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Contents 0.0. Introduction 1.0 Part A_ Conceptualization A.1. Design Futuring A.2. Design Computation A.3. Composition / Generation A.4. Conclusion A.5. Learning Outcomes A.6. Appendix - Algorithmic sketching 2.0 Part B_ Criteria Design B.1 Research Field B.2 Case Study 1.0 B.3 Case study 2.0 B.4 Techniques: Development B.5 Techniques: Prototypes B.6 Techniques: Proposal B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes B.8 Appendix - Algorithmic sketching 3.0 Part C_ Detailed Design C.1 Design Concept C.2 Tectonic Eleements and Prototypes C.3 Final Detail Model C.4 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

4.0 Appendix

0.0 Introduction

Im Safwan. Im currently a second year student in the bachelors of environments doing a

double major in architecture and construction with hopes of going on to do a masters in architecture. From a young age i have always been on the scene of construction sites analyzing the process of a build. This is due to two of my uncles and my step dad being building developers. Through this, my interest in the design aspect of construction grew, helping me realise the potential in architecture to allow me to fullfull this desire and passion. Due to the requirements of my double major, i have limited experience in digital design and have yet to complete a subject that requires the skills of digital design. Hence, air for me is seen as a challenge, alas a challenge that i am willing to tackle head first; a challenge that excites me. My architectural experience to date has been largely influenced my predominantly sketches and model making, however i am looking forward to broadening my digital skills and learning new programs such as grasshopper. My inspirations in architecture, include the likes of Antoni Gaudi and Frank Lloyd Wright. Being able to visit spain and in particular Barcelona last year, i had the privelage of witnessing Gaudi’s works first hand. To say the least, i was mesmorised. The uniqueness and attention detail made me appreciate the beuty in all his works. I aspire to create design with the same intentions.

Part A: Conceptualisation

A.1. Design Futuring Case study 1: La Citta Nuova Case study 2: Plug In City (Archigram)

A.2. Design Computation Case study 1: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion Case study 2: Dragon Skin Pavilion

A.3. Composition / Generation Case study 1: The Morning Line Case study 2: Guangzhou Opera House

A.4. Conclusion A.5. Learning Outcomes

A.1 Design Futuring Design, as we know it, prefigures a future before it is in bedded in the present,

where it provides for the ability to create an idea that has the possibility of being embedded in societies tomorrow.[1] Similarly, architecture as we know it, is the practice of design where todays problems are aimed to be solved through the creation of tomorrows ideas. The idea of architecture being simply ‘buildings designed with a view to aesthetically appeal’[2] can not remain as a content definition of the practice within the 21st century. Rather, the debate of what architecture truly is must include ideas for the design of the future, and more so speculation of what the future may look like. Whilst the intent of architecture is to create a better ‘tomorrow,’ the assumption that there is a future is a bold one. Societies idea of the planet being an ‘infinite resource at our disposal,’ has lead to the cause of an unsustainable and rather dim future. [1] Whilst architecture progresses in intelligent design where the needs of clientele are met project after project, design intelligence is neglected in order to meet these needs. As a result, ‘a defuturing condition of unsuitability’[1] is among us and a sustainable future can only be met if the materialistic ways of todays society are changed throughout the concourse of the future. For design practice to be redirected, the implementation of design intelligence and critical thinking must come to light. Speculative design, where the possibilities of the future are created, can be seen as a means to work towards a sustainable and living future.[3] This idea of speculative design will provide a meaningful basis from which we can begin to explore the work of the Italian futurists Within the early 20th century and in particular La citta Nuova by Antonio Sant’elia. In a time where the progression of design and architecture was slow, Sant’elia saw the opportunity to propose an architecture which would advance design and adhere to what he thought was the needs of society in a time where technology was prevalent. When comparing this to design today, need for speculation is evident in order to create influence over design that is lacking intelligence with regards to a sustainable future. Similarly, speculative design created by Frank Lloyd Wright provided a means of idea where landscape and influence of the natural environment played large parts in creating his speculative design. Essentially, for design to progress in todays modern era, speculative design is crucial in its forward movement.

