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PROJECT REPORT ON

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION : NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Session 2009-2011

SUBMITTED TO:-

SUBMITTED BY:-

Ms. Sonam Gulati of MBA Dept.

ANIL KUMAR Roll No.- 0903270005 MBA – IIIrd Sem.

Faculty

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE, GHAZIABAD

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INDEX Topics

S. No.

Page No.

1.

Acknowledgement

I

2.

Executive Summary

II

3.

Introduction – The Organization NTPC

1

4.

Problem Undertaken

30

5.

31

6.

Objective of Our Study Training & Development - Theoretical Perspective

7.

Research Methodology

59

8.

Data Presentation

61

9.

Data Analysis

80

10.

Conclusions

92

11.

Recommendations

93

12.

Limitation

94

13.

Bibliography

95

14.

Annexure

96

15.

Questionnaire

97

32

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are grateful to Mrs. Sonam Gulati for his guidance and support during the compilation of the project. We wish to thank Mr. Ashok Yadav, (HR Manager) for giving us the permission to carry out the project at the National Thermal Power Corporation, Dadri. We also wish to express our gratitude to all the faculty members at NTPC for their invaluable inputs. Last but not the least we thank the employees of NTPC for their co-operation in the

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course of our project.

Date:……………

Anil kumar

Place:…………

MBA IIIrd semester

i

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. NTPC is committed to the environment, generating power at minimal environmental cost and presenting the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. It has 17 power generating plants which contribute to 25% of total power supply in India. NTPC is ranked 3 rd in India for employee satisfaction.

Global competition technological advancement and transformation of the traditional workplace are raising the pressure on all organizations to improve performance. Training and development are the most frequently employed organizational strategy to enhance organizational ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of highly capable and knowledgeable employees continuous training & development of employees is crucial in enhancing organiztions competitive position and improve employee morale, teamwork, problem solving and decision making capabilities. This has persuaded many organization to form separate training department. NTPC too believes in this approach towards perfection but consistent.

NTPC is involved in a variety of innovative training & development techniques So as to make NTPC a learning organization.

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INTRODUCTION

THE ORGANIZATION: NTPC

ii

National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC) is the largest thermal power generating company of India. It was incorporated in the year 1975 with the objective of planning, promoting and organizing an integrated development of thermal power in the country. NTPC is a public sector company wholly owned by Govt. of India. Today NTPC has power generating capacity in all the four major power regions of the country.

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NTPC POWER STATION

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Market Share The present commissioned capacity of NTPC is 19,435 MW. NTPC’s share on 31 st March'2001 in the total installed capacity of the country is 19.3%. It contributed 26% in the total power generation of the country during 2000-2001.

The approved capacity 22955 MW consisting of 13 coal stations and 7 gas / liquid - fuel combined cycle power plants. NTPC is also managing Badarpur thermal power station (705

MW)

of

Government

of

India

and

Balco

Captive

Power

Plant

(270 MW). Among the first Public Sector Enterprises to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Government in 1987-88. NTPC has been placed under the 'Excellent' category (the best category) every year since the MOU system became operative. Recognizing it’s excellent past performance and its vast potential, the Govt. of the India has identified NTPC as one of the 'Navratnas'- a potential global giant.

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ORGANIZATION CHART

VISION NTPC, a front-runner in the Indian power sector, to be one of the largest and best power utilities of the world and thereby contributing to India’s emergence as one of the world’s leading economies. NTPC’s vision for the new millennium is inspired by a glorious past, vibrant present and a brilliant future.

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MISSION To make available reliable and quality power to the nation in increasingly large quantities. Towards this end, the company will spearhead the process of accelerated development of the power sector by planning and expeditiously implementing power projects and operating power stations economically and efficiently. In doing so the company will also seek opportunities for augmenting power generation through tie-ups with other organizations in the area of conventional energy sources and additionally through non- conventional energy sources. The corporation will contribute to all round sector improvement by sharing its expertise and experience with other organizations. The company will participate in the setting up of the power projects abroad, if necessary in collaborations with other reputed organizations. NTPC CORE VALUES (COMIT) •

CUSTOMER FOCUS

ORGANIZATIONAL PRIDE

MUTUAL RESPECT AND TRUST

INITIATIVE AND SPEED

TOTAL QUALITY OBJECTIVES In pursuance of the vision and mission, the following would be the corporate objectives of NTPC: GROWTH

To add generating capacity within prescribed time and cost;

To expand consultancy operations and to participate in ventures abroad;

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To diversify in hydro and non-conventional energy sources power generation;

To diversify into power related businesses to ensure integrated development of energy sector in India. PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIP

To achieve continuous performance improvement in the areas of project implementation, plant operation and maintenance, generation efficiency etc. and to acquire and sustain internationally comparable standards in these areas with good business ethics and values. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

To develop a learning organization having knowledge- based competitive edge.

To create a culture of team building, empowerment and accountability to convert knowledge into productive action with speed, creativity and flexibility. FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS To maintain and improve the financial soundness of NTPC by managing the financial resources in accordance with the best commercial utility practices.

To develop appropriate commercial policies which ensure remunerative tariffs and minimum receivables. TECHNOLOGY LEADERSHIP

To acquire, assimilate and adopt reliable, efficient and cost- effective technologies and to disseminate knowledge to other constituents of the power sector in the country. SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT

To contribute to sustainable power development by functioning as a responsible corporate citizen and discharge social responsibilities in the areas of environment protection

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and rehabilitation. •

The corporation will strive to utilize the ash produced at its stations to the maximum extent possible. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

To carry out research and development for efficient and reliable operation of power plants in the country. VALUES The values shared by the entire organization are to permeate through each and every discipline within the company and in all its initiatives and responses with the rest of the world:

Respect for each other

Every one a winner

Fairness, business ethics

Customer satisfaction

Vendor partnership

Efficiency, profitability benefit cost orientation

Systems approach and discipline

Innovation, creativity, entrepreneurship

Concern for ecology, environment

Internal customer service

Total quality

Sensitivity to feedback, learning and renewal. GENESIS, GROWTH AND MARKET SHARE NTPC-GENESIS The electricity (supply) act of 1948 provided for, among other things, setting up of the state

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electricity boards (SEBs) in each state, with responsibility for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power. The NTPC was incorporated in the year 1975, through an amendment of the electricity (supply) act, to supplement the efforts of the states for quicker and greater capacity addition. The mandate given to this new entity was planning, promoting and organizing an integrated development of thermal power (including associated transmission systems) in the country. GROWTH In a span of just over 15 years after commissioning of the first 200 MW unit at Singrauli in February 1982, NTPC has grown to become the largest utility of the country with the commissioned capacity of 16,975 MW as in April 1998, at an average annual commissioning rate of 1000 MW. NTPC has been ranked ninth in thermal generation amongst the worlds thermal generating companies as per the bench-marking data of 200 top utilities of the world (published by Marketline International UK). The total approved capacity of NTPC at the end of the March 1998 stands at 20,515 MW consisting of 12 coal based stations and7 gas/ liquid fuel based stations. In addition, NTPC also manages Badarpur thermal power station and Balco captive power plant on behalf of the government of India and Bharat Aluminium Corporation limited (BALCO) respectively. NTPC has also constructed 16968 ckt. Km. of transmission lines upto March 1992. These transmission lines were subsequently transferred to power Grid Corporation of India ltd. In April 1992 with the ultimate objective of creating a national grid. MARKET SHARE NTPC’s share in the total installed capacity of the country stands at 18.8% and it contributed 25.3% in the total power generation of the country during the year 1997-98. DIAGNOSIS Looking back, it has not exactly been an absolutely smooth sailing all the way for NTPC. Till the late eighties, the central government provided budgetary support through equity contributions and mobilizations of multilateral and bilateral debt at relatively favorable terms and loan guarantees, allowing NTPC to plough back all its earnings, thereby providing it with an important source of long-term capital. The government also supported NTPC in the

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realization of dues through central appropriations. In the liberalized economic scenario, the announcement of a new power policy in October 1991 marked a significant change in the government’s priorities. There have been successive policy announcements to facilitate greater private sector participation. With the opening up of power sector to private participation, as many as three project sites under development by NTPC were transferred to the respective state governments for implementations by the IPPs as: •

The government wanted to encourage private participation;

NTPC, during the years 1989-92, was facing a severe financial crunch caused by huge arrears of SEBs coupled with withdrawal of net budgetary support by the government;

Denial by the multilateral funding agencies like the World Bank to support new NTPC projects, while continuing the funding of ongoing projects. This was a turning point in the history of NTPC: a make or break situation that would determine the survival of the company and the future role it expected to have in the power sector of the country. Strategies and approaches had to be quickly evolved, to move from financial crisis to good health, and this was achieved in large part because of the judicious mix of sound commercial policies adopted in resolving the crisis with the support of the government. The steps taken included:

Offering new incentives to encourage prompt payment through LCs by SEBs;

Strengthening the commercial department of NTPC;

Intensive liaison with the customer/ state governments;

Central government support, including central appropriations, and

Resorting to regulation of power supply commensurate with payments, wherever needed and feasible.

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The result was dramatic improvement in the realization of dues, and revival of the World Bank loans under the time slice concept by 1993. Soon, other lending agencies followed suit. Thus between 1989 and 1997, NTPC went through three distinct phases of first having projects but no money (1989-1992), having money but no new projects to implement (1995 onwards). Today, NTPC is well pois3ed to implement an ambitious growth plan of becoming a 30000 MW plus company by the year 2007. STRATEGIC ADVANTAGE PROFILE (+Denotes strengths, - Denotes weaknesses/ constraints) MARKET SHARE + The government has reposed its confidence in NTPC by selecting it to be one of the eleven PSUs having a potential to become a global giant. This privilege provides significant leverage to NTPC in realizing its vision. + With a share of 18.8% in installed capacity and 25.3% in generation contribution, NTPC is not only the largest and leading power generating company in the country but has also acclaimed international reputation. + Poised to become a 30000 MW plus company by the end of Xth plan i.e. year 2007. + High credibility due to transparency in dealings. PAST PERFORMANCE + An impressive growth rate in capacity addition, unmatched in the history of power sector in India. +An excellent record of project implementation by commissioning most of the units on or ahead of schedule. +Achieved new performance benchmarks in operational and efficiency parameters.

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+Achieved self-sufficiency in engineering of coal and gas based power stations. +Brought impressive turnaround in performance of the stations taken over from SEBs and managed by NTPC. +Maintained continuously its performance under excellent rating in MOUs with government for the last 11 years. +Won several prestigious awards for excellent performance in various areas of productivity, environment, industrial relations, safety, family welfare, quality assurance, standardization, project management etc. - Delays in declaration of commercial operation of some of its units. - Large inventory of high values, non/ slow moving squares has been

accumulated over the

years. - Delays in contract closings after the completion of the projects. -The state owned monopolistic nature of power industry with inadequate focus on service to customers. FINANCIAL POSITION + High credit rating as evident from confidence reposed in NTPC by multilateral financial institutions like world bank, ADB, OECB and KFW. + Increasing profits year after year since inception. + Substantial internal resource generation for growth. - Very large receivables from state electricity boards. - Low return on investment due to administered tariff. HUMAN RESOURCES + Pool of skilled and dedicated professionals in engineering, operations, maintenance, contracts, R&D, finance and human resource management, etc.

