University Kebangsaan Malaysia Faculty of Engineering Department of civil and structure engineering
Development plane of urban transportation in Malaysia
Urban transportation KA6563 PREPARED BY: Rasha salah ahmed
Haider farhan hashim P65405 Sahaer abd ali
SUPERVISIED BY: Prof. Dr. RIZA ATIQ ABDULLAH O.K Dec.2012.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: This project study some cities in Malaysia in terms of public transport system and its properties, the disadvantages and the benefits, as well as try to propose solutions to improve the transport system and increase its efficiency and these cities are as follows: General lines: 1. Nilai 3 2. Kajang 3. Putrajaya 4. Bandar Seri Putra 5. Bandar Baru Bangi These attempts to improve and upgrade public transportation are in order to get a sustainable environment so we will go through to study the urban transportation facilities like : 1. project review 2. Urban transportation study 3. Urban Public transportation 4. Solutions of urban transportation problems 5. ITS 6. Financial analysis
The desired strategy for these cities focus on creating a transport network that enables these objectives to be recognized; this means that the network must be efficient, reliable, affordable, accessible and safe. Above all, it must provide a quality of experience that enhances everyday life and adds a significant dimension to the Cityâ€™s local and national profile.
To achieve all of above items , a lot of performences should be applied ,So you can see below in brief , the procedure we are going to be used in our project :
1. Extract all useful information from the map below. 2. Indicate the derived information and tabulate them 3. With attention to the urban notes allocate appropriate coefficints for each especific area determined above
Figure1.1: the Location of Study Area
CHAPTER TWO DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT: The area of the specific region which is going to be constructed has been defined and physical development is to proceed at a rate in line with the aspirations of Vision 2020. Land use projections at future time horizons will be the basis of future public transport pattern in term of origin and destination of movement. The corridor currently forms a zone of mixed density and different form of land usage. These corridors have developed zone of residential, commercial, industrial, institutional and others. However for this study only residential and commercial will be consider for calculate the demand. We will introduce each zone brieflyâ€Ś.. Nilai 3 Nilai 3 is a town located in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Due to its proximity, and connection through the KTM to Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and Kuala Lumpur International Airport, it is a rapidly growing town, d evelopment projects can be seen as one drives around Nilai. Area of Nilai reach to (165ha) which represents the countryâ€™s largest wholesale center, there are some areas try to establish same concept. But it is not easy to link the success of Nilai-3Malaysia. Apparently, hard work from the management and state government linkage is accomplished in the city. They have done a great job in developing it. But, still has some free lands to be developed in the future. Nilai 3 is
considered as one stop center by the local people to shop for carpets, curtains and fabrics for clothes. Recently, they completed some rows of shop named Istanabul near the first entrance junction. There are about 40 new stores built.This is additional good news for tourist.
Figure 1.2: Map of Nilai 3
Figure 1.3: Master plan of Nilai
After completed these shops, size of the unoccupied land is reduced by some portion. We do believe in the near future there will be some more shops to be built. This is to cope with the people coming to this place especially during weekends and public holidays.
Parking view in Nilai
Nilai has become a popular shopping town with the establishment of several major shopping malls such as Nilai 3 Wholesale Centre, Nilai Square, Mydin, Giant Hypermarket and Tesco Hypermarket.
Bangi, Malaysia Bandar Baru Bangi (literally translated from Malay to English as New Bangi Town) is a township - recently crowned as "Knowledge City" situated in the district of Hulu Langat, in Selangor, Malaysia, named after the small town of Bangi situated further south. It is located between Kajang and Putrajaya (formerly Prang Besar) and is about 25 km away from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur. The planning for Bandar Baru Bangi is based in Structure Plan, Local and Action Area Plan, Town Centre Urban Plan and the Town Park Plan prepared by international teams led by Peter Verity of PDRc Architects and Urbanists for the State Planning Department and PKNS. Bandar Baru Bangi has education institutions, national institutions and agencies, corporate institutions, factories and industrial training centers. It also houses a five-star hotel, Hotel Equatorial with an 18-hole golf course The town is surrounded by palm oil estates; a Malaysian Palm Oil Board/UKM research station is also based close to the town. At present, public transportation in Bandar Baru Bangi still not satisfied because there is no bus or taxi terminal in the town which mean there is no centralized for public transportation. Nowadays, bus terminal in Bandar Baru Bangi is sharing with Kajang town which the location of it is at Hentian Kajang. There are a lot of bus stop have been provided in Bandar Baru Bangi for public facilities. The distance between each bus stop is around 300 meter.
Bus cater in Bandar Baru Bangi are Rapid KL, Mini bus and University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) bus. As a result of absence of centralized for buses and taxis, many of the taxi drivers concentrated to get their passengers at shopping complex likes Warta and around the bus stop near Seksyen 1.
Map of bangi UKM Commuter Station: UKM Komuter station is a KTM Komuter train station situated close to and named after the National University of Malaysia (Malay: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM) in Selangor, Malaysia. The station serves as a small two-platform train halt for Rawang-toSeremban KTM Komuter train services, with an operational ticket counter and two ticket vending machines. The station has witnessed a significant development and expansion.
Station has been located on the northeast tip of the university's grounds, 1.5 km from the university's campus. The university's club house (with an 18-hole golf course, a swimming pool and a club house) is located immediately close to the station. Bus services are provided to carry passengers between the station and the university due to its proximity to the university, the station typically receives a large number of passengers specially students of UKM and nearby universities.
Figure 1.4: KTM KOMUTER ROUTE MAP Problems of bangi: ď ś Absence of bus stations and Taxi Terminal caused difficulty for residents of Bandar Baru Bangi to move to other destinations as well as no centralize for public transportation.
