6 ry m5xyr95xyr96boyjc]h ,urd.K,yrmK,yp5joy.r0y. d5h-K;yrd5h-kr? 0yl . 9bvoy;khowt v,yj0yh. l'y? xuho:'ty 9wr]C'o y tw d:xhy x5;b hy x6o b xty j:w zklkab'hy c'h95;y d;yjc]h o:dhy glo5;b ] ty 9 b5 hy s^;0 y o .y oyt 9wr 9wr owotw v,yj0K'yhco9uh]y?. 9wr]5'y29wr9y.h x:9yr95dyr-5'yrgdkh g9kho'yjooy? 96bdyT,urzklkab'yhc'hs;yr p5jowgdkh xGoyvoyv;y-:'yx5boyh,kr0y.Td,yh o,y? 96dyr9k xuho:'yt9wr-6boy 9wrp5oyr 9wr]6;b ty 9wr]C,ry 9wr]K;yr 9wrmwr-;y,ru ;wT s'yrs;yr-:'ys;yrc9tc9tgdkh s;yrl,ytv,yj

#T ]:'yhx6boyzK;yjd:oyrg-kowt g9]wh d.kj0:,ry -oyh9:ohy (process) voydo 5 ry 9'yr o,ym9yrlK'y9Cxyr99yr]wh;kh xGoyvoy c9t v,yj0y.hvoyx:,y? ,6'hy ,:'ry ;kh x:'hy d.K,yrs^;o y tw g9sG9ry syh> z5hvKoyjs;yr xGoy9uh;5oyt-wh0y.9kjd,yH 0k9k;Koyh,5'b ry s;yrp5j? z6boyvb'y l

The Economist, 30.8-5.9.08

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Newsweek, 8.9.08

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Photo : website

Milosevic) voyxGoy0;yhvkjokj]5'y 05b'yt o'yj 0:,yl6bdyr]5'y 9Koyrl5Pyj ,5b'yrs;yrowt gxTdbo,y krs6'b ?y v,yj,5o b 0 y ,: 0 y 'b6 hy lkH-kHl\Hu ;uH]kH Saakashivila 9uh ,5b'yr Georgia voyd5oyr,5b'yr]5bdyh9'yh,kr/ d5oyr,5b'yrcor ,oyr]wh x59ry ,oyr]wh? u UN 09yrdKoydxyrlKoyxoy Kosovo 9'yr Serbia l:'yawKj s6b'yxGoy-K;yr9K'yr _ xup;yt v,yjxGody Koy -;y0'yjdwh: ,krx6o b z y K;yj? ,5b'yr Abkhazia 9'yr South Ossetia c9t v,yj,urzy.dxyrlKoyxoy9kjv6xyjv5;yr 9'yr Georgia gl x6boyzK;yjd:oyrg-k ;wKr i9yHl\b3;yH-;yhp69 b ry ,5;b hy _T_TQ_ ? u Kosovo c9t ]whmK,ydK'y0y.d5oyr,5b'yr x9yrx6boyt9Cdyj9Cdyj]C'yr]C'yr/ p'yjdK'y0y. d5ory ,5'b ry x9yrx6o b 9 ty dC jy ]C'ry ]u'K,yrgl 0'yj x6boyzK;yjd:oyrg-k? xK'yp'yjdK'y0y.-;yowt d5ory 9'yro,ym9yrlK'y9P 5 ry 0:,ry ]wh/z:ory xK'yh (result) ,oyrv:djy ,krp;yt v,yj9Kxyh]wh mK'yj9yh. m5,b o y ;b5 ;y kh xGody K'y0c.y 9ts;b6 dy K'y0.y x:,?y Zv,yj0yh. cookh95;b hy d5;9 y ,6 9 ty ;b5 ] ty ': hy s^,yj]5,yh]y. voyooytvoyowt]y.gl ]K9yh ;khS]whsG9yr]xyt]xytl'ylb'yjX ? Abkhazia 9'yr South Ossetia c9t v,yjmK,ydK'y0l .y 'y/ ]K9yhv;ys'yrd5Pry ;kh