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+ Continued concern for human resource development. Established power management institute equipped with necessary infrastructure backed by training institutes at all projects to upgrade the technical and managerial skill. TECHNOLOGY + Full fledged engineering division accredited with ISO 9001 certification. + Pioneered several state-of-the art technologies viz. DDCMIS, HVDC etc. in the Indian power sector. NTPC was also the first to introduce combined cycle power generation in India. + Established a full-fledged R&D center equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for carrying out applied research in power technology. The R&D center supports the sustenance of highlevel operational performance. ENVIRONMENT AND R&R + Center for power efficiency and environmental protection created to improve efficiencies and minimize environmental pollution. The entire power sector will benefit by the center’s work. + First to develop and adopt a well conceived R&R policy in the Indian corporate sector. + Well-focused environmental protection policy being followed from Beginning. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE + Three-tier structure provides decentralization of line responsibility while retaining centralized systems in areas such as engineering, contracting of high value packages, co-ordination with financing agencies etc. - Tall hierarchy for controlling and directing - Role ambiguity has started creeping in. SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES + Comprehensive management systems exist in various functional areas such as engineering, contracting, project management, finance and maintenance management.

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- While the systems have served NTPC well in the past, the changing environment has necessitated reengineering of these systems for effective functioning in the future. This is an important task considering the usual resistance to change, especially in successful organizations. - Poor storage and retrieval of data. SHARED VALUES (CULTURE) + No major industrial disputes. + Cordial management employees relationship. - Too many to take credit for successes and too few accountable for failures. This may put blinkers in the manager’s perceptions as they become insulated from the environment and instead of trying innovative approaches; they may stick to what has worked in the past. This may tend to maintain status quo. - Lack of information sharing tendency.

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PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CONSULTANCY With the successful execution and operation of thermal power projects, NTPC has emerged as the acknowledged leader in engineering, construction, O&M and management of thermal power projects and power systems. In an attempt to gain from this rich experience, many leading Indian and international utilities have been seeking consultancy services. NTPC has experience in developing nearly 8,000 MW for other utilities and Independent Power Producers. The Consultancy Wing acts as the nodal point for all the Consultancy and turnkey project contracts undertaken for outside clients and organizations. NTPC offers an entire range of consultancy services related to a wide range of infrastructure sector business such as: •

Fossil fuel based thermal power generation.

Combined cycle power generation.

Cogeneration.

Non-conventional energy.

Water supply and treatment.

Environment engineering and management.

Surface transport (Roads, bridges and fuel transportation).

Town planning and development.

ENTIRE GAMUT OF SERVICES, IN THE ABOVE AREAS, ARE OFFERED SUCH AS: •

Owner's Engineer Services.

Lender's Engineer Services.

Environment Engineering and Management.

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Procurement Services.

Project Management.

Quality Assurance and Inspection Services.

Materials Management.

Construction Management, Erection and Commissioning.

Financial Systems and Modeling.

Operation and Maintenance.

Restoration, Efficiency Improvement and Renovation and Modernization.

HRD and Training.

Research and Development.

Information Technology.

Management Consultancy. OWNER’S ENGINEER SERVICES AND CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION. Supervision of Construction, Erection Testing and Commissioning and Project Management Services, besides Engineering and Procurement services provided to:

3x25 MW Panipar Refinery Captive Power Plant, India.

208 MW Gas Based Combined Cycle Power Plant, Kalinada, for Spectrum Power Generation Ltd., India.

Rain Calcining Cogeneration Project, Vishakhapatnam for Sargent and Lundy; USA.

2x250 MW Coal Based Raigarh Thermal Power Project for Jindal Power Company, India.

2x250 MW units at NMTPP phase-II of Videocon Power Company, India.

128 MW (8x16 MW) Diesel based Power Station at Kozhikode, Kerala for Kerala State Electricity Board India.

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3x210 MW Baleshwar Power Project of West Bengal Power Development Corporation Ltd, India. TURNKEY EXECUTION Turnkey Execution of projects including Design, Supply Construction, Testing and Commissioning of:

Seventh Power Project of Nepal S and Hatta for Dubai Electricity and Water Authority; Dubai.

400/ 132 KV Transmission System for Dubai Electricity and Water Authority; Dubai. OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE Deployment of O&M experts, O&M Systems Development, Recruitment and Training services for:

2x125 MW Surat Lignite Power Project with CFBC technology for GIPCL, Vadodara.

1x63.75 MW Coal Based Captive Power Plant at Gummidpoondi for TCP Ltd., Chennai. PROVIDING VALUE TO VARIOUS CLIENTS Brief reference to some of the consulting assignments completed is presented here (scope of work under individual assignments doesn't necessarily cover all the services mentioned). ENGINEERING AND PROCUREMENT Feasibility Report, Basic Engineering, Bidding Documents, Detailed Engineering, Quality Assurance, Operational Efficiency Studies, Environmental Studies, Power System Planning, Socioeconomic Studies and Procurement Services for:

3x250 MW Dahanu Thermal Power Station of BSES Ltd., India.

Efficiency Improvement of TNEB for Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines.

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450 MW Mchuchuma Mining-cum-Power Project for National Development Corporation, Tanzania.

300 MW Pragati Combined Cycle Power Project for Delhi Vidyut Board, India.

600 MW Gas based Combined Cycle Power Project at Vypeen, Kerala for Siasin Energy Pvt Ltd, India.

Tamil Nadu Industries Captive Power Company Ltd, India.

300 MW Combined Cycle Power Project at Hazira (on behalf of ONGC-NTPC Joint Venture).

500 MW Thermal Power Project at Tuticorin for TNEB, India.

2000 MW Combined Cycle Power Project at Vembar for IIPL, India.

National Aids Control Project of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare funded by World Bank. KEY FACTORS WHICH MAKE NTPC UNIQUE

Rich O&M experience NTPC has developed rich experience in engineering and O&M of thermal power plants through its own power plants covering 32 units of 200/210 MW, 15 units of 500 MW of coal/oil fired plants and 31 gas/steam turbine units of various capacities operating at Gas-based Combined Cycle Power Plants. In addition, BTPS (720 MW) and BALCO (720 MW) are also being operated/managed by NTPC

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O&M feedback incorporated in designs Being a power utility, NTPC has the unique advantage of regular feedback on various operational and maintenance aspects from its generating plants. This feedback is then suitably incorporated for improvement in future designs. International Procurement Experience Most of the NTPC power plants have been funded by International Funding Agencies like the World Bank, ADB, and OECF etc. These plants incorporated state-of-the-art equipment and systems generally procured through International Competitive Bidding. NTPC has the varied and rich experience of working with equipment/systems sourced from different parts of the world such as USA, UK, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, and Russia etc.

Familiarity with Statutory Authorities NTPC is fully familiar with the requirements of various government Bodies & Statutory Authority, Ministry of Environment & Forest etc.

Qualified Manpower NTPC has a vast Pool of qualified technical and managerial manpower who are well supported by highly trained staff and excellent infrastructure facilities to extend services to its own power plants as well as to its various clients.

Experience of working with International Consultants NTPC engineers have had the opportunity of working in close association with several international consultants viz. Black and Veatch Intl., USA; UE & C, USA; British Electricity International, U.K.; Electricite de France, France; Gilbert Commonwealth, USA and many more.

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•

Concept to commissioning and beyond... NTPC has the capability and expertise to provide the total range of services from Concept to Commissioning of power station covering areas such as feasibility & EIA studies, design, engineering, QA&I, procurement, project management, construction supervision, testing, commissioning, operation & maintenance and training etc.

•

Registered with International Institutions NTPC is registered as a consultant with World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank, etc.

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POWER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE INTRODUCTION The Power Management Institute (PMI) was set up by National Thermal Power Corporation in recognition of the vital role that training and development has to play in the context of the challenges associated with the growth of the Indian Power Sector. The Institute set up in the year 1982, is involved in the training and development of middle and senior level personnel from the power sector as also from other organizations not related to power sector. PMI started functioning from the sprawling campus at sector 16, Noida. Over the years, PMI has developed its strength in designing and delivering customized programs suited to the needs of individual organizations. While the institute’s core competence in technical areas is related to power sector, its Management and IT development programs cover all aspects of management development. The infrastructure and idyllic surroundings of PMI make it conducive to learning and self-development. OVERVIEW ISO-9001 certification: PMI has secured the prestigious ISO-9001 certification from LLOYDS REGISTER QUALITY ASSURANCE (LRQA). The standard of training imparted has been adjudged to be of high quality as endorsed by certification. Policy: PMI is committed to be a leading institute in developing world-class competencies by providing state-of-the-art training catering to the needs of the power professionals. The institute shall endeavor to innovate and adopt latest management and technological practices to continuously improve the capabilities. Objectives: •

To increase training capacity utilization

Continuous up-gradation of faculty competencies

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To develop strategic alliances for mutual improvement of core competencies

To widen the customer base and achieve improved customer satisfaction

To carry out benchmarking with national and international training institutes MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Power sector scenario is marked by sweeping changes like private sector participation, restructuring of SEBs, setting up of regulatory commissions, etc, so as to make the power industry globally competitive. These programs address the need of equipping power professionals with the latest managerial tools and techniques so as to enable them to effectively manage and operate under dynamic circumstances. The focus of PMI program is to build and develop NTPC and also t6o develop functional competencies among the individual managers. The programs are developed after training needs analysis of the organization and the industry keeping in mind the recent developments in the sector. Finance, behavioral sciences, strategic management, human resource development, vigilance mechanism, creativity and values, quality, project management and several other areas are covered in these programs. In the recent years, a number of concert programs have been done for organizations, like Power Finance Corporation, APGENCO, HVPNL, Nuclear Power Corporation, etc. TECHNICAL PROGRAMS NTPC is operating a number of thermal power units, both coal and gas based, in various parts of the country. NTPC has also made its foray in the hydel sector. In all these years, NTPC has gained sufficient experience and expertise starting from design and construction to operation and maintenance of units. PMI serves as a platform for sharing a technical knowledge and experience in this field. It also offers an opportunity imbibing new technology as a result of R&D efforts as well as technological changes happening else where in the power sector. A FEW SPECIAL TECHNICAL PROGRAMS ADDRESSING THE SECTORAL NEEDS.

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Residual Life Assessment and R&M of Thermal Power Plants.