Mini bus and Taxi Terminal at Section 1 ď ś Bus stop Condition One of the most important problems in the waiting bus stations in Bangi are bad situation of it, in terms of seats and lamps as well as the low lighting make animal vulnerable to attack as well as exposure to the risk of theft , and finally These condition encourages crime to be happened.
Bus Stop Condition at Section 1, Bandar Baru Bangi
ď ś UKM Commuter : One of the disadvantages of UKM commuter is the lack of parking places for the public due to the use of these places by taxi drivers who are waiting for passengers as well as it presence near residential centers has led to environmental noise pollution.The facilities at the UKM station were hopeless. There are no instructions on the places of buses or any alternative transportation.
Signboard of UKM commuter
Taxis used car parking spaces
KAJANG CITY: Kajang was made the capital of one of Selangor's districts, Hulu Langat in the 1800s because of it being in the district's center. Now, it seems to be the center of Selangor itself. Seeing a boom in its recent population, the town is wasting no time in accommodating all. Along with regular housing projects, luxury ones were launched as well, most famously Country Heights, along with Jade Hills and the Twin Palms among others. The SILK Expressway is the main highway used to get from the main Kajang area to its many townships, most notably Cheras.
Recreational and lifestyle facilities around the area include Stadium Kajang, the old Billion Shopping Centre and the more recent Metro Kajang, Metro Point, (complex) Kota Kajang and big retailers Giant, Tesco and Jusco. Medical assistance is provided by hospitals Kajang, Putrajaya and serdang and a handful of privately run clinics and medical centers. As for places of worship, The Masjid (Mosque) Kajang is a visual attraction as much as it serves as a place of prayer, made distinctive by its bright yellow paintwork and is particularly vibrant with religious activity. It also proves itself to be an educational hub with numerous primary, secondary and tertiary institutes.
ď ś It is located 21 kilometers (13 mi) from of Malaysia's capital
Kajang Township has transformed from its agricultural and tin based rural substantial economy into commercialized small and medium industries, service industries and has evolved into a commuter township. Due to slow and sluggish infra-structure development ,
problems like traffic jams, crimes, pollution, unscheduled development and lots of other deteriorations in quality of life has slowly encroached into their daily livelihood.
Transportation in kajang: Kajang is well connected with many major highway and expressway like Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway as a ring road of Kajang,CherasKajang Expressway (CKE, ),North-South Expressway (NSE) (Malay: Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan) with Kajang exit and Kajang-Seremban Expressway (LEKAS, ) at the south of Kajang near Semenyih. Because the position of Kajang between three major city (Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and Putrajaya), this city is included in Klang Valley or Greater Kuala Lumpur. Public transports available in Kajang are bus, taxi, and train Transportation is an important to policy objectives, such as economic development, urban regeneration, and social inclusion and reduced levels of crime and disorder. It can also contribute towards improvements to health and fitness, and to raising educational standards. These factors all, ultimately, lead to improved quality of life for the people of Kajang and they are reflected in the objectives of this Local Transport Planning. The strategy for the City is focused
On the creation of a transport network that enables these objectives to be realized; this means that the network must be efficient, reliable, affordable accessible and safe. Above all, it must provide a quality of experience that enhances everyday life and adds a significant dimension to the Cityâ€™s local and national profile. In Kajang, there are two stations.
Kajang train station or KTM Kajang which is located in jalan Bukit and bus station in Pusat Hentian Kajang. Both of them have a special function as its name. Bus station in Pusat Hentian Kajang is provided only for one modal transport. There are many kinds of buses will transit here, such as RAPID KL bus mini (traveling inside the city), buses for the workers, and buses for the long time journey (traveling intra the city) and so on. Separation of the station of modals transport will cause some problems in transportation. It will increase the level of air pollution and makes the people prefer to private vehicles than public transport
Overview about KTM station in Kajang: The Kajang railway station is a Malaysian railway station located near the town of Kajang, Selangor. The station is situated 1 km south from Kajang's town center.
The station currently serves both the KTM Komuter and KTM Intercity train services. The current Kajang station inherits the original station's branch lines as well as responsibilities to manage railway switches, railway monitoring and goods delivery. As such, the station supports a number of railway staff. The station is also connected to sheds for railway maintenance vehicles, as well as a warehouse. The station contains three platforms: One (platform 1) assigned at a side platform connected directly to the station building and two (platforms 2 and 3) assigned on an island platform. The platforms are lined along a set of four main lines; three run between the two platforms, and one runs along the other side of the island platform. The line adjoining platform 1 is an acceptance route, while the line aside it is a main route. The line along platform 2 could be used as a basic route for virtually any train service, while the platform 3 lines is only used periodically when platform 2 is occupied by another train.
The proplem of ktm station in kajang: Site of the railway station Kajang is far from highways and taxi station. Therefore, it will cause people prefer private cars than public transport. the surrounding area of the railway station Kajang is located near a . residential area, so noise pollution can disturb people who live there, no more space for the parking area at the railway station Kajang.
Kajang bus station
Bus Station in Pusat Hentian Kajang Actually no significant problems about the location of bus station it is not easy for the passenger if they want to continue their travel by using the train. It will take more time to change from one modal transport to the others one. And of course, it will increase the travel cost. So, there is no choice for the passenger to choose more than one modals transport.
Putujaya city :
Putra Mosque, Putra Putrajaya is a planned city, located 25km south of Kuala Lumpur that serves as the federal administrative center of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya, due to the overcrowding and congestion in the Kuala Lumpur areas. Putrajaya has often been called the â€œintelligent garden cityâ€? because of its commitment to the preservation of nature. 70% of its landscape consists of gardens, lakes and parks. There are 13 different gardens ranging from botanical to wetland and the main landscape consists of a 600-hectre man-made lake. There are 8 bridges within Putrajaya and two of the notable bridges include Putra Bridge which was inspired by the famous Khaju Bridge in Isfahan, Iran and the Seri Wawasan Bridge which is a modern cable-stayed bridge.