[1] Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability,Ethics and New Practice (Oxford:Berg), pg 2 [2] Pevsnar, N. (1943). An Outline of European Architecture (London Penguin Books,1990) [3] Anthony Dunn and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreamig (MT press, 2013) pg.2

“... we are now at a point when it can no longer be assumed that we, en masse, have a future. If we do, it can only be by design against the still accelerating defuturing condition of unsustainability...� - Tony Fry, Design Futuring.

CASE STUDY 1: LA CITTA NUOVA: DESIGN FOR THE FUTURE; (NEVER BUILT) ANTONIO SANT’ELIA In an era where design lacked progression, the

Italian futurists presented a “manifesto of futurists architecture”[1] which essentially implored the idea of speed and the purification of war, whilst opposing all existing and historical forms of architecture. Sant’Elia proposed that existing architecture needed to be replaced in accordance to industrialization that revolved around the progression of machine and technology. Hence, Sant’Elia saw and era for change and in response created theory based on what was true to his values. This notion can be compared to todays era of design where design intelligence is required for a sustainable. For this sustainable design to be achieved, speculative design must first be established. Sant’Elia along with the futurists viewed themselves to be “the young, strong and living” imploring that all that existed before them was useless whilst admiration of the past would result in one to “emerge exhausted, diminished and trampled on.”[2] Where “decorative incrustations [are] justified neither by structural necessity or taste” Sant’Elia refers to iron, glass and reinforced concrete of materials of a new age that present “the beauty of speed” rather than ornamentation and arts-and-craft that represents a slow progression of society. The futurists movement aimed to eradicate all forms of history including museums and libraries as they were thought to be outdated. La Città Nuova was designed in accordance to fulfilling Sant’Elia’s objective of fitting a sound plan that was built with the assistance of technological and scientific resource. Through this, Sant’Elia aimed to fulfill functionality where the idea of speed was prevalent through the use of modernist material, and all that was ludicrous and ungainly such as tradition, decoration and style, was rejected.

<Figure: Design proposal by Sant’elia of an ideal futurist city. Source - Flickr

Ultimately, La citta nuova provided speculative design where structure was programmed to fit industrialization and work in an efficient matter like that of a machine which would. Whilst it never came to life as a built project,it essentially was a catapult for the modernist movement which opened the doors of the future to industrialization and technology in line with design. Whilst Sant’elia design was radical and wide-ranged, it created a movement of progression allowing for design to be based of his scheme, where industrialization and the ‘machine’ became factors of design. La citta nuova epitomizes the idea of design futuring as it designed for the future and acted as platform for inspiration and speculative design.

[1] Fishman, Robert. 2001. Urban Utopias In The Twentieth Century. 1st ed. Camridge, Ma: MIT Press. [2] F.T Marinetti, “the futurist manifesto” (1909), first published in Le Figaro on 20th February, 1909. Text translation taken from James Joll, Three intellectuals in politics, (New York: Harper and Row 1965)


“An understanding of avant-garde architecture requires a critical summary of archigrams” works, where radical speculative design underpinned a rampant, modern and futuristic team of architects. [1] Described as “a marvellously fitting choice for a royal gold medal for the beginning of the 21st century,” archigram were catalysts for future design, where all things speculative, would be a vocal point for the group. Archigram saught after redifining architecture as a whole, creating design that would question traditions and history and enhance the idea of modernity. Plug in city, a design that intergrated architecture, technology and society, explored the idea of urbanism, stripping traditional perceptions of “infrastuctures role in society.”[2] the 1960’s and early 70’s created a period of time where archigram would create up to 900 drawings. whilst most of their works were on paper rather than on ground, the provocative projects suggested a idealistic utopias. Plug in city was a module of disposability comprised of units that would “plug in” to a central infrastructure.[2] The idea behind it was to disposed of structure that was no longer needed and replace it with structure that was suitable for the time, mainting this idea of disposability. The constantly evolving megastructure served as an idea of design that would question permanency. Cook’s motivation came from being able to create “alternative urban scenarios that flied in the face of the superficial formalism and dull suburban tendencies;” common to British design at the time. “A new generation of architecture must arise with forms and spaces which seem to reject the precepts of ‘Modern’ yet in fact retains those precepts. We have chosen to bypass the decaying Bauhaus image which is an insult to functionalism.”[2] Archigram thrived to create design that whilst only speculative, would inspire modernity and futurism. It triggered change in thinking for architects of the future an inspired works such as the pompidou centre by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, and also was a catalyst for the design of the Nagakin Capsule Tower by Kisho Kurokawa. Ultimately the question of ““how can a future actually be secured by design?” [3] was in Cooks opinion achieved by the creation of a self sufficient and disposable mega structure . [1]Sadler, S. (2005). Archigram. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. [2] Merin, Gili. 2013. “The Plug-In City / Peter Cook, Archigram”, AD Classics [3] Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability,Ethics and New Practice (Ox-