O&M practices for combine Cycle Gas Power Plants.

Conference on Boiler Pressure Parts Failure

Conference on O&M of power plants.

Energy Audits and Energy Conservation.

Clean Coal Technology.

Co-Generation from Sugar Mills. Information Technology In tune with the sweeping changes in the information era, the institute is organizing various IT programs taking into account the latest development and needs of the organization. ERP, managing IT, e-commerce, Internet and Intranet for business applications, etc related Java programming, web publishing are some of the programs in this area. A few IT programs addressing the emerging needs

Microsoft Office 2000 upgrade

Developing and Hosting a Website

Managing Information Technology

Microsoft Windows NT Core Technologies

PC trouble-Shooting and maintenance

Linux Special Programs The institute in collaboration with IIT, Delhi has introduced an 18 months M-tech program in Power Engineering. This program is open to all power engineers having minimum 7 years experience and less than 40 years of age. The selection is through a written test held all over

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the country and interview of the short-listed candidates. Twenty-five candidates are finally selected. A few seats are reserved for candidates sponsored by external organizations. PMI has also taken the initiative of offering a degree course, B-Tech in Power Engineering in collaboration with BITS, Pilani to its employees having diploma in Engineering. The institute is also expanding its portfolio to include management education. Over the years PMI has been providing long duration induction level training programs to the new NTPC executive trainees. Also, organizations like Power finance Corporation, ABB, Reliance, BSES, Siemens, etc are sponsoring executive trainees to PMI for induction level courses. FACULTY PROFILE Director (Personnel) NTPC is the Director-in-charge of PMI, which is headed by Executive director, PMI. A competent faculty pool drawn from various disciplines is the core strength of PMI. The areas include •

Organizational Behavior

Human Resource Management

Sociology

Power Plant operation and maintenance

Vigilance Mechanism

Environment Engineering and Management

Power Plant performance and efficiency monitoring

Information Technology

Financial Management

Strategic Management

Project Management

Contracts and Materials Management

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•

Renovation and modernization

•

Rehabilitation and settlement

•

Energy conservation

The faculty is supported by a competent team of officials from areas like administration, maintenance, hospitality, environmental management and a host of other support services. There is a learning resource center having over 8,500 titles of books and videotapes and also facilities for sports and games including swimming. RESEARCH Apart from dissemination of knowledge, PMI strongly believes in undertaking research projects on topics related to management development. A beginning has been made in this direction and a culture and an atmosphere stimulating research is being created in the institute. CONSULTANCY PMI has made a foray in the area of Management consultancy by being a part of the Arthur Anderson consortium in the Andhra Pradesh power sector reforms and restructuring process. With the restructuring of most of the SEBs in the offing, PMI is poised to become a major player in this direction by offering consultancy in the area related to training, HR and financial restructuring.

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TOTAL PROGRAMME DAY

1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

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PROGRAMMES CONDUCTED

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

PARTICIPANTS TRAINED

2003-04

1996-97

1997-98 1998-99

2002-03 1999-00 2001-02

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EXTERNAL ORGANIZATIONS

250

200

150

100

50

0 1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-00

2000-01

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2002-03

2003-04

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EXTERNAL PARTICIPANTS

2003-04

2002-03

2001-02

2000-01

1999-00

1998-99

1997-98

1996-97

0

100

200

300

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500

600

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Problem Undertaken To evaluate the effectiveness of training and development programs conducted at NTPC (Dadri).

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OBJECTIVE OF OUR STUDY

The main objectives of our study are •

To study the Training and development function at NTPC

To evaluate the effectiveness of training programs conducted

To suggest measures for improvement

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE William James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain their jobs by working a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His research led him to believe that if these

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same employees were properly motivated they could work at 80-90 percent of their capabilities. Behavioral sciences concepts like motivation and enhanced productivity could well be used for such improvements in employee output. Training could be one of the means to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use of learning resources. Training is a long-term investment in human resource using the equation given below: Performance = ability x motivation Training can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills and abilities of the employees and their motivation by increasing their sense of commitment and encouraging them to develop and use new skills. It is a powerful tool that can have a major impact on both employee productivity and morale, if properly used. WHY IS THERE A NEED FOR TRAINING AND WHY HAVE WE CHOSEN TO STUDY THIS TOPIC? Organization viability and the transformation process The primary concern of an organization is its viability and hence its efficiency. There is continuous environmental pressure for efficiency, and if an organization does not respond to this pressure, it may find itself rapidly losing whatever share of the market it has. Employee training, therefore, imparts specific skills and knowledge to employees in order that they contribute to the organization’s efficiency, and be able to cope with the pressures of the changing environment. Technological advances There has been tremendous development in industrial technology. Mechanization and automation of the plant is necessary for the organization’s survival; hence, it has to train its employees for more skilled positions. New skills are required to operate new machinery, or familiarity with new processes and production techniques has to be introduced. Organizational Complexity With increasing mechanization, automation and development in technology, many organizations have emerged as complex organizations that produce a wide range of products or offer a wide range of services. This had led to complex problems of coordination and integration of activities. Eventually the need for training and retraining is felt at the all levels in such organizations, from shop floor to top executives.

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Human Relations The growing complexity of organizations has led to various human problems, like alienation, inter-personal and inter-group problems. Hence, training in human relations is becoming extremely important for tackling these problems. Due to its great relevance in the current automated, mechanized and extremely competitive business environment, where skills are becoming obsolete faster than ever, we have chosen to study in detail the training and development needs of employees. PLANNING AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES The effective functioning of any organization requires that employees learn to perform their jobs at a satisfactory level of proficiency. An effective organization wishes to have amongst its ranks individuals who are qualified to accept increasing responsibilities. So much so that organizations need to provide opportunities for the continuous development of employees not only in their present jobs, but also to develop their capabilities for other jobs for which they might later be considered. Training refers to the teaching/learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organization. Broadly speaking, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Though it is true that unplanned learning through job experience helps development, the experience of most organizations is that it is advantageous to plan systematic training programmes of various types as a regular part of an adequate personnel development programme. Such programs are definite assets in helping managers to learn correct job methods, to achieve a satisfactory level of job performance, and to acquire capabilities that would be valuable in possible future jobs.

The following steps must form the basis of any training activity: 1. Determine the training needs and objectives.

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2. Translate them into programs that meet the needs of the selected trainees. 3. Evaluate the results. TRAINING INPUTS There are three basic types of inputs: skills, attitudes, and knowledge. The primary purpose of training is to establish a sound relationship between the worker and his job- the optimum man-task relationship. Such a relationship is at its best when the worker’s attitude to the job is right, when the worker’s knowledge of the job is adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills. Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employees so that they perform their jobs most efficiently and effectively. SKILLS Training activities nowadays encompass activities ranging from the acquisitions of a simple motor skill to a complex administrative one. Training an employee for a particular skill is undertaken to enable him to be more effective on the job. For instance, new workers can be trained to achieve levels of output attained by experienced older workers. Similarly existing workers whose levels of output are below par can be retrained. ATTITUDE Through orientation (induction) programmes, organization develops attitudes in new employees, which are favorable toward the achievement of organizational goals. Training programmes in industry are aimed at moulding employee attitudes to achieve support for company activities, and to obtain better cooperation and greater loyalty. KNOWLEDGE Training aimed at imparting knowledge to employees in the organizations provides for understanding of all the problems of modern industry. This knowledge for a worker is specific to his job, and related broadly to plant, machinery, material product, and quality and standard

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of product. Knowledge for managerial personnel may be related to complexity of problems in organizing, planning, staffing, directing and controlling. In general, training initiated for imparting knowledge to employees should consider three aspects: 1. Knowledge in general about factory and work environment- job context 2. Specific knowledge related to job- job content 3. Knowledge related to quality and standards of product or quality of work.

AREAS OF TRAINING

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Areas of training can be classified into the following categories: Training in company policies and procedures (induction training) Training in particular skills. Training in human relations. Managerial and supervisory training. Apprentice training.

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Training in company policies and procedures. This is a part of the induction of a new employee. The objective is to orient new employees with the set of rules, procedures, management, organization structure, environment and products, which the firm has and/or deals with. Orientation is a continuous process aimed at the adjustment of all employees to new and changing situations. It aims to impart the facts of company rules and policy, to create attitudes of confidence in the company, prides in the products, respect for company personnel, and to provide information about needs and skills, development, quality of production and work organization. It also enables employees to get the first impression of the “culture” of the firm and the kind of people he will have to deal with. At no time does it allow for questioning or change of system. It, therefore, in no way contributes to the organization’s growth, nor does it enhance an employee’s ability to contribute to the organization’s growth. Induction programs are also used for in-company promotees, who have to be oriented to the demands of their requirements. Induction programs are based on the philosophy that the process of initial adjustment and entry to the organization is a difficult process. Unless a conducive and supportive atmosphere facilitates it, it would leave the new entrant with several uncertainties in his mind and make his assimilation in organizational life more complex and difficult. Many organizations are conscious of this and devote considerable effort to make the initial entry phase a pleasant and cordial one. Training In Particular Skills Training of employees for particular skills is undertaken to enable the employee to be more effective on the job. It is a here-and-now proposition, somewhat like induction training, which does not have a very significant development aspect to it. Its aim is narrow-to guarantee a certain contribution to the job, for instance sales training and machine skills.

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Human Relation Training This is a broad category embracing many different aspects. Self-learning and inter-personnel competence can be included in this category-all concerned with generally the same theme. It stresses a concern for individual relationships, for feeling and treating people as “human beings”, rather than as machines. Not only is this concern and awareness in one’s attitudes and behavior conducive to better work-place relations, but also to enhanced productivity. This category of training is oriented towards the development of the individual and consequently the organization’s efficiency in terms of better teamwork. Problems Solving Training Many in-company programmes also revolve around organizational units, like divisions of branches, which generally handle a product line. The practice is to hold together all managerial personnel in a particular division/ branch from the both the headquarter and the field of offices and discuss common problems and solutions across the table. This not only helps solve problems, but also serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas and information, which could be utilized in other situations. Managerial And Supervisory Training The managerial job combines both techniques and conceptual knowledge. If it is that of a specialist, it would emphasize some techniques and knowledge like operations, research, finance, production, and personnel management. If on the other hand it is a general management job, then the emphasis would be on the principles of scientific management: organizing, planning, staffing, directing and controlling. Apprentice Training The Apprentice Act 1961 was based on the philosophy of providing some technical training for unskilled people in order that their employment opportunity is enhanced, or alternatively to help them be self-employed. Industrial organizations in specified industries are required to train apprentice in proportion to their workforce in designated trades. The duration of training is one to four years. LEARNING AND TRAINING

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Irrespective of the type or method of training, trainer has to keep in mind some of the principles of learning or motivation, which would enhance internalization of what is taught. Motivation A trainee needs to have a desire to learn and benefit from the programme. If he is not interested, or is demotivated, then the learning outcome is going to be insignificant and the company will have spent its money badly. On the other hand, being too intense about learning and outcome may result in setting over-ambitious goals for the individual. Reinforcement Following on the concept of motivation is that of reinforcement. For learning to take place and be internalized to the desired extent, a trainee is rewarded or given some encouragement. This reinforcement, or the acknowledgement that what has been acquired is desirable, can be either an extrinsic or intrinsic reward- external praise or some tangible reward, or the individual’s feeling of a sense of progress. Current stress is on positive support and helpful behavior, even when mistakes are made. Feedback During the training process, it is useful for the trainee to be told how he is progressing. The knowledge of results is, several researchers have confirmed, an effective motivator. Constant and periodic feedback has positive effects on the trainee’s learning. Unless the trainee knows how close his performance comes to the desired standard, he will not have an opportunity to improve. Feedback, therefore, provides a basis for correcting oneself. Secondly, feedback helps to sustain the trainee’s interest in the task, or in the learning that is taking place, by bringing greater involvement with the learning process. If feedback is to be meaningful, it should follow a learning segment as quickly as possible.

