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SPECTRUM Journal of Student Research at Saint Francis University

Abstracts of the Sixth Annual Saint Francis University Research Day

Volume 7 (2) Fall 2016


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SPECTRUM Journal of Student Research at Saint Francis University Fall 2016 Volume 7 (2) SIXTH ANNUAL SAINT FRANCIS UNIVERSITY RESEARCH DAY ABSTRACTS November 17, 2016 John F. Kennedy Student Center

Schedule 12:30 pm – 2:00 pm

Poster session A (Odd Abstract Numbers)

1:30 pm – 3:00 pm

Poster session B (Even Abstract Numbers)

Cover photo of Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia, by Christopher Evans


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Woloschuk, John R.; Loya, Lane J. The Effect of Substrate on the Body Temperature Change of Sympetrum vicinum During Cold Fall Nights The North American dragonfly species Sympetrum vicinum, or Autumn Meadowhawk, is different compared to most other odonates. This is due to the ability of S. vicinum to survive cold temperature changes in the fall that typically kill almost all other dragonfly species. It is a mystery as to where this species shelters during cold periods in the fall. They seem to disappear completely, often for many days, only to re-emerge during daytime periods of warmth. This research investigates the effect of resting substrate on the resulting body temperature changes of Autumn Meadowhawks during cold fall nights. Studying this behavior could provide insight as to where these dragonflies go during the night and cold periods, and how they thermoregulate. Carried out at Lake Saint Francis, the experiment confined groups of S. vicinum to one of two cages overnight. One cage represented perched or “aboveground” substrate while the other cage represented ground substrate. Body temperatures of the specimens were collected in the evening and again in the morning to determine what changes occurred in core body temperature at these different resting sites. The ground substrate dragonflies had a higher average morning body temperature compared to the perched dragonflies. However, this difference fell just short of statistical significance, indicating that there is more than likely a trend between substrate and body temperature change that supports further replications of the study.

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Evans, Christopher R.; Flynn, Victoria N.G.; Ciraula, Stephanie M.; Hargittai, Balazs Synthesis of Cation Selective Chiral Crown Ethers Crown ethers are ring-shaped organic molecules that have the capability of binding specific ions in their center cavities. They act as “hosts” to transport ions to places they otherwise would not go, such as through a membrane. Present research with crown ethers ranges from a potential way to cross the blood brain barrier to a way to remove radioactive elements from the environment. Another important factor affecting the way in which a molecule interacts with its environment is chirality, the asymmetry about a carbon center. The objective of this research is to synthesize a chiral cation selective crown ether through the introduction of multiple tetrahydrofuran rings. The first three steps of the proposed multistep synthesis have been completed and confirmed with proton NMR data as well as infrared spectroscopy.

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Naeger, Colleen E.; Scanlan, Andrew M.; Shoemaker, D. Sue Clown Fish Habitat Preference between Toadstool Leather Coral and Sea Anemones Clownfish have been known to form mutualistic relationships with sea anemones through their immunity to the stings of these individuals; however, clownfish can also use other organisms as habitats. In this study, clownfish habitat preference was tested by exposing them to two different habitat choices: Bubble Tip sea anemones or Toadstool Leather coral, which comes from the species Sarcophyton and is a member of the Phylum Cnidarian classification. These soft corals also possess stinging tentacles, similar to that of a sea anemone. Clownfish were observed interacting with both organisms with either one or both specimens present. In most instances, the clownfish were seen to choose the anemone over the coral as a habitat when given the choice. This would lead to supporting the original hypothesis that questions which organism would clownfish prefer when given a choice of habitat.

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Cabell, Madison W.; Mauney, Teelyn T. Coaching Behaviors Effect of Athlete's Commitment The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of coaching behaviors and coaching styles and their impact on an athlete’s performance (attitude/commitment). The research method used was surveys – survey data was collected from male and female athletes using a snowball sample method. These surveys examined the coaching behaviors effect on the athlete, the sports stress level, and the coaches support for


4 the athletes and how that connects to their engagement or commitment level in their sport. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used to gather information on how coaches did or did not help and/or support their athletes. A total of 80 surveys were distributed to both male and female athletes. This data was collected from students 18 to 23 years old at Saint Francis University. This study found that some athletes received physical violence from their coach and sports stress level was present in many of the athlete’s environment, causing some to feel anxiety and even depression. The majority of the athletes felt a sense of “burnout� in their sport. P5

Snider, Megan V.; Blake, Sabrina J.; Boyd, Hannah E.; Fry, Cathleen M.; Bailey, Jenna M.; Hargittai, Balazs Synthesis of LS-2616, a Drug Used to Treat Ocular Cancer Ocular melanoma (OM) is the most common eye cancer in adults. Between 2,500 and 3,000 adults are diagnosed with this type of cancer every year in the United States. Within the past year, there have been over 2,600 cases - with an equal distribution between men and women. Cancer develops in the eye just like it can develop on the skin. The purpose of the research project is to propose an efficient organic synthesis of LS-2616, a drug used to treat ocular cancer. A novel multistep synthesis is proposed and reaction conditions are tested for each step of the proposed synthesis.

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Olek, Lauren A.; Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit The behavioral effects of chronic exposure to stress in a mice models of autism spectrum disorders Chronic exposure to stress affects a variety of physiological systems and has been linked to the activation or amplification of pathological conditions such as depression, PTSD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While several rodent models for autism are available, research is often restricted to the embryonic or early-postnatal periods. Since recent findings suggest that functional impairment of mature circuits may trigger autism-related phenotypes, the current project evaluated the behavioral effects of exposure to chronic stress during the late-postnatal/early-peribubertal stages in mice. Male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to the unpredictable chronic mild stress protocol for 21 days, and its behavioral phenotype was than assessed using a test battery for social, cognitive and emotional domains. Results demonstrate specific behavioral alternations, suggesting that in autism spectrum disorders the window of vulnerability to stress may expand into the stages of childhood/adolescence. Future research will test the molecular mechanism implicated in the indicated behavioral phenotypes.

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Olek, Lauren A.; Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit Neuroscience: Recent Advances, Common Misconceptions, and Ethical Concerns The field of neuroscience is an extremely broad and complex field spanning study areas that include molecules, cells, behavior and cognition of humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to explore recent advances in the research methodologies that are used in the field of neuroscience. The research methodologies that were explored include whole brain imaging, molecular and cellular techniques, and genetic techniques. Through the review of multiple studies, it was found that numerous advances have occurred in the field of neuroscience during the last ten years. In addition, it was found that misunderstandings of different research methodologies can lead to the development of misconceptions in the opinions of the general public. Lastly, some ethical concerns were also addressed which could have a strong impact on future advances in the field of neuroscience.


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Ali, Mohammed; McCord, Mikayla; Olafsen, Harry J.; Cazan, Roxana L. Breaking the Chain of Silence: Political Activism and Social Justice in Syrian-American Hip-Hop Dissatisfied with the decisions of the Western political class to remain uninvolved in helping settle the conflict in Syria, many hip hop, rap, and pop artists from Syria and the region have been creating and performing politically charged music that promotes liberty, and justice in the Middle East. One artist in particular, Omar Offendum, writes and brings to the stage his hip-hop music in the United States in a way that continues and enhances this political-artistic movement across the Atlantic. Employing rhymes and rhythms that foster commotion and make noise, Offendum breaks the global indifference accumulated around the topic of the Syrian war and the unsolvable debates about allowing a certain number of Syrian asylum seekers to apply for refugee status in a variety of Western nations. He underscores that apathy is not an option for those who oppose the oppressor. Because the political-ideological space that feeds his creative act is set in a civil-rights conscious US, Offendum often appeals to a heritage that reminds the listener of the activist role of the Black Panthers, the legacy of Malcom X, and the freedom battles of Rodney King and his followers. In many of his songs, Offendum uses Arabic, both as a means of highlighting the authenticity of his hybrid identity and as a method of marking a cultural space for a diverse audience to come together. In this paper, we argue that Offendum’s music represents an effective tool of political propaganda that can raise social consciousness to the needs of Syrians today and harbor social justice.

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Caffey, Robert M.; Dyer, Elizabeth M.; Gobert, Zachary A.; Madison, Logan F.; Matchock, Samantha A.; Onkst, Bryant; Patton, Hannah E.; Ross, Benjamin J.; Rovder, Ashley M.; Schulte, Jessica M.; Troxell, Kassidy L.; Wolfe, Staci M.; Yawitz, Tanner M.; Gleason, Jane L.; Hargittai, Michele R.S. An Assessment of the Effect of Acid/Base Concentration on Chemical Extraction Efficiency Acids and bases are versatile reagents for a variety of experiments that are seen in an undergraduate chemistry lab. One important function of the properties of acids and bases is their ability to protonate or deprotonate compounds which leads to their separation and aids in the recrystallization process. The efficiency of the extraction and separation of a benzoic acid, naphthalene, and ethyl 4-aminobenzoate mixture was tested by using 0.5 moles per liter (M) and 1M concentrations of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. The solubility of the compounds was first investigated using a well plate to determine the best solvent for the experiment, which was dichloromethane. Once this was determined, the organic compounds were combined into a 1:1:1 ratio mixture. The dichloromethane was then added to this mixture, so the separation of the compounds could be studied. The extractions were completed with timely additions of HCl and NaOH. It was found that the acid-base extractions completed with 1M solutions had a lower average percent yield when compared to the total percent yield of extractions completed with the 0.5M solvents. The purity of the substances was determined by examining the melting points, which were all similar to each other and the literature values for both benzoic acid and ethyl 4aminobenzoate. When naphthalene was examined, it could be seen that the results varied greatly from the literature values as well as each other. This indicates the presence of impurities, especially in the form of benzoic acid and ethyl 4-aminobenzoate, which most likely stemmed from an incomplete extraction earlier in the procedure. The initial hypothesis that 1M concentrations would have a greater effect on product yield and the purity of the solutes than the 0.5M solutions was proven inclusive, but overall there were less impurities and a greater yield with the 0.5M solvents.