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d.K,yrmK,yvoy;khooytc9t xGoy9kj 9wr]u;o 5 o ty 'yjd;yj? q

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Shan Herald Agency for News

17


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qldif;[ufhcM@euD@ (Carnegie) Photo : website

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d.K,yr]u-;yhs^ zyv . ,yj0kT ,5b;yh @+#@ vCoyHf造5H -kHoduH (Andrew Carnegie) gxkh]G'] ty '5 dy Koy]dG ry

mK,yxoy'o b6 ry o6'b hy xu @ ]Koygt fkH]5;b Hy gl 0K'yh -\kH]ylyl.C\xyt (Charles Schuab) ,kr xGoys^;yx;yh9uh-:,yHxouH]Gdyr,oyrc]h ,ur d.K,yrmK,y;kh -\kH]yly s^T]:'yhdKoy]Gdyrdkh s6;b ?y -\kH]yly ;kh gxkrv;ydKoy]dG ry ;khc9t d5ory s^T]:'hy ]Gdry ]5;b ,y oyr,uro,yoxygt xkrv,yj -yh. ]wh? d5Pry dkh ]:'hy 9K'yrvoy,oyr0;yh]wh sxy9 t 'C jy 9'yhxGosy ;^ xy ;yhowt p:ogty ,ksG9ry gdkT d5oyrgl sy>hd5oyro6b'yhgdkTv:dyj0y.v:dyjg-kr 0yT. 96;b ry o,ydt 9y9 t ;5 dy ;yjm6'b 0 y db ry m6'b p y 9 : hy ooytd5Pyr? ,oyr0;yhsG9yrs6b;y]kjM? Jd;y-khs;yr d5Pry ,6'b sty k9uh0K'yhp:'hy gpkrx5o b hy / v,yj,K'yj sk9K'yrzb9yrzy.? gxkrsoy9uhm6dyj0y.06b'y p:'yhgpkr]5Pyh 9'yr95;y9'yr0y.?" ,oyr x5b'yhdoy9'yr ]wKrvoyd5oyrs;yr0xyrpK,yh d5hgdkT xkr0G,yz5h9C,yh xGoy,kr0G,y]GdyT? d.K,yrdxyrm6dyjvoyo6b'yh,ur;kh Jd;ysG9yrswKT x:dhy ]G;y x5o b hy 95djy v,yjp;tv y ,yj;wKr/ d;ys9 G ry ]ul:'yx:dyh v,yj'boyrzy.95dyjl,ytgld,yr" ? 95;y-kHoduH gdkhxGoyd5oyr,5boyl.C\xyt g,k]Gohy gdkTd5ory c9t?0'yj,urmC;] y db hy x:9ry 9uh-6,yxkjsG;yh,oyr;kh J9uhowhxGoy9uh]6b;yh o:oyr gdkTvoyg,kskd5oyr05b;yrvoyd9yt -Coyj]5b;y,oyr ]:,yts<xyh,oyr;wT?" okh9uh-:'y oK'yrzC,yH,]5b;yH foyH sC,Hy (Pamela Dunham) p5j;G'ry ob;Hy caH auH]y (New Fairfield, Connecticut) voy o6'b hy owt 9kjxyT. 95Pry z5hx9yrzG;hy sG9ry ]5,b hy ]wjoy.r]6,yr-;y? z5hx9yrzG;yhgdkTo6b'yhowt p:oytsG9yrv,yjdG'yhv,yj]5b,yhc]h ]whm6dyj 18 Vol. 25, No. 249, 2008

