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FROM FAMILY PLANNING TO FAMILY REUNIFICATION 57 In India as well as in the United States, prioritizing particular family forms works to obscure fractures along lines of caste, class and race. Such an exploration of how sexual reproduction shapes representations of so-called modern Indians becomes imperative in this historical moment of increasing connection between the United States and India. This is particularly important as the elevated profile of educated Indians as ideal workers, both as immigrants and outsourced labor, works to elide class differences within India as well throughout the diaspora. Moreover, much of the attention paid to these workers has focused on Indian men as primary H1-B visa holders, which are temporary technical work visas, or as tech workers in India. While women have played important roles as workers in both India and abroad, their role as both workers and reproducers of Indian culture and nationalism outside of India needs closer examination. In order to foreground how women’s bodies have become part of not just national discussions of development, but an important part of defining the “modern citizen” itself, I will first discuss how reproduction and sexuality have figured into the project of Indian modernization through a persistent focus on controlling population. Kalpana Ram’s concept of “modern reproductive consciousness” is useful here (Ram 2001). Ram argues that when thinking about reproduction in India, we must examine the rhetoric and performance of reproductive control that not only affects marginal groups, but also produces new subjects of Indian modernity. These subjects of modernity include the “new Indian woman,” as described by Rajeswari Sunder Rajan (1993) and Sangeeta Ray (2000). In particular, I argue that the modern reproductive consciousness of the Indian state works in part by drawing on the transnational diasporic subject as the imagined model for its development outcomes, at the expense of more marginal women and men. In the second part of this paper, I examine how the reproduction of families reappears in United States immigration policy. Examining these points of discursive overlap between these two sites is crucial to theorizing how Indians are understood as productive and disciplined citizens, especially as they enter as temporary workers into the United States context of institutional inequalities affecting people of color and low-income communities. These immigration policies produce “model” United States immigrants through selective screening and restrictive visa regulations for Indians, which favor highly educated and skilled workers. I argue that this ideal Indian migrant is drawn from a similar set of discourses that shape what it means to be a developed subject in India, both of which rely on the reproduction of a particular family form. However, the increasingly diffuse “below the radar” forms of migration, which include domestic workers, family members on temporary visas, and undocumented migrants, have

Sagar XVII — 2007