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Transfer Of Training The maximum use of training can be made if the trainee is able to transfer his learning to his actual work role. This is possible if elements are incorporated in the training situation from the job role, either existing or proposed. The more similar the learning situation is to the job situation, the higher the degree of transfer the trainee can expect, and hence the greater the relevance of the training programme. Repetition Repetition etches a pattern into our memory, e.g., when one studies for an examination, it is necessary to repeatedly go over ideas so that they can be recalled later. Relevance Relevance relates to the meaningful use of material, which aids learning, e.g., trainers usually explain in the overall purpose of a job to trainees before assigning them a particular task. TRAINING POLICY A company's training policy represents the commitment of its top management to training, and is expressed in the rules and procedures that govern or influence the standard and scope of training the organization. Training policies are necessary for the following reasons. 1.

To highlight the firm's approach to the training function, provide guidance for design and execution, and to provide information regarding programmes to all employees.

2.

Formulation of policy helps in identification of priority areas in training, and since resources are scarce, they are prioritized according to felt needs.

3.

A training policy document helps to communicate the firm's intent regarding an employee's career development, and also gives the employee the opportunity to better his prospects through training.

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POSITIVE OUTCOMES OF TRAINING The continued effectiveness and efficiency of an organization is to some extent dependent on the ability of its employees to produce at high levels of efficiency, and keep abreast with their changing job-role demands. Training will provide for an output in this direction. The several positive benefits of training are that: -

Training helps employees to learn their jobs and attain desired levels of performance speedily thus cutting costs and contributing to better utilization of machines and materials, for example in workers' categories.

-

Training helps to reduce the cost of raw materials and products-reducing losses due to waste, poor quality products and damage to machinery-which would result if an untrained employee were to learn on his own.

-

Employee motivation is enhanced when employees known that the firm would provide them training opportunities to increase their skills and knowledge, thus enabling them to develop and qualify for higher posts. Such practices create favorable attitudes towards the organization, which could result in better adjustment and commitment to one's work and the organization. Thus cooperation could help reduce employee turnover, absenteeism, accidents, dissatisfactions and grievances.

-

Finally, training aids in the development of individual skills, better methods, new equipment, and sometimes new work place relationships. Such a process would also facilitate technological change by updating the versatility of employees.

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TRAINING METHODS Training methods are a means of attaining the desired objective in a learning situation. Given background work such as identification of training needs, a programme design and its duration (based on these needs), it then becomes pertinent to analyze and select the best method or combination of methods, given the several constraints, to attain the programme objective. The choice of a method several constraints, to attain the programme objective. The choice of a method would depend on a wide variety of factors, such as competence of instructors, relevance to the participants, the programme design, i.e., is a particular method the best vehicle to put across the contents, and finally its cost implications. Numerous training methodologies and techniques have been developed over the years to meet certain specific needs. Each method has structured procedures for conduct that offer certain advantages in developing certain limited facets of a trainee, and suffer from some limitations. In using a particular method, one should know its strengths and weaknesses, given the situation, and analyze its relevance, its purpose, and if it is useful, how to get the most out of it. This would provide the rationale of the various training methods. The trainer should know the rationale of each of the methods before attempting to use any of them. OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING METHODS Training methods have a number of overlapping objectives. As stated earlier, they have to be chosen in relation to the programme design requirements. The main objectives of individual training methods could be: demonstration value, developing interest and finally, appeal to senses. However, more than one, or even all three objectives may be found in one method. Demonstration value Complete demonstration of job requirements is training of a kind that enables the trainee to grasp the meaning of ideas, concepts, or procedures visually. Such a method can be used effectively as an aid to overcome the "breakdown of communication". People remember things that they see and hear, much longer than they do information they receive through talks or reading, alone.

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Developing interest One of the factors to be kept in mind in choosing a method is its ability to hold and arouse the interest of the trainee in the learning situation. Much research has been done in the field to test the effectiveness of various methods. A trainer has to consider alternative methods of presenting training material to participants in order to stimulate their interest and facilitate retention of the matter. For instance, if traditionally the matter has been presented through lectures, perhaps audiovisual methods could be used, or instead project work be assigned which would mean learning by doing or researching the subject oneself. Appeal to many senses The statement that "to see a thing once is better than to hear it a hundred times emphasizes the inadequacy of words as a means of communication. Experience indicates that almost 75 per cent of what we imbibe is through the sense of sight and the rest is through the sense of hearing, touch, smell and taste. From the trainer's point of view it would be beneficial to utilize as many of the trainee's senses as possible, in order to improve retention of learning. Application of these basic objectives or guidelines alone would not be enough. For the appropriate use of a method, problem analysis and needs identification are also necessary. The trainer has to understand and identify the problem area; what is wrong, and where is the correction needed? He has to examine whether there is a problem with the manner in which the task is done, i.e., an operational problem, or whether there is a problem with an individual or individuals, i.e., a human-relations problem. Secondly, selecting the appropriate method would be dependent on the level of the trainee in an organizations' hierarchy-is he a shop floor worker, supervisor or a manager? Finally, before selecting a training method, the trainer should keep the mind cost effectiveness.

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Classification of Methods Depending on the learning outcome, and the process by which it is attained, it is possible to categorize the various methods into several groups. On-the-job-oriented training methods In this cluster are included methods whose main objective is centered around the job, more specifically, learning on the job itself by a variety of methods. They embrace development through performance on the job, where organizational strength and constraints, human behavior and technological systems have full and free play. Methods, which fall into this category, are:

1.

On-the-job training.

2.

Job rotation.

3.

Guidance and counseling.

4.

Brainstorming sessions.

5.

Syndicate method (working in small groups). Simulation methods Real-life situations are simulated for imparting training. The methods falling in this category are:

1.

Role-play.

2.

Case method.

3.

Management games.

4.

In-basket exercise.

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Role Play The role-play method requires participants to enact roles on the basis of a written script or an oral description of a particular situation. The enactment process provides an insight and understanding of the demands and situations of the assigned role, thereby facilitating empathy with another's (actual) role. The main emphasis in management training is in facilitating better understanding of interpersonal problems, and attitude change. If not handled well, however, it could degenerate a childish exercise, where, instead of focusing on the problem to be understood, the situation might be over-dramatized. Case method The case is an actual situation, which is written for discussion purposes. Analysis would need problem identification, analysis of the situation and of its causes. There could be several solutions to the problem, and each of these alternatives and their implications needs to be examined. In the real world, on many occasions, a manager may not have all the relevant information with him before taking a decision. Similarly, the case method approximates this reality and in many situations decisions are taken with limited data, or what is termed decision-making under uncertainty. The managerial response in such a situation is explored and understood and learning consists of developing problem-solving skills. Management games The game is built around the model of a business situation and trainees are divided into teams representing the management of competing companies. They simulate the real-life process of taking operation decisions. Decisions taken are analyzed by a computer, or manually, and a series of the implications of these decisions are fed back. The game is played in several rounds to take the time dimensions into account. In-basket exercise This is a simulation training technique designed around the "incoming mail" of a manager. A variety of situations are presented which would usually be dealt with by an executive in his working day. His reactions and responses are taken down in writing and then analyzed. Feedback on his decisions forces him to re-consider not only his administrative actions but

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also his behavioral style. Knowledge-based methods In this method of training, an effort is made to expose participants to concepts and theories, basic principles, and pure and applied knowledge in any subject area. Basically, it is aimed at creating an awareness of the knowledge of fundamentals. The focus is essentially transmission of knowledge which has to be imbibed by the participants. The methods in this category are: 1.

Lectures.

2.

Seminars, workshops.

3.

Educational training programmes at academic institutes.

4.

Programmed instruction in which knowledge is disseminated in book form to be learnt at the individual's pace, and where feedback on the learning is a given aspect of the method.

5.

Films and TV.

6.

Group discussion, especially in combination with some of the above, for assimilation and integration. TRAINING ORGANIZATION There are several administrative aspects that have to be taken into account before launching in-house training programme, or nominating participants to external programmes. In-Company/External Programmes The company needs to formulate its thinking regarding participation in programmes offered by external agencies like educational management institutes, government institutions and consultant programmes, vis-Ă -vis conducting its own in-house programmes. Where employee numbers are small, it may not be worthwhile to set up a training establishment and conduct in-house programmes, but as the numbers increase, this options may offer a distinct possibility. There is the cost aspect to be considered: for the cost of sending a participant to

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an external programme, several employees could be trained within an organization. Yet, the advantage of an external programme would be a breath of fresh air through discussions with other participants and a fresh approach could be brought into the organization and its problems. The skills and techniques learnt might also be different from those offered by one's own in-house programmes. Training Budgets A training budget for each internal programme has to be prepared, which would include cost of facilities like training room, food, transport, guest faculty, if any, and cost of teaching materials. In fact, the cost to the organization should also include the wages and salaries of employee participants who would be temporarily pulled out of their regular jobs and sent for training. Yet, organizational requirements would necessitate their jobs being done by someone else. The reason for costing the trainee employee's salary would be that they would not be making any contribution to the company during the training period, and that this is an additional burden on the company's finances. EVALUATION OF TRAINING Evaluation of any activity is important, since in evaluating one tries to judge the "value or worth of the activity, using the information available". What is the purpose of evaluation? Evaluation, by bringing to the fore "weaknesses and failures…strengths and successes," helps to improve training methods. Evaluation helps management to answer the following questions -

The relevance of the programmes to the organization's needs-what changes if any should be made in existing programmes to realign to the organization's needs.

-

Feedback on the choice of areas of training will also need to be examined in the context of its contributions to the organization's effectiveness.