]6dyh]G'yT9K'yjgdkT dwTdwTp;ytp:dyj x:'yTmkT -5b;yr-5b;yrpy.rpy.r? ,oyrgdkh v,yjc,r95;yc,r -b'yr]whglx:dyh? d5Pyrdkhp5jp5j oK'yrgdkh]whsoy,Coyh 9uhvoy,oyrsG9yr-C,yt]Cxyh? 0'yj]whp:'yh gpkr,oyrg9kjokhx5o b hy ? sG9ry ooygl ;oyr o6'b hy p;y;t oyro6'b hy z5hx9yrzG;hy gdkTowgt dkh sG9yr-C,yt]Cxyh,kr]5b;yd;yj? gxkr]wh]5,Coyho'yjowp;yt d,yhz:'yh g9;kh J]wKrowTd;ygdkhpK,yh0K,yr,krp;yt/ ,oyrv,yj;5bdyT (work) v,yj]wh]:'hy "? ,oyr gdkh0yh. c9t? d.K,yr]5,b hy d5,b hy doyotw ,oyr96o b hy v,yjl6;b hy ly. ;5oxty o 6 hy 95;dy ;yj? s^T9dyrv,yj ]wh]:'yh v,yjxGoydKoy o:dyhgl05b;yrdwT,ur ]5,yrp:'yh-6boyh? d5Pyrdkh d.K,yrp:'yhgpkr c]h d.K,yr ]5b,yhd5b,yhowt ,oyrv,yj,5boydoy? d.K,yrp:'yh gpkrowt ,oyr]6db Ty / ]6d9 ty hu s^;0 y 9 .y ;5 dy ;yj,kr? ,oyrl6b;yhly.? v,yj;5oyt0y.d59yt ;5oyt9kjgdkT ]whsxy?t sxyp t ;y] t 9 u kjd5hawKj? v,yj,5o b ] y ,b5 hy d5b,yh voysG9yrsy>hd5hawKj]6? 0:,yl6bdyr v]y ;5;b Hy 造5;Hy v5;Hy [ciHd:oHy (Alvaro Obregon) 06' b hy ,5'b ry ,CdHy luH-5;Hy (Mexico) pK,yh ;kh Jpkjd5;yz5h-Goy05b;yrvoy,kr96bdyr0;yh? syh> d5;gy dkTglh05;b ry voy,kr]5,b hy d5,b hy 0;yh"? cordoyowt sG9yrsy>hc,rdoypKxyj? ,ur g-khd.K,yrvoy-kh99yrv:djy ;wToyr. xxygt l xkT ;w9 t hu vCxjy 0,yh-kh sG9ry syh> -kh]whvKoyjaK'yt l9b9;5 -y khp5jd5h;oyr? JlGohy 9K'yrvoyotw d;yg9]whzKoyj x:dhy ]G;dy P 5 ry / p:oo ty oy gxkr,ur9K'yr]uvoy 0K'yhsG9yrxoyg9kjd5oyro6b'yhgdkTp5j06b'y sy>h]whsG9yr,5b;yh]G;yd,yr]G;y? pkjsy>hd;y]wh

]5'] y ,b6 ry ;wT,;y,K'yx9 C hy ? d:xhy ;khlGohy 9K'yr voyowt d;yg9v,yj]whzKoyj,krmC'yhd,yr o6'b hy p;t?y " i]yay g;kH]yf5;yHvuH,5b;yHloyH (Ralph Waldo Emerson) gdkhpK,yh;kh Jd5ory d5hgdkT voyd;y-kh]whm5xry owt d\kT]5;b y d;y-kh v,yj]wKro6b'yhgdkh]wKro6b'yh" ? gxkrvuH,5b;yHloyH p'yr]wh;khooy 05b;yrl5d;ys;yrskr9'yrlG'yh pb'yh-Coyrg9 v,yj06;b hy 0yh. s6;b ?y 0'yj;kh syh> ]whd69 b ry ]:'hy ;5osty ;yr-yh. ]wh l'y xGol y 'y sG9ry ]ul'y,krooygt l syh> -9yr 0y.;5oyt;kh x5boyh,ur9K'yr]ul'y x5boyhsG9yr]u l'y,krooyt g9v,yj]us6b;y? gxkrooy s;yr gdkhv,yj9Kxyhd.kj]5,b hy d5,b hy zy?. d.K,yrp:'hy gpkr s;yrgdkh g906;b hy 0yh. l6;b hy ly. ]6dTy oyr. s^;0 y .y s;yr,kr? d.K,yr0;yh]K9yhd.kj 0;yh0K'yh]6,b ry / d5Pyrx5boyhg9v,yj]6b,yrgl dGxyrs<,y;wtxGoy 9uh,wK9uh9:'yr g9kj05;yh0K9yhxKoyl69yr lG'hy ? ]dyrdKoy #

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INDEPENDENCE

ykdefwArfurf [uf;nrfbvBj A fistful of arrows cannot be broken.