Putra Mosque is one of the most beautiful mosques in Malaysia. Located on Lake Putra Jaya in Kuala Lumpur synthetic and can accommodate more than 15 thousand worshipers, it has been completed in the year 1999. Just an hour's drive from Kuala Lumpur city center, Very cool, is located on a lake characterized calm.
Transportation in putujaya Putrajaya Central is the main public transportation hub of Putrajaya. It is a smaller version of Puduraya Station in Kuala Lumpur. Located at the west side of Putrajaya, this is the place where public transportation from other parts of Selangor stops. The Express Rail Link that links KLIA to KL Central has a station here . If you prefer to take buses which are very much cheaper compared to the ERL, the two major bus companies that are operating here are Rapid KL and Nadi Putra. Rapid KL takes passengers from outside of Putrajaya from places such as Bandar Utama, Serdang and Cyberjaya whereas Nadi Putra routes are confined to within Putrajaya. The Monorail project that was supposed to link the various parts of this new township has been put on hold due to the slowdown of the economy .
Overview on Putrajaya transportation Putra Komuter station is a Malaysian commuter train halt in Kuala Lumpur named in part after the Putra World Trade Centre located nearby. The halt forms part of a common KTM Komuter railway line shared by both the Rawang-Seremban Route and the Sentul-Port Klang Route. The halt is also the northernmost station in the KTM Komuter network where trains from both the Rawang-Seremban Route and the Sentul-Port Klang Route stop.
Route map (Route covers include Putrajaya Central)
Putrajaya - Serdang KTM Komuter Major highways in Putrajaya •
Persiaran Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah
Monorail Suspension Bridge In 2002, a high speed rail link called KLIA Transit was opened, linking Putrajaya to both Kuala Lumpur and KL International Airport in Sepang. However, construction of the Putrajaya Monorail which was intended to be the city's metro system was suspended due to costs. One of the monorail suspension bridges in Putrajaya remains unused.
The project halted in 2004 because the government had not approved further funding. The stalled project has often been described as the missing link of the public transport system designed for the federal administrative capital. The Ministry of the Federal Territories instructed the Putrajaya Corporation to appoint an independent consultant to conduct a study on the projectâ€™s viability.
Western Transport Terminal WTT is design to serve as a transportation Hub for Putrajaya and is currently serving Express Rail Link (ERL) to KL International Airport (KLIA) in the south and Kuala Lumpur in the North. Feeding to the Hub, there are taxi services and Putrajaya Bus services called Nadi Putra. Nadi Putra reaches WTT every 15 minutes during the peak hours and every 30 minutes during off peak hour's start.
Bus Service: The bus company operates only 14 buses to transport passengers from residential areas in the periphery to offices and commercial centers in the core area. Generally, these buses have poor service frequency with an average of 2 per hour, even during the morning and afternoon peak periods. The buses are of standard high-floor design with no provision for the disabled and elderly. With limited rolling stock, bus service has also been unreliable.
Putrajaya Central Intercity rail services are provided by the Express Rail System (ERL) and the Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) rail commuter system. However, both systems can at best be described as inadequate. For example, the KLIA Transit service provided by the ERL stops at a station quite far from the city center, forcing passengers to take transfer bus riders .There are not many facilities provided yet such as restaurants and shops.
Current public transport facilities: Generally, public transportation is one of the most important part of urban transportation division that are available now in Malaysia .Public transport, all so called public transit or mass transit, consist of all sharedride transport service systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles, so the existing public transport services in Bandar Baru Bangi consist of two main parts: 1. Buses 2. Trains There are a lot of bus stop have been provided in Bandar Baru Bangi for public facilities. The distance between each bus stop is around 300 meter. Bus cater in Bandar Baru Bangi are Rapid KL, Mini bus and University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) bus.
1.A:Mini Bus The Kuala Lumpur Mini-Bus Service or Bas Mini was one of the oldest and popular Malaysian public bus services, having served in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley region. The buses were primarily painted pink with a white stripe on the sides, and had a capacity of 20-30 passengers, due to its smaller size. The bus operated on a commission basis, with service operators being paid according to the fare they collected. The mini-bus service was discontinued from 1 July1998 onwards, to be replaced by the Intrakota bus service and, later, Rapid KL buses in 2005.
Historical point The mini bus started operating on 23 September 1975 under the Ministry of Transportation. At that time, the mini bus operated on various routes according to their individual colors (blue- white, yellow-white, red-white, purple-white and dark green-white). The mini bus was responsible for servicing nearly sixty different routes. Three major companies (Syarikat KerjasamaPengaman (M) Bhd, Bas Mini Wilayah and KonsortiumPengusaha Bas Mini SdnBhd) monopolized the various bus routes while smaller operators were allowed to service certain areas only. In 1975, when the mini bus was introduced as a service, the bus-fare was just 40 sen Later in 1991, the fare was increased to 50 sen while two years after, the fare was again adjusted to 60 sen. The mini bus did not have any fixed time-table. Instead, the service operated on a commission basis whereby the operators were paid according to the number of trips and fare collection they could raise in one day. Sometimes, in order to outdo a competitor, a driver would detour from the designated route much to the annoyance of the passengers. In 1990, the then Deputy Minister of Transport, DatukPadukaRahmah Osman, standardized the color of the mini bus to â€œPinkâ€? and white. On the 1st July 1998, the service of the mini bus was terminated in the city of Kuala Lumpur.