-

Should the money continue to be spent on this activity, or another more relevant activity that will improve attainment of the organization's objectives? Reactions from trainees about the training programme can help identify its strengths and

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weaknesses. These reactions can be used as a base for the improvement of programmes, but those evaluating must first be definite about the aspects they are interested in investigating. An evaluation of a training method or system must also take into account the suitability of objectives. "If the objectives were inadequately formulated in the first place, even a 'good' training programme has really no chance to be effective." Objectives have to be clear-cut, must relate to needs, and make way for changes. Objectives cannot be static and need to be re-appraised frequently so that training may result in improved overall organizational efficiency. Evaluation of objectives helps to bridge the gap between needs and objectives. The Evaluation Process The most useful means of evaluating training are observations, ratings, trainee surveys and trainee interviews. Observation is concerned with observing the behavior of people in a certain situation. To be useful, it must be specific, systematic, quantitative, recorded and expert. Needless to say, observers, must be trained and have specific ideas about what they are looking for. This is the most direct method of "assessing the quality of formal training and of identifying deficiencies". The second method of evaluation is that of ratings. "Various elements of the training system should be rated independently by several qualified raters. These elements include trainees, instructors, equipment, materials, training aids and facilities." The use of rating scales requires supervised practice, as it is easy to commit errors. The third method is trainee surveys where opinions of the trainees are used for evaluation. These opinions should not be used independently, since they cannot always be relied on to be objective. The fourth method is trainee interviews, whereby ideas and views that trainees might not put down on paper can be determined by "skilful questioning". This method allows for more precise information and details to be obtained and prevents ambiguity, especially in interpretation.

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The final method is that of collecting the observations and recommendations of instructors through surveys and interviews "to ensure that the system is consistent with the needs of the implementers of the training". Interviews with instructors will bring to the surface characteristics that instructors may feel reluctant to put down on paper. IS TRAINING THE BEST MEDICINE? Imagine this: A man is having chest pains. He rush as to his doctor, tells him he is having a heart attack, and demands that he perform open-heart surgery. He obligingly agrees. It is not until after a great deal of pain and expense that he discovers it was only in digestion. When it comes to training, a similar situation happens all the time. If scrap rates are too high, productivity is too low, and employees neglect to follow standard quality procedures, they must need more training. Before rushing into the pain and expense of interrupting production to send them off to a seminar it is necessary to make sure that training is the proper solution. Just as a doctor must understand the cause of a patient’s symptoms before he can attempt a cure, one needs to know why employees are not meeting the company’s expectations before taking action. That’s where a training-needs analysis will help. It tells how well employees are doing their jobs, where they could use some improvement and how that improvement can best he achieved. Done correctly, it can save the company from wasting a lot of time and money on inappropriate training programs. Gathering the information To do a valid training-needs analysis, one needs to gather as much objective data about employee performance as possible. There are many ways to collect this information, including: •

Casual conversations

Formal interviews

Direct observation

Work samples

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Written records

Surveys

Tests

Focus groups

A professional trainer can be hired to perform an analysis but it’s not just a technique for trainers. Everybody should be trained in this simple process. It’s a supervisor’s or a manager’s job to make sure people can do their jobs. To do training needs analysis the following steps should be followed: Study current performance: Before tying to change anything, it’s essential to know what is already happening. What skills and knowledge do employees already have? What tasks are they performing on their daily jobs? Define ideal performance: what standard of performance is necessary for the business and the employees to be a success? What tasks must they do? What level of accuracy or productivity should they achieve? What skills and knowledge must they have? Find the gap: What is the difference between the definition of ideal performance and what the employees are currently doing? Are there any areas that aren’t functioning as well as they should? Where are there opportunities for improvement? This is the “performance gap” that the company is trying to fill. One must look for problems or opportunities that may occur in future as well as ones that already exist.

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Identify the cause: Why are workers not working up to standard? Have they ever performed the job correctly? Where and when do the problems occur? Has anything changed recently that might have instigated the problem? Compare best and worst performers to find the differences in what they do. When these steps have been completed one should be ready to make diagnosis, but it must be remembered that training is not the only medicine for ailing performance. Although it is often mistakenly applied as a cure- all, the only problem that training can solve is a lack of skills and knowledge. Do employees know how to do the job? Could they do it if their lives depended on it? If so, probably there is no training problem. There are many reasons why a worker might not be doing his job correctly, including unclear expectations, insufficient feedback, lack of incentive and adverse working conditions. These are all management problems that can only be improved by management changes. Too often, people see the gap and they want to just leap right in and fix it. “The key is not to jump to the solution, which is assumed to be training. Understanding the situation is the first step. Then, once one understands the situation one can think about why (The problem exists). Only if it’s because (employees) lack skills and knowledge should training be considered as a solution. NEW TRENDS IN TRAINING Self Directed Learning Organizational support enhances self -directed learning programs. The term "self -directed learning" describes training in which the learners essentially guides himself through the learning process using workbooks, manuals, or computer based training programs. Many companies are switching to this type of training because it allows for more flexible scheduling, as well as reduced training time and expenses. If we look at the life cycle of classroom type training, 90% of that life cycle cost is in the delivery, not in the development. Plus, as people get up there and start to talk, it takes longer than it does to deliver the training in some other ways. Well-designed self-directed learning will probably take half the time of classroom instruction. But even well -designed programs won't achieve optimum results without proper support. "People [switch to self-directed learning programs] for cost issues, and a lot of them

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don't recognize that there are organizational issues that they have to deal with, "If they don't deal with them, the they’re not going to get as big a return on their training investment as they could. The following are tips for supporting set directed learning in a company. 1.

Learning is work. Many organizations don't recognize training as real work. Unlike classroom training, which must have a scheduled time and place, self-directed learning is often just squeezed in here and there, or the employee may be forced to take it home.

2.

Keep sessions short. All days are much more fragmented than they used to be "So when self directed modules are developed, there is no space for two hour or three hour modules. The training needs to be made into shorter chunks, so that it can fit into the shorter periods of time. "Training should be long enough to get a concept across, but not so long that it involves too many once.

3.

People need people. Many managers forget about the learners need for contact with others. Seeing and being seen are very important in the political environments of today's companies and the classroom is where that often went on. If we take that away from the classroom, we have to provide some other way for it to happen, because they learn form each other as well as learning from the class. Meetings, e-mail, and electronic forums are some ways to compensate for the isolation that self-directed learners may feel.

4.

Combine delivery methods. Self directed learning has many advantages-but it is not the best choice for every situation. Self directed learning is much better for knowledge based learning. It can work for some skill based learning, but there are times when one wants to have hands on. A lot of your best programs are a combination. For example, a well-rounded program might start with an introductory session delivered by satellite. Self directed, computer based training could then get everybody up to speed on the basic information. Classroom sessions could then build on that knowledge by teaching hands on skills. The most important thing is to plan ahead in the initial training needs analysis for ways to support the unique needs of your self directed learners. That is a very important part of the needs analysis that is often neglected. We look at what are the learning objectives, but we don't look at what has to be taken care of in the organization and culture in order to achieve to those learning objectives.

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TRAIN, DON'T TELL Many companies' so-called training programs are little more than one-way information dumps. Information is transmitted, but the trainees get little guidance on exactly what to do with it or why. As a result, the words float by in isolation, seemingly detached from the employees' real world of paperwork and production quotas. Because the information is never used, it is quickly forgotten. This problem is compounded, because the human brain processes procedural knowledge differently from the way it process declarative (telling) knowledge. The people who are selected [to do training] are often people who have expertise in doing something. They usually got that expertise through trial and error, but they try to teach through telling. In other words, they use declarative methods to teach procedural knowledge. Afterward, they except trainees to perform the task and they become frustrated when it doesn't work that way. Real training is a two way street. It helps the trainee process and practice new skills, rather than simply dumping information on him. By actively engaging the trainee's participation, real training converts lifeless information into meaningful knowledge. The employee understands why the new knowledge is relevant and has a clear idea of how to apply it. Transforming telling into training isn't hard, if one includes these six key elements: •

Incentives: Employees need to understand what's in it for them. Why should they do it this way? Demonstrate how the new knowledge or skill will solve a problem or make them better, faster, and more effective in their jobs.

Objectives: Make sure trainees understand what the companies wants from them. One of the biggest inhibitors of employee performance is unclear expectations.

Organization: Organize information to make it easier to remember. Show how it relates to things they already know. Use analogies, examples, and mnemonics. Don’t confuse beginners with a lot of unnecessary details. Instead, focus on the basic steps to gain performance.

Participation: Encourage them to ask and answer questions. Get them to try the skills or apply the knowledge for themselves rather than just memorizing what you say or do. The more they participate, the more they will learn.

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•

Feedback: Let them know how they're doing. This allows them to correct mistakes before they become habits. It also helps them gain confidence, which will encourage them to feel comfortable applying new skills.

•

Rewards: If they're right, tell them they did well. If they're wrong, praise them for trying. Even if there techniques are applied in small, informal ways, employees will understand what the company wants a lot better, once one stops telling and starts training. TRAINING: MANTRA OF THE NEW MILLENNIUM In today's scenario, change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and grow. Knowledge is the potent symbol of the new millennium and the only way an organization can strive to excel is to realize that success today is not a function of financial muscle or physical assets but of competent workforce. It is the workforce with high caliber, knowledge and skills that is hard to duplicate. Employees have become central to the success or failure of an organization; they are the cornucopia of ideas. Katz and Kahn (1978) have posited that organizations must have three behavioral features. People must be attracted not only to join the organization but also to remain in it. People must perform tasks for which they are hired and must do so in a dependable manner. People must go beyond this dependable role performance and engage in some form of creative, spontaneous and innovative behavior at work. The most important aspect that guides competitiveness in current turbulent markets in how companies gather, analyze and use information to their advantage. Thus IT capability that processes and manages information in a corporate will be the single most effective weapon in the era of information technology. As organizations shift from being product based to knowledge based there has been a shift, with accent on knowledge. Employees today need to adopt skill sets with ease. The knowledge worker of today is in a constant pressure to compete with redundancy, as knowledge and information is no longer a prerogative of a few. IT is affecting the people, process, structure and strategy of organizations. IT acts as an enabler to capture and disseminate information so that individuals can become knowledge

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workers. Keeping this in mind ,organizations need to realign their thought process and give training a fresh look. Things will never be the same in the e-era. With the world becoming a global workforce, organizations today have to compete at the international level. This has redefined job requirements in terms of skills, competencies and qualifications. Today development of the employee is a prerequisite to make the employees work for the company rather than in the company. Today it is not the aptitude that guarantees success but the attitude. Employees are being encouraged to learn that it is essential not to control one's emotions but to manage them and channelize them for their effective use. Workshops on emotional intelligence are quiet common in the corporate arena. One offshoot of EQ training is team building. Teamwork is highlighted in most companies and various outdoor training programs are conducted, even at the induction training stage, to nurture the team spirit. Other topics on which training is being encouraged in the new millennium are communications, computer skills, customer service, ethics and quality initiatives.