A.2 Design Computing Architecture in the 21st century that integrates computing demonstrates

the progression that architecture has taken over the past century. From the traditional scaled drawings and model making, has come a new age where technology has influence over design and essentially enhances it taking it to an unparalleled platform that has never been seen before amongst architecture And design. The emergence of a theory of architecture is becoming ‘comprehensive... [Where] the intersection between science, technology, design and architectural culture’ [1] have merged together to create a new and advanced form of design. ‘Human-computer symbiosis’ refers to the established mutual connection between digitigal devices and man kind.[2] Computing power has shifted the traditional design process and has stemmed a notion of a communicative flow of information into the design process. [3] The method of computing not only has altered the medium by which design has presented, alas has also created new perspective where 3-dimensional forms are able to be illustrated. This era of performative architecture creates solutions to this notion of being able to create for a sustainable future. Computing pushing the boundaries and the envelope of human capabilities, where digital device provides problem solving skills to generate analysis the has the potential to influence architectural design. The computerization of data allows for assistance in exploring new forms of design through form finding tools due to the accelerated annalytical processes that coputing posesses. [4] It is important however to not confuse computation with computerization. Computation involves analyzing and processing information where form follows function. [1] Computation allows for the architects design capacity to reach new levels as complex problems are able to be solved through the aid of technology. Essentially, computation has been the driving force to the ‘formulation of theories as well as producing a new wave of tectonic and material creativity.’ [1] Software has begun to take over the design industry as it is viewed as convenient for an era where technology essentially rules the world. The following precedents essentially highlight the use of computation through design with the research pavilion providing a scope into how computation can be used to create various theories and examples of the same piece work but also highlights how computation can be used to examine a project that requires specific scientific examination. [1] Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, first ed pg.3 [2]J.C.R. Licklider, ‘Man-computer symbiosis’, IRE Transactions on human factors in electronics, Volume HFE-1, 1960, pgs 4-11 [3] Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 [4] Wolf Mangelsforf, ‘Structuring Stratergies for Complex Gemometries’, in Architecture design, Special Issue: The New Structuralism Design, Engineer-

â&#x20AC;&#x153;... this new continuity transcends the merely instrumental contributions of the man-machine relationship to praxis and has begun to evolve as a medium that supports a continuous logic o f design thinking and making... â&#x20AC;? - Rivka Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture.


computation can aid design and provide a platform for designers to explore options in solving construction problems, but also allowing for experiment in design to where variables can be input into the design with different sets of outputs being extracted. Located in Stuttgart, Germany, the pavilion ‘prototype explores the application of potential novel computational design, simulations and fabrication processes in architecture.’ [1] The design of the pavilion, inspired by the underwater nest construction of the water spider hinges largely on the idea of fiber reinforced structures. Reinforced fiber structures do not require complex form work and are able to adapt to the various individual constructions that they are in making them relevant to applications in architecture. [1] To examine this web construction, computational methods were used by the design team where behavioral patterns of the water spider were recorded. This then allowed for design to be based upon these findings. “Sensor driven robotic fabrication was combined with advanced design computation and simulation” to produce the biomimicry of the water spider modelling the structure on the spiders entities and processes.[2] Initially, the design process began with a computational form finding method in which the shell geometry and main fiber bundle locations are generated. ‘In order to determine and adjust the fiber layouts a computational agent-based design method has been developed.’[1] This process allows the designer to combine these design parameters into various structures that lay out different per-formative fiber orientations and densities.[1] Through this method we see that computing does essentially redefine the process of design highlighting a completely different aspect to architecture. The use of computing provides innovation through providing methods that the human cannot provide alone. Hence allowing for a new world of design. [1] ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014/15 / ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart (Archdaily 2015) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart. de/?p=12965 [2] Wiley online library. 2015. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014–15: Fibre Placement on a Pneumatic Body Based on a Water Spider Web” [accessed 10 August 2018]