B:Rapid KL Rangkaian Pengangkutan Integrasi Deras Sdn Bhd (RapidKL) is the company tasked with providing an integrated public transport system in the Klang Valley incorporating rail and bus services. Today, RapidKL operates 165 bus routes within the Klang Valley which consist of 10 City Bus routes, 87 Local Bus routes, 65 Trunk Bus routes and 3 Express Bus routes. We currently have 11 bus depots spreading across the Klang
Valley and over one thousand buses in operation. Everyday RapidKL transport over 192,000 passengers. To continuously encourage the use of public transport and to provide services to the general public, RapidKL is also continuously studying new bus routes with the arrival of more new buses.
The RAPIDKL bus network which is divided into 6 main areas, namely: •Area 1 : Kuala Lumpur City Centre •Area 2 : Kepong, Selayang, Batu Caves , Gombak, Sentul •Area 3 : WangsaMaju, Hulu Klang, Keramat, Ampang, Pandan •Area 4 : Cheras, Hulu Langat, Kajang, Putrajaya, Serdang •Area 5 : Klang, Shah Alam Selatan, Subang Jaya, JlnKlang Lama, Puchong •Area 6 : Shah Alam Utara, Subang, Damansara, PJ Utara, Bangsar Service pattern •Service major activity centers such as office buildings, school and hospital. •Population density > 30. Serve at least 90% of the residents. •Space routes at about 0.75 km in urban area and 1.5 in sub-urban area. Service Level •Service period : 6 am-12 pm •Headway: Peak: 5 minutes
Bus Stop •CBD: 5 -7 stops / km, sub-urban: 1 - 3 stops /km Passenger comfort •Passenger shelter •Route and destination sign •Driver courtesy
Bus Operation Design: The frequency =
Where: •n = Demand for service (passengers / hr) •N = Maximum number of passengers per bus •Usually the minimum headway is set in multiples of 7.5 or 10 minutes for the sake of coordination.
Rail and bus map
1. TRAINS Trains are type of transport facilities that occupy a significant role in the transport system of a country because the development of trade, industry and commerce of country largely depends on the development of railways .Railways system are good alternative methods of transport because of the following advantages: 1. It facilitates long distance travel and transport of bulky goods which are not easily transported through motor vehicles.
2. It is a quick and more regular form of transport because it helps in the transportation of goods with speed and certainty. 3. It is the safest forms of transport, the chance of accidents of trains are minimum as compared to other modes of transport. 4. It encourages mobility of labor and thereby provides a great scope of employment 5. Its carrying capacity is extremely large. Moreover, its capacity is elastic which can easily be increased by adding more wagons. There are three types of trains available in present time: 1. MRT 2. LRT 3. KTM-KOMUTER MRT The Mass Rapid Transit is a proposed 3-line 150 km Mass Rapid Transit ‘”(MRT)”’ system in the Klang Valley/Greater KL conurbation which envisages a “Wheel and Spoke” concept comprising two northeastsouthwest radial lines and one circle line looping around Kuala Lumpur city. Klang Valley MRT will not only significantly increase the current inadequate rail network but will also serve to integrate the existing rail networks and expectantly alleviate the severe traffic congestion in the Greater KL metropolitan area. The proposal was announced in June 2010 and was approved by the government of Malaysia in December 2010. Construction of the first line is targeted to commence in July 2011. The project also represents one of the economic entry point project identified for the Greater Kuala Lumpur/Klang Valley National Key Economic Area under the Economic Transformation Programmed.
MRT characteristics Speed up to 100 km/hr. Couches 4-12 couches per train ,Couches 22m x 3.1 m Capacity up to 80,000 passengers /hr / direction Acceleration /deceleration _ 1.2 m/sec/2 Rail 1435 mm gauge Headway _ 120 sec Suitable for radial movement For high density and high plot ratio Sub-station: 3-5 km spacing LRT Light rail transit (LRT) is used for urban public transport and some special use such as transporting passengers between airport buildings. There is one high speed railway line with two high speed train services linking Kuala Lumpur with the Kuala Lumpur international airport. The sole monorail line in the country is also used for public transport in Kuala Lumpur while the only funicular railway line is in benang.
LRT characteristics Speed up to 40 km/hr. 2-6 couches per train Capacity up to 40,000 passengers/ hr / direction Acceleration /deceleration _ 1.2 m/s/2 Rail 1000 or 1435mm gauge Headway120 sec Suitable for radial movement for high density and high plot ratio area Sub-station Sub-station: 3 – 5 km spacing
KTM commuter KTM Commuter is an electrified commuter train service operated by Keretapi Tanah MelayuBerhad. It was first introduced in 1995 to cater especially to commuters in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding suburban areas and is a popular mode of transport for commuters working in Kuala Lumpur, as they can travel to the city without being caught in traffic congestion. Coaches are modern and air-conditioned. For those who drive
to the stations/halts, 'Park & Ride' facilities are provided at a nominal charge. KTM Komuter is currently the most profitable passenger service offered by KTMB, contributing RM84.63 million to group revenue in 2006, higher than KTM InterCity's profit of 70.94 million in the same year. According to the Ministry of Transport Malaysia 2008 Statistics, the annual ridership for KTM Commuter was 36,557 million of passenger.