TRAINING IS EVERYBODY'S BUSINESS Training is not the panacea for all the friction resulting due to change. Yet efforts in the right direction are definitely worth it, as organizations need to achieve their goals, maintain them internally and at the same time adapt to the ever changing environment. Hay Group’s annual survey of the world's most admired companies identified training as one of the best ways to attract, motivate and retain talent. Innovation in training methods seems to be a result of that. Traditional methods of "chalk and talk" are giving way to virtual learning. Global giant Motorola is reaping benefits of virtual learning. Motorola University is the most widely benchmarked corporate university in the world. IBM also has a university for its employees and they are encouraged to learn under the guidance of "dispersed mentors". Usually companies are turned to the WIN FM-whats in it for me. Companies like GE, General Motors have their training department independent of HR. It operates as a separate business center contributing to the company's profit.

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COMPANY PRACTICE IN TRAINING HCL Comnet

Every employee receives training for 8 days on an average. HR policy is built around Employee Development Growth & Empowerment (EDGE). It is a consciously developed program aimed at making Comnet a learning organization. An exhaustive training module is there to create global managers where freshly inducted employee follows a structured path going up with the certification levels from base line to advanced base line to silver club to finally become a gold club member -with global level expertise.

Hughes

New recruits go through 8 weeklong induction programs

Software

which consist of both technical & non-technical training.

Service

Skill inventories are maintained by line managers and not HR. Line managers are responsible for identifying training needs and ensuring attendance, role of HR is to facilitate choices.

IBM

Has

virtual

university.

IBM

Global

Campus

provides

employees across the globe self-driven learning via the corporate intranet. Extensive Lotus Training modules complete with tutorials and multimedia courseware are available online. Employees are encouraged to develop relationships with dispersed mentors. Infosys

Every Infoscion receives an average of 47 hours of training. 2.65% of turnover is spent on education and research.

Motorola

Every employee receives training for 40 hours annually. Motorola

University is the most widely benchmarked

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university in the world. It is a $ 100 million global service business operating through 99 sites across 21 countries employing 400 staff members. University is run as an independent business operation, a profit center. NIIT

80% of the training is delivered in-house. No. of training days per employee is 13 days. "Back to School� is followed where partial course fee is reimbursed for completion of part time professional courses. In-house tutorials and training procedures are distributed on the network without having to print huge documents.

Sat yam

Training is conducted to familiarize employee with different cultures and business practices.

Tata

It has a training center in Trivandrum where training for new

Consultancy

entrants focuses on team building, presentation skills and

Services

grooming. It has a 72 days long training program.

One way to minimize the danger of a company losing its financial investment in training is to share the cost with the employee. By asking an employee to invest partially, one does increase the intrinsic value of the training to the employee since it is instrumental in career planning and succession planning. BENEFITS OF TRAINING ARE EXPANSIVE Employees and organizations need to realize the importance of contribution and learning for mutual growth and development. An organization with a myopic view cannot realize the importance of training. Organizations that lack vision undergo stagnation, decline and crisis after success. Training is the answer to deal with the stagnation stage by constantly updating it in every field. Other benefits of training include.

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Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attract a better quality workforce.

Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.

Increasing productivity.

Enhancing workforce flexibility. For example, in the IT industry, employees are sent to different countries for diverse projects and assignments.

Cross-cultural training is

essential for them for better adjustment in the new environment. •

Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. Employee motivation is also enhanced when the employee knows that the organization would provide them opportunities to increase their skills and knowledge. Business is not just about transactions but is about relationships.

It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest changes; it acts as a catalyst for change.

Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost result through improved service, increased productivity and greater sufficiency.

Training acts as a benchmark for hiring, promoting and career planning.

It acts as a retention tool by motivating employees to the vast opportunities for growth available in an organization.

In certain cases training can also act as a tool for reward and recognition. Candidates showing high potential can be trained for advanced training in their field. Thus one can trace the link of training with performance appraisal and potential evaluation. We have moved a long way from the Machine Age. Today what is required is strategic acumen and cross-functional expertise. Today the workflow is milestone led. Command and control have given way to facilitation. The employer- employee relationship in the networked age is a skill contract and the work is largely cerebral. The benefits resulting due to training prove that it is time for organizations to discard their parochial view and work towards

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developing their human assets. The people factor is the pivot for organizational growth. Aligning organizational vision to the development of employee is only possible way to become a success story in an environment which seems to be reverberating with two words: 'perform or perish'.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research in common language refers to a search for knowledge. Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an act of scientific investigation. Research methodology is a systematic way to solve research problems. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem. It is necessary for the researchers to know not only research methods/techniques but also the methodology. The scope of Research Methodology is wider than that of research methods. The research process consists of a series of closely related activities. At times, the first step determines the nature of the last step to be undertaken. Why a research study has been undertaken, how the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated, what data has been collected and what particular methods have been adopted and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size chosen was Trainers: 10 The 10 faculty members were chosen from the total faculty strength of 12. The respondents were chosen randomly. Trainees: 20 The 20 respondents chosen were from different departments and different levels in the organization. They also were chosen randomly.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

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1.

SECONDARY SOURCES: Secondary data was collected from various sources such as: Business magazines Journals Textbooks Internet Company Bulletin The details of these sources are mentioned in the bibliography.

2.

PRIMARY DATA: Primary data was collected through a structured, non-disguised questionnaire. Two questionnaires were designed: one for the trainers and the other for the trainees.

STATISTICAL METHODS USED FOR ANALYSIS OF DATA The various methods used for the analysis of the data collected were: Tally method Method of Moving averages Bar graphs and Pie charts.

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DATA PRESENTATION In this chapter, the data collected from the respondents has been tabulated. Each question has been handled one-by-one in sequence. TRAINERS 1. What are the rules and procedures that govern the standard and scope of training in your organization? i.

PMI follows the ISO 9001 standards

ii.

a. Each individual has to undergo at least 7 days of training in a year b. Need based interventions (for gaps) c. Planned interventions (for development)

iii.

a. Yearly programs are mentioned with the duration in the training calendar. b. Excellent, experienced faculty is enlisted c. Individual feedback is sought after each program

iv.

a. Training needs analysis is done at corporate and project level b. Training schedule is made on the basis of training needs analysis (TNA) c. The total training policy is guided by HR development rules

v

Training policy is clearly laid down by Corporate office, NTPC

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2. What methods are used for training needs analysis? i.

By individuals in a form supplemented by their superiors. Need ranking is done.

ii.

a. Meeting the co-coordinator b. Understanding the profile of the participants c. Understanding the processes the participants are undergoing

iii.

By taking feedback, discussing with participants, department heads and project heads

iv.

Identification through a mechanism of TNA between the employee and supervisor at all levels

v.

Through questionnaires and personal interactions with the heads of departments

vi.

a. Actual interview with GM, HOD and some participants b. Feedback of programs c. Performance appraisal form d. Needs identified by management, PMI

vii.

Organizational needs, customer feedback and practical experience 3. What are the various areas in which training is imparted?

i.

Company policies and procedures

ii.

Functional skills

iii.

Human relations

iv.

Problem solving

v.

Managerial and supervisory training

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vi.

Apprentice training 4. What are the various training methods employed? ON THE JOB:

i.

Practical training on site/plant

ii.

Theoretical as well as hands on training On the job training is generally used at the induction level. OFF THE JOB:

i.

Lectures

ii.

Seminars

iii.

Case studies

iv.

Simulations

v.

Project work

vi.

Exercises

vii.

Management input and developing of managerial competencies through classroom lectures

5. On what basis do you select the training methods to be used? i.

As per the need, experience and job requirements, also depending on organizational and personal goals

ii.

Availability of resources

iii.

Based on participants’ profile

iv.

Depends on type of training to be imparted

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v.

On the basis of objectives set out for the training interventions and its impact

vi.

Survey and analysis

6. Training is conducted in-house and is also out-sourced depending on the nature of the training input, although out-sourcing is rarely done. Programs like ‘Training for Trainers’ and ‘Memory Management’ are outsourced. 7. If out-sourced, what agencies and consultants are involved? i.

XENSA

ii.

NIIT

iii.

APTECH

iv.

STG

v.

JETKING

vi.

National Productivity Council

vii.

NIS Sparta

viii.

IIT

ix.

IIM Thus, reputed and experienced consultants in their field are involved.

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8. On what basis do you decide to conduct training externally? i.

If resource-faculty and facility, are not available at PMI

ii.

Once in three years

iii.

In case of new programs, where NTPC has no experience

iv.

If workload at PMI is more

v.

When in-house faculty for the subject concerned is not available

9. On what basis do you select the external agencies? i.

Through their market reputation, past experiences, and faculty profile

ii.

Interaction with agencies

iii.

References

iv.

Charges

v.

Based on feedback obtained regarding the agencies and any past experience with the agency for similar type of programs

vi.

Based on credentials, association with NTPC

10. What according to you are the advantages of external training? i.

It is a change for participants. Also, they interact with participants of other organizations and can hence benchmark.

ii.

In case of new programs, it gives a good idea for the development of NTPC personnel in that field

iii.

a. New ideas

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b. Sharing of workload iv.

Broader perspectives

v.

Some training requires a conditioned environment, which can be taken care of.

vi.

Some of the topics such as Wagon maintenance can only be seen and understood in external training programs

vii.

It is more systematic, as they have expertise in their field

11. What generally is the frequency of a training program? Training programs are on at PMI all year round. However, frequency of the program depends on the type of program. For example, computer sessions are held weekly, executive trainee programs are held once in a year. 12.

What normally is the duration of a training program? Duration of the training program depends on the type of training program. For example, training programs on computer basics are generally of 3-5 days duration while those for executives are of one-year duration.

13.

How do you decide on the training budget?

i.

Yearly budget allocation is done to PMI by the head office

ii.

Training program is made on the basis of A: Training calendar of the institute B: Projection of any training aids procurement C: Normal administrative expenditure

iii.

Past experience and bench marking with the current scenario

iv.

Cost per participant x no. of participants to be trained

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14.

What methods to do you use to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program?

i.

Observation

ii.

Ratings

iii.

Trainee survey

iv.

Tests before and after

v.

Classroom presentation

vi.

Reviewing the effectiveness after certain interval

vii.

Through their reporting officer

15. What are the changing trends in T&D today? How is it different from what was done five years ago? i.

More computer based presentations are used, internet support for presentations and multimedia presentations

ii.

Development need has shifted from skill to attitude

iii.

More and more emphasis is being laid on T&D. Efforts are on at NTPC to train each employee for at least 7 days in a year

iv.

Focus is more on skills like presentation, communication and leadership skills

v.

Core values of NTPC are kept in mind

16. What according to you are the roles and responsibilities of trainer and trainee in order to make a training program successful? a) Trainer: i.