 

   

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vufqyk jf ynfrh #m;pnf;/ csKd ;r& (pnf;vk;H jcif;onftiftm;)

d.K,yrl:oy,5b'yrx5boyh Graceful tolerance blunts the sharp edge of opposition. Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching, Chapter 4

]:'hy p5o b dty oyhvoy',yrpGoy v;y-,5 ry zwKawKjlKoy-9yrx6dry ]wh ? ];yj06;b jy xxty 9;t9 y ;b5 dy \b'ry doy %

Shan Herald Agency for News

19


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d.K,yr9C9hy ]K9yh,5o b Sy 9C,hy zy,. oyr/ 9K'yrp5j]:9hy 9wr Speak universally, Write locally: The Shan path to survival xuokh #QQ+ ]5boyv:dyHm5;yH[5b;yH Zs6b;yX o5;yH;C,yH[5b;yH 9K'yr,5b'yrd:dyj Zd6'yrmGxyhX g909yrsCoyrxK'yd6,y]5'yd5h,5b'yr,5b'yr xwKrsGoyr ;kh]5Phy 9wr]5'y (International Conference on Shan Studies - ICSS) owooty oy.rd:oyrg-kc]hl'y oy.r,5b'yr]w:c]hl'y ]wh9C,yh,krp;yt? xK'yd,6 o y tw p5j9uh0oy0 t ,: 0 y ] 6 kH]5'Hy d:oHy (Chulalongkorn University) g9v:osy ;^ 0 y 9yrsCory gl 9K'yrd;y't ;yhIzkTm,yrlC'y (Phra Dhammaseng Foundation) 9uhd6'yrmGxyhc]h gdk]bdyh]wKrab'yhc'h dG'yr,wj g9s^,yhdoyd,yt0w:hxoy? dG;jy ]5Phy ]:'hy owt ]wh'bory ]wKawKj,ur9K'yrl5o0 y g.y lcoto,yrxoy9K'yrsoydoyo,y? xuho:'dty h5 9uh;kh05;b sty ;b6 ] y Kw ]wKooyt p:ory g9kT9wj -whco9uhowh syh> xGo9 y kj;5o?ty q q q q q q

]uv;y9;b6 9 ty K'yrowgt l 96db ry l5ory syh> ,ur,kr J]bdhy 9wrs^,hy 95;"y x5;b hy 9kj9wrd5h-5;b ry -5;b ry pbxry 96;b ry ? ]us^,yhdoysG9yrv:dyj,kr g-khd.K,yr9wrd5h9uh9uh 0y.T96b;yrs^,yhdoy? ]K9yhg9kjdoysy>h-;yh0y. Zx:'yj0y.X ? gxkrsoy9wr]5'y Z9wrpy.jX x5boyhv:oydoy;kh xGoy,Koyhowooyt sy>hswK9uhowh? gxkr9wr]wh,kr-;yhxw:r sy>h0K'yhv;yd6'yj,6oy;kh xGoy9wr? sy>h9wrd5h-5b;yr-5b;yr ]wh,kr-;yhs^,yh0:,yr co]:'yhsdyTs<,y0,y0y.doy? syh> s^,hy doyvx6 jy v5;ry 9Cxry 99yr ]:'hy ab'hy 9wr 9'yhc9jd59 b jy g9kj9wKc]h ab'hy sb9hy swr< d5h]5o b Sy ]5boy0G'y Z]5boyvwKhX g9kj]5boy lbxyrl:'y ? vb'yrd]G9yh

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20 Vol. 25, No. 249, 2008

korn kaw 33  

korn kaw 33

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