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Fischer, Christopher A.; Hegedus, Cody J.; Owens, Katelyn N.; Randall, Robert S.; Webb, Abigail C., Wieger, Danielle L., Kindel, Curtis C. Effects of Verbal Cueing and Elastic Resistance on Squat Mechanics The squat is a common exercise that requires the simultaneous activation of multiple lower extremity muscles and is regularly incorporated into sports training and rehabilitation. Due to its benefits and common utilization in therapeutic exercise, it is important for physical therapists to understand the relationship between muscle activation and joint alignment during a squat in order to effectively decrease risk for injury and facilitate the appropriate musculature. To determine whether verbal cueing, elastic resistance, or the combination of both will facilitate the greatest improvement in squatting technique through EMG activity of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius and decreasing valgus position at the knee joint. This study included members of the Saint Francis University community between the ages of 18-50. Subjects were randomized into two groups; one received verbal cueing and the second elastic resistance. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the gluteus maximus and medius and reflective markers for the motional analysis system were placed on the lower extremity. With TheraBand®, subjects’ knee angle decreased, putting them in a more valgus position when compared to their baseline knee angle. With verbal cueing, subjects increased their knee angle, putting them in a more varus position. A significant difference (p-value< 0.001) was found between the knee angles of the TheraBand® group and those of the verbal cue group. An ANOVA was then performed with a post hoc tukey analysis and showed that the verbal cue variable was significantly different (p=0.02) from the baselines and the combination of variables. EMG values were insignificant when performing the squat in all three scenarios. The current study confirmed the efficacy of verbal cueing as a technique to decrease genu valgum during a squat. Only verbal cueing demonstrated a significant reduction of functional genu valgum, while the combination of verbal cueing and elastic resistance and TheraBand® alone showed no significant difference from the baseline. EMG activation of the gluteal muscles during the performance of a squat was found to be inconclusive. Clinicians should continue to prioritize verbal cueing and patient education during treatment sessions. These verbal cues can help patients learn proper movement patterns, further reducing their risk for injury.

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Smith, Vicky; Rocus, Laura; Kline, Nicole D.; Myers, Sarah E. Mora Gilley: A Glimpse into the Life of a Local “Rosie the Riveter” During World War II when men served overseas women had to take over their jobs in factories, on the railroad, and in other industries. Women were essential to the war effort because they were needed to help with wartime production. Women had to balance their family life and work outside the home. What we learned about life during World War II from Mora Gilley’s life is that women were treated differently when the men were sent off to the war because they got the men’s jobs, they were more independent, and, without them, the war effort would not have been as successful. Everyday life during World War II was very chaotic especially for Mora Gilley, a Rosie the Riveter, who balanced work with family life, faced financial hardship, and became more independent. Mora Gilley is an ideal example of a local “Rosie the Riveter”. Gilley answered the patriotic call to help her country by working for the Pennsylvania Railroad, just as women across the U.S did during World War II. “Rosie the Riveter”, the red bandanna wearingmuscle clenching woman was a key figure to help promote women to work in the dominant male professions. These “Rosies” defied the societal gender rules of the time by working in factories and shipyards. The women’s effort to help their country would not only change American history but especially roles of Women in the following generations to come. Without prominent women like Mora Gilley during World War II, the whole outcome of the war, and life itself, would have been totally different.


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Kosova, Eltion; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. Effect of different exercise types in cardiorespiratory rehabilitation in patients with heart disease Aerobic training is the standard form of training in cardiorespiratory rehabilitation programs (CRP). Previous studies have shown that resistance training is also effective if integrated in CRP. There is a lack of evidence examining the effect of volume of each type of exercise on various health-related outcomes. This meta-analysis will examine the effect of volume of exercise type on aerobic capacity (VO2max), resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure (BP) and the quality of life (QoL) in patients with heart disease (HD). Randomized controlled trials in patients with HD who performed both aerobic and resistance exercises will be included for the meta-analysis. Studies with only one type of exercise or that combined exercises with other methods such as psychological, family or group mediated therapies will be excluded. Databases selected for the research will be: SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier and PubMed with the keywords: cardiac rehabilitation program, training effectiveness. The volume of each exercise type within each study will be calculated. Primary outcome will be the aerobic capacity measured as VO2max. Secondary outcomes will be HR, BP, and QoL. Effect sizes for each variable will be calculated based on volume of exercise type. This meta-analysis may identify what is the best volume of aerobic and resistance exercise in CRP to improve various health related outcomes.

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Kline, Nicole D.; Bose, Aniruddha Collective Guilt in Holocaust Films Historians are often perplexed by the actions of what one human being can do to another. After all, history is really about studying stories of other men and women. But what do people who have lived through history have to say about the mass destruction of a religious group or the enslavement of another human being? This is an idea known as collective guilt. In a nutshell, collective guilt is the idea of a group of people feeling responsible for violent acts without actually committing the violent acts. A common way collective guilt is showcased is through movies. Movies create a visual representation of what history may have looked like through the eyes of those who felt enough guilt to change the course of history. Collective guilt is a common phenomenon evident in several groups throughout history including German collective guilt during and after the Holocaust. My question now becomes this; why do people feel collective guilt about the Holocaust, and why is collective guilt a popular theme in Holocaust movies? I feel collective guilt is popular theme in movies because while there are harrowing stories of death during the Holocaust, there are also inspiring and comforting stories of people who helped those in need. Perhaps collective guilt is a fabricated idea that cannot be proven scientifically. But I feel collective guilt is something every person will feel in their life at least once. Collective guilt can be a powerful emotion that brings a group of people together through mourning and, eventually, to triumph.

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Geissinger, Leah M.; Bartalotta, Zachary D.; Carnevali, Hannah J.; Krumenacker, Emily N.; Smego, Cassandra C.; Baker, Stephen H.; LoRusso, Stephen M.; Mulligan, Ivan J. Self-Reported Lifetime Physical Activity in a Sample of Rural Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study The evidence of the benefits of exercise for those diagnosed with Cancer has grown significantly. These findings include prevention as a measure against cancer occurrence or reoccurrence has been growing significantly. As part of a larger ongoing study examining the characteristics of the rural cancer population in west central Pennsylvania, this study investigated the association between lifetime physical activity and cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe the levels of self-reported lifetime leisure time physical activity levels in a sample of rural cancer survivors. A sample of 39 rural cancer survivors was initially included in the study. Participants recruited from newspaper postings, emails or posters were mailed questionnaires. Thirty-three (33) questionnaires were returned and 27 had usable data. Physical activity data was collected using a modified version of the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire. Data was separated using the following age groups: 13-17, 18-22, 23-34, 35-50, 51-65, and 66-80. Total MET


8 Hours were calculated and were compared to a bench mark of physical activity according to ACSM recommendations of 2.5 hours of moderate intensity activity per week. The comparator of a 5 MET activity was used in the calculation of the benchmark MET Hours value. This study was approved by the Saint Francis University Institutional Review Board. Twenty-seven (27) predominantly white, nonHispanic participants, with a mean age of 60 years (27 to 77 years) completed all outcome measures. The mean age of Cancer diagnosis was 51 years, (9 to 70 years). Breast Cancer (n=11) was the predominate Cancer reported. Significant differences (p<0.05) from actual to predicted MET levels were found for each age group, except for the 13-17 group. The 13-17 group was the only group that exceeded the ACSM recommendation. The following groups demonstrated significantly lower MET level than predicted: 18-22 (p<.017), 23-34, (p<.016), 35-50 (p< .000), 51-65 (p< .001), and 66-80 (p< .043). This pilot data supports the evidence that reduced physical activity is associated with a cancer diagnosis, and suggests that lifetime physical activity levels may play a role in the incidence of Cancer in a rural population. Support was provided by the Office of Student Research. P15

Delaney, Zachary; Onkst, Bryant; Reese, Michael; Roza, Anna; Clark, Rose A. How does Carboxylic Acid Concentration in the Self-Assembled Monolayer effect Cytochrome c Electron transfer Cytochrome c is important because it is a key component in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. This experiment was conducted to determine the best self-assembled monolayer gold electrode to probe cytochrome c electrochemistry. Various electrodes were constructed to test the cytochrome c to examine its oxidation and reduction peaks. These electrodes were constructed with 2 different gold films, evaporated metal film (EMF) and PSU evaporated gold. It was determined that more testing needs to be done to lower the standard deviation in the results.

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Maneval, Tyler M.; Bose, Aniruddha Negative Campaigning Numerous presidential elections in the United States have been filled with political â&#x20AC;&#x153;mudslingingâ&#x20AC;? with candidates vying to assert their beliefs over the opposing partiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; values. This concept also known as negative campaigning has become ingrained in our society since the first presidential election. Negative campaigning seems to have become a natural part of our political races, and that should not be surprising to the public. This type of campaigning has been used throughout American history to win elections from the 18th century to our modern 21st century. I believe that the methods of American negative campaigning has changed throughout history based on technological developments and ever changing societal issues which are predominate to each election. These events have changed the way that elections are conducted each century. Technological improvements have altered the way that information is received by the public. Information used to be received through pamphlets and newspapers which could take weeks to arrive to the public; whereas in modern campaigning news is received and processed instantaneously. Similarly, societal issues of the time period, have also affected the way that campaigning is conducted. Major events such as the economy, slavery, immigration, wars, civil rights, and terrorism have effected how negative campaigns will be. For this project I will analyze the following American Presidential Elections of: 1800, 1824, 1860, 1960, and 2004 to see how each campaign was effected by the technology of the time period, and the societal events occurring at that time period. Negative campaigning will continue to be relevant to our modern world, as each presidential election continues to happen. These methods will continue to be used in future elections, and as members of the public we should learn how they have evolved over time to prepare for upcoming elections.


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Asberry, Cassandra L.; Boyd, Hannah E.; Gaughan, John E.; Hugo, Justin J.; Makin, Kayla M.; Patterson, Kelsey S.; Sangrey, Griffin E.; Shoemaker, Staci E.; Snider, Megan V.; Thon, Cameron W.; Williams, Kira A.; Gleason, Jane L.; Hargittai, Michele R.S. Effects of the number of extractions on extraction efficiency The focus of this study was to determine whether increasing the number of extractions of a homogeneous mixture would produce a higher percent yield as well as a purer sample. Since multiple extractions can expose more of the solute molecules to each solvent it was hypothesized that the double extraction would then increase the ultimate percent yield. The objective of this study was accomplished by using a centrifuge tube and pipets for the double extraction and a separatory funnel for the single extraction of benzoic acid, ethyl 4-aminobenzoate, and naphthalene from solution while keeping volume constant. The melting point range was then found after the isolation of each solid to test for purity. The average percent yields were generally higher for the double extraction of ethyl 4-aminobenzoate and benzoic acid. However, the single extraction for naphthalene produced an average percent yield of over 100%. This is due to multiple other molecules staying in solution with naphthalene rather than being extracted. The double extraction method produced generally lower percent errors in the melting points of ethyl 4aminobenzoate, naphthalene, and benzoic acid. Therefore, the products produced by the double extraction were more accurate than the products of the single extraction. Although the double extraction produced more precise results, the single extraction averaged a higher percent yield. However, this value was skewed due to the inordinately high yield of naphthalene. The study was determined to be inconclusive due to the high standard deviations, the extreme percent yields, and multiple impurities found within the products. Further testing is required to acquire more data points in order to find a more reliable outcome and rule out outliers.

