FROM FAMILY PLANNING TO FAMILY REUNIFICATION 61 Western identity, make this new Indian woman part of India’s imagining of the ideal delegate through which to stake a claim toward a global, cosmopolitan citizenship. At the same time, she serves as a foil against which the failures of modernity (i.e. women who do not live up to this ideal) are measured. Thus this new Indian woman plays an important role in considering not just the desired outcomes of development by the Indian state, but also in how the Indian diaspora in the United States is cultivated. This modern, educated woman, partnered with the skilled and mobile male migrant worker, becomes the target for family reunification policies and technical visas. Thus the family emerges as the site where the United States’ demand for cheaper skilled labor collides with Indian desires for greater integration into global capitalist alliances through the movement of labor. I turn now to the question of how reproduction and the middle-class family unit is embedded within the formation of Indian diasporas in the United States. Here, the family reemerges as the central site through which to claim belonging in the United States, while also becoming a site of regulation by the state. The stakes for such a discussion become increasingly urgent as the entry of larger numbers of educated Indians and their families has implications for understanding the relationship between race, nationalism and belonging in the United States.
REPRODUCING INDIAN DIASPORAS In the last part of this paper, I argue that it is possible to excavate links between how the small, modern, heterosexual family is discursively created through Indian development policy and how it is advantaged in United States immigration policy. Examining these links helps us theorize how Indians come to be welcomed as productive and disciplined immigrants, albeit temporary ones, set against the backdrop of institutional inequalities affecting people of color and the criminalization of so-called undesirable forms of immigration. These immigration policies produce “model” United States immigrants through selective screening and restrictive visa regulations, which favor highly educated and skilled workers. The landmark Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 opened the possibility for increased and sustained migration from India and South Asia more generally. The 1965 act specified preferences for immigrants: professionals and scientists; workers in occupations for which labor was in short supply in the United States; and family members of currently residing immigrants. With the passage of the Family Reunification Act of 1986 and the 1990 Immigration Act, which increased the allocation of family-related visas, the numbers of both skilled and unskilled laborers entering the United States