KTM characteristics No. of stations 46 Type: Regional rail Line length 173 km Service Area: kalang-Kuala Lumpur-Sentul/TanjungMalim-RawangKuala Lumpur-Seremban Ticketing: TNG, Store Value Ticket & Monthly Pass Operational Mode: With driver
The expansion of route The new Tanjung Malim railway station will become the new terminus of the KTM Komuter network Besides new stations, additional plans were made to extend the Komuter network outwards from its original route The 179 km (111 mi) Rawang-Ipoh electrification and double-tracking project will ultimately allow the KTM Komuter service to be extended to TanjungMalim on the Selangor-Perak border, nearly 100 kilometers (62 mi) from Kuala Lumpur. The project has suffered several delays due several reasons, but has seen limited revitalization. The first phase of the extension, which includes 22 kilometers (14 mi) of rebuilt railway lines and three new stations, became operational when a shuttle service from the Rawang stations was launched on April 21, 2007.The service was extended to Kuala KubuBharu on January 5, 2008.Shuttle service to TanjungMalim and Ipoh will begin by December 2008.] A 7.2 km (4 mi), four-station extension from the Sentul station to Batu Caves has been approved. The project - which will cost RM515 million will include electrification, double-tracking and refitting the existing old track, signalling, communications, as well as construction of new stations at Sentul, Batu Cantonment, Batu Village, Taman Wahyu and Batu Caves. Site possession was given to contractor YTL Corporation Berhad on November 17, 2006. KTMB also plans to extend 8.5 km (5 mi) Komuter services to Senawang and Sungai Gadut, Negeri Sembilan. Construction is expected to complete by 2011. This will be part of the Seremban-Gemas line.
CHAPTER 4 TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS FORMULAS General The methodology employed in the execution of the model development portion of this study has closely followed the guideline contained in the Manual for the Preparation of Urban Transport Plans in Malaysia (HPU1995). The computer traffic model was developed using the EMME/2 software. The model was initially developed was for private vehicles and also to allow for movements of passengers by public transport modes. The project is a green field site and currently has very low levels of public transport service. Never the-less overall policy for the MSC plans a high usage of public transport and an efficient network is envisaged. In order to develop the traffic model, a number of data items were required. These included data on the highway inventory and vehicle movement flows and patterns. The following data was input to the EMME/2 traffic model. Network inventory; Junction layouts; Link capacities; Volume delay functions; Vehicle volume counts.(for comparison of model assigned traffic) The model developed will enable testing for the impact of changes in the highway configuration and forecast future year flows on all new and existing links.
Network and Model Details The network structure is node and link based. The nodes were established as junctions, merging and diverging intersections, key traffic loading points on to the highway network and points of delay. A link is defined as the connection between two nodes to represent a road or highway, input with all its features, including, volume delay function, capacity and free flow speed. All nodes were allocated a unique number. Numbering was consecutive starting at 1 to 199 for zones and their centroid connectors. In total the model comprises 193 zones, covering the entire secondary and primary zones of study as shown in Figure 6.0 All other nodes on the link-node model were numbered 200 and above. The consultants regard the development of the MSC and its link with Kuala Lumpur, in particular, of major significance. The Land Use study indicates that the final population of the project zone may reach 2.5 million. As a means of comparison this reflects the population size of the Klang Valley in 1994. The quantum of travel between the MSC and all zones close to the area, including Shah Alam, Serdang, Kajang, Bangi, Nilai and Labu can be expected to be high. The presence of the airport in KLIA needs also to be taken into consideration as a major cause of change in the overall regional travel pattern. The approach used has taken full cognizance of the above matters by including these zones as part of the overall model, rather than providing a model truncated at the entry points to the MSC. The value of the model will come into play in forecasting future year traffic pattern and providing for the future traffic demand.
Establishing OD Traffic Model Calibration & Validation In this study, the double constrained gravity model (Danial, et al, 1997) was employed to distribute the generated trips using a range of the model parameter values, with the model in the form as follows-:
The synthesized O-D trip matrices from the gravity model were then assigned to the existing road network using equilibrium traffic assignment program (Danial, et al, 1997). The equilibrium traffic assignment was adopted due to its superiority over the all-or-nothing assignment which was used in Maximization of Entropy adopted by Irving, et al, especially when there are parallel routes between an O-D pair. A simple iterative search procedure was employed with the numerical
between the assigned traffic link volumes with actual site data were then minimum value of the objective function considered was taken as the appropriate solution. The objective function considered in this study was the sum of square differences between observed and assigned traffic link volumes. This function is frequently identified as â€˜the sum of squares of errorsâ€™ (SSE) and it is written as:
THE METHODOLOGY The overall procedure adopted is shown in Figure 15 and the initial step involves evaluation of existing data and plans.
1. TRIP GENERATION Trip generation is the first step in the conventional four-step transportation forecasting Process (followed by trip distribution, mode choice and route assignment), widely used for forecasting travel demand. It predicts the number of trips originating in or destine for a particular traffic analysis zone. Typically, trip generation analysis focuses on residences, and residential trip generation is thought of as a function of the social and economic attributes of households, at the level of the traffic analysis zone, residential land uses (produce) or generate a trip. Traffic analysis zones are also destinations of trips. A forecasting activity such as one based on the concept of economic base analysis provide aggregate measures of population and activity growth.the corridor forms a zone of mixed density and different forms of
land usage .These corridors have developed zone of residential ,commercial, industrial and others. In this study area based on land use sosio-economic in order to estimate the total production and attraction for one zone to another zones.
1 2 3 4 5 sum
O-D MATRIX attraction 1 2 397,338 102,591 241,141 163,526 42,222 252,821 171,447 44,267 18,408 12,483 3223 65,277 44,267 11,429 8,280 5615 1450 585,928 397,338 102,591
3 34,238 14,109 14,793 1077 3819 484 34283
4 42,949 17,676 18,532 1349 4785 607 42,949
5 8,768 3608 3783 275 977 124 8768
sum 585,928 241,141 252,821 18,408 65,277 8,280 585,928
Modal Choice The total travel demand from one zone to another modal split for trips to an office building in the city center will be very different to that in a sub urban area. Likewise the modal split of building in the vicinity of public transport network will not to be similar to a building far from the network. Provision of parking space can also alter the modal split. The current modal split can be determined by observing equivalent land use in the area based on observation and data collection by City Hall of Kuala Lumpur average modal split in Klang Valley.