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Rosmus, Jennifer A.; Wrencher, Patrick; Rickert, Leah R.; Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit Instrumental Conditioning and Chain Training of Obstacles in Rattus Rattus Psychology as a field explores the human mind and the functions that it has, specifically those functions that affect behavior. The subfield of learning looks at changes in the mechanisms that allow an organism to shape its behavior to specific stimuli. This current experiment was designed to assess the lab rat’s ability to chain behaviors together by building new behaviors upon previously learned behaviors. Methods used in this experiment included the lab rat becoming habituated to the experimental arena and the implementation of instrumental conditioning through positive reinforcement of each completed task. Results concluded that a lab rat is able to jump through hoops suspended at varying heights (1 cm-3 cm), crawl through a tunnel, ascend a ramp to a platform, and then ring a bell. When all behaviors are arranged sequentially the completion of each behavior signals the initiation of the next. Over the course of the experiment, time to reach and ring the bell became shorter, indicating that the lab rat was able to learn through instrumental conditioning. These results show that lab rats are able to link together behaviors which can be used in the future to teach rats other behaviors.

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Kelly, Rachel E.; Nazaruk, Kathryn R.; Snyder, Nichole A.; Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit Linked-Task Learning in Rats on Obstacle Couse The psychological field of learning studies the mechanisms that underlie the effect of previous experiences on future behavior. Animal behavior can be studied based on the idea that changes in an animal’s behavior could represent the learning of the connection between a stimulus to a response. This study was designed to determine the ability of a rat to learn a “Boot Camp” obstacle course. The rat was operantly conditioned to the ladder, hoops, hurdles, and tunnel; subsequently, the rat was then taught to link the tasks to complete an entire obstacle course. It is expected that the rat will learn to complete the whole obstacle course in a specific order and the rat will complete the course faster than he did in the baseline tests. These findings supported the hypothesis and imply that rats are able to learn to complete


10 tasks in a specific order when reinforced. These outcomes show that operant conditioning is a valid method of teaching rodents to complete tasks; this could lead to larger implications on the field of learning regarding other animals or humans, allowing for faster instruction and mastering of tasks that involve many linked components. P20

Blair, Bartholomew S.; Curry, Annette G.; Felton, Aaron R.; Grasso, Kayla M.; Gray, Aleksia D.; Keiper, Taylor L.; Kibui, Nicole W.; Link, Abigail R.; Naeger, Colleen E.; Romanish, Matthew G.; Slovikosky, Debbie M.; Stone, Jay P.; Tafesse, Rakeb Y.; Wolfe, Anna E.; Wolford, Aundrea Y.; Gleason, Jane L.; Hargittai, Michele R.S. The efficiency of green chemistry in a microscale extraction Green chemistry involves the production of chemicals with the most efficiency in order to generate the least amount of waste possible. Two different sample amounts were tested to determine the smallest amount of starting sample that could be used to still achieve a sufficient percent yield of the final product. A microscale separation and extraction was completed on an equal parts mixture of naphthalene, benzoic acid, and ethyl-4-aminobenzoate. Group A used a larger initial amount of starting material at 0.6 g, and Group B used a smaller amount at 0.2 g. Prior to this experiment, proper solvents were identified using the solutes in a well plate and several different solvents. Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, aqueous hydrochloric acid solution, and dichloromethane were found to be the most effective for the experiment. From the data, a conclusion could not be accurately reached without more testing as to which group had purer samples. However, it was concluded that Group A did have higher percent yields compared to Group B. Group B still had enough final product to efficiently test for product yield and purity.

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Schorr, Hannah C.; Hargittai, Michele R.S. Updating the Purification of Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM) To purify mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM), specialized E.coli cells were grown with a plasmid that codes for His-SUMO-TFAM. We adopted a recently published purification method and compared the purity of TFAM extracted by this method to our previously used purification procedure. Using the new procedure utilizing batch binding and different imidazole concentrations, more bacterial protein and DNA were washed away, resulting in more pure TFAM.

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Yahner, Travis P.; Kornprobst, Nathan A.; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. Effects of different types of exercises on college aged students' working memory Cardiovascular exercise has been shown to increase working memory in all ages by increases in blood flow and perfusion to the brain, increased levels of growth hormone, and increases in neural connections and activity. Recently, neuromotor exercises have been shown to cause greater increases in the previous benefits to result in a greater increase in the subjectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s working memory. Neuromotor exercise benefits on working memory have only been researched in the adolescent and elderly populations to date. The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of neuromotor and cardiovascular exercise on working memory in the college aged population. 10 subjects will be recruited. Physical activity and medical history assessments will be performed for each subject. Subjects will be tested on working memory before and after each type of exercise. Each subject will perform both a 15 minute cardiovascular exercise as well as a 15 minute neuromotor exercise in a randomized counterbalanced order. Data will be analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey Post hoc analyses. Statistical analysis will be conducted using the Minitab (v.17) Statistical Software. Level of significance will be set a priori at p=0.05. The results of this study may show what type of exercise will show an increase in working memory in college aged students due to the benefits of neuromotor exercise.


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Ford, Geoffrey, P.; Timmons, Edward Has the Fed Artificially Inflated the Stock Market? My paper looks into the Feds impact on the stock market since 2000. They have used two different approaches, traditional monetary policy up until the recession and non-traditional monetary policy after the recession. The claim I'm looking to verify is how much of the gains in the S&P 500 since the 2008 recession have occurred in the days during and after a Fed release about interest rates.

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Caruso, Jessica N.; Krupa, Rebekah C.; Pelger, Hannah W.; Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit Teaching a Rat to Respond to Different Whistles using Operant Conditioning Learning psychology is a scientific field that studies the relative permanent changes in behavior that have occurred due to learning a specific behavior. One of the ways to cause a relatively permanent change in an animal’s behavior so that they react in a particular fashion would be to use operant conditioning which focuses on using specificity, rewards, and punishments to develop behavior. This research study was performed to test the ability of various stimuli to effectively modify a lab rat’s behavior and to test if a lab rat was capable of discriminating between specific sounds to produce the desired behavior. It was hypothesized that the timing would decrease from the base-line test for Gus-Gus, the lab rat, to come to a specific whistle and that he would be able to demonstrate discrimination between different sounds. The methodology used to perform this research was to habituate the Gus-Gus to a triangular enclosure that had guards on all sides to prevent the lab rat from falling. The lab rat was then classically conditioning using the unconditioned stimulus (US) of food and the conditioned stimulus of three differently pitched whistles (CS). After successful conditioning, the lab rat’s performance was shaped using positive reinforcement. The extent to which the behavior was learned was assessed by performing a base-line timed test before and after the trial session. By coming to a specific whistle, without randomly guessing, this would demonstrate that the operant conditioning was successful in altering the lab rat’s behavior.

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Graham, Joshua; Bartkovich, Michael; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. Effect of Music on Force Production during Isokinetic Biodex Testing Previous studies have examined the effects of music on resistance testing. Music has shown no significant change to isotonic strength during one repetition maximum bench press testing. There is no evidence examining similar results in isokinetic strength. The purpose of this study will be to examine if music affects force production during isokinetic testing. Ten subjects will be recruited between the ages of 18 and 40 years. All subjects will be medically cleared with no recent lower limb injuries or pain. Subjects will complete isokinetic testing on 2 separate days. One day will include music and one day without music. The order of trials will be counterbalanced with two days in between. Subjects will warm-up on a cycle ergometer for 5 minutes at low intensity. Standard instructions will be provided to each subject for proper technique to complete isokinetic testing. Isokinetic testing will include single leg extension and flexion at a slow and fast speed in both legs. Force produced under both conditions will be compared using a dependent t test. Statistical analysis will be conducted using Minitab (v. 17) Statistical Software. The level of significance with be set to a priori 0.05. The results from this study may help to identify if music has an effect on isokinetic force production.

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Elliott, Hayden C.; Baker, Stephen H.; Beebout, Carrie D. I’m ok, are you ok? A comparison of quality of life in rural cancer survivors and caregivers The purpose of this research study was to compare health perceptions and health promotion behaviors of rural cancer survivors and cancer caregivers. The rural population has not been extensively studied in terms of cancer survivorship. This research study was conducted to contribute to this lacking field of knowledge. In the few studies conducted on these populations, rural cancer survivors and caregivers fare


12 worse than their urban counterparts because of their rural location and subsequent decreased access to specialized care and resources. Additionally, these populationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs during and after treatment differ from each other, and constantly change during the survivorship period. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General was distributed to rural cancer survivors and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Population was given to rural cancer caregivers. Both groups completed a brief demographics intake. The Fact-G and demographics form were given to survivors in print form. The FactGP and demographics form were given to caregivers in survey form via Google Survey online or in print form. Using an ANOVA test, the data was analyzed in SPSS. It was concluded that rural cancer caregivers demonstrated/reported poorer total quality of health in comparison to cancer survivors [F(1, 45)=25.620, p < .000]. Further research of the overall health and well-being of rural cancer caregivers in comparison to rural cancer survivors with a larger sample is necessary to determine a correlation between rurality and worsened caregiver outcomes. An investigation of urban and rural caregivers should be conducted to study the association of the caregiver role on their health and well-being outcomes in comparison to cancer survivors. P27

Shee, William A.; Flynn, Victoria N.G.; Jones, Maura J.; Hargittai, Balazs Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Cyclic Amino Acids with Basic Side-Chains The cyclic amino acid proline is limited by steric constraints and has a strong structural effect orienting two sections of a peptide or protein chain in specific directions and limiting possible structures for the whole molecule. The objective of our research is to synthesize a novel cyclic proline derivative with a basic side-chain and then incorporate this novel amino acid into peptide sequences. The application of microwaves to select steps of the synthesis to replace traditional methods has the advantages of reducing reaction time and increasing product yield. It has been shown that the presence of a basic amino acid in certain positions of our model peptides greatly enhances their binding ability, while the presence of a cyclic amino acid in the same position can lead to the formation of their natural isomers with good selectivity.

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Frank, Mark A.; Murdock, Sophie G.; Shearer, Sydney J.; Trimble, John J. Testing the Acid Stability of Minute Virus of Mice Virions The minute virus of mice (MVMp) is a rodent parvovirus that commonly infects both wild and laboratory mice. MVMp causes no ill effects in adult mice, but may cause still birth of mouse pups. MVMp is also under study for its oncolytic activity, making this virus of importance to cancer research. Due to the small genome of MVMp, the virus requires constantly dividing A9 mouse fibroblast cells in order to replicate. Viable MVMp kills growing A9 cells due to its cytopathogenic effect. In this experiment, the sensitivity of the minute virus of mice to low pH conditions was examined. We hypothesize that the more acidic conditions will disrupt the infectivity of the MVMp, resulting in survival of A9 cells. The acid stability of viruses is a fundamental property of some viruses that make them resistant to acid-based disinfectants.