Well experienced

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ii.

Good leader

iii.

Patient listener

iv.

Conviction

v.

Thorough knowledge

vi.

Dedication

vii.

Appropriate preparation

viii.

Should evaluate effectiveness of the program

ix.

Facilitator

x.

Learner-centered

b)

Trainee:

i.

Effective and attentive listener

ii.

Seriousness and commitment

iii.

Co-operation

iv.

Proper feedback on the session

v.

Positive attitude Both should function in partnership and the trainer should be concerned about the development of the learner.

17.

What are the essential elements that go into making a training program successful?

Ranks Clear objectives

1

2

3

4

 



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6

7

72


Good faculty Right training method















 

Physical arrangement Duration of training program Contents of TP

 













Rewards/incen tives after the TP

 

The Tally bars represent the number of respondents who have given specific ranks to each of the parameters. This would be further used to find out the final rankings. 18. What are the main problems you come across while training individuals? i.

For some people, training is merely a relief from regular monotony, so they want to relax during the training days instead of taking it seriously

ii.

Sometimes, participants are sent not on the basis of their needs, but to satisfy the statistics

iii.

If the batch is not homogeneous, it is a problem to maintain the flow in a training program

iv.

Caliber of individuals is of different levels

v.

Mindset

vi.

Participants sometimes don’t have the prerequisite background for training

19. What methods are used to detect and overcome learning blockages that may be present?

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i.

The program can be presented in a very attractive way, linking with practical life, site problems, learning atmosphere can be made friendly to have an open discussion

ii.

Having a good ice-breaker at the beginning of the session

iii.

By involving the participants, letting him express his views, listening to his views and problems and by solving them to some extent

iv.

Trainers should identify the level of understanding of each participant and accordingly exercises should be given to make them comfortable

v.

LSI and behavioral techniques

vi.

Personal interaction

20.

In future, what according to you would be the potential areas of training?

i.

Techno-managerial capabilities

ii.

Actualization of moral values

iii.

Development of HR

iv.

Value-based leadership

v.

Team building

vi.

Paradigm shift

vii.

Benchmarking

viii.

Computers/technological advancements

ix.

Human relations

x.

BPR

xi.

Core competencies, core value actualization, business strategies in the changing scenario

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TRAINEES 1.

What are the methods used for the analysis of your training needs?

i.

Analysis by superiors or company, identification by individuals (TNA)

ii.

Discussion with superiors

iii.

Identification by group head or depending on departmental functional needs

iv.

Feedback from persons to be trained about what training they need and this is incorporated in PMI’s program to the extent possible by management

v.

Planned interventions training

vi.

Questionnaires filled by participants

vii.

Training is identified from a list which has been proposed by the training department, by the employee based on his needs and aptitude

viii.

Self analysis

ix.

Depending on the type and nature of job being handled

x.

Discussions at departmental levels

xi.

Keeping in mind the career map of an employee and also the functional requirements

2.

Are the employees involved in identifying their training needs/areas of training? Response

No. of respondents saying

Yes

18

No

2

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3.

What are the various areas in which training is imparted?

i.

Company policies and procedures

ii.

Functional skills

iii.

Human relations

iv.

Problem solving

v.

Managerial and supervisory training

vi.

Apprentice training

vii.

Creativity

viii.

Strategic planning

ix.

Computers

x.

Cross-functional skills

4.

In future, what according to you would be the potential areas of training?

i. Computer programming ii. Core technical areas iii. Management related iv. Work culture and discipline v. Objectives of organization vi. HRD/HRM vii. Strategic management viii. Corporate governance

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ix. Behavioral and emotional training x. Interpersonal and interactive skills xi. Adaptability to change in future xii. Problem solving xiii. Communication skills 5.

What are the various training methods employed? ON THE JOB:

i.

Different locations with the location in charge

ii.

Practical work

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OFF THE JOB: i.

Lectures

ii.

Audio-visual aids

iii.

Simulations

iv.

Discussions

v.

Seminars

vi.

Workshops

vii.

Project work

6.

Do you think the methods used are relevant and effective? Response

No. of respondents saying

Yes

17

No

3

7. What are your objectives in attending a training program? i.

Gain knowledge in your area

ii.

To enjoy social get together

iii.

Develop competencies

iv.

Self development

v.

Personal satisfaction as well as taking a break from continuous and strenuous work

vi.

Overcome mental blockage and eliminate complacency

8. Do you think your objective of attending the training program is normally achieved?

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Response

No. of respondents saying

Yes

19

No

1

9. What according to you are the key areas in which training should be imparted? i. Technical skills ii. Managerial skills iii. Computers iv. Functional areas v. Interpersonal relations vi. Self development vii. Behavioral skills viii. Handling workforce in the age group of 45-50 years ix. Human relations x. Communication skills

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10. Are you provided with adequate continuing training to keep you abreast of the changes in the environment? Response

No. of respondents saying

Yes

12

No

8

11. What are the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program? i.

Feedback after training

ii.

Improvement in performance

iii.

Written test / exam

12.

Does the management take into consideration your opinion on the training program planning?

Response

No. of respondents

Yes

11

No

9

13. Identify the shortcomings in the training programs, if any, regarding the following: 1.

Physical arrangements

2.

Faculty:

3.

Training methods:

4.

Contents of the program:

Any other, please specify: Participants not involved in training program planning No other shortcomings were mentioned.

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14.

Have you communicated these problems to the management? Response

No. of respondents saying

Yes

6

No

3

Not applicable

11

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15. In what way would you like to be involved in improving / planning the training program in future? R

Individual views

Commn. meeting

Survey

Suggestion box

F/b on PA

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total

9

6

10

3

4

Responses

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R: Respondent

16. In your opinion what are the inputs that would make a training program

successful?

(Rank the following in order of importance) Ranks Clear objectives

1

2

3

4

 





 







 



5

6

7

 Good faculty  Right training method

Physical arrangement

Duration of training program



 

 





 



 



 





Contents of TP  Rewards/incen tives after the TP

 

  

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DATA ANALYSIS The tabulation of the data collected was done in the previous chapter. Here, we will analyze and interpret the data and try to reach some final conclusion in the next chapter. We first begin with the analysis of the data collected from the T&D staff. We will analyze the responses to each of the questions in sequence. Q2. METHODS USED FOR TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS: From the data gathered, we can observe the following: ♦

The training needs analysis is done generally by discussion with superiors and departmental heads.

However, the participants themselves also play a vital role in identifying their own training needs.

Also, performance appraisal sessions and customer feedback are two important ways through which training needs can be analyzed. Q3. AREAS IN WHICH TRAINING IS IMPARTED: NTPC provides training in all the areas mentioned. However, the kind of training imparted to the employees is also dependent on their level in the organization. For example, training on company policies and procedures is provided at the Executive trainee (entry) level. It may be provided at other levels as well, but only when there are any changes in policies or procedures.

Q4. TRAINING METHODS EMPLOYED:

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From the data collected, we see that lectures/classroom sessions are the most used methods for training. Again, the method used would be dependent on various other factors as seen in the next question. Also, on the job training is generally used at induction level. Q5. BASIS ON WHICH TRAINING METHODS ARE SELECTED: ♦

The choice of training methods at PMI is largely dictated by availability of resources.

Also, training methods are selected on the basis of depending on the type of training to be imparted. For example, they generally use lectures for sessions on company policies and procedures. Also, for training on problem solving, more of case studies are used. Q8. BASIS FOR CONDUCTING TRAINING EXTERNALLY: Training is outsourced very rarely. The only times when it is outsourced is when resources are not available or the workload at PMI is more. Also, in areas where NTPC does not have the expertise (for e.g., computers), training is outsourced to reputed organizations like NIIT, APTECH, etc. Q10. ADVANTAGES OF CONDUCTING TRAINING EXTERNALLY:

Most of the staff at PMI feels that conducting training externally has its advantages. They think that by attending training sessions outside the organization, the trainees acquire a broader perspective of looking at situations, since they get an opportunity to interact with others outside the closed walls of the organization. Q11. FREQUENCY OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM: Training programs are conducted at NTPC throughout the year. However, the frequency of training programs depends on the type of training being imparted and also the level of employees to which it is being imparted. For example, Capsule Course for managers is conducted around 9 times in a year. Training sessions on computer basics are conducted weekly. Also, Executive trainee programs are conducted once a year.

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Q12. DURATION OF A TRAINING PROGRAM: Again the duration of a training program would depend on the type of training being imparted. Training sessions on Computer basics last for around 3-5 days. Training of Executive trainees lasts for a year. Q13. CHANGING TRENDS IN T&D TODAY: •

From the data, it is clearly seen that the focus of training today has the right attitude. Even in a company like NTPC, where training was largely concentrated on imparting technical knowledge, the focus today is on overall development of the employee, so that he is ready to face challenges posed by the fast changing environment.

•

Also, sophistication of technology has made T&D easier, effective and also faster than before. The aids used for training today are such that keep up the interest of the trainees and involve them in the process by appealing to as many senses as possible. Q14. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRAINER AND TRAINEE TO MAKE A TRAINING SUCCESSFUL: The trainer and the trainee have to work in co-operation in order to make a training program successful. A good trainer must understand the needs of his trainees and listen to his problems and queries patiently. But, this can happen only if the trainee takes interest in the program and wants to gain something substantial from the program. He should look upon the trainer as somebody who can guide him and help him with his problems, and not as someone who is there to lecture him on a subject. Thus, the right attitude is required-both on the part of the trainer and the trainee.

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Q15. ELEMENTS THAT GO INTO MAKING A TRAINING PROGRAM SUCCESSFUL: The data tabulated in the previous chapter is reproduced here for convenience: Ranks Clear objectives

Good faculty

Right training method

1

2

3

4

 



















6



5

Physical arrangement

Duration of training program Contents of TP



5

6

2











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1



Rewards/ince ntives after the TP

7

4

3

 

7

87


The Tally bars represent the number of respondents who have given specific ranks to each of the parameters. The above table can be used to obtain rankings of the elements in the order of importance. ♦

From the above table, we can clearly see that a clear objective is the most important element that goes into making a training program successful.

Also, the least important element, according to the T&D staff is rewards/incentives after the training program.

From the table, we can see that there is a tie between good faculty and contents of the program for the second rank. However, as two respondents have ranked ‘good faculty’ as the most important element, whereas, ‘contents of the program’ has not been ranked first by any respondent, we have assigned second rank to ‘good faculty’ and third rank to ‘contents of the program’. Here, we have used the method of Moving Averages.