Item Land Use
Bus user car/van/ % jeep user % 48.0% 45.6%
m/cycle user %
Non-Government Office Bank
Semi-Detached House Link House
MATRIX DEVELOPMENT The future year trip matrices were developed using population and employment growth factors for each zone derived from data on land use changes. Such data was taken from Structure Plan and Local Plan information supplied by the local planning authorities. The data related to changes in population, employment and commercial activity, together with the likely change in car ownership levels.
MODAL CHOICE Transport networks are Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, putrajaya, Nilai3, of the utmost importance in facilities is the movement of people within the city, provided that this means the capacity and efficiency of high-quality acceptable. To lead this cityâ€™s position as an international commercial and financial center in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur must be able to provide an efficient and equitable city structure, that is as far as possible, allows all members of the community equal accessibility to all areas and facilities so that everyone may enjoy the maximum benefits of city living. Although these cities have many means of public transport like buses, trains and taxis but there are some problems and deficiencies in the quality of services we offer, which will report in detail . Recently, reliance on private transport increased by 17% from the use of public transport. The shortfall is due to the use of public transport instead of private transport to the following reasons -: 1. Increasing personal wealth and material improvement in the situation of citizen. 2. Inefficient public transport . 3. Comfort and luxury, which find use in private cars is better than public transport . 4. Lack of discipline time of arrival and departure of public transport . 5. Lack of public transportation in some regions, such as nilai3.
EXISTING SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS GENERAL: A) Transport Modal Share I. Existing Situation The institutional structure responsible for urban transportation within Malaysia and more specifically, KAJANG, BANGI, BANDAR SERI PUTRA, PUTRAJAYA, NILAI3 and are divided between federal departments and City Hall Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, PUTRAJAYA, Nilai3., The Transport Department is entrusted with wide ranging coordination and administrative functions for the planning of urban transport in an effective manner. The Federal Government deals more with nationwide transportation plans, policy guidelines and matters concerning overall transport administration and planning. Private sector involvement in the provision of transport infrastructure has expanded from the original role of bus and taxi transport operations to toll road construction and the implementation, operation And maintenance of the commuter, light rapid transit (LRT) and people mover rapid transit (PRT) systems .
PROBLEM Lack of high-efficiency of transport in the year that found citizens of transport in private, leading to an increase in traffic congestion. B) Travel Demand I. Existing Situation Because of luxury and the high personal income there was increasing in number of private transport vehicles of cars and motorcycles, which led to a traffic jam, especially in intersections at peak hours at after noon time. In addition to increasing in number of visitors to the centers of, Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, to eliminate their daily needs of purchase, working and the educational purposes of teaching and studying in schools and universities. So these streets could not accommodate this traffic density and increasing in the number of daily trips.
Increasing in numbers of daily trips from and to these cities led to a traffic jam especially in the center, and driving in speed resulted traffic accidents in streets and intersections especially at the traffic peak in crowds and the maximum capacity . II. PROBLEM Crowding in the city streets during the peak hours. C) Traffic Management I. Existing Situation This smart traffic controlling system is able to effectively reduce traffic congestion. This system has been employed at main intersections around Bandar Baru Bangi and Kajang Town for the past few years. The smart traffic light uses a camera as a sensor that really "seesâ€? the real traffic situation. Video images are captured by the cameras placed on high positions and the images are processed in order to gauge the number of incoming vehicles, the length of the queue as well as to detect accidents . This means that the smart traffic system responds almost immediately every time there occurs a slight change in the traffic patterns. It is done by using the total-disperse system and all the traffic lights at every intersection are all smart traffic lights. Thus, a fast response is achieved according to the traffic situation at a particular intersection. During peak periods, it distributes the green time according to the ratio length of the respective queue. It also priorities traffic flows accordingly. Test on site shows that the system is able to respond correctly within 120 seconds. Physically, the system consists of four basic components, namely the Smart Camera sensor for collecting traffic data, the Intelligent Controller for controlling traffic flows at an individual intersection, the Intelligent Coordinator for coordinating the timing of an individual controller with its neighbors and the Smart Traffic Advisor. Communication is based on wireless Local Area Network that links all local controllers .
II. PROBLEM In spite of the traffic management measures to ease the traffic flows especially in city center, that cannot continue to do if the traffic demands still growing, because traffic management measures alone cannot effectively increase existing road capacity levels. D) Transportation Institutional Framework I. Existing Situation Public institutions and the role of the private sector group of organizations and departments of transportation in Malaysia, specifically in Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai3 and Nilai, these departments directly interesting for the urban transport planning in these cities to improve and develop more efficient and effective for the present and future and improve the existing deal and the Federal Government policies and issues concerning the management of public transport, planning and introduction of private sector to build roads that implementation of fees, operation and maintenance and increasing the use of bus transport and taxis.
II. PROBLEM In some instances there were overlaps and duplication in functions of the responsible agencies of the transportation networks in KAJANG, BANGI, BANDAR SERI PUTRA, PUTRAJAYA NILAI3 , which has led to conflicting policies and programmers. And that has made it more difficult to determine policies for public and private transportation which are consistent.
PUBLIC TRANSPORT A)
Rail - Based Public Transport
Existing Situation In 2008 train transportation become a significant way of public transport between Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai3 and Nilai ,in addition to KL Sentral station in the capital Kuala Lumpur and the international airport (KLIA), to save money and time and to short the long distance in a short time comparing with other transportation ways. PROBLEM Rail station has been encouraged form the government, but the optimal usage had not been achieved due to: 1. Inefficient facilities at stations including car and motor cycle parking. 2. Poor support services and service coverage.