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Erzen, Brenna; Thomas, Brennan M. Living the Life of a Princess; a Reflection of Women in Society Disney films featuring princess heroines have often been criticized for depicting females in a subordinate manner, as far as equality to men is concerned, and to some extent, these criticisms are valid. Although later Disney films do show stronger female protagonists than those of earlier films, they are in various ways lagging behind social trends in gender equality, feminism and female empowerment. This lag does not necessarily reflect a sexist agenda so much as adherence to a formula that was begun in the studioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s early days and proved financially successful and appealing to audiences. The studioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s two biggest commercial successes during the Classical Period (1937-1966) are Snow White and Cinderella, which set the mold for fairytale stories centered by female characters and for Disney princesses. Common


13 characteristics, such as innocence, kindness, youth, and of course, beauty, are seen in each princess of this era. There is a departure from this classical formula in the “Middle Era” (1967-1988) simply because very few films focused on fairy tales and none on major female leads. However, those female characters that appeared in Disney films during this era show signs of independence, strength, and less concern for romance. With the start of the Disney Renaissance in 1989, we see return of the fairy tale and the Disney princess with Ariel in The Little Mermaid, Jasmine in Aladdin, and Pocahontas. Some of the formulaic characteristics (youth, beauty, innocence) return but along with those emerge new qualities (independence, devotion to one’s family, and greater involvement in the outer world). And this continued with films in the early 2000s with Kida of Atlantis. As my poster presentation visually depicts, the studio has made some progress in its representation of women, though it must do more, especially since stronger female characters are seen in recent non-Disney films. P30

Geiger, Christine; Reckner, Douglas M.; Smith, Alyssa D.; Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit Utilizing Instrumental Conditioning to Discriminate Between Scents in Laboratory Rats Learning, one of the fundamental fields of psychology, involves the investigation of why and how animals interact with their surroundings. One method which aides in learning of behaviors is instrumental conditioning. During this process, animals learn that their behavior has the ability to control the outcome of an event. Rats are extremely intelligent animals which comprehend this topic very quickly. Their intelligence has been combined with their unmatched olfactory senses; these two features have been paired and used to efficiently sniff out land mines. Our study attempts to evoke similar qualities from our lab rat as he will learn to discriminate between scents using instrumental conditioning. We will train him to recognize and acknowledge an important scent and ignore scents that are irrelevant. Various methods will be used to achieve this including habituating the lab rat to the testing environment and establishing the desired scent as a conditioned stimulus using positive reinforcement and negative punishment. When our lab rat moves toward the target scent, we will positively reinforce this behavior with food pellets. After he has learned, we will no longer reward him unless he shows new behaviors that progress toward the target scent. We will use negative punishment by ignoring all irrelevant behaviors such as approaching the wrong scent. The results conclude that our lab rat is able to discriminate between a specific scent which produces a reward and distinguish it from others that do not produce a reward. This research shows that rats are able distinguish between scents. Future studies may further analyze this learning method by testing rats’ ability to detect drugs against non-harmful substances which will be applicable in the real world.

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Bartlebaugh, Alyssa L.; Canak, Jade A.; Rozich, Alyssa C.; Scott, Gabriella D.; Loya, Lane J.; Merry, Justin W. Assessment of Aquatic Insect Communities in Passive Abandoned Mine Drainage Remediation Sites In addition to protecting headwater streams from abandoned mine drainage (AMD), constructed passive treatment systems also provide potentially-valuable habitat for aquatic organisms. To determine if these treatment systems create communities similar in diversity to those in unpolluted ecosystems, we compared aquatic insect communities inhabiting AMD remediation sites to those in non-AMD ponds. Our study sites consisted of seven AMD treatment systems and three non-AMD sites located in Cambria and Somerset Counties, Pennsylvania. Each sampled pond was sorted into one of three categories by severity of pollution: High Pollution (AMD entry ponds), Low Pollution (AMD exit ponds), or No Pollution (nonAMD control sites). Insect communities were sampled by sweep net in May and June 2016 and evaluated across pollution category by comparing total number of individuals, family richness, species richness, and species diversity (Shannon index). Species-level taxa were estimated by sorting the individuals by morphotype (recognizable taxonomic units). We found that aquatic insect communities in AMD systems compared favorably to those in natural ecosystems in some, but not all, measures. There were no significant differences across pollution level for either the number of individual insects or for Shannon


14 diversity index values. However, there were significantly more aquatic insect morphotypes (species) and insect families in non-AMD ponds compared to either the high- or low-pollution AMD ponds. Water quality data indicated that our AMD ponds varied substantially across many variables, including pH, conductivity, sulfate, and metal content, and that these measures often did not differ between our qualitative “low” and “high” AMD classifications. Future work will consist of identifying individuals to the species level to replace the uncertainly in using morphotypes, further collection of specimens, and further refinement of data analysis using ordination methods. P32

Hoover, Nathan S.; Maffei, Luke V.; Williams, Kira A.; Trimble, John J. Determining the Thermal Stability of the Minute Virus of Mice in Mouse A9 Cells Studying the thermal stability of a virus is a standardized method performed to determine the hardiness of a viral particulate in an external environment. When a virus is more prone to thermal denaturation, it may struggle to survive outside of a host. A culture of mouse A9 cells were studied in vitro to visualize the thermal stability of the prototype Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), a cousin to the H-1 parvovirus (PV) found in rats. H-1 PV is in clinical trials for possible medical application in treatment of glioblastomas, an otherwise untreatable disease. MVMp may have potential for similar applications as a cousin of H-1 PV. MVMp is a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid parvovirus which infects fibroblasts and epithelial cells of mice. MVM aliquots were heated for varying amounts of time and applied at different dilutions to A9 cells of a 96 well plate. After wells were inoculated, the cells were incubated until confluence was reached in control wells, approximately one week. Cells were dyed with Wright’s stain and Leishman’s stain. The result was an array of wells with varying color intensity. A greater intensity of staining is indicative of cell proliferation, while a clear well indicates the viral replication in A9 cells causing cell lysis.

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Kirkland, Tahlon; Bose, Aniruddha John F. Kennedy's Assassination Lead to Moon Mission The assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 lead to a massive push in NASA, Technologically, funding based, and also national support for landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960’s. During Kennedy’s presidency, he stated that we would land a man on the moon by the end of the 60’s. Nine years later after making this statement we landed a man on the moon. John F. Kennedy’s plan of landing on the moon allowed for massive pushes in technology, you see this in schools in the United States for Mathematics and Sciences. Once John F. Kennedy was assassinated and Lyndon Johnson came to office, Johnson made sure that Kennedy’s agendas were completed as a memory of John F. Kennedy, and you can see this with past presidents being assassinated. You can also see that NASA funding grew steadily over the years that Kennedy was president and once he was assassinated but once we arrived on the moon the funding dwindled off. People will say that the reason we landed a man on the moon was because of the threat of the USSR, communism and the spread of communism. We wanted to beat USSR and show the world that we are the best and most powerful country. This is an important topic and people should be interested in it because since putting a man on the moon in 1969, we have not landed another human being on the moon in 47 years, why is this? Is it because of John F. Kennedy’s assassination played a huge rule in accomplishing this task, he was our last American president assassinated and we haven’t gone to the moon since then. All of these are very interesting topics and cause for serious food for thought and definitely needs to be explored this topic.

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Foggia, Nicholas J.; Bennett, Nicholas; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes with Injured and Non-injured ACL The recognition and prevention of noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries has become more common in women’s athletics. Having athletes be screened and tested using physical performance


15 tests (PPT) may help detect ACL reinjury risk. The objective of this study is to observe the performance measures of womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s collegiate Division I (D1) athletes with and without previous ACL injury. It is hypothesized that those with a previous ACL injury will have a lower performance on the test and could be a warning sign to possible injury or reinjury to an ACL. Sixteen (previous ACL injury n=8, no previous injury n=8) NCAA D1 Women's athletes will undergo agility and functional hop testing. Tests will include Pro-Agility test, Agility T-test, single-leg hop test, triple leg hop test and triple crossover hop test. Prior to the tests the subjects will undergo a general warm-up around a 124 meter track followed by practice trials for each test assessed. The distance will then be recorded during the hop tests to the nearest 0.25 inch. The symmetry between the legs for each hop tests will be calculated as a percentage for each subject. Independent sample T-tests will examine differences between the groups. Statistical analysis will be conducted using Minitab (v. 17) Statistical Software. Level of significance will be set a priori at 0.05. Several clinical tests can assess whether an athlete is ready to return to sport after an ACL injury. Such tests may include expensive equipment that lower level teams may not have access to. This study may help determine if there are differences between injured and uninjured athletes using simple testing without expensive equipment. P35

Caffey, Robert M.; Gruszkowski, Gabrielle E.; Hilty, Meagan R.; Trimble, John J. MTT Cytotoxicity Assay of Kava Using HeLa Cells Kava extracts from the root of the Piper methysticum plant have been used commonly in the South Pacific islands in ceremonies and traditions. Recently, this phenomenon of kava consumption has been making its mark in the United States, Europe, Australia, and Canada. People have been using kava recreationally and to treat symptoms for insomnia, anxiety, premenstrual syndrome, etc. The effects of kava have been compared to alcohol use; however, the mind remains clear with kava use. The controversy with kava comes from the possibility that hepatotoxicity and general cell toxicity could occur. In addition to toxicity, kava use can lead to effects on the central nervous system, skin issues, oral dyskinesia (muscle impairment), and seizures in individuals that are predisposed to them. These effects, especially hepatotoxicity, occur in response to kava metabolites causing alkylation to DNA or disturbing enzymatic, metabolic activity. In this project, the cytotoxicity of kava will be tested using a range of kava concentrations in an MTT assay.

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Burge, McKenzie J.; Green, Thomas J.; Gruber, Rachel D.; Hoover, Nathan S.; Kasunic, Paul T.; Kestermont, Cari A.; McCulley, James A.; McKernan, Grace C.; McKnight, Nicholas P.; Rupert, Candace L.; Ryan, George W.; Samuel, Katie E.; Scott, Gabriella D.; Weinzierl, Darren J.; Youmbi, Perez B.; Gleason, Jane L.; Hargittai, Michele R.S. Effects of acid or base primacy on the efficiency of extraction Extraction has been used for decades to purify organic compounds, allowing for the separation of visibly similar materials. The process of extraction has many steps and variations that can be changed. In this particular study, a 1:1:1 mixture of benzoic acid (BA), ethyl 4-aminobenzoate (E4A), and naphthalene (Naph) was dissolved in dichloromethane. The organic acid and the organic base were extracted with 0.5M NaOH or 0.5M HCl, respectively. This study evaluated the efficiency of extracting with an acid or a base first. It was hypothesized that since the primary step was interchangeable, the difference between the results produced by the two separate procedures should be insignificant. The extraction beginning with 0.5M NaOH produced a higher percent yield of both BA, and E4A, which were pure substances. Conversely, the initial extraction with 0.5M HCl produced lower percent yields of the pure substances, and a greater percent yield of the impure Naph. Based on the gathered information, the procedure with the initial addition of 0.5M NaOH was considered to be more efficient.


