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Universidad: Tecnologica. Name: Nancy Rebeca Perez Oliva. Professor: Julio Blanco. Subject: Grammar 01


Verb tense •

Simple Present

Used for a present state of affairs. My sister lives in Washinton. A general fact . The sun rises in the east. Habitual actions and future future timetables My flight leaves at 10:00


Present continuous. A specific action that is occurring. Andrew is watching tv(right now). A general activity that takes places over a pariod of time. My sister is living in washington. Future arrangements. I`m inviting Emma to the party on Friday.


Simple past An action that began and ended at a particular time in the past. The mail came early this morning. An action that occurred over a period of time but was completed in the past. Dad worked in advertising for ten years. An activity that took place regularly in the past. We jogged every morning before class.


Future (going to) and (will) •

When we want to talk about future facts or things we believe to be true about the future, we use 'will'.

I'm sure you'll like her.

I'm certain he'll do a good job.

If we are not so certain about the future, we use 'will' with expressions such as 'probably', 'possibly', 'I think', 'I hope'.

I hope you'll visit me in my home one day.

She'll probably be a great success.

I think we'll get on well. If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present situation, use 'going to'.

Not a cloud in the sky. It's going to be another warm day.

Look at the queue. We're not going to get in for hours.

At the moment of making a decision, use 'will'. Once you have made the decision, talk about it using 'going to'.


Future continuous. •

Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

will be + present participle]

Examples:

You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?

You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?


Present perfect. •

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

Examples:

I have seen that movie twenty times.

I think I have met him once before.

There have been many earthquakes in California.

People have traveled to the Moon.

People have not traveled to Mars.

Have you read the book yet?


Present perfect continuous. •

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

Examples:

They have been talking for the last hour.

She has been working at that company for three years.

What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?

James has been teaching at the university since June


Past Perfect •

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.

I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.

Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.

A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006? B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.


Past perfect continuous. •

•

The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense, but it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. For example: Ram started waiting at 9am. I arrived at 11am. When I arrived, Ram had been waiting for two hours.


Future perfect simple •

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense isn't used very much in English and it is a little complicated to make. However, at higher levels it is great to understand it, and maybe use it sometimes too. It has a very precise meaning which can be convenient.

I will have been working here for ten years next week. •

He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours.

For negative sentence in the future perfect continuous tense, we insert not between will and have. I wiill not have been using the car. She will not have been waiting long. Wiill he have been playing tennis?.


Future perfect continuous Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable. You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S. Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.? You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S. Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

You will only have learned a few words.

Will you only have learned a few words?


Future continuous. The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. For example, tomorrow i will start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm: What will you be doing when I arrive? She will not be sleeping when you telephone her. We'll be having dinner when the film starts.


Modal auxiliar

The auxialiary/modal can has the same form regardless the subject. There is no -s in the 3rd person singular. The auxialiary/modal can is used with a main verb in its infinitive. It can be used alone in short answers. We often use to be able to or to be allowed to instead of "can". We can only form the Past of "can" (could). To put "can" into other tenses we need the phrases to be able to or to be allowed to.

Tense

Modal

Form

Simple present

I can play football

I am able to play football. I'm able to play football. I’m allowed to play football

Simple past

I could play football

I was able to play football. I was allowed to play footbal

Will -- Future

Do not use can in the will-future I will be able to play football. Ì’ll be allowed to play football


Modal auxiliar •

Ability/Availability future: will be able to

present: can, am/is/are able to

past: could, was/were able to

Requests present/future: can, could, will, would

Permission future: will be allowed to

present/future: may, can, could, am/is/are allowed to

past: could, was/were allowed to

Possibility present/future: may, might, could

past: may have, might have, could have

Impossibility present/future: couldn’t, can’t

past: couldn’t have


Modal auxiliar •

Expectation present/future: should, ought to

past: should have, ought to have

Necessity future: will have to

present/future: must, have to, has to

past: had to

Lack of Necessity future: won’t have to

present/future: don’t have to, doesn’t have to

past: didn’t have to

Prohibition present/future: must not, may not, cannot

past: could not

Logical Deduction (=Probability) present: must, have to, has to

past: must have, have to have, has to have


SOCIAL MODALS

The choice of modal depends partly on the social situation. •

We often use informal language with our equals (our friends and family) and subordinates (people we have some power over such as our employees or children). General requests (present and/or future): Will you help me? (Informal Are you willing?) Would you help me (Formal Are you willing?) Can you help me? (Informal Are you able?) Could you help me (Formal Are you able?) Requests for permission (present and/or future): May I leave the room? (Formal) Might I leave the room? (Formal rarely used) Could I leave the room? (Less formal Can I leave the room? (Informal)


Shall Shall is a form of will, used mostly in the first person. The only time you do need to use it is in questions, when: Making offers Shall I fetch you another glass of wine? Making suggestions


Ought to Ought to usually has the same meaning as should, particularly in affirmative statements in the present: You should/ought to get your hair cut. Should is much more common (and easier to say!), so if you're not sure, use should.

SHOULD Giving advice I think you should go for the Alfa rather than the Audi. You shouldn't be drinking if you're on antibiotics. You shouldn't have ordered that chocolate dessert - you're not going to finish it. Obligation: weak form of must The university should provide more sports facilities. The equipment should be inspected regularly.


Tense verb and modal auxiliary  

Nancy Rebeca Perez

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