B) Bus Services I. Existing Situation Many of companies operating in the area like ((Rapid KL, Bus Mini, Road Liner)) to support the public transport by buses between each of (OUR AREAS) and connect them with capital Kuala Lumpur. These companies do operating daily flights contribute to these trips to provide transport for the citizens of the areas mention most of these trips launched from the town of Kajang . II. PROBLEM There are improvements in the existing bus system and infrastructure is still lacking a lot: 1. The existence of these types of buses to lack the basic means of comfort and safety, such as the Mini Bus . 2. Lack of key stations model .... For example, the absence of a bus station in Kajang and model Bangi such as the plant Kajang . 3. The stations of stops somewhat acceptable, but must be doing maintenance because of the impact of negative climate and the need to provide protection for people from the rain stations. C) Taxis I. Existing Situation Taxi is an important way of transportation because not all of people have private cars, so they need taxis to carry them from place to other in a private way without crowding in buses, and to save time when the time is more important than money. II. PROBLEM There is no shortage of taxis, but the problem is at peak periods and during bad weather, and because of the variety of drivers nationalities and origins taxis became unreliable .
PRIVATE TRANSPORTATION Private transportation (as opposed to public transport), is transportation service which is not available for use by general public, it is now the dominant form of transportation in the
Most of the world, in this study we will talk about two kind of private transport: A) Car
A) Cars II. Existing Situation: The demand for cars and also for cars parking has increased in our areas that we study because of the growth of population and also because of urban development in this area. This growth together with the increase in density and intensity of developments such, as residential, industrial and
commercial land uses, make the existing parking guidelines and parking standards for all Malaysian cities obsolete. As parking demand and parking requirements change very fast, this study looks into the approaches and methods which have been used in other cities in their works in revising their parking guidelines and standards to suit the current situation. II. PROBLEM The flexibility afforded by private transport, and the low parking charges encourages commuters to continue to use private transport into the city center. The low cost of long-term parking in the city center together with the abundance of parking spaces and the flexibility of movement associated with car transport, has made car transport the preferred forms facility for traveling. B) Motorcycles I. Existing Situation The second mean of private transportation that is preferred to use is motorcycle, because it is the cheapest mean of transport; moreover, it has economic usage of fuel. It is preferred by two types of users, by the young's groups, and by the lower income groups.
II. PROBLEM The motorcycles are not safe mean ,because it is making roads accidents (it is cause more than fifty percent of accidents),it's accidents is higher than the other means of transportation. The motorcycles are harmful for the human health and for the climate and air because it makes noisy and the main reason it makes air pollution.
ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE A road is an identifiable route, way or path between places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel, though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance.
Malaysia has 98, 721 km of roadway, of which more than 80,000 km is paved. The country has an extensive road system. Excellent local and long distance bus, cabs, and tourist coach services function throughout the Malaysia. The interurban North-South Expressway, New Klang Valley Expressway (NKVE) and the Federal Highway Route 2 (FHR2) are the biggest road transportation infrastructure in Peninsula Malaysia. Expressways, which span more than 1,000 km, connect major industrial hubs and urban centres starting from Bukit Kayu Hitam in the northern Kedah State to Johor Bahru in the state of Johor.
I. Existing Situation Based on the Ministry of Transportâ€™s statistics, the share of road transport of passengers comprises 64.8% by private car and 30.0% by bus, as compared to 4.7% by rail transport and 0.5% by air transport. The road transport also moved 303 million tons of goods or an overwhelming 96.4% of total trips. The transportation infrastructure during the Seventh Plan period focused on capacity expansion to ensure the availability of facilities to meet demand. For the Eighth Plan period, emphasis was given to increasing the capacity and accessibility in less developed areas while in urban areas, the focus was to enhance efficiency and improve public transport services. In the Ninth Malaysia Plan, PWD has so far been allocated RM9.6 billion for the construction of new roads.
The Government is concentrating on developing integrated public transport system further. Buses, cabs, trains, and airplanes form the major transportation modes. To enhance the quality, reliability, and efficiency of the bus and cab services, many measures have been taken, like merging of transport companies, and proviso of supporting amenities like terminals, signage, depots, and route information system. The construction, usage, and maintenance of expressways are subject to Federal Roads Act, 1984. The expressways are known as high-speed routes with at least two lanes in each direction. Majority of expressways are limited-access expressways . The electronic toll collection systems, Smart TAG and Touch â€˜n Go, have been made mandatory on all expressways since 2004. Other electronic
payment systems that were used earlier by other highway operators were stopped to standardize the electronic payment method.
II. PROBLEM Some of the roads in our cities we study have assumed functions for which they were not specially designed like the residential roads which have become trunk roads due to the bad connection between these roads. And because of that many difficulties have appeared in the design and management of these roads in special case, and generally in the overall roads network. In addition to that, the road infrastructure in this area that we study does not meet the increasing demand over the years due to the growth of population ratio and the urban development of these cities, besides; the major roads in these cities have not observed road classification requirements always.
NON-MOTORISED TRANSPORT Non-motorized transport (NMT, also called active transport and human powered transport) refers to walking, cycling, and variants such as wheelchair, scooter and handcart use. it includes both utilitarian and recreational travel activity, plus stationary uses of pedestrian environments such as standing on sidewalks and sitting at bus stops.
A pedestrian is a person traveling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those traveling using tiny wheels such as roller skates, skateboards, and scooters, as well as wheelchair users  are also included as pedestrians. In modern times, the term mostly refers to someone walking on a road or footpath, but this was not the case historically
I. Existing Situation A major deficiency, especially in the City Centre, is the lack of pedestrian linkages. Activities such as unlicensed hawkers and vendors encroach into pedestrian walkways while some buildings do not permit public access across their property boundaries thus, leaving little or no space for pedestrian movement. In recent years, there has been a gradual improvement in the provision of pedestrian linkages in newer buildings but the shortcomings of earlier development remain. Similarly, not many buildings provide pedestrians with proper protection from the sun and rain.