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Brennan, Gabrielle M.; Wisniewski, Kristofer S.; Fitzgerald, Patricia I. Cycling and Cancer: What Does Love Have to Do with It? White male septuagenarians with colon cancer comprise a small percentage (102.7 per 100,000) of the US population and may consider the challenge of ~1,500 mile bicycling trek from New York City, NY to Sarasota, FL, in eight weeks, unlikely. In May 2013, a white, 66-year-old male, avid bicyclist was diagnosed with stage IV colon cancer. In December 2013, surgery for right lung metastatic disease occurred. The authors of this study designed an exercise program to help the subject prepare for the 1,500 mile ride. The self-reported serious cyclist used his passion for cycling to raise funds for the Dorothy Day Outreach Center, a volunteer-based campus organization supporting area residents who need assistance. The purpose of the study is to describe the responses of a male, septuagenarian survivor of stage IV colon cancer to a 10-week exercise intervention. Health-fitness tests were performed prior to and after a supervised, 10-week exercise intervention. Pre-test, post-test percent change scores are presented in Table 1 indicating that exercise training intervention designed for this septuagenarian survivor of cancer positively changed selected physiological variables.

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Descriptive Data

Pre-test

Post-test

Weight (kg) BMI (kg/m2) Waist Circumference (cm) Sum 7-site skinfold (mm) BodPod % Fat Time reached 85% (min:sec) VO2 85% APMHR (L/min) RPE 85% APMHR (OMNI) Sit and Reach (cm)

80.4 24.0 84.75 136.0 25.2 8:10 1.07 8 33.0

81.09 24.2 81.0 126.5 22.9 9:30 1.00 9 39.0

% Change +0.86 +0.83 -4.40 -6.98 -9.13 +16.0 -6.54 +12.5 +18.0

Biodex Variables Right Hip Flexion Right Hip Extension Right Knee Flexion Right Knee Extension Left Hip Flexion Left Hip Extension Left Knee Flexion Left Knee Extension

Pre-test Post-test % Change 60º/sec 180º/sec -62.6 -45.8 -12.4 -6.7 +9.2 +1.5 -5.2 -1.4 -61.9 -32.4 -5.2 -4.6 +2.8 +6.2 -10.7 -0.3

Byrne-Houser, Maireade M.; Bose, Aniruddha The Olympics Have Always Been Unnecessary and Negative The Olympics are a historical and only international testament of amazing accomplishment. The spectacle is watched by hundreds of millions for each sport. News cycles and sports stations focus on the Olympics through high budgets, travel, and advertisement as must watch good stories. The ultimate modern David versus Goliath reality. It brings together people from all walks of life and cultures. It travels the world for destinations every four years. The economic factors of the Olympics are too great. It costs the hosts too much money. The infrastructure is costly, long, dangerous, and unimportant. Tensions grow worse and rise from political conflict. Historic enemies become embroiled in new conflicts that will last generations more. The Olympics should not continue because they have proven that they are an unnecessary international focal point without doing enough good worldwide. It has caused tensions to grow for example the 1936 Olympics hosted by Germany at the height of a new regime. This regime is more known for its leader and WWII, but in the eyes of Hitler and his Germans it was to be a show of complete Nazi dominance. The Americans ruined the host’s dreams. Back on the third of August 1936 reporters raved over the extravagance that Germany showed off to begin the games. All the reports previewed a winning spectacle of Nazi dominance and history already tells us that Nazi ideals never rose to the greatness that Hitler wanted. This analysis is not to be a pro-war or pro mistake work, just a look at all the wrong and hardships the Olympics since the early 20th century has caused. Although the United States at one time benefited from the international spotlight, twenty years later they struggled with the Olympic torch. Civil rights issues disrupted the U.S. and then the next century saw struggles both humanities and finances. Overall the Olympics contribute more negatively to society and it is not a new phenomenon.


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Sterner, Zachary R.; Asberry, Cassandra L.; Naeger, Colleen E.; Meurer, Katherine E.; Hawkins, Alayna K.; Scanlan, Andrew M.; Wolf, Irene M. The Effects of Estrogen on Zebrafish Caudal Fin Regeneration Regeneration is one of the most prominent areas studied in zebrafish (Danio rerio) due to their natural ability to regenerate their fins. Interestingly, studies have shown steroid hormones can affect the rate of regeneration. It was demonstrated that glucocorticoids were sufficient at blocking caudal fin regeneration. However, it remains unknown the effects of other steroid hormones on fin regeneration. Due to the high use of contraception that contains estrogen and/or progesterone and increasing use of testosterone in males to treat erectile dysfunction these hormones have been found in wastewaters. It has been reported the levels of these hormones in streams near urban environments are increasing. Therefore, this project investigates the effects of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone on caudal fin regeneration. The zebrafish are housed in 1 liter tanks with increasing levels of estrogen: 0 ng/L, 1 ng/L, 50ng/L and 100 ng/L. These levels are similar to those found in urban waters. Caudal fin amputation of the fish is achieved by using a scalpel under the effects of the anesthetic and then placed into treatment tanks. Regeneration was measured by growth of caudal fin using a Leica E24HD stereomicroscope each week. Caudal fin regeneration was complete after the third week. Preliminary results suggest increasing amounts of estrogen retard the regeneration rates of the caudal fin. More trials must be completed to determine if this delay in growth is statistically significant. Furthermore, future studies will determine if progesterone and/or testosterone play a role in caudal fin regeneration.

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Aviles, Luis A.; Li, Ying Electrochemical analysis of pyrite dissolution Acid mine water drainage is a widespread environmental issue caused by the runoff of water that is collected in abandoned mines and is contaminated by metals that are dissolved in the water. Pyrite is a major contributor to acid mine water drainage as it is abundant in many mines. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) the dissolution of pyrite is studied to gain a further understanding of the processes that occur. Using knowledge of pyrite solution a simple circuit was postulated to use as a comparison for pyrite dissolution. Using this simple circuit a program was derived to calculate the specific components of resistance.

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De Souza, Gabriel P.; Shahkarami, Alireza Horizontal Well Spacing and Hydraulic Fracturing Design Optimization: A Case Study on Utica-Point Pleasant Shale Play Recent drilling and hydraulic fracturing activities in the Utica-Point Pleasant shale play have recorded true vertical depth of over 13,500 feet. Drilling wells at this depth is very costly and challenging. With the current commodity pricing, drilling in such conditions becomes unaffordable. One immediate solution to the current low energy prices is optimizing well spacing to enhance hydrocarbon recovery and, thus, the commercial feasibility of the project. Horizontal well spacing constitutes a fundamental parameter for the success of a shale-drilling venture. Determining the optimum horizontal well spacing in shale reservoirs represents a challenging task because of the complexity of controlling factors. Geological modeling and reservoir simulation are the standard tools utilized in the industry to integrate these controlling factors. In this study, we employed these tools to perform sensitivity analysis of reservoir characteristics and future production optimization for a deep drilling case study in the Utica-Point Pleasant formations. We sought to find the optimum horizontal well spacing scenario as well as hydraulic fracturing design, in order to attain the highest net present value for 50 years of gas production. Our highest NPV scenario contained a total of 6 horizontal wells with a well spacing of 800 ft. Our uncertainty analysis indicated that the most reliable scenario would contain six wells with each well being 900 feet apart.


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Carnell, Dustin P.; Arney, Blaine E.; Bertie, Richard S.; Fitzgerald, Patricia I.; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. Relationship Between Injury Rate Index and Re-Injury Anxiety Inventory Scores A common factor often involved with return to sport after injury is Re-Injury Anxiety (RIA). This has been identified as a potential contributing factor to re-injury in athletes upon return to sport and has been proposed as a factor affecting speed of rehabilitation. One factor that has not been studied with RIA is the prevalence amongst various types of sport as defined by the Injury Rate Index (IRI). This study will examine if a relationship exists between the IRI of a sport and the RIA experienced by the injured athletes of that sport. Injured male and female division 1 athletes who have sustained a time loss injury putting the athlete out of participation for at least 1 day will complete the Re-injury Anxiety Inventory (RIAI). Information such as athlete's sport, years attending the university, injury, time predicted out of participation, time currently spent out of participation, and a Global Rating of Change scale (GRC) score will be collected for each subject. The RIAI will be given to the athletes with standard instructions provided. The RIAI will be scored for each athlete based on sport. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analyses will assess the relationship between IRI and RIAI scores for each sport. Statistical analysis will be conducted using Minitab (v. 17) Statistical Software. Level of significance will be set a priori at p=0.05. The results of this study may assist athletic trainers in identifying which sports cause the most RIA in athletes, and may be used to improve efforts to reduce RIA in the future.

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Marconi, Kelsie; Hutchison, Amanda L.; Semelsberger, Brooke D.; Stubbs, Regan E.; FlaisherGrinberg, Shlomit Lemonade from the Bronx: A Learning Approach to Economic and Social Behaviors Learning is a long-term change in an animal’s behavior that results from experience. The field of learning psychology focuses on the cognitive and biological/neurological processes that occur in order to achieve these behavioral changes. By utilizing learning psychology methodologies, we wanted to determine whether or not our rat can learn to exchange a coin for food. The method included the use of successive approximation to train our rat to pick up the coin and then place it on a wooden block. Clicker training methodology was also used to aid in the learning process by providing immediate reinforcement of the behavior we were seeking. To determine learning efficacy, we compared the total time it took our rat to perform the behavior before, during, and after shaping. Findings demonstrate that with proper reinforcement schedules, rats can learn to exchange money for food through instrumental conditioning. Findings also demonstrated that with consecutive trials, time taken to complete this behavior decreased. These findings suggest that, similar to humans, rats are capable of performing the economic behavior of exchange. Because an exchange occurs between two or more individuals, it is suggested that rats can also perform social behaviors. Further research is needed to determine whether these economic and social behaviors can be extended to allow the rat to exchange a specific amount of money for a specific amount of food, such as exchanging a dime for one banana pellet and two dimes for five banana pellets.