CASE STUDY 2: DRAGON SKIN PAVILION: DESIGN THROUGH COMPUTATION; HONG KONG EMMI KESKISARJA 2012 The Dragon skin pavilion embodies an installation of art

that challenges spatial, tactical and material possibilities of architecture through the notion of computation. [1] The design of its skin questions the factor of light, which is softened and dampened towards the interior due to the layout of the skin. ‘The emerging patterns and rhythms of the pavilion challenge the perception of structure versus structurally defined ornament,’ [1] highlighting the distinct and unique nature of the skin where structure is unanimous. Only one material was used in the structure, this material being post formable grade plywood. This simplicity in materials allowed for more foce to be put towards the design and construct of the model. Computation played a major key in the assemblage of the pavilion as a programmed 3D Master model was used to create ‘cutting files for those pieces in a file-to-factory process. To create perfection amongst the pavilion where the intended shape would be created, slots for the sliding joints needed to be calculated precisely. To do this, the design team used scripted algorithmic procedure which ensured a faultless design, and hence projected this idea of computation within design. The angles which give the pavilion its curved form were also measured through computation which aided in creating design that was easy compared to if it was to be done manually. [1] The method of computation allowed for ease of fabrication, where the form of basic panneling created a self supporting structure where intersetions of pannels where created with algorthims. The predetermined geometry created a unique pavillion where slots enabled a free standing, free form structure that was able to assemble itself. The relationship between complex wooden structures and digital fabrication of wood joinery are paramount in the dragon skin pavilion.[2] A limitation of the structure however is that core kinematic behaviours are supressed due to the attatchment lf the face sheets. This is overcome however, by the patterened face sheets that preserve rigid foldability “nd form a layered meta-material, here termed a morphing sandwich structure.”[3] Ultimately even with limitations, computation has the ability to and capabilities that a human does not. creating precision and perfection in structure provides for a more sustainable future.

[1] [2] ESTATEYIEH, I , ARSLAN SELÇUK, S . “INTEGRATED DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION STRATEGIES FOR COMPLEX STRUCTURES: RE-EXPERIENCING WOOD JOINERY IN ARCHITECTURE”. International Journal of Architecture and Urban Studies 1 (2016): 53-63 [3] Cash TN, Warren HS, Gattas JM. Analysis of Miura-Type Folded and Morphing Sandwich Beams. ASME. International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Volume 5B: 39th Mechanisms and Robotics Conference ():V05BT08A029. doi:10.1115/DETC201546380.

figure 1: figure 2:

A.3 Composition / Generation As the progression of computation advances within the realms of design,

architecture is redefined, as digital tools allow for new opportunities in fabrication, construction and the design process. Ultimately, in todays era of design the shift from composition where scaling and model making is most prevalent, is being replaced by generation which is what we now know as computation. Computation essentially allows for the modification of algorithms where element placement, element configuration and the relationships between elements coincide with the needs of the design where computation facilitates and acts as a generative way to approach design.[1] The make up computation is essentially a set of algorithms that provide for the making of a design to meet the needs of the desired outcome. ‘An algorithm is a recipe, method, or technique for doing Something.’[2] Fundamentally an algorithm is a make up of a set of easy to follow rules that are definite and effective respectively. These sets of rules allow for what we know as computation. Alas, due to the constant changing parameters of architecture, computation must be flexible and must be able to adapt to these constantly changing variables. Through digital computation programs such as Grasshopper community 7, flexibility is made capable for designers as it allows them ‘to gain knowledge of digital tools and codes, work flows and algorithms that they can then use or adapt to their own design. ’Computation and the use of the computer Facilitate the sharing of codes, tools and Ideas. This accumulation of ideas is one of the ways in which we can refer to a building Of algorithmic thought’ [1] explores the notion by which architecture is exposed to a whole new world of parameters via the use of computation where computation allows for innovation.