The other rankings have also been obtained in a similar way. Q16. MAIN PROBLEMS IN TRAINING OF INDIVIDUALS: The main problem the trainers come across while training of individuals is that many a time the trainees are sent for training not because they need it, but to satisfy the statistics of 7 days of training each year for each employee. As a result, most of the times, the trainees are not interested in the program and this creates a major problem in getting the trainees involved in the process. Q17. METHODS USED TO OVERCOME LEARNING BLOCKAGES: One of the ways to overcome learning blockages is to have a good icebreaker at the beginning of the session. Also, most trainers think that it is necessary that the trainer understand the level and capacity of each trainee, and deal with each accordingly. This would help the trainee open up to the trainer convey his problems and difficulties without any hesitation. Q18. POTENTIAL AREAS OF TRAINING IN FUTURE:

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It is clearly seen from the data gathered that in future the emphasis would not be on developing functional skills. Instead the emphasis would be on human relations. Also, with most of the processes at NTPC being automated and computerized, the knowledge of computers would be extremely essential. Thus, this would be a main area of training in future. TRAINEES Q1. METHODS USED FOR TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS: Training needs analysis is generally done by discussions with superiors and departmental heads. The participants are also involved in the analysis of their own training needs. Thus, the decision on what type of training is required by an individual is not taken by his superiors alone, but by the trainee and his superior together. The superior analyzes what kind of training is required by the individual and the trainee gets an opportunity to assess his strengths and weaknesses and decide in which area he requires additional expertise. Q2.

IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS 10% Yes No 90%

90% of the respondents said that they were involved in the identification of their training needs, whereas only 10% respondents said that they were not involved. Q3. POTENTIAL AREAS OF TRAINING IN FUTURE: According to the trainees, the stress in future would be definitely on people skills and communication skills. Also, training in coping with change in this fast changing environment would be a key training area. And of course, the focus would also be on computers, since survival without computer skills would be difficult in this highly automated environment.

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Q4.

EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING METHODS USED 15% Yes No 85%

85% of the respondents said that the training methods used were relevant and effective.

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Q5. OBJECTIVES IN ATTENDING A TRAINING PROGRAM: Majority of the respondents had gaining knowledge as the main objective in attending a training program. ACHIEVEMENT OF TRAINING OBJECTIVES 5%

Yes No

95%

Q6. 95% of the respondents felt that their main objective in attending a training program was satisfied, i.e. they gained what they expected to gain from the training program. Q7. CONTINUING TRAINING

40%

Yes 60%

No

Almost 40% of the respondents felt that they were not being provided adequate training to keep them abreast of the changing environment. Although they agreed that they benefited from training programs, they thought that emphasis should be on training individuals to prepare them for future uncertainties, for example, managing change.

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Q8.

INVOLVEMENT IN PROGRAM PLANNING

45%

Yes 55%

No

45% of the respondents said that the management does not take into consideration their opinion on the training program planning. They are involved in TNA, but not in the program planning.

Q9.

COMMUNICATION OF PROBLEMS TO MANAGEMENT

30%

Yes No

55%

NA 15%

Out of the 9 respondents who said that they were not involved in the TP planning, only 6 (30%) have communicated their dissatisfaction to the management.

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Q10. WAYS IN WHICH THE TRAINEES WOULD LIKE TO BE INVOLVED IN IMPROVING/PLANNING THE TRAINING PROGRAM IN FUTURE: The table is reproduced here for convenience: R

Individual views

Commn. meeting

Survey

Suggestion box

F/b on PA

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

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Total

9

6

10

3

4

II

III

I

V

IV

Responses Rankings R: Respondent Depending upon the number of responses obtained by each parameter, we will obtain a final ranking for the various parameters. From the table, we see that conducting a survey of the participants for planning a training program has got the most responses. Hence, it has been ranked first. The other rankings have obtained in a similar manner. Q11. ELEMENTS THAT MAKE A TRAINING PROGRAM SUCCESSFUL: The table from the earlier chapter is reproduced here for convenience. Ranks

1

2

3

4

Clear objectives

 





 





Right training method



 



Physical arrangement

5

6

7

Final Ranking 1

 Good faculty



Duration of training program Contents of TP Rewards/incentive s after the TP

 



3

 

 



5



6

 



 



 





2

4  

7



From the above table, we can obtain the rankings for each of the elements. For example, we can clearly see that clear objectives has been ranked first by most of the respondents, hence we place it at the first position, as the most important element in making as training program successful. ‘Rewards and incentives’ has been ranked 7 by most respondents, hence we assign it rank seven.

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

Good faculty is ranked 2.



By using the method of Moving Averages, we can see that contents will be assigned rank 3 and right training method will be ranked fourth.



Other rankings can be obtained similarly.

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CONCLUSIONS From the analysis done in the previous chapter, we can arrive at the following conclusions: ♦

Training needs analysis is done taking into consideration the views of not only the superiors, but also the trainees themselves. This was confirmed from the responses of both the trainees and the trainers. The trainees felt good that they were involved in the analysis of their own needs and also said that the management was very co-operative and tried to incorporate their views and suggestions to the extent possible. Thus, as far as this aspect is concerned, the trainees were satisfied with the procedures followed.

Both the trainers and the trainees felt that the thrust in future should be on developing people skills and not only functional skills. They also said that IT would be a focus area.

Most of the times trainees were not involved in the training program planning.

Both the trainees and the trainers were in agreement on the most essential elements that go into making a training program successful. The final ranking obtained is the same in both the cases. This only goes to show that NTPC is aware of the needs of the participants and also understand what elements are most important for a trainee. For both, clear objective is the most important element that makes a training program successful.

We can conclude that NTPC’s efforts towards training and development have been quite successful. The employees are satisfied with the training activities, but they only feel that they should be involved in the planning of the Training Program. According to them, their views should be taken on all issues instead of just informing them that they have to attend a training program. They should have a say in deciding on the contents, physical arrangements, etc. This would involve them further in the exercise and they would be more open to learning.

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RECOMMENDATIONS ♦

Training should be imparted on current issues like change management, because although the employees are quite satisfied with the training programs as a whole, they still feel that training should be imparted on issues that are relevant in the current business scenario.

Training sessions should not be too long, long sessions should be split up into modules.

Self-directed learning in some areas should be encouraged. This would save the company’s time and also reduce costs.

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LIMITATIONS The main limitation faced while conducting the research was the availability of the faculty members at the training institute of NTPC i.e., PMI. It was very difficult to be able to meet them personally, since most of them were busy with the hectic training schedule.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1.

“Personnel Management” by Arun Monappa and Mirza.S.Saiyadain

2.

“Learning to Learn”, Sylvia Downs (Handbook on Training and development by Steve

3.

Truelove)

Quality Magazine, January 1998, Training Trends: “Is training the best medicine?” Source: www.qualitymag.com

4.

Quality Magazine, May 1998, Training Trends: “Train, don’t tell”. Source: www.qualitymag.com

5.

Quality Magazine, October 1998, Training Trends: “Every Manager is a mentor”. Source: www.qualitymag.com

6.

Quality Magazine, April 1999, Training Trends: “Supporting selfdirected learning”. Source: www.qualitymag.com

7.

Quality Magazine, November 1999, Training Trends: “On the job training-Do it right!” Source: www.qualitymag.com

8.

“Never Stop Listening, Never Stop Learning, Never Stop Training”, Pramod Batra

and Deepak Mahendru.

9.

“HRD through training”, The Economic Times dated 11-2-94.

10.

“Training: Mantra of the new millennium”, Sangam Garg, Human Capital, April 2001.

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ANNEXURE

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QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TRAINEES

1.

What are the methods used for the analysis of your training needs?

2.

Are the employees involved in identifying their training needs/areas of training?

 Yes  No 3.

What are the various areas in which training is imparted?

 Company policies and procedures  Functional skills  Human relations  Problem solving  Managerial and supervisory training  Apprentice training Any other, please specify ___________________ 4.

In future, what according to you would be the potential areas of training?

5.

What are the various training methods employed? On the job: Off the job:

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6.

Do you think the methods used are relevant and effective?

 Yes  No

7.

If no, which methods do you think should be selected? Give reasons.

8.

What are your objectives in attending a training program?

 Gain knowledge in your area  Get promotion  Get free holiday  To enjoy social get together  Any other, please specify ____________________ 9.

Do you think your objective of attending the training program is normally achieved?

 Yes  No 10.

What according to you are the key areas in which training should be imparted?

11.

Are you provided with adequate continuing training to keep you abreast of the changes in the environment?

 Yes

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 No

12.

If no, in what areas do you think the company should impart continuing training?

13.

What are the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program?

 Feedback after training  Improvement in performance  Promotion / increment  Written test / exam Any other, please specify_____________________________________

14.

Does the management take into consideration your opinion on the training program planning?

 Yes  No

15.

Identify the shortcomings in the training programs, if any, regarding the following: 1. Physical arrangements: 2. Faculty: 3. Training methods: 4. Contents of the program:

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Any other, please specify__________________________________ 16.

Have you communicated these problems to the management?

 Yes  No 17.

In what way would you like to be involved in improving / planning the training program in future?

 Take our views individually  Hold a communication meeting  Conduct a survey  Suggestion box  Feedback session on performance appraisal Any other, Please specify _____________________________________

18.

In your opinion what are the inputs that would make a training program successful? (Rank the following in order of importance)

 Clear objectives (gain knowledge/skills)  Good faculty  Right training method  Physical arrangements

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 Duration of training program  Content of the training program  Reward/ incentive after the training program.

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR T&D STAFF

1. What are the rules and procedures that govern the standard and scope of training in your organization? 2. What methods are used for training needs analysis? 3. What are the various areas in which training is imparted?

Company policies and procedures

Functional skills

Human relations

Problem solving

Managerial and supervisory training

Apprentice training

4. What are the various training methods employed?

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On the job: Off the job: 5. On what basis do you select the training methods to be used?

6. Training is conducted

In house

Out-sourced

7. If out-sourced, what agencies and consultants are involved?

8. On what basis do you decide to conduct training externally?

9. On what basis do you select the external agencies?

10. What according to you are the advantages of external training?

11. What generally is the frequency of a training program?

Quarterly

Half yearly

Yearly

12. What normally is the duration of a training program?

13. How do you decide on the training budget?

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14. What methods to do you use to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program?

 Observation  Ratings  Trainee survey  Trainee interview  Tests before and after  Comparative study between trained and non-trained groups  Classroom presentation Any other, please specify _____________________________

15. What are the changing trends in T&D today? How is it different from what was done five years ago?

16. What according to you are the roles and responsibilities of trainer and trainee in order to make a training program successful? a) Trainer: c)

Trainee:

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17. What are the essential elements that go into making a training program successful? (Rank them in the order of importance)

 Clear objectives  Good faculty  Right training method  Physical arrangement  Duration of training program

Contents of the training program

Reward/ incentive after the training program

18. What are the main problems you come across while training individuals? 19. What methods are used to detect and overcome learning blockages that may be present? 20. How important is training as a tool for employee retention? 21. In future, what according to you would be the potential areas of training?

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51983935 ntpc project report