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Heise, Andrew S.; Scanlan, Andrew M.; Shoemaker, D. Sue The Effects of Acidification Measured on the Red Sea Soft Coral, Xenia elongata Acidification of the oceans affects marine organisms negatively, especially coral. Laboratory studies have been mainly conducted on the structural health of hard corals, whereas soft corals haven’t received nearly the same amount of research. Considering how abundant soft corals and other octocorals are in ocean ecosystems, (Gomez, et al 2014) it is surprising how little ocean acidification is tested on this subclass of Anthozoans. Within this subclass, Xenia elongata is a vigorous coral with “flower” shaped feathery polyps that grow out of colonial bodies and Xenia is known to thrive in an aquarium setting. With a thorough understanding of the physiology of corals, it can be hypothesized that the Xenia will grow at a reduced rate when the pH of it’s environment is lower than normal (8.1 pH). Additionally, this soft coral


19 can easily show signs of poor health from various visual cues. Through this experiment, the effects of acidification were tested within the coral, Xenia elongata, and reproduction speed was measured. Three tanks were set up; a control, and two others that would have the pH adjusted to 7.8 and 7.6. Through multiple trials, the colonies of Xenia in each tank were exposed to carbon dioxide to reach the desired pH and polyps were counted to determine if they were affected by fluctuations in pH. It was observed that with lower pH (7.6), the Xenia colonies began to pale, wither, and produce far less polyps than the control colony. Further trials will need to be conducted to determine any correlation in the relationship between Xenia and pH. P45

Michael, Tyler D.; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. Inter-rater Reliability of the Overhead Squat Test The Overhead Squat Test (OST) is used to assess potential muscular imbalances in an individual. The subject performs five repetitions of the Overhead Squat while a rater views from three different angles (anterior, lateral, and posterior). The inter-rater reliability of the OST, especially between different professions who are most likely to use this test, has not been previously examined. The purpose of the study is to determine the inter-rater reliability of the OST between raters of different exercise professions. Eight subjects between the ages of 18-30 years old will participate in this study. Eighteen reflective markers will be placed on the lower extremities for motion analysis. Each subject will be instructed on how to perform the OST. Subjects will complete the OST while being video recorded from each angle. Vicon Motion Capture System with Nexus 2 Software will be used to analyze each subjectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s movement patterns. Four different raters will be provided instructions on how to score the OST. The raters will be a Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC), Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), Physical Therapist (DPT), and Biomechanist/Physical Therapist (PHD, MPT). Two videos of all subjects will created. Each video will have subjects in a random order. Each rater will be provided one of the videos to watch only 1 time and score each subject according to the test standards. Fleissâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; kappa will be used to determine the inter-rater reliability amongst the professions using Minitab (v. 17) Statistical Software. The significance of the study is finding strong agreement between raters that will show consistency between different exercise professions in using the OST to assess muscular imbalances.

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Gobert, Zachary A.; Brady, Michael T.; Jones, Benjamin J.; Smith, Benjamin D. Building a RamanPi Spectrometer with the Use of 3D Printable Material A Raman spectrometer identifies molecules. This type of spectrometer matches that of an IR (infrared spectrometer) but has differences also. Both types use molecular vibrations to identify molecules. One major difference is that in a Raman spectrometer water does not produce a signal. From this a solution can be analyzed in water, which IR cannot do. Raman instruments cost upwards to around $50,000. We are building a functional RamanPi spectrometer for a lower cost and then use this spectrometer in class and further research projects. Also use this for education spectroscopy and Raman in general. We are following a procedure online that successfully build one. The procedure requires us to 3D print multiple parts, code for programs and both wire and solder the wires to the given circuit boards. We are currently undergoing this procedure. We acknowledge the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) for providing an education outreach grant to support our work.

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Conrad, Matthew S.; Elliott, Hayden C.; Appelbaum, Rachael D.; Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit Motivational, Motor, and Cognitive Integration of Chain Behaviors Using an Obstacle Course in Rattus norvegicus Understanding the processes of learning is a useful endeavor, and not simply within the confines of academia. Studying the manner by which organisms learn can allow for a better understanding of how the mind works and how an organism adapts to their environment. Chain behaviors require stimuli and


20 responses, and while it is known that rats can learn obstacle behaviors, the complexity of motivational, cognitive, and motor behaviors is unknown. This research study was conducted to determine if rats have the ability to complete a multi-obstacle agility course that requires the integration and mastery of motivation, motor, and cognitive behaviors. The methods include operant conditioning, variable ratios, schedules of reinforcement, and shaping with successive approximations; chaining was used to combine each individual obstacle with the others in order to create a step-by-step response pattern in the obstacle course. The assessments include obstacle-specific training (rock wall, platforms, tunnels, slalom, etc.), while baseline and post-test trial times, latency to start, and time taken to complete the entire obstacle course were used to evaluate learning efficiency. The results of this study included a decrease in latency and a decrease time taken to complete the individual obstacles and the obstacle course as a whole. The change in response rate, speed, and latency to respond indicated that the rat learned using evaluative learning. The rat’s ability to perform individual obstacles and complete them in a successive manner demonstrated that the rat’s behavioral repertoire was enhanced. P48

Greenwalt, McKenna L.; Black, Elizabeth L.; Harteis, Kelsey E.; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Test Anxiety Previous studies have shown that physical activity can reduce anxiety. There are different forms of anxiety such as test anxiety. Test anxiety refers to cognitive and affective reactions to the possibility of negative consequences resulting from the performance on a test or in an evaluative situation. The relationship between physical activity and test anxiety in college students has not been previously investigated. This study will examine if a relationship exists between physical activity and test anxiety. Undergraduate and graduate students will complete an electronic survey via Survey Monkey. The survey will assess demographic information including gender, age, academic year, and the topic that elicits the most test anxiety. This survey will also include previously validated questionnaires assessing physical activity habits and test anxiety. Test anxiety score will be calculated from the results of the questionnaire. This score will be compared to physical activity habits using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analyses. Statistical analysis will be conducted using Minitab (v. 17) Statistical Software. Level of significance will be set by a priori at p = 0.05. This study will determine if a relationship exists between physical activity and test anxiety. If an inverse relationship exists between physical activity habits and test anxiety, this may motivate people to become more physically active to reduce test anxiety.

P49

Alemu, Tinsae S.; Trimble, John J. The Human Pancreatic Cell Line, MIA PaCa-2, is Not Permissive for Replication of a Murine Parvovirus, MVMp Murine parvoviruses, a family of single-stranded DNA viruses that includes the Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp), are commonly found in both wild and laboratory mice. The virus does not infect normal human cells, but does replicate in some human tumor lines such as glioblastoma cells (a type of brain tumor) and metastatic hemangiosarcoma cells. A related rat parvovirus, PV H-1, is in clinical trials as a naturally oncolytic viral therapy for human neuroblastoma and other recalcitrant human tumors. This project determined that MIA PaCa-2, human pancreatic cancer cell line, is not permissive for MVMp replication. In comparison, HeLa cells are known to be non-permissive and A9 mouse fibroblasts support virus replication. Since MVMp requires cell division for virus replication, cells were seeded at 1/50th of confluence in 96-well plates and infected after 6 hours with MVMp dilutions from 10-1 to 10-10. After two days incubation, plates were stained with Leishman’s solution, so wells with living cells are blue and cleared wells are due to cell killing by MVMp. These cell culture results suggest the oncolytic potential of MVMp may not be useful in treating carcinoma tumors of the type represented by MIA PaCa-2, a hypotriploid cell line that has a modal chromosomal number of 61.


21 P50

Krupa, Rebekah C.; Gella, Venkat; Smith, Benjamin D.; Zovinka, Edward P. The Affect of pH on the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Metal nanoparticles have been synthesized and extensively studied for drug transport, catalysis, and energy production. The synthesis usually involves the addition of a reducing agent to a metal salt. The size and polydispersity is controlled by the type of reducing and concentration of reducing agent. The effect of pH on the metal nanoparticle has been only briefly examined. This study involves synthesis of silver nanoparticles at varying pHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and different reducing agents, including tea leaves and citrate. When the reducing agent is added as a basic solution, the size and the polydispersity of the silver nanoparticles decreases while the concentration increases.

P51

Smith, Rachel A.; Fitzgerald, Patricia I. Stem Cell Therapy and Exercise Intervention: A Case Study The purpose of this poster was to describe a unique experience of an exercise physiology intern through the presentation of a case study. A young, apparently healthy, college aged female received stem cell therapy (SCT) for a non-union fracture, lateral sesamoid bone, left foot. The SCT involved removing bone marrow from the anterior hip, centrifuging the bone marrow, and injecting the pure stem cells into the affected area. The goal of the SCT was to regenerate the damaged bone and cartilage tissue. Postsurgical intervention, the subject used a combination of traditional land exercise interventions and hydrotherapy to assist in regaining the functional mobility needed to play collegiate level competitive basketball. The subject progressed rapidly as going from non-weight bearing status to full conditioning for college basketball within three months. During the third phase of the exercise intervention, many basketball specific exercises and activities were done with without complication. Overall, the subject responded well to the SCT and the exercise interventions. Had the subject chosen to have the sesamoid bone removed instead of attempting stem cell therapy, the subject would have been non-weight bearing for 6 weeks, in a walking boot for an additional 6 weeks, then only have been allowed to start light physical therapy at 12-weeks. The stem cell therapy allowed the subject to return to functional activities much sooner and with fewer restrictions. The apparent full recovery from SCT was expected to be permanent without future complications. The SCT in combination with exercise and hydrotherapy interventions was successful and indicated the potential usefulness of SCT for bone regeneration in female collegiate basketball players.

P52

Shearer, Sydney J.; Murdock, Sophie G.; Shoff, Timothy A.; Wolf, Irene M. The Effects of Commercialized Performance Enhancements on Cell Proliferation in 3T3 Mouse Fibroblasts Many athletes seek supplements that accelerate the recovery process, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In humans, IGF-1 is stimulated by growth hormones and synthesized primarily by the liver, but also produced by bone and muscle tissue. It is important in skeletal growth by inducing chondrocyte proliferation and has effects on connective tissue proliferation. IGF-1 is an anabolic steroid and banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), yet it is still used by many athletes. Commercial companies claim that a product created from Deer Velvet Antler (DVA) mimics IGF-1. According to an article on BornFitness.com, individuals aiming for higher performance and accelerated recovery rates have begun using DVA. However, very little laboratory research has been conducted to support these claims. We hypothesized that IGF-1 and commercialized DVA will enhance cell proliferation in 3T3 Mouse fibroblast cells. Data utilizing scratch assays reveal an increase in cell proliferation when treating the cells with commercialized DVA and DVA plus synthetic IGF-1 in serum. Interestingly, the data indicates that smaller concentrations of DVA induces greater cell proliferation. Conversely, all three drugs show increased cell growth when grown in media without serum. Future studies will be conducted using MTT assays to confirm the effects of DVA on cell proliferation.


22 P53

Hinz, Mary M.; LaBuz, Brandon L. Quasi-Isometries and Large Scale Equivalences We can think of two spaces as being coarsely equivalent by mentally “zooming out” and comparing them at the large-scale level. As an example, we have that the reals are coarsely equivalent to the rationals and the integers because, if we “zoom out,” they appear the same and have similar properties. There is the notion of quasi-isometry which is stronger than course equivalence; the definition is more restrictive since it requires the existence of global constants. In many standard situations, the two are interchangeable, but we wanted to see that the concept of quasi-isometry is strictly stronger. We find two spaces that are coarsely equivalent but not quasi-isometric.