[1]Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design, 83 (2013) pg 8-15 [2] Robert A. And Frank C. Keel, eds,Definition of Algorithm in Wilson, (London: MIT press 1999) pg 11

â&#x20AC;&#x153;... computation and the use of the computer facilitate the sharing of codes, tools and Ideas. This accumulation of ideas is one of the ways in which we can refer to a building of algorithmic thought... â&#x20AC;? - Brady Peters, Computation Works.


Generative design is used to create an abstract free standing model where form has been explored with in conjunction to algorithms. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Morning Line explores the interdisciplinary interplays between art, architecture, mathematics, cosmology, music, and science.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; [1] The idea behind the model is one that has no single line, starts or finishes or single ways in or out essentially exemplifying a model with no final form. This notion explored by Ritchie coincides with his idea of An unpredictable future which coincides with the idea of computation where our present is evolving with technological advancements signifying that ultimately there are no limits or boundaries to where technology may take us with regards to design. The figure explores a network of intertwining figures providing an unsettled and disjunctive environment. Alas visually, the design seems aesthetically pleasing which largely comes down to the aid of computation. Due to the precision and accuracy of digital design, the physical model still seems to fit into place with each member of the model working together to form a disjunctive piece. The Morning Line Engages an idea where computation is revolutionary in that it is able to form a model purely through algorithm. This process of algorithmic thinking has essentially lead to a model that is parametric and generative rather than being a standard composition of design.


figure 1: figure2: figure3:


tions of generative design with that of compositional detail. The freestanding concrete auditorium which took over five year to build is exposed with granite and glass clad steel. True to her style of architecture, the buildings highlights a geometric facade where ornamentation of geometric shapes catches the viewers eye. The unique and irregular shape of the Guangzhou Opera House its formed by irregular spatial folded plates. “This paper introduces a brand new type of structure,called spatial folded plate triangular lattice structure,which is applied in the design of the Guangzhou Opera House.”[2] The design of the building as seen in the plan below is divided into zones whereby canyons intersect, allowing for a free flowing and open space floor plan. This compositional plan is further integrated with generative design where a spatial sequence and parametric architecture can be seen providing a platform shared by both composition and generation. Ultimately this play on composition against generative design highlights a space where interior and exterior spaces including different levels of the building work cohesively.[1] The formless exterior showcases this idea of computation where the conjunction of geometric shapes seamlessly form together to create a unique facade. The computation used for the facade of the building explores this idea of generative design, however it is the composition of the geometry that shifts the buildings facade from meaningless Geometry to an architecture of competent design. [1]David McManus and Isabelle Lomhol, “Guangzhou Opera House, Zaha Hadid Architect, China - E - Architect”, e architect, 2011 [2] HUANG Taiyun1,CAI Jiang2 (1.Guangzhou Pearl River Foreign Investment Architectural Design Institute,Guangzhou 510600,China;2.Department of Civil Engineering,South China University of Technology,Guangzhou 510640,China)

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A.4 Conclusion Ultimately, architecture is experiencing a new age of design. This new age is essentially created by advancements and the progression of technology, here computation plays a major role in design. Before ones considers computation however, designing for the future is important to understand. Speculative design is crucial for a progressive architecture in todays society where dsign intelligence is crucial in providng design that accomodates the future. With the aid of computation, speculative design is enhanced where design can be planned to perfection with the use of algorithmic digital design. The influence of computation and digital design in todays day and age is only increasing and as our architecture works towards accomodating a future that is sustainable, computation must be considered. Computation whilst goes against the traditional architecture can provide for sustainability through its course of providing a perfect design. This generative design does not necessarily have to dominate the architure world, however for it to coincide with composition will only benifit our design and our future.

A.5 Learning Outcomes Engaging with the works of computation and generative design has given me a broadened outlook into the architecture world, where the possibilities of design now seem limiteless. The idea where simple inputs arranged with different variables can create a series of designs intrigues me as it allows for the exploration and variations of the same model, only in a different sequence. Through this, the prospect of design seems far more free flowing and feels as if a new door to architecture has been opened. whilst my skills of digital design still remain at that of a basic level, i am excited to learn and become more knowledgeable on the topic and hope that by the end of the semester i will be able to create a model that represents this idea of cohesion between composition and generation through the aid of computation.

Algorithmic Sketchbook 1

A.6 Algorithms Week 1 Algorithmic task Octree

Week 2 Algorithmic task Contours