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72 TAOFANG HUANG Land reforms subsequently cost many Native Minnanese their property and exacerbated the gap between Native Minnanese and Mainlanders. The second stage occurred in 1970s and 1980s. The divisions focused on ethnicity, authorization and democratization, and stabilization and reform. New social problems accompanied economic development, but the KMT government could not solve them. There were more and more social movements at this time. The central appeal of the KMT was democratic reform. During campaigns, there were more non-KMT candidates than before. However, they were still the minority and the KMT still controlled most posts in the government. Ethnicity gradually played an important role in the mobilization of the opposition. Thus, it became politically important for dividing the ruling and the opposing forces. The third stage occurred in the 1990s. In addition to existing divisions, the salience of “cross-strait relations” or the so-called unificationindependence issue increased. The political structural changes in the 1980s elicited some democratic progress in the 1990s. For example, the public formation of the DPP in 1986, the abolishment of new political parties in 1987, the repeal of Martial Law in 1991, and reelection of all legislators in 1992. “Taiwanese independent sovereignty” that DPP highlighted in their doctrine in 1991 explicitly proclaimed the appeal of being independent from China. This was the first time that the unification-independence issue appeared concretely in public. From then on the unification-independence issue showed up in every election. The most important thing was that the hegemony of the KMT was threatened by the opposition, especially DPP. The fourth stage occurred after 2000, when the DPP won the presidential election for the first time. During this campaign some political elites within the KMT dropped out and established the People First Party (PFP) after the election. However, in 2004 the KMT and PFP temporarily cooperated by supporting the same candidate. Sheng and Chen raised this question: what other new divisions will emerge in Taiwan in twenty-first century (Sheng and Chen 2003, 11-14)? The latest stage is yet unsettled; therefore, scholars are trying to identify patterns in this dynamic. In the process of party system formation in Taiwan ethnicity has played a decisive role. The early party system followed the ethnic cleavage line and spawned two opposite parties which represented two opposite groups. After the economic and political developments, especially democratization, there is heterogeneity within each side, even though the party system is dominated by two alliances. In national elections, the consolidation of parties within one camp plays an important role. In 2004 the KMT and PFP together nominated one candidate, though Pan-Blue did not win this time. Nevertheless, Pan-Blue

Sagar XVII — 2007  
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