P54

Evans, Christopher R.; Krupa, Rebekah C.; Spangler, Taylor R.; Trimble, John J. Size Determination of the Minute Virus of Mice pavovirus (MVMp) The minute virus of mice parvovirus (MVMp) is a single stranded DNA parvovirus that effects many subspecies and species of mice. This research study focuses on the size determination of MVMp using various filters and the resulting filtrate will destroy A9 mouse fibroblast cells if the mVMp passed through the filter. The size of virus was indirectly determined using membranes with varying pore sizes of 800, 450, 200, 100, and 30.0 nm. To prevent adsorption of the virus to the membrane of the autoclaved filters, each of the filters were treated with 5% fetal calf serum in sterile PBS. The virus was passed through each of the filter units and the variously filtered viral samples added to on a 96-well plate with 1/50 confluent A9 cells. Viral dilutions of 10-1 to 10-7 with duplicates were performed to determine how effective the virus was at killing the A9 cells and compared to a standard column of A9 cells with no virus added. The results of this study determined that the size of the Minute Virus of Mice parvovirus must be smaller than 30.0 nm as there was no staining present in the most dilute wells of the 0.03 µm filter. In the future, the assay would need to be performed again with filter sizes that have a range lower than 30.0 nm for a more accurate size determination of Minute Virus of Mice parvovirus.

P55

Hrubochak, Tyler P.; Bose, Aniruddha Decisions and actions of the George W. Bush presidential administration In what ways did the decisions and actions made by George W. Bush’s presidential administration negatively affect our country through the eyes of the rest of the world? This question should resonate with a lot of people for a variety of possible reasons. Many of these actions and decisions that I speak of have shown to have a lasting effect on American society, as well as other places around the world. First of all, the Bush administration’s failure to act upon controversial credit default swaps helped contribute greatly to the financial crisis of 2008-2009 which is still being felt today by many around the country and the world. Next, the torture tactics that were used to get terrorist suspects to talk during the Bush presidency draws lines directly back to the White House and has shed a very negative light on the United States and its people as a nation that is running scared, rather than the peace promoting world power that it once was. Finally, one main aspect of the mess that has been the useless war in Iraq that never boasted anything positive for the world and has kept the United States into Middle East affairs for nearly fifteen years, leading to the deaths of many men and women who were wrongfully put into harm’s way by the administration. Obviously, there are many sides to every story and one side that seems to be consistent throughout all of these examples is the administration in charge at the time. Their decisions have affected many people’s lives whom, at the time were still children and are now at the age where the future is theirs to fix. The first step to fixing problems is figuring out what they are and how they began.


23 P56

Rozich, Alyssa C.; Woloschuk, Mary K.; Mundy, Paige C.; Grosik, Ryan A.; Loya, Lane J.; Wolf, Irene M. Analysis of HSP90 in Cold-tolerant Dragonfly Species Dragonflies and damselflies (Odonates) are important organisms in the ecology stability of riparian systems. This large order exhibits much diversity between species including physical characteristics as well as behavioral and physiological regulations (May 1998). Odonates can be considered endothermic organisms due to their noted behavior in physical temperature regulation. It is known that dragonflies and damselflies increase their body temperature through contractions of their wing muscles. These animals have also been observed to decrease their body temperature in hot conditions using a behavioral technique termed obelisking in which their abdomens are raised in order to decrease the surface area heated by the sun (May 1998). These thermoregulatory physical behaviors have been well documented. However, there have been very few studies composed regarding the biochemical components, particularly stress proteins, involved in temperature regulation of these animals. Temperature regulation is important for this species, especially in areas with dynamic climates, such as Pennsylvania. Most species reproduce and perish prior to November, usually before the first frost of the season. However, there are several species commonly observed in Pennsylvania to mate into the colder season including occasional warm days in midNovember (May 1998). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of proteins that increase their expression when subjected to stressful environments, including temperature. European odonates have been shown to have different HSP expressions based on variations of latitudes. We hypothesize that the odonates that are able to live into colder temperatures in Pennsylvania will differ in HSP90 expression in comparison to those who do not survive past the first frost.

P57

Smolko, Tyler; Wirfel, Olivia; Wilkinson, Melanie; Duron, Jacob; Anderson, Riley, Josiah, James; Shahkarami, Alireza Study of hydraulic conductivity and permeability of porous media using Darcy's apparatus The study of Darcyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s apparatus was to show how the grain of rocks can have different permeability and porosity. Permeability is a quality or state of something such as rock that allows certain amounts of substances such as liquids or gases to pass through it. Porosity is how porous something can be by having tiny holes or pores that will determine how much can go through the holes. Permeability and porosity are two topics that are similar in a way known as Hydraulic Conductivity. The study was done to also show how different factors could be included to change or alter the outcome of the permeability or porosity of the material. Fractures or temperature are two factors that were incorporated in the study to see how the results could change. We started with a control experiment and we then added different factors to the experiment and recorded the changes that occurred. We then repeated the experiment several more times which lead us to our results. The experiment showed us that the value of K depends on the grain size, temperature, and a larger fracture. This means that Fracking can greatly increase the output because it creates a fracture that oil can flow through. Finding a place with a larger grain size would also greatly increase the amount of oil obtained from the ground. In conclusion, we learned how to setup an experiment, conduct trials, and evaluate data. We also got a lot of hands on experience with how many different objects work, such as the power tools used to build the set up for the experiment and how to use the piece of equipment to record the temperature of the water. Overall, this taught us how to conduct an experiment successfully and efficiently.

P58

Madl, David M.; Youmbi, Perez B.; Schulte, Jessica M.; Zovinka, Edward P.; Bandstra, Joel Z. A Laboratory Model of the Open Limestone Channel at Abandoned Mine: Swank 13 The open limestone channel (OLC) treatment system at the Swank 13 abandoned coal mine was built remediate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Field measurements at the Swank 13 AMD site show that site is functioning and is removing both iron and aluminum from the water stream. However, the Al level


24 decrease was unexpected due to the consistently low pH. In order to study aluminum removal by an OLC, a column was designed to replicate the treatment system at Swank 13 in the laboratory. Results confirm that aluminum can be removed by an OLC at a lower than expected pH. P59

Josiah, James; Shahkarami, Alireza Simulating rock’s permeability test with the Darcy’s Apparatus Every matter has it porosity and permeability. The closer they are to 0, the more solid the object is. Depending on how closer they are to 0, one can use this relationship to determine the flow of fluid through it porous medium. In the field of Petroleum Engineering, this is A very important properties of rocks which cannot be ignored when producing natural gas and crude oil on a business scale. Since the crude oil and natural gas reservoir is almost always trap under a rock bed, knowing the rock bed porosity can be very important for the extraction of crude oil beneath it surface. For this research, the process of knowing these values or as we refer to them generally as “Hydraulic Conductivity” is the fundamental focus.

P60

England, Bryce K.; Kimberly, Caitlin A.; Reckner, Douglas M.; Trimble, John J. Testing the Cytotoxicity of Annona muricata on HeLa Cells This research tested the cytotoxicity of Annona muricata on HeLa cells. Annona muricata, more commonly known as soursop, is a plant extract that some claim to have cancer suppressing characteristics. HeLa cells are famous, widely used cells which were derived from a cervical adenocarcinoma which killed Henrietta Lacks 65 years ago. These cells have been cultured and are still used today due to their durable properties and reliable proliferation. To identify the effectiveness of the Annona muricata as a possible cancer treatment, this research used HeLa cells and plated into a 96 well plate with the same amount of cells in each well. HeLa cells were exposed to various concentrations of the control metabolic poison, sodium azide and several concentrations of an Annona muricata extract. The cytotoxicity of this extract will be determined using an MTT assay. This MTT assay uses a tetrazolium dye to determine how metabolically active the cells are. In this experiment, we would expect the cancer cells to be metabolically inactive if the Annona muricata may have the anticancer properties some claim it has.

P61

Dumouchelle, Elise N.; Surma, Renee N.; Davis, Sean M.; Baker, Stephen H. Aggression among the genders: A sociocultural perspective Why is it commonly believed that boys are more aggressive than girls? We know that people assume this because males show different forms of direct aggression when expressing frustration or anger. Examples include yelling, screaming, punching, pushing, or any type of direct confrontation. This type of aggression is easy to spot which is why people think that males are more aggressive than females; it is easier to take note of the direct aggression of males than the indirect aggression of females. Examples of indirect, or relational, aggression include ruining relationships, backstabbing, spreading rumors, and making others feel outcast. This type of behavior is often times hard to see compared to direct aggression, which is why it is assumed that boys are more aggressive than girls. Males and females are capable of showing direct and indirect aggression, but they mainly stay within the lines of the status quo for their gender. Other forms of aggression that exist include proactive and reactive aggression. Proactive aggression is when someone is aggressive in order to achieve a goal. Reactive aggression is a response to fear or a threat. There is no clear evidence of which gender is more prone to use proactive or reactive aggression; one study we read concluded that the level of proactive and reactive aggression in males was equal to the levels found in females. It is commonly believed that boys are more aggressive than girls, however, after conducting our research, we have concluded that boys and girls are both equally aggressive.


25 P62

DeSalve, Dayna S.; Shingler, Megan J.; Winschel, Timothy R.; Baker, Stephen H. Aggressive personality: A psychoanalytic perspective The poster will address the problem of excessive aggressive personalities, through the perspective of the psychoanalytic theory, and what steps can be taken to appropriately channel these characteristics of aggression. The psychoanalytic theory, in particular its views on aggression, was investigated using peerreviewed articles and publications. Following the perspective of the psychoanalytic theory, aggression is derived from repressed memories and experiences of aggression during early childhood. These experiences include exposure to aggressive tendencies, lack of structure and authority figures, and abuse or neglect. These repressed memories are stored in the unconscious part of the mind and eventually resurface as an aggressive personality when the individual matures. This aggressive personality can result in highly disturbing effects on the individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behavior and emotional stability. Therefore, any outward expression of an aggressive personality is a direct result of what he or she unconsciously internalized in his or her developmental stages. In order to prevent this, the psychoanalytic theory would suggest limiting the exposure to aggressive or violent experiences during early childhood, establishing stronger programs for young children in early developmental stages to find and bond with role models, and providing secure and healthy environments for children in their early childhoods, such as safe havens. However, the theory notes that it is unrealistic to completely remove aggression from oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personality; aggression will always be present in an individual. With this knowledge, the theory would then suggest seeking appropriate outlets for aggression. Such outlets include channeling aggression into a competitive nature in athletics, or communicating feelings of aggression compared to inappropriate physical displays. The poster will further explore specific scenarios to which the methods presented above can be applied.

P63

Bare, Allison T.; Hoover, Nicole L.; Sifford, Sean P.; Baker, Stephen H. Human Aggression and its consequences: An evolutionary perspective In this paper we intend to analyze and try to understand the act of human aggression. We will be examining this act of human behavior through a bio/evolutionary psychological perspective, to better understand its roots in our actual biology and to sequester the influence of the mind on our behavior. In doing this we will be pulling from multiple peer-reviewed journals and books to complete a comprehensive profile of what actions are the effect of human aggression, as well as how these actions are evolutionary by-products from our ancestors. However, we will not only be investigating the traditionally thought of aggressive actions. We will also be looking at human competitive nature as an extension of this aggression. Finally, we shall seek to provide a clear link to the success of humankind, as a species, and the aggressive nature.