II. PROBLEM The pedestrian infrastructures almost in our cities are not really planned for the pedestrian's movements ,it is quite often just a part of streets ,for example there is lacks always in sidewalks and the existing sidewalks are blocked or in poor repair.
B) Bicycles Existing Situation The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. Cycle ways have, for some time, been incorporated into new housing estates and Recreational areas. Despite the relatively flat terrain our cities, cycling as a convenient means of transport is under-utilized partly due to local climatic conditions. There are also, however, some shortcomings in the existing cycle way network which contribute to the underutilization of bicycles.
II. PROBLEM Opportunities exist for bicycle transport in providing connections to public transport services and short distance local travel. Other cities have utilized their roads, rail and open space corridors to create a comprehensive local area cycle way network . Bicycles ways in housing estates suffer from under usage, misuse (illegal parking) and poor maintenance.
Chapter 5 Proposals for the development of transport in the study area: Due to the estimated production and attraction for future demand in 2020 we suggest apply some strategies like: 1. Dissuasion. Although automobile circulation is permitted, it is impeded by regulations and physical planning. For instance, parking space can be severely limited and speed bumps placed to force speed reduction this is also an attempt to encourage public transport and reduce accidents.
2. Prohibition of downtown circulation. Automobile circulation is forbidden in the downtown area during most of the day but deliveries are permitted during the night. This strategy can help in protecting the character and the physical infrastructures of an historical city. They do however, like most policies, have inadvertent consequences. If restrict movement in a particular region or a particular time, people simply either will change their way (i.e. walk through another) or change the time of their departure and this strategy will help reduce traffic congestion in these areas
3. Provide an efficient Toll gate to provide a smooth traffic flow and avoids traffic jam at Toll Gate, it confers the potential advantage of congestion mitigation and revenue generation. Most evidence prove that drivers are willing to stand additional toll costs for the convenience of using a car, especially for commuting since it is linked with their main source of income.
4. We suggest construct HOV lanes. High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes insure that vehicles with 2 or more passengers (buses, vans,
carpool, etc.) Have a lane of its own that can reduce congested lane, particularly during peak hours.
HOV lane applications 5. We suggest constructing new LRT system as follows.
LRT System Speed – up to 40 km/hr. 2 – 6 couches per train Capacity – up to 40,000 passengers /hr /direction Acceleration / deceleration 1.2 m/s 2 Rail – 1000 or 1435mm gauge Headway 120 s Suitable for radial movement For high density and high plot ratio area. Feeder bus service is required Power supply: 750 V dc Sub-station: 3 – 5 km spacing
Guide way utilization factor = 0.75 Load factor = 0.9. To calculate possible range of head way (h) for LRT: Since:
Where: Cp = Theoretical passenger line capacity assume= (27040) passengers/hr. α = guideway utilization factor (0.6) = load factor (0.9)
n = vehicle per train S = Maximum passenger per vehicle h = headway in second.
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
h 22.47 44.94 67.41 89.88 112.35 134.82 157.29 179.76
Possible range (h): 120 sec to 300 sec. & Max No of Couches: 6 (veh/train) Final choice: Number of couches = 6 & headway = 134 sec
A View for the New LRT line with new modern
Figure: The Proposed LRT line with Interchange to KTM station
Figure: The proposed BRT Line with New BRT Stations
6. We suggest take heavy vehicles out of CBD area to reduce the traffic and this can be done by applying the following strategies: ď‚ˇ Enforce existing laws on heavy vehicle restrictions and bus lanes
ď‚ˇ Transport terminals: Gombak ITT revival, intermodal terminals and city hubs for bus-rail linkages.
7. We suggest making new Bus Rapid Transit system as follows:
Figure: Proposed BRT Stop
The Existing Situation for the Road Network between the Five Areas
Proposition to construct new roads and widening the old ones to bring the BRT to service
Figure: Proposed New Pedestrian walks that help the Passenger to change between stop or cross the street
7. Provide new Multi-level Parking Facilities near to LRT: multi-level parking system have provided relief since they come with many benefits: Better exploitation of available space. Less cost for the establishment and maintenance. This strategy provides safety as well as being environmentally friendly. Comfortable for drivers and economical for contractors because they dispense height or depth.
Multi-layer car parking system
8. We suggest create a single National Authority for Public Transportation to create national standards, while Local and Regional Public Transportation Authorities will plan and implement strategies on the local level.
CONCLUSION: In recent years, Malaysians found themselves constrained by transport companies that are supposed to provide them with freedom of movement. Bus operators and even government operators like Rapid KL, KL Monorail, and KTMB Trying the best of what they have the power to keep travelers use their services even at the expense of passenger convenience. The problem with these companies is the lack of adequate information on the tracks such as with Bus operators which only provide basic route information and only on the bus itself while Rapid KL has discouraged the sale of integrated public transport maps like Bastren KL at LRT stations and bus hubs. When the local authority was founded, it has become required from these companies to publish advertisements of their track everywhere via the Internet, bus stations, and radio news-spots on broadcasting, narrowcasting, free paper guides, downloadable route maps, and sms services. This will help information reach the customers. We wish that the Government understand and recognize the major role that transportation system and distinguishing system transportation are played on of humanity; Transport targets for future cities are developing a people and environment-friendly Compact city. As Malaysian society becomes increasingly aged with fewer people, revitalizing and increasing the convenience of public transport while transport developing a pleasant environment near public transport routes will allow more people to live in safety and peace of mind.