P64

Fiebig, Moria A.; Kumpf, Cory A.; Roth, Laura B.; Baker, Stephen H. Aggression in the world: A humanistic perspective The humanistic approach to psychology sees individuals as a whole person with all their unique qualities, rather than sub categorizing human behavior (Khan, 2012). It puts an emphasis on the fact that personal worth has to do with responsibility and sympathy, not wealth or popularity (Goldberg, 2000). Humanistic psychologists believe that people need to find the meaning in their lives, make connections with others, and embrace their creativity (Hansen, 2005). From a Humanistic point of view, protesting shows much aggression, but not in a negative connotation. Aggression in this form is perseverance and grit, showing that people are not willing to give up on gaining their maximum human potential. A humanistic psychologist would see aggression as a positive. Instead of violence and hostility, humanists see aggression as perseverance. In addition, it has been recommended for authorities to acknowledge and plan multilateral events recognizing the role of legitimate, peaceful protest, as a training and education ground for engaged citizens (White 2002). If one were to look back into the depths of history, into the books we humans have written, we would find that many times, a protest has been at the center for change.


26 Peaceful protesting has been the most successful of any because it has had to power to give rights to all humans. From the American Civil Rights and Women’s Suffrage movements, to the actions held by Mahatma Gandhi we can see that peaceful protests are the route that all should go. Democracy is far more likely to take place after a peaceful protest, rather than a violent one. To a Humanist, all protests are forms of aggression, and all forms of aggression are good, as they show that the individual shows tenacity and great spirit. By this logic, we can tell that a Humanist would greatly appreciate protesting. P65

Boyd, Hannah E.; Halligan, Laura M.; Johnston, Madaline G.; Baker, Stephen H. Aggression: A cognitive perspective Aggression is a problematic trait in humans that is learned through the observation of aggressive behaviors. It has been studied that children observe this aggression from viewing violence in their real lives, viewing violence in media, and observing actions of others. Children have been found to learn aggression from authority figures as well as peers and characters on television programming and video games through observations of each of their behaviors. The studies conducted featuring these topics predicts the hypothesis that aggression is cognitively learned by children through observation.

P66

Green, Jasmine; Wisniewski, Kristofer S. Can physical activity regulate angiogenesis of tumors and create a semi-hypoxic environment for the tumor?

Angiogenesis is a paradoxical concept in tumor development. Tumors can thrive in hypoxic environments. The tumor’s hypoxia creates an acidic environment which promotes the formation of more of the leaky blood vessels by stimulating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Tumor VEGF-derived angiogenesis is a large obstacle for various cancer treatments. This is because the tumor’s acidic microenvironment and poor vasculature make it extremely difficult for treatments to infiltrate the tumor. Also, should the tumor become too hypoxic it will become increasingly aggressive. However, the tumor’s hypoxic state also stimulates the activation of genes that promote apoptosis of its cells. These genes, coupled with certain myokines secreted by skeletal muscle during exercise can hinder tumor angiogenesis. Exercise can also promote the development of more efficient blood vessels which would allow increased access to the tumor for different therapies. This review aims to explore the possibility of using exercise to help regulate tumor angiogenesis so that the tumor will be in a semi-hypoxic state. Databases used for research includes: Proquest: Health and Medicine and PubMed. Inclusion criteria for articles chosen included: that cancer, oncogenes, tumors, and cyto/myokines were variables in the experiment or meta-analysis; all cancer types were allowed during research; and the articles were published within the last 11 years. Exclusion criteria included: preventative measure studies; the effects of exercise on other chronic conditions and/or diseases; articles with the added variable of obesity. Keywords used during the search included: angiogenesis, acidosis, lactate, VEGF, inflammation, exercise, physical activity, p53, tumors, cancer, pH, myokines, cytokines, microenvironment, macrophages, Th1, Th2, oncogenes, IGF, EGF, tumorigenesis. Significance of the study is that by regulating tumor angiogenesis, it may allow cancer therapies better access to the tumor. Also, by regulating the angiogenesis, it may be possible to limit the level of hypoxia the tumor can reach.


27

AUTHOR INDEX (Saint Francis University student presenters in bold) Alemu, T.S. Ali, M. Anderson, R. Appelbaum, R.D. Arney B.E. Asberry, C.L. Aviles, L.A. Baker, S.H. Bailey, J.M. Bandstra, J.Z. Bare, A.T. Bartalotta, Z.D. Bartkovich, M. Bartlebaugh, A.L. Beebout, C.D. Bennett, N. Bertie, R.S. Black, E.L. Blair, B.S. Blake, S.J. Bose, A. Boyd, H.E. Brady, M.T. Brennan, G.M. Burge, M.J. Byrne-Houser, M.M. Cabell, M.W. Caffey, R.M. Canak, J.A. Carnell, D.P. Carnevali, H.J. Caruso, J.N. Cazan, R.L. Ciraula, S.M. Clark, R.A. Conrad, M.S. Curry, A.G. Davis, S.M. De Souza, G.P. Delaney, Z. DeSalve, D.S. Dumouchelle, E.N Duron, J. Dyer, E.M. Elliott, H.C. England, B.K. Erzen, B. Evans, C.R. Felton, A.R. Fiebig, M.A. Fischer, C.A. Fitzgerald, P.I. Flaisher-Grinberg, S. Flynn, V.N.G.

P49 P8 P57 P47 P42 P17, P39 P40 P14, P26, P61, P62, P63, P64, P65 P5 P58 P63 P14 P25 P31 P26 P34 P42 P48 P20 P5 P13, P16, P33, P38, P55 P5, P17, P65 P46 P45 P36 P38 P4 P9, P35 P31 P42 P14 P24 P8 P2 P15 P47 P20 P61 P41 P15 P62 P61 P57 P9 P26, P47 P60 P29 P2, P54 P20 P64 P10 P42, P45, P51 P6, P7, P18, P19, P24, P30, P43, P47 P2, P27

Foggia, N.J. Ford, G.P. Frank, M.A. Fry, C.M. Gaughan, J.E. Geiger, C. Geissinger, L.M. Gella, V. Gleason, J.L. Gobert, Z.A. Graham, J. Grasso, K.M. Gray, A.D. Green, J. Green, T.J. Greenwalt, M.L. Grosik, R.A. Gruber, R.D. Gruszkowski, G.E. Halligan, l.M. Hargittai, B. Hargittai, M.R.S. Harteis, K.E. Hawkins, A.K. Hegedus, C.J. Heise, A.S. Hilty, M.R. Hinz, M.M. Hoover, N.S. Hoover, N.L. Hrubochak, T.P. Hugo, J.J. Hutchison, A.L. Johnston, M.G. Jones, B.J. Jones, M.J. Josiah, J. Kasunic, P.T. Keiper, T.L. Kelly, R.E. Kestermont, C.A. Kibui, N.W. Kimberly, C.A. Kindel, C.C. Kirkland, T. Kline, N.D. Kornprobst, N.A. Kosova, E. Krumenacker, E.N. Krupa, R.C. Kumpf, C.A. LaBuz, B.L. Li, Y. Link A.R. LoRusso, S.M. Loya, L.J.

P34 P23 P28 P5 P17 P30 P14 P50 P9, P17, P20, P36 P9, P46 P25 P20 P20 P66 P36 P48 P56 P36 P35 P65 P2, P5, P27 P9, P17, P20, P21, P36 P48 P39 P10 P44 P35 P53 P32, P36 P63 P55 P17 P43 P65 P46 P27 P57, P59 P36 P20 P19 P36 P20 P60 P10 P33 P11, P13 P22 P12 P14 P24, P50, P54 P64 P53 P40 P20 P14 P1, P31, P56


28 Madison, L.F. Madl, D.M. Maffei, L.V. Makin, K.M. Maneval, T.M. Marconi, K. Matchock, S.A. Mauney, T.T. McCord, M. McCulley, J.A. McKernan, G.C. McKnight, N.P. Merry, J.W. Meurer, K.E. Michael, T.D. Mulligan, I.J. Mundy, P.C. Murdock, S.G. Myers, S.E. Naeger, C.E. Nazaruk, K.R. Olafsen, H.J. Olek, L.A. Onkst, B. Owens, K.N. Patterson, K.S. Patton, H.E. Pelger, H.W. Randall, R.S. Reckner, D.M. Reese, M. Rickert, L.R. Rocus, L. Romanish, M.G. Rosmus, J.A. Ross, B.J. Roth, L.B. Rovder, A.M. Roza, A. Rozich, A.C. Rupert, C.L. Ryan, G.W. Samuel, K.E. Sangrey, G.E. Scanlan, A.M. Schorr, H.C. Schulte, J.M. Scott, G.D. Semelsberger, B.D.

P9 P58 P32 P17 P16 P43 P9 P4 P8 P36 P36 P36 P31 P39 P37 P14 P56 P28, P52 P11 P3, P20, P39 P19 P8 P6, P7 P9, P15 P10 P17 P9 P24 P10 P30, P60 P15 P18 P11 P20 P18 P9 P64 P9 P15 P31, P56 P36 P36 P36 P17 P3, P44 P21 P9, P58 P31, P36 P43

Shahkarami, A. Shearer, S.J. Shee, W.A. Shingler, M.J. Shoemaker, D.S. Shoemaker, S.E. Shoff, T.A. Sifford, S.P. Slovikosky, D.M. Smego, C.C. Smith, A.D. Smith, B.D. Smith, R.A. Smith, V. Smolko, T. Snider, M.V. Snyder, N.A. Spangler, T.R. Sterner, Z.R. Stone, J.P. Stubbs, R.E. Surma, R.N. Tafesse, R.Y. Thomas, B.M. Thon, C.W. Timmons, E. Trimble, J.J. Troxell, K.L. Webb, A.C. Weinzierl, D.J. Wieger, D.L. Wilkinson, M. Williams, K.A. Winschel, T.R. Wirfel, O. Wisniewski, K.S. Wolf, I.M. Wolfe, A.E. Wolfe, S.M. Wolford, A.Y. Woloschuk, J.R. Woloschuk, M.K. Wrencher, P. Yahner, T.P. Yawitz, T.M. Youmbi, P.B. Zovinka, E.P.

P41, P57, P59 P28, P52 P27 P62 P3, P44 P17 P52 P63 P20 P14 P30 P46, P50 P51 P11 P57 P5, P17 P19 P54 P39 P20 P43 P61 P20 P29 P17 P23 P28, P32, P35, P49, P54, P60 P9 P10 P36 P10 P57 P17, P32 P62 P57 P12, P22, P25, P34, P37, P42, P45, P48, P66 P39, P52, P56 P20 P9 P20 P1 P56 P18 P22 P9 P36, P58 P50, P58

Spectrum volume 7(2)  

Volume 7 (2) Fall 2016

Spectrum volume 7(2)  

Volume 7 (2